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Sample records for waste assay system

  1. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  3. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  4. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  5. On the efficiency calibration of a drum waste assay system

    CERN Document Server

    Dinescu, L; Cazan, I L; Macrin, R; Caragheorgheopol, G; Rotarescu, G

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency calibration of a gamma spectroscopy waste assay system, constructed by IFIN-HH, was performed. The calibration technique was based on the assumption of a uniform distribution of the source activity in the drum and also a uniform sample matrix. A collimated detector (HPGe--20% relative efficiency) placed at 30 cm from the drum was used. The detection limit for sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co is approximately 45 Bq/kg for a sample of about 400 kg and a counting time of 10 min. A total measurement uncertainty of -70% to +40% was estimated.

  6. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems` performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system`s performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems` performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP.

  8. Status of Drum Assay System for disposal of Radioactive Waste Drums stored at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Kwak, Kyung Kil; Hong, Dae Seok; Shin, Ki Baek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the construction schedule for the final repository at Kyeong-ju in the southeast of Korea, a disposal plan for the radioactive waste drums at KAERI was required. More than 95% of all radionuclides contained in radioactive waste package should be identified for final disposal. To characterize the radioactive waste drums at KAERI, a radioactive waste drum assay facility equipped with a Wide-Range SGS system manufactured by ANTECH has been constructed. According to the acceptance criteria of KORAD and the government, KAERI make thorough preparation of disposal plan. To characterize the radioactive waste drums at KAERI, a radioactive waste drum assay facility equipped with a Wide-Range SGS system manufactured by ANTECH has been constructed. Since then, about 400 drums have been completed gamma radionuclide assay. Co-60 and Cs-137 were major radionuclides of the radioactive waste drums at KAERI. We have a plan to examine radionuclides and activity of a radioactive waste drum and secure reliability of analysis results with cross analysis using drum assay equipment at institute for inspection.

  9. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Waste assay and mass balance for the decontamination and volume reduction system at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Garner, Scott E.; Romero, Mike J.; Christensen, Davis V.; Bustos, Roland M.

    2003-07-01

    The Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) operated by the Solid Waste Operations (SWO) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) processes large volume, legacy radioactive waste items. Waste boxes, in sizes varying from 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft to 10 ft x 12 ft x 40 ft, are assayed prior to entry into the processing building. Inside the building, the waste items are removed from their container, decontaminated and/or size reduced if necessary, and repackaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or on-site low-level waste disposal. The repackaged items and any secondary waste produced (e.g., personal protective equipment) are assayed again at the end of the process and a mass balance is done to determine whether there is any significant hold-up material left in the DVRS building. The DVRS building is currently classed as a radiological facility, with a building limit of 0.52 Ci of Pu239 and Am241, and 0.62 Ci of Pu238, the most common radionuclides processed. This requires tight controls on the flow of nuclear material. The large volume of the initial waste packages, the (relatively) small amounts of radioactive material in them, and the tight ceiling on the building inventory require accurate field measurements of the nuclear material. This paper describes the radioactive waste measurement techniques, the computer modeling used to determine the amount of nuclear material present in a waste package, the building inventory database, and the DVRS process itself. Future plans include raising the limit on the nuclear material inventory allowed in the building to accommodate higher activity waste packages. All DOE sites performing decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive process equipment face challenges related to waste assay and inventory issues. This paper describes an ongoing operation, incorporating lessons learned over the life of the project to date.

  11. The development of an expert system for the characterization of waste assay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, S.; Hodges, J.; Sparrow, C. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Containers of transuranic and low-level alpha contaminated waste generated as a byproduct of Department of Energy defense-related programs must be characterized before their proper disposition can be determined. Nondestructive assay methods are the most desirable means for assessing the mass and activity of the entrained transuranic radionuclides. However, there are other sources of information that may be useful in the characterization of the entrained waste (e.g., container manifests, information about the generation process, and destructive assay techniques performed on representative samples). This paper describes initial work on an expert system being developed to analyze and characterize containerized radiological waste. This system is being developed by scientists at the Mississippi State University Diagnostic and Instrumentation Laboratory (DIAL) in collaboration with scientists at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The DIAL scientists are responsible for (1) the development of techniques to represent and reason with evidence from a variety of sources, and (2) the development of appropriate method(s) to represent and reason with confidence levels associated with that evidence. This paper describes exploratory versions of the expert system developed to evaluate four techniques for representing and reasoning with the confidence in the evidence: MYCIN-style certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Bayesian networks, and fuzzy logic. 16 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Simulation studies of the response function of a radioactive waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurau, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.gurau@ymail.com [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Sima, Octavian [Physics Department, Bucharest University, P.O.B. MG-11, RO-077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2012-01-15

    A simulation program based on GEANT 3.21 toolkit was developed to simulate the response function of ISOCART (Ortec) gamma-ray spectrometry system applied to radioactive waste drum assessment. In view of studying the effects of possible non-homogeneous radioactivity distribution in the drum, the volume of the drum was fictitiously divided into several spatial domains. The simulation program was applied repeatedly considering each time the source distributed in another domain. In this way the expected spectra in the energy range from 50 to 2000 keV as well as the full energy peak and the total efficiencies were obtained for the case when the source is distributed in each domain and also for the case when the source is uniformly distributed in the entire drum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation technique for calibration of radioactive waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Monte Carlo simulation program was based on GEANT 3.21 toolkit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Response function of ISOCART gamma-ray spectrometry evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volume of the drum fictitiously divided into several spatial domains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full energy peak and total efficiencies evaluated.

  13. Simulation studies of the response function of a radioactive waste assay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, Daniela; Sima, Octavian

    2012-01-01

    A simulation program based on GEANT 3.21 toolkit was developed to simulate the response function of ISOCART (Ortec) gamma-ray spectrometry system applied to radioactive waste drum assessment. In view of studying the effects of possible non-homogeneous radioactivity distribution in the drum, the volume of the drum was fictitiously divided into several spatial domains. The simulation program was applied repeatedly considering each time the source distributed in another domain. In this way the expected spectra in the energy range from 50 to 2000keV as well as the full energy peak and the total efficiencies were obtained for the case when the source is distributed in each domain and also for the case when the source is uniformly distributed in the entire drum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lump corrections for radioactive waste assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T J

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that automated radioactive waste assay techniques, such as segmented gamma scanner (SGS) and automated qualitative and quantitative (AQ2), have severely underestimated fissile material due to either the malfunction or absence of appropriate lump correction routines. This paper examines the application of manual techniques, such as Monte Carlo N particle (MCNP) and spectral non-destructive assay platform (SNAP) software, to lump corrections in plutonium (Pu), enriched uranium (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) waste streams. Excellent results have been obtained when comparing MCNP with SNAP and applying the SNAP lump correction routine to a range of simulated and typical wastes containing various Pu and EU lump sizes. It has been concluded that the need for lump corrections was relatively rare and usually apparent from abnormal gamma ray peak area ratios, since most AWE waste streams are only lightly shielded.

  16. Standard test method for non-destructive assay of nuclear material in waste by passive and active neutron counting using a differential Die-away system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a system that performs nondestructive assay (NDA) of uranium or plutonium, or both, using the active, differential die-away technique (DDT), and passive neutron coincidence counting. Results from the active and passive measurements are combined to determine the total amount of fissile and spontaneously-fissioning material in drums of scrap or waste. Corrections are made to the measurements for the effects of neutron moderation and absorption, assuming that the effects are averaged over the volume of the drum and that no significant lumps of nuclear material are present. These systems are most widely used to assay low-level and transuranic waste, but may also be used for the measurement of scrap materials. The examples given within this test method are specific to the second-generation Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) passive-active neutron assay system. 1.1.1 In the active mode, the system measures fissile isotopes such as 235U and 239Pu. The neutrons from a pulsed, 14-MeV ne...

  17. Nondestructive Waste Assay Using Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    This project was supported by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and the Federal Environmental Technology Center (FETC) to develop an improved nondestructive assay (NDA) capability that uses gamma-ray computed tomography and gamma-energy spectral analysis techniques to perform waste assay measurements. It was the intent of the Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) development and demonstration project to enhance the overall utility of waste assay through the implementation of techniques that can accommodate known measurement complications, e.g., waste matrix and radioactive material distribution heterogeneities. This technology can measure the radionuclide content in all types of waste regardless of their classification as low level (LLW), transuranic (TRU) or mixed (MLLW or MTRU). The nondestructive waste assay capability needed to support Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste characterization needs is necessarily a function of the waste form configurations in inventory. These waste form configurations exhibit a number of variables impacting assay system response that must be accounted for to ensure valid measurement data. Such variables include: matrix density, matrix elemental composition, matrix density distribution, radioactive material radionuclidic/isotopic composition, radioactive material physical/chemical form, and physical distribution in the waste matrix. Existing nondestructive assay technologies have identified capability limits with respect to these variables. Certain combinations of these variables result in waste configurations within the capability of one or more of the existing systems. Other combinations that are prevalent in the inventory are outside of the capability of such systems.

  18. Mobile non-destructive assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colarusso, A.P.; Audas, J.H.; Bieri, J.M.; Herrera, G.C.; Hastings, R.D.; Horton, W.S.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Medvick, P.A.; Vogel, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    A mobile system for non-destructive assay (NDA), developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides accurate and sensitive measurements for transuranic (TRU) isotopes contained in 208-iota drums of miscellaneous nuclear wastes. The NDA unit consists of four major subsystems: an assay chamber, counting and digital electronics, data acquisition, and a neutron generator. It performs both active and passive neutron waste measurements. The former determines the amount of fissile isotopes at a sensitivity level of 1 mg plutonium. The latter determines spontaneous fission and ..cap alpha..,n) isotopes at a comparable level. A complete assay consists of sequential active and passive measurements. The assay measurement and other supporting data are incorporated in a commercial spreadsheet program (Lotus 1,2,3) for further analysis, which includes various matrix corrections and a determination of whether or not the drum exceeds the 100-nCi/g threshold for TRU wastes. Field tests have been performed on three separate occasions, accomplishing more than 1800 waste drum assays. These waste drum assays are discussed, especially those comparing passive and active neutron measurements with independent segmented gamma scan assays. Results obtained with a set of 15 drums containing plutonium prepared from standards and actual hot waste matrices are also reviewed.

  19. Assay Method for 235U in Low-Density Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>235U assay method will provide a semi-quantitative assay for any uranium lumps that might exist in low-density, low-Z material waste boxes within a short count time. These materials will consist of

  20. An application of the RFQ Linac: Nuclear waste assay characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, K.; Schultz, F.; Womble, P.; Humphrey, D.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    1997-02-01

    A collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Western Kentucky University examines the problem of characterization and assay of nuclear waste with high intrinsic neutron and gamma-ray fields. This waste is defined as Remote Handled-Transuranic waste (RH-TRU). A Radiofrequency Quadrupole Linac is used to produce pulses of neutrons, which impinge on the drum that contains the nuclear waste. The neutrons, after being thermalized in the matrix of the drum, are captured by the fissile material (239Pu or 235U), which releases fast neutrons upon fission. Experimental results will be presented to show the versatility of employing the RFQ with the Differential Die-away Technique.

  1. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  2. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  3. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain

    1999-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  4. Fast facility spent-fuel and waste assay instrument. [Fluorinel Dissolution and Fuel Storage (FAST) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Johnson, S.S.; Menlove, H.O.; Van Lyssel, T.; Black, D.; Carlson, B.; Decker, L.; Echo, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A delayed-neutron assay instrument was installed in the Fluorinel Dissolution and Fuel Storage Facility at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The dual-assay instrument is designed to measure both spent fuel and waste solids that are produced from fuel processing. A set of waste standards, fabricated by Los Alamos using uranium supplied by Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company, was used to calibrate the small-sample assay region of the instrument. Performance testing was completed before installation of the instrument to determine the effects of uranium enrichment, hydrogenous materials, and neutron poisons on assays. The unit was designed to measure high-enriched uranium samples in the presence of large neutron backgrounds. Measurements indicate that the system can assay low-enriched uranium samples with moderate backgrounds if calibrated with proper standards.

  5. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  7. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H2S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H2S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30days) and inexpensive (125mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H2S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H2S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H2S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8mLH2S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H2S yield. A 60day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39-86% additional sulfide production. H2S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H2S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the microbial sulfide production

  8. Technologies for sorting, assaying, classifying, and certifying transuranic waste within the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, D.G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) was developed to provide nondestructive examination and assay techniques for examining and certifying TRU wastes without opening the waste container. This technology was developed, primarily for stored TRU waste, to evaluate waste package compliance with Waste Disposal Acceptance Criteria and Transportation requirements prior to shipment. These techniques include real-time x-ray radiography, passive and active neutron assay, and ultrasonic container integrity examination. These techniques provide the necessary information to ensure safe transportation, handling, and disposal of the waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 1 ref., 3 figs.

  9. Technologies for sorting, assaying, classifying, and certifying transuranic waste within the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, D.G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (USA))

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) was developed to provide nondestructive examination and assay techniques for examining and certifying TRU wastes without opening the waste container. This technology was developed, primarily for stored TRU waste, to evaluate waste package compliance with Waste Disposal Acceptance Criteria and Transportation requirements prior to shipment. These techniques include real-time x-ray radiography, passive and active neutron assay, and ultrasonic container integrity examination. These techniques provide the necessary information to ensure safe transportation, handling, and disposal of the waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). (orig.).

  10. Waste assaying and radiation monitoring equipment at the waste management centre of NPP Leningrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šokčić-Kostić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste accumulated in the past at the Nuclear Power Plant Leningrad has to be sorted and packed in an optimal way. In the area of waste treatment and management, the completeness and quality of direct monitoring are of the outmost importance for the validity of, and confidence in, both practicable waste management options and calculations of radiological impacts. Special monitoring systems are needed for this purpose. Consistent with the scale of work during the waste treatment procedures and the complexity of the plant data have to be collected from characteristic parts in various treatment stages. To combine all the information, a tracking procedure is needed during the waste treatment process to characterize the waste for interim and/or final disposal. RWE NUKEM GmbH has developed special customer-tailored systems which fulfill the specifications required by plant operation and by the authorities.

  11. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R. [Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Active and passive CT for waste assay using LaBr3(Ce) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tushar; More, M. R.; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2017-01-01

    An active and passive computed tomography system has been developed that localizes and quantifies 239Pu in a waste drum. The active (transmission) measurement uses an external gamma source and LaBr3(Ce) detector to determine the attenuation map of waste drum contents at different selected energies. The passive (emission) measurement uses multiple LaBr3(Ce) detectors to record the spectra of gamma-rays emitted from within the drum. The active and passive data sets are then coupled to quantitatively assay drum contents for 239Pu.

  13. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  15. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. SWEPP assay system version 2.0 software requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, S.D.; East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    The INEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other DOE sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to WIPP, SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of Pu and other transuranic isotopes present. The code NEUT2 was originally used to perform data acquisition and reduction; the SWEPP Assay System (SAS) code replaced NEUT2 in early 1994. This document specifies the requirements for the SAS software as installed at INEL and was written to comply with RWMC (INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex) quality requirements.

  18. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  19. Status of the WAND (Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal) project as of July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnone, G.J.; Foster, L.A.; Foxx, C.L.; Hagan, R.C.; Martin, E.R.; Myers, S.C.; Parker, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The WAND (Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal) system can scan thought-to-be-clean, low-density waste (mostly paper and plastics) to determine whether the levels of any contaminant radioactivity are low enough to justify their disposal in normal public landfills or similar facilities. Such a screening would allow probably at least half of the large volume of low-density waste now buried at high cost in LANL`s Rad Waste Landfill (Area G at Technical Area 54) to be disposed of elsewhere at a much lower cost. The WAND System consists of a well-shielded bank of six 5-in.-diam. phoswich scintillation detectors; a mechanical conveyor system that carries a 12-in.-wide layer of either shredded material or packets of paper sheets beneath the bank of detectors; the electronics needed to process the outputs of the detectors; and a small computer to control the whole system and to perform the data analysis. WAND system minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for point sources range from {approximately}20 dps for {sup 241}Am to approximately 10 times that value for {sup 239}Pu, with most other nuclides of interest being between those values, depending upon the emission probabilities of the radiations emitted (usually gamma rays and/or x-rays). The system can also detect beta particles that have energies {ge}100 keV, but it is not easy to define an MDA based on beta radiation detection because of the greater absorption of beta particles relative to photons in low Z-materials. The only radioactive nuclides not detectable by the WAND system are pure alpha emitters and very-low-energy beta emitters. At this time, operating procedures and quality assurance procedures are in place and training materials are available to operators. The system is ready to perform useful work; however, it would be both possible and desirable to upgrade the electronic components and the analysis algorithms.

  20. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  1. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational...... and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Waste Package Data Processing by Direct Upload to the SRS Waste Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-06-20

    Hundreds of waste packages are generated each month at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. Most of these waste packages are compactable, low level waste (LLW) either in 55-gallon drums or B-25 boxes, and TRU waste is put in DOT Type A 55-gallon drums. Several methods are used for assay of the waste package contents, including direct assay, dose-to-curie measurements, and smear-to-curie measurements. These assays generate many thousands of data that must be entered manually into the SRS Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) by a Generation Certification Official, even though much of this data is already available electronically. Since spreadsheets are routinely used to collect data for manual entry into WITS, direct data upload would greatly improve data entry. WITS was originally written as an interactive program, requiring each data item to be entered individually with subsequent tests being performed on each data entry to ensure that acceptance criteria were me t. An error message was displayed if the acceptance criteria were not met, and either corrected data had to be re-entered or a deviation had to be approved by WITS personnel. This system did not allow batch data entry, where essentially all the data could be entered, and then all of this data were evaluated against the acceptance criteria. A WITS user interface has been written for batch data entry for over twenty waste generators. This interface accepts all the data for a waste package, and an error report is generated listing non-conforming data. This interface allows direct uploads of electronic data for waste packages by dumping this data into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that are formatted for direct data entry into WITS. Therefore, programs can be written to transfer any electronic data to the WITS interface spreadsheet for direct uploads of waste data. The whole process is now much less labor intensive, more cost effective, and more accurate.

  3. A hybrid neural network structure for application to nondestructive TRU waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component. of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks.

  4. SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

  5. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  6. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  7. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  8. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  9. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover......, specific methodological challenges arise when investigating waste systems, such as the allocation of impacts and the consideration of long-term emissions. The complexity of waste LCAs is mainly derived from the variability of the object under study (waste) which is made of different materials that may...

  10. Multi agent gathering waste system

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Murciego, Álvaro; Gabriel VILLARRUBIA GONZÁLEZ; Alberto LÓPEZ BARRIUSO; Daniel HERNÁNDEZ DE LA IGLESIA; Jorge REVUELTA HERRERO

    2015-01-01

    Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data avai...

  11. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  12. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  13. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  14. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  15. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  16. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  17. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. E. Broz

    2008-12-22

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.

  18. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System (Case Study: ... solid waste management systems for determine the optimum municipal solid waste ... include water pollution, air pollution, consumed energy and waste residues.

  20. Waste burner overfire draft system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlert, G.; Pommer, L.; Davis, J.; Whebell, B.

    1977-11-22

    An overfire draft system for a waste burner is disclosed. Such system comprises air vents arranged circumferentially around the base of the burner for communicating the interior of the burner to the atmosphere and a draft modulated damper plate located in each air vent for automatically regulating the volume of overfire air delivered to the interior of the burner. Each draft modulated damper plate is provided with a lower lip which is deflected by a predetermined angle with respect to the plate to create an aerodynamic lift effect with large opening moment to assist the damper plate in its response under low air velocity conditions, and an oppositely deflected upper lip with proportionately less bent surface to avoid flutter or hunting of the damper as it approaches the maximum open position and to provide added dynamic opening force. The overfire draft system is also provided with ducts connected to the air vents and oriented so as to direct air tangentially around the base of the burner and toward the lower inside wall of the burner so as to minimize the disturbance of the inside air. The waste burner may also be provided with draft modulated or forced air vents arranged circumferentially at mid-elevation around the burner and duct means connected to such vents and directed at a small angle with the radius of the burner so as to cause turbulence in the flame zone and reduce the vertical velocity of gases above the fire, thus reducing emission of particulate materials.

  1. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Shakira R; Landis, Amy E; Rittmann, Bruce E; Young, Michelle N; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2017-06-28

    Food waste has a high energy potential that can be converted into useful energy in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential assays (BMPs) were conducted to quantify the impacts on methane production of different ratios of food waste. Anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) was used as the inoculum, and BMPs were performed at food waste:inoculum ratios of 0.42, 1.42, and 3.0g chemical oxygen demand/g volatile solids (VS). The 1.42 ratio had the highest CH4-COD recovery: 90% of the initial total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was from food waste, followed by ratios 0.42 and 3.0 at 69% and 57%, respectively. Addition of food waste above 0.42 caused a lag time for CH4 production that increased with higher ratios, which highlighted the negative impacts of overloading with food waste. The Gompertz equation was able to represent the results well, and it gave lag times of 0, 3.6 and 30days and maximum methane productions of 370, 910, and 1950mL for ratios 0.42, 1.42 and 3.0, respectively. While ratio 3.0 endured a long lag phase and low VSS destruction, ratio 1.42 achieved satisfactory results for all performance criteria. These results provide practical guidance on food-waste-to-inoculum ratios that can lead to optimizing methanogenic yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  3. Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausbrooks, K. L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 x 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi 137Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

  4. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Xavier; Alcañiz, Josep M; Andrés, Pilar

    2008-02-01

    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids.

  5. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitz, D.A. [Independent Consultant, Kirkland, WA (United States); Berry, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  6. Assessing waste management systems using reginalt software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Camasta, S.F.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1988-03-01

    A method for assessing management systems for low-level radioactive waste is being developed for US Department of Energy. The method is based on benefit-cost-risk analysis. Waste management is broken down into its component steps, which are generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal. Several different alternatives available for each waste management step are described. A particular waste management system consists of a feasible combination of alternatives for each step. Selecting an optimal waste management system would generally proceed as follows: (1) qualitative considerations are used to narrow down the choice of waste management system alternatives to a manageable number; (2) the costs and risks for each of these system alternatives are evaluated; (3) the number of alternatives is further reduced by eliminating alternatives with similar risks but higher costs, or those with similar costs but higher risks; (4) a trade-off factor between cost and risk is chosen and used to compute the objective function (sum of the cost and risk); and (5) the selection of the optimal waste management system among the remaining alternatives is made by choosing the alternative with the smallest value for the objective function. The authors propose that the REGINALT software system, developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., as an acid for managers of low-level commerical waste, be augmented for application to the managment of DOE-generated waste. Specific recommendations for modification of the REGINALT system are made. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 76 FR 63252 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal... Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal... Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special......

  8. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  9. Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case of health ... in the course of activities, the generation of hazardous and non hazardous waste is a ... Segregation of wastes and pre treatment of infectious wastes were not ...

  10. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public

  11. Recovering lead from cupel waste generated in gold analysis by Pb-Fire assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerceau, Cristiane Isaac; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Rabelo, Ana Carolina Silveira; Dos Santos, Cláudio Gouvea; Gonçalves, Sabrina Mayra Dias; Varejão, Eduardo Vinícius Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Because of its precision and accuracy, Pb-Fire assay is the most employed method for gold analysis in geological materials. At the second stage of the method, namely cupellation, lead is oxidized to PbO which is absorbed by the cupel, leading to metallic gold as a tiny bend at the bottom of the recipient. After cupellation, cupel becomes highly contaminated with lead, making its disposal a serious risk of environmental contamination. In the present work, a leaching process for removing lead from cupel waste is proposed, which allowed for removing 96% of PbO by weight. After a precipitation step, 92.0% of lead was recovered from leachates in the form of PbSO4. Lead in the solid wastes left by the extraction was above the limit established by Brazilian legislation and these were classified as non-hazardous. Finally, secondary effluents generated after the precipitation step presented lead content more than twenty times lower than that of leachates from cupel waste. Tons of cupel waste are annually generated from gold analysis by Pb-Fire assay. Thus, the proposed method can contribute to prevent the discharge of high amounts of lead into the environment. Also, recovery of lead can help to partially meet the industrial demand for lead compounds.

  12. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen (R) Assay System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MJ; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time, The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen(R) Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom,

  13. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  14. 76 FR 76677 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ....: EPA-R08-RCRA-2011-0823; FRL-9502-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of... industrial solid waste. If finalized, the EPA would conclude that ConocoPhillips' petitioned waste is... subject to Federal RCRA delisting, to manage industrial waste. II. Background A. What is a listed waste...

  15. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  16. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  17. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  18. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M{sup 3} (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  19. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  20. Smart Garbage Monitoring System for Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Norfadzlia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles of rubbish are one of the major problems faced by most people in Malaysia, especially those who live in flats, as the number of bins is limited and shared among all residents. It may cause pollutions, which may lead to sanitary issues and diseases. This project presents the development of a smart garbage monitoring system in order to measure waste level in the garbage bin in real-time and to alert the municipality, in particular cases, via SMS. The proposed system is consisted by the ultrasonic sensor to measure the waste level, the GSM module to send the SMS, and an Arduino Uno which controls the system operation. It supposes to generate and send the warning messages to the municipality via SMS when the waste bin is full or almost full, so the garbage can be collected immediately. Furthermore, it is expected to contribute to improving the efficiency of the solid waste disposal management.

  1. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  2. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  3. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  4. Waste Information Management System-2012 - 12114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) -2012 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. WIMS continues to successfully accomplish the goals and objectives set forth by DOE for this project. It has

  5. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  7. Variables Affecting Two Electron Transport System Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, G. Allen; Lanza, Guy R.

    1986-01-01

    Several methodological variables were critical in two commonly used electron transport activity assays. The dehydrogenase assay based on triphenyl formazan production exhibited a nonlinear relationship between formazan production (dehydrogenase activity) and sediment dilution, and linear formazan production occurred for 1 h in sediment slurries. Activity decreased with increased time of sediment storage at 4°C. Extraction efficiencies of formazan from sediment varied with alcohol type; methan...

  8. Systems, devices, and methods for agglutination assays using sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-26

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods for conducting agglutination assays using sedimentation. Aggregates may be exposed to sedimentation forces and travel through a density medium to a detection area. Microfluidic devices, such as microfluidic disks, are described for conducting the agglutination assays, as are systems for conducting the assays.

  9. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  10. 76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste... permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage industrial solid waste. The rule also imposes... per year from the list of hazardous wastes. The Agency has decided to grant the petition based on an...

  11. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  12. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches......A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  13. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  14. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HARGHITA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Constantin AVORNICULUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste management problems in Harghita County (and other places in the country have a major negative impact on society and pose a direct threat to human health, and an adverse effect on quality of life. Considering the current practices, it is clear that the system of waste management in Romania and Harghita county needs to be improved to meet the requirements of new national and European regulations. In Harghita County there are 36 protected areas of national interest, four protected areas of local interest and 18 Natura 2000 sites, including 13 Sites of Community Importance (SCI and 5 Special Protection Areas (SPA. Strengthening a sustainable waste management system involves major changes to current practices. Implementing such changes can be successfully achieved only through the involvement of the whole society: population– as users, entrepreneurs, socio-economic institutions and public authorities.

  15. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  16. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  17. On Integrity Constraints for a Waste Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, D. (Dominik)

    1994-01-01

    There is a waste problem in nearly every country. A model of a waste generating system and an efficient waste management information system are the first steps to control this problem. Some countries have already enacted laws which force communities and enterprises to report annually the amounts of wastes produced. For example, the German federal state, Lower Saxony, enacted such a law in 1992. This YSSP-Project deals with a case study on the development of a waste management information syst...

  18. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-04-03

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions.

  19. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-03-31

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test.

  20. Quantitative radiological characterization of waste. Integration of gamma spectrometry and passive/active neutron assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Gianluca; Mauro, Egidio; Gagliardi, Filippo; Gorello, Edoardo [Nucleco S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    The radiological characterization of drums through Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) techniques commonly relies on gamma spectrometry. This paper introduces the procedure developed in Nucleco for the NDA radiological characterization of drums when the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is expected/observed. The procedure is based on the integration of a gamma spectrometry in SGS mode (Segmented Gamma Scanner) and a passive/active neutron assay. The application of this procedure is discussed on a real case of drums. The extension of the integration procedure to other gamma spectrometry systems is also discussed.

  1. Stakeholder analysis for industrial waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Oliver; Harvey, Joan; Tollin, Nicola

    2009-02-01

    Stakeholder approaches have been applied to the management of companies with a view to the improvement of all areas of performance, including economic, health and safety, waste reduction, future policies, etc. However no agreement exists regarding stakeholders, their interests and levels of importance. This paper considers stakeholder analysis with particular reference to environmental and waste management systems. It proposes a template and matrix model for identification of stakeholder roles and influences by rating the stakeholders. A case study demonstrates the use of these and their ability to be transferred to other circumstances and organizations is illustrated by using a large educational institution.

  2. Role of the South African Waste Information System in improving waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research, whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed...

  3. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed...

  4. Function analysis for waste information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, J.L.; Neal, C.T.; Heath, T.C.; Starling, C.D.

    1996-04-01

    This study has a two-fold purpose. It seeks to identify the functional requirements of a waste tracking information system and to find feasible alternatives for meeting those requirements on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the Portsmouth (PORTS) and Paducah (PGDP) facilities; identify options that offer potential cost savings to the US government and also show opportunities for improved efficiency and effectiveness in managing waste information; and, finally, to recommend a practical course of action that can be immediately initiated. In addition to identifying relevant requirements, it also identifies any existing requirements that are currently not being completely met. Another aim of this study is to carry out preliminary benchmarking by contacting representative companies about their strategic directions in waste information. The information obtained from representatives of these organizations is contained in an appendix to the document; a full benchmarking effort, however, is beyond the intended scope of this study.

  5. Development of an Easy and High-Throughput Cell Assay System with a Culture Chip and an Assay Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kanako; Kaji, Noritada; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

    High throughput cell assay is significantly important in drug screening, assessment of toxicity etc. Cell assay with a microchip is one of the candidates for high throughput cell assay. However, reported cell assay system with the microchip requires expensive apparatus for refluxing medium and investigation of optimum experimental condition for steady data. For an inexpensive, easy and high throughput cell assay, we introduce a new cell assay system combined with a culture chip and an assay chip made of poly(dimethyl siloxane). Cell culture chips enabled cell to proliferate along the microchannel without refluxing medium and permitted to prepare cell patterning easily. Also, assay chips formed concentration gradient inside the chip and allowed the cell assay with different concentrations of drug at the same time. Thus, our developed cell assay system can overcome the problems of the present cell assay and would promote the drug discovery, assessment of toxicity etc.

  6. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacement drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The WP emplacement gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The WP emplacement gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery

  7. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  8. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  9. Overview of waste heat utilization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy truck diesel engine rejects a significant fraction of its fuel energy in the form of waste heat. Historically, the Department of Energy has supported technology efforts for utilization of the diesel exhaust heat. Specifically, the Turbocompound and the Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORCS) have demonstrated that meaningful improvements in highway fuel economy can be realized through waste heat utilization. For heat recovery from the high temperature exhaust of future adiabatic diesel engines, the DOE/NASA are investigating a variety of alternatives based on the Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling power cycles. Initial screening results indicate that systems of this type offer a fuel savings advantage over the turbocompound system. Capital and maintenance cost projections, however, indicate that the alternative power cycles are not competitive on an economic payback basis. Plans call for continued analysis in an attempt to identify a cost effective configuration with adequate fuel savings potential.

  10. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  11. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... than 1. The description of the waste is corrected from ``wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge'' to..., 2010. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 amended section 3010 of the Resource... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  12. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  13. 75 FR 51434 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2009-0640. Mail: Send your comments to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management... Delivery: Deliver two copies of your comments to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System... electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management...

  14. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the...

  15. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    'iWaste' is a project for developing and testing intelligent computational methods for more comprehensive waste management. Important issues are automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection, forecasting of waste formation, data handling of waste disposal sites and simulation and modelling of regional waste management. The main objective of the project is to identify and analyse known sources of information and to link them to the existing information processing systems in the field of waste management. Additionally, the goal is to identify and test functional elements that could be developed further to software products and services. The results of the project can be categorized into three sectors. Firstly, the guidelines for a comprehensive information system in waste management will be created. This includes the requirement specifications of different parties, definitions for the data exchange interfaces and an architectural plan for software products capable of co-operative processing. Secondly, the central parts of the intelligent information system will be piloted using the research database collected in the early stage of the project. The main topics investigated are data quality, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection and forecasting of waste formation. Additionally, the pilot information system can be utilized in derivative projects to speed up the starting phases of them. This makes it possible to create persistent development of waste management information systems both academically and commercially. (orig.)

  16. Active source requirements for assay of sludge drums on the BIR WIT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G.P.; Camp, D.C.

    1998-04-27

    The design of the active source for active and passive computed tomography (A&PCT) is critical with respect to accuracy and throughput. The A&PCT active source requirements are highly dependent upon the attenuation properties of the waste matrix within the drum. On of the most highly attenuating waste matrices is sludge. This waste stream will consist of solidified aqueous waste consisting of IDC 001 first stage sludge and IDC 007 wet sludge. Also, the stream consists of solidified organic waste known as code IDC 003 organic setups. We have evaluated the sludge drum data that was previously acquired on the WIT system and have determined that the active source activity must be increased to provide reasonable throughput. The sludge drum that is evaluated here is drum CEPRF11. CEPRF11 is a test drum that was part of the Nondestructive Assay system Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) and contained an actual Rocky Flats waste that is categorized as code 003 solidified organic waste. The full drum was evaluated and found to be somewhat homogenous; therefore, a single slice is arbitrarily chosen to represent the entire drum. Slice number 8 is used and is located approximately at the center of the drum. Figure 1 shows the averaged projections for different energies derived from the active sinogram of slice number 8 from the CEPRF11 drum. This is the average of all the projections of slice 8 taken over 180 degrees with an active integration time of 6 seconds. Figure 2 is also a graph showing the average of all the projections for slice 8; however, the active integration time is 30 seconds.

  17. Practical gamma spectroscopy assay techniques for large volume low-level waste boxes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S. C. (Steven C.); Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Scheffing, C. C. (Candice C.); Gallegos, L. E. (Lucas E.); Bustos, R. M. (Roland M.)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the performance of the SNAPrM (Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform) analytical software for measurements of known standards in large metal waste boxes (2.5 m' volume). The trials were designed to test the accuracy and variance of the analytical results for low-density combustible matrices and higher-density metal matrices at two discrete gamma-ray energies: 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV. For both matrix types the measurement method that produced the most accurate results with the lowest associated standard deviation involved combining four individual measurements taken at the geometric center of each of the box's four vertical sides. With this method the overall bias and the standard deviation amongst 24 individual results for the 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV gamma rays were as follows: 3.38% (k 20.19%) and 3.68% (k 15.47%) for the combustible matrix and 37,88% (k 67.64%) and 9.38% (k 33.15%) for the metal matrix. The persistent positive bias from measurements of the metal box is believed to be a result of a nonhomogenously distributed matrix.

  18. Recent developments at French atomic energy commission relating to non destructive nuclear waste assay by using electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvoussi, A.; Romeyer-Dhebey, J.; Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Mariani, A.; Recroix, H.; Payan, E.; Denis, C.; Loridon, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, DER, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Buisson, A.; Nurdin, G.; Allano, J.; Jaureguy, J.C. [DGA, Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, ETCA-CEB-DPN, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    An important program is currently in progress at several laboratories over the world for the development of sensitive, practical non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of low level transuranics (TRU) in solid wastes. The wide variety of materials and contaminants, the low concentrations and large volumes involve, all make this kind of assay a complicated affair. Over the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the field of assay techniques for low level contaminated wastes. This report describes the methods being developed at French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.) in Cadarache to assay high density TRU waste packages by using photon, neutron or both photon and neutron as interrogating particles. All of these particles are produced by using a pulsed electron linear accelerator from which the photons are produced following Bremsstrahlung phenomena on a heavy metallic converter and the neutrons are generated in appropriate low level photoneutron threshold target (e.g. Beryllium). The dynamic of photonuclear interactions and photoneutron production, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, experimental results, simulation to experiment performances and future experimental and theoretical studies are discussed. (authors)

  19. A survey of monitoring and assay systems for release of metals from radiation controlled areas at LANL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.)

    2002-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a recent effort in waste minimization has focused on scrap metal from radiological controlled areas (RCAs). In particular, scrap metal from RCAs needs to be dispositioned in a reasonable and cost effective manner. Recycling of DOE scrap metals from RCAs is currently under a self-imposed moratorium. Since recycling is not available and reuse is difficult, often metal waste from RCAs, which could otherwise be recycled, is disposed of as low-level waste. Estimates at LANL put the cost of low-level waste disposal at $550 to $4000 per cubic meter, depending on the type of waste and the disposal site. If the waste is mixed, the cost for treatment and disposal can be as high as $50,000 per cubic meter. Disposal of scrap metal as low-level waste uses up valuable space in the low-level waste disposal areas and requires transportation to the disposal site under Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for low-level waste. In contrast, disposal as non-radioactive waste costs as little as $2 per cubic meter. While recycling is unavailable, disposing of the metal at an industrial waste site could be the best solution for this waste stream. A Green Is Clean (GIC) type verification program needs to be in place to provide the greatest assurance that the waste does not contain DOE added radioactivity. This paper is a review of available and emerging radiation monitoring and assay systems that could be used for scrap metal as part of the LANL GIC program.

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, G.D.; Halverson, T.G.

    1994-09-30

    The purpose of this Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan is to provide requirements and responsibilities for document control for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project and the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Project.

  1. Facilitating the improved management of waste in South Africa through a national waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Developing a waste information system (WIS) for a country is more than just about collecting routine data on waste; it is about facilitating the improved management of waste by providing timely, reliable information to the relevant role-players. It is a means of supporting the waste governance challenges facing South Africa - challenges ranging from strategic waste management issues at national government to basic operational challenges at local government. The paper addresses two hypotheses. The first is that the identified needs of government can provide a platform from which to design a national WIS framework for a developing country such as South Africa, and the second is that the needs for waste information reflect greater, currently unfulfilled challenges in the sustainable management of waste. Through a participatory needs analysis process, it is shown that waste information is needed by the three spheres of government, to support amongst others, informed planning and decision-making, compliance monitoring and enforcement, community participation through public access to information, human, infrastructure and financial resource management and policy development. These needs for waste information correspond closely with key waste management challenges currently facing the country. A shift in governments approach to waste, in line with national and international policy, is evident from identified current and future waste information needs. However, the need for information on landfilling remains entrenched within government, possibly due to the poor compliance of landfill sites in South Africa and the problems around the illegal disposal of both general and hazardous waste.

  2. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YongDeok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241 was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS. The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with ~2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber, the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  3. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YongDeok; Jeon, Ju Young; Park, Chang-Je

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241) was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with 2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber), the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  4. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  5. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The system also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacment drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery after abnormal events may require clearing of equipment

  6. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  7. Global earth systems : from waste to watts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.

    2006-04-01

    As sanitary landfills reach capacity in North America, many municipal jurisdictions are searching for alternative environmental solutions. Global Earth Systems is a company that develops treatment technologies for solid and liquid organic materials to serve the nutrient and waste management needs of agricultural, industrial and municipal interests. Their accelerated composting system provides a practical alternative energy source of recoverable thermal energy and the generation of green electrical energy for use on site or for commercial resale. The company was initially formed to investigate aerobic composting to reduce the overall environmental impact of liquid swine manure. In 2003, an innovative technology was developed to recapture heat generated from the natural organic decomposition process. The technology extracts heat from the organic mass in a controlled system environment that enhances the thermophilic reaction in the composting material. Some systems made by the company can recover thermal energy in the medium of hot water for reuse in a variety of applications. A new system designed by the company can convert thermal energy recaptured from the decomposing mass into electricity for on-site use or resale to the power grid. The proprietary process uses a patented organic fluid in an electrical generator which operates continuously. The company has also developed a biomass energy system which processes unwanted and nuisance organic waste materials into organic fertilizer products. 5 figs.

  8. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  9. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  10. A Management Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Systems and Its Application to Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Thyberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a complex task involving numerous waste fractions, a range of technological treatment options, and many outputs that are circulated back into society. A systematic, interdisciplinary systems management framework was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation, and maintenance of sustainable waste systems. It aims not to replace existing decision-making approaches, but rather to enable their integration to allow for inclusion of overall sustainability concerns and address the complexity of solid waste management. The framework defines key considerations for system design, steps for performance monitoring, and approaches for facilitating continual system improvements. It was developed by critically examining the literature to determine what aspects of a management framework would be most effective at improving systems management for complex waste systems. The framework was applied to food waste management as a theoretical case study to exemplify how it can serve as a systems management tool for complex waste systems, as well as address obstacles typically faced in the field. Its benefits include the integration of existing waste system assessment models; the inclusion of environmental, economic, and social priorities; efficient performance monitoring; and a structure to continually define, review, and improve systems. This framework may have broader implications for addressing sustainability in other disciplines.

  11. Liquid rad waste system improvement at YGN 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. S.; Kang, Y. H.; Shin, Y. H. [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc. (KOPEC), Yonggin, Kyunggido(Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The performance of the rad waste system is measured in terms of the generation of waste volumes, the release of radioactive materials to the environment and the occupational radiation exposure to workers. Based on our design and operating experience from PWR plants, various design goals for the liquid rad waste system were developed to improve system performance. As a result of feasibility studies for an improved liquid rad waste system, a design concept was developed to meet the basic design goals, which have been incorporated into the YGN 5 and 6 system. As a result, the performance of the system will be significantly improved. (author)

  12. Development of a Waste Vault Directional Assay System (VDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Adrienne Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-08

    We are developing a portable neutron and gamma detector called VDAS with sufficient sensitivity and directional capability such that it could operate in high gamma dose rate environments. This detector will be designed such that it can be remotely deployed and adaptable to a broad range of possible facility infrastructure to record a 3D array of gross neutron and gamma measurements, including axial and radial rotation, for identifying potential SNM material locations.

  13. A multimodal transportation system routing implemented in waste collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is an important municipal service that charges large expenditures to waste management (WM system. In this study, a hierarchical structure is proposed in order to minimize total cost of waste collection routing problem. Moreover, in second stage destructive environmental effects of waste transportation are minimized concurrently through taking advantage of a road/rail transportation system. In the proposed multimodal transportation system, waste packs are transferred to final destination while travel time and risk of environmental threatening is minimized. The discussed problem is formulated mathematically in two stages. In the first stage, a household waste collection routing problem is formulated while, in second stage a multimodal transportation system is routed to transfer waste packs to final destination through roads and railroads. In order to solve the proposed NP hard models, an improved genetic algorithm is developed. Comparison of the obtained results with those of GAMS for small-size samples validates the proposed models.

  14. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  15. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  16. Report: integrated industrial waste management systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Roberts, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Various models of urban sustainable development have been introduced in recent years and some of these such as integrated waste management have been proved to be of particular value. Integrated industrial waste management systems include all the administrative, financial, legal, planning and engineering functions involved in solutions to the problems of industrial waste. Even though the pace of the improvement made to China's industrial waste management capacity is impressive, China has been unable to keep up with the increasing demand for waste management. This paper will evaluate the application of integrated industrial waste management systems in promoting urban sustainable development in the context of three case study cities in China (positive case, average case and negative case) by identifying and accessing the factors that affect the success or failure of integrated industrial waste management systems.

  17. Understanding waste for lean health information systems: a preliminary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalong, Nadia Awang; Yusof, Maryati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid application of the Lean method in healthcare, its study in IT environments, particularly in Health Information Systems (HIS), is still limited primarily by a lack of waste identification. This paper aims to review the literature to provide an insight into the nature of waste in HIS from the perspective of Lean management. Eight waste frameworks within the context of healthcare and information technology were reviewed. Based on the review, it was found that all the seven waste categories from the manufacturing sector also exist in both the healthcare and IT domains. However, the nature of the waste varied depending on the processes of the domains. A number of additional waste categories were also identified. The findings reveal that the traditional waste model can be adapted to identify waste in both the healthcare and IT sectors.

  18. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-09

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ``as is`` condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ``to be`` configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively.

  19. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  20. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne

    2011-05-01

    Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed in the country, such that there is a noticeable improvement. The interviews with officials from municipalities and private waste companies, conducted as part of the piloting of the SAWIS, highlighted that certain organizations, typically private waste companies have been successful in collecting waste data. Through a process of learning, these organizations have utilized this waste data to inform and manage their operations. The drivers of such data collection efforts were seen to be financial (business) sustainability and environmental reporting obligations, particularly where the company had an international parent company. However, participants highlighted a number of constraints, particularly within public (municipal) waste facilities which hindered both the collection of waste data and the utilization of this data to effect change in the way waste is managed. These constraints included a lack of equipment and institutional capacity in the collection of data. The utilization of this data in effecting change was further hindered by governance challenges such as politics, bureaucracy and procurement, evident in a developing country context such as South Africa. The results show that while knowledge is a necessary condition for resultant action, a theoretical framework of learning does not account for all observed factors, particularly external influences.

  1. A rating system for determination of hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talinli, Ilhan; Yamantürk, Rana; Aydin, Egemen; Başakçilardan-Kabakçi, Sibel

    2005-11-11

    Although hazardous waste lists and their classification methodologies are nearly the same in most of the countries, there are some gaps and subjectiveness in determining the waste as hazardous waste. A rating system for the determination of waste as a hazardous waste is presented in this study which aims to overcome the problems resulted from the existing methodologies. Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an "hourglass" scale. "ORV" as a cumulative-linear formulation in proposed model consists of components such as ecological effects of the waste (Ee) in terms of four main hazard criteria: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity; combined potential risk (CPR) including carcinogenic effect, toxic, infectious and persistence characteristics; existing lists and their methodology (L) and decision factor (D) to separate regular and non-regular waste. Physical form (f) and quantity (Q) of the waste are considered as factors of these components. Seventeen waste samples from different sources are evaluated to demonstrate the simulation of the proposed model by using "hourglass" scale. The major benefit of the presented rating system is to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.

  2. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  3. Management of the radioactive waste of European Spallation Source within the Swedish waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ene, Daniela [European Spallation Source AB, ESS-AB (Sweden); Forsstroem, H. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source AB (ESS) is the European common effort in designing and building a next generation large-scale user facility for studies of the structure and dynamics of materials. The proposed schematic layout of the ESS facility is based on a linear driver (linac) directing the proton beam (5 MW of 2.5 GeV) of 2.8 ms long pulses with a 20 Hz on a tungsten target where neutrons are produced via spallation reactions. Further the neutrons will be moderated to thermal and sub-thermal energies in a couple of moderators placed around the target. The moderators feed 22 beam-lines guiding the neutrons to the scattering instruments, mainly for neutron scattering research, as has been previously mentioned. The ESS will generate specific types of radioactive waste. This waste should be handled and disposed of within the Swedish radioactive waste management system, which is owned and operated by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, (SKB). The main objectives of this work are: i) To estimate types and quantities of waste that the ESS project will generate at different stages: commission, operation, decommissioning; ii) To allocate the waste to specific disposal route; iii) To assess the disposal volumes needed and to ensure that the ESS waste may safely be accommodated within the Swedish disposal system, SKB The amounts of ESS waste and classifications were derived using: i) precise Monte Carlo calculations ii) scaling the activity from the operation experience of the existing spallation source installations for waste such it is difficult to predict level of activation or for components of the facility in stage of the pre-conceptual model. Associated waste treatment/conditioning options were further analyzed in order to define the waste type and packet descriptions in agreement with Swedish regulations and policy. The potential final disposal routes for high activated components were decided via the comparison of the activity levels of the isotopes inside the

  4. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS.

  5. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS.

  6. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  7. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  8. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  9. Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    An empirical study was undertaken with 31 organisations submitting data to the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) in order to explore the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge generated through a process of learning. The results show that of the three constructs of knowledge (experience, data/information, and theory), experience has the greatest influence on building waste knowledge, nearly twice that of data/information and three times that of theory. Together the three constructs account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Respondents from municipalities and private waste organisations reflect two distinct sub-groups in the data set. While the theoretical model remains the same for the two sub-groups, the way in which knowledge is constructed, and the variance in knowledge explained by the model, differs for the two. A mixed methods research design, combining quantitative statistical analysis and rich qualitative data, contributes to a comprehensive interpretation of the role of waste data in building knowledge in South Africa. While waste data has a minor influence on building knowledge, respondents acknowledge that waste data does have a positive impact on the way their organisations manage waste. However, it is not the data, but rather the resultant waste knowledge and raised level of awareness that causes the operational response. Experience is obtained predominantly through learning from others. Respondents in municipalities, emphasised learning from consultants, landfill site contractors, and colleagues in city-twinning programmes, while respondents in private waste companies, emphasised learning from experienced, senior colleagues.

  10. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J.; Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    NASA is working with a number of commercial companies to develop the next low Earth orbit spacecraft. The hardware volume and weight constraints are similar to or greater than those of the Apollo era. This, coupled with the equally demanding cost challenge of the proposed commercial vehicles, causes much of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designs to be reconsidered. The Waste Collection System (WCS) is within this group of ECLSS hardware. The development to support this new initiative is discussed within. A WCS concept - intended to be common for all the vehicle platforms currently on the drawing board - is being developed. The new concept, referred to as the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), includes favorable features from previous designs while improving on other areas on previous Space Shuttle and the existing International Space Station (ISS) WCS hardware, as needed. The intent is to build a commode that requires less crew time, improved cleanliness, and a 75% reduction in volume and weight compared to the previous US ISS/Extended Duration Orbitor WCS developed in the 1990s. The UWMS is most similar to the ISS Development Test Objective (DTO) WCS design. It is understood that the most dramatic cost reduction opportunity occurs at the beginning of the design process. To realize this opportunity, the cost of each similar component between the UWMS and the DTO WCS was determined. The comparison outlined were the design changes that would result with the greatest impact. The changes resulted in simplifying the approach or eliminating components completely. This initial UWMS paper will describe the system layout approach and a few key features of major components. Future papers will describe the UWMS functionality, test results, and components as they are developed.

  11. Optimization of use of waste in the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Alternative uses of waste for energy production become increasingly interesting when considered from two perspectives, that of waste management and the energy system perspective. This paper presents the results of an enquiry into the use of waste in a future energy system. The analysis...... was performed using the energy system analysis model, Balmorel. The study is focused on Germany and the Nordic countries and demonstrates the optimization of both investments and production within the energy systems. The results present cost optimization excluding taxation concerning the use of waste for energy...... production in Denmark in a 2025 scenario with 48% renewable energy. Investments in a range of waste conversion technologies are facilitated, including waste incineration, co-combustion with coal, anaerobic digestion, and gasification. The most economically feasible solutions are found to be incineration...

  12. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  13. Hydrogen storage systems from waste Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistidda, C.; Bergemann, N.; Wurr, J.; Rzeszutek, A.; Møller, K. T.; Hansen, B. R. S.; Garroni, S.; Horstmann, C.; Milanese, C.; Girella, A.; Metz, O.; Taube, K.; Jensen, T. R.; Thomas, D.; Liermann, H. P.; Klassen, T.; Dornheim, M.

    2014-12-01

    The production cost of materials for hydrogen storage is one of the major issues to be addressed in order to consider them suitable for large scale applications. In the last decades several authors reported on the hydrogen sorption properties of Mg and Mg-based systems. In this work magnesium industrial wastes of AZ91 alloy and Mg-10 wt.% Gd alloy are used for the production of hydrogen storage materials. The hydrogen sorption properties of the alloys were investigated by means of volumetric technique, in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) and calorimetric methods. The measured reversible hydrogen storage capacity for the alloys AZ91 and Mg-10 wt.% Gd are 4.2 and 5.8 wt.%, respectively. For the Mg-10 wt.% Gd alloy, the hydrogenated product was also successfully used as starting reactant for the synthesis of Mg(NH2)2 and as MgH2 substitute in the Reactive Hydride Composite (RHC) 2LiBH4 + MgH2. The results of this work demonstrate the concrete possibility to use Mg alloy wastes for hydrogen storage purposes.

  14. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  15. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerul, Mochammad; Tanaka, Masaru; Shekdar, Ashok V

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare services provided by hospitals may generate some infectious wastes. Although a large percentage of hospital waste is classified as general waste, which has similar nature as that of municipal solid waste and, therefore, could be disposed in municipal landfills, a small portion of infectious waste has to be managed in the proper manner in order to minimize risk to public health. Many factors involved in the hospital waste management system often link to one another, which require a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor in the system. In this paper, we present a hospital waste management model based on system dynamics to determine the interaction among factors in the system using a software package, Stella. A case study of the City of Jakarta, Indonesia is selected. The hospital waste generation is affected by various factors including the number of beds in the hospitals and the NIMBY (not in my back yard) syndrome. To minimize the risk to public health, we found that waste segregation, as well as infectious waste treatment prior to disposal, has to be conducted properly by the hospital management, especially when scavenging takes place in landfill sites in developing countries.

  16. Environmental and economic analysis of management systems for biodegradable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesson, U. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7033, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Bjoerklund, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology/Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Carlsson, M. [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dalemo, M. [Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering, P.O. Box 7033, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    The management system for solid and liquid organic waste affects the environment and surrounding technical systems in several ways. In order to decrease the environmental impact and resource use, biological waste treatment and alternative solutions for sewage treatment are often advocated. These alternatives include increased agricultural use of waste residuals. To analyse whether such proposed systems indicate improvements for the environment and its sustainability, systems analysis is a useful method. The changes in environmental impact and resource use is not only a result of changes in waste treatment methods, but also largely a result of changes in surrounding systems (energy and agriculture) caused by changes in waste management practices. In order to perform a systems analysis, a substance-flow simulation model, the organic waste research model (ORWARE), has been used. The results are evaluated by using methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA). An economic analysis was also performed on three of the studied scenarios. The management system for solid organic waste and sewage in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden, was studied. Three scenarios for different treatments of solid waste were analysed: incineration with heat recovery, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These three scenarios included conventional sewage treatment. A fourth scenario reviewed was anaerobic digestion of solid waste, using urine-separating toilets and separate handling of the urine fraction. The results are only valid for the case study and under the assumptions made. In this case study anaerobic digestion result in the lowest environmental impact of all the solid waste management systems, but is costly. Economically, incineration with heat recovery is the cheapest way to treat solid waste. Composting gives environmental advantages compared to incineration methods, without significantly increased costs. Urine separation, which may be implemented together with any solid waste

  17. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  18. A system for performing high throughput assays of synaptic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Hempel

    Full Text Available Unbiased, high-throughput screening has proven invaluable for dissecting complex biological processes. Application of this general approach to synaptic function would have a major impact on neuroscience research and drug discovery. However, existing techniques for studying synaptic physiology are labor intensive and low-throughput. Here, we describe a new high-throughput technology for performing assays of synaptic function in primary neurons cultured in microtiter plates. We show that this system can perform 96 synaptic vesicle cycling assays in parallel with high sensitivity, precision, uniformity, and reproducibility and can detect modulators of presynaptic function. By screening libraries of pharmacologically defined compounds on rat forebrain cultures, we have used this system to identify novel effects of compounds on specific aspects of presynaptic function. As a system for unbiased compound as well as genomic screening, this technology has significant applications for basic neuroscience research and for the discovery of novel, mechanism-based treatments for central nervous system disorders.

  19. Solid Waste Information Tracking System (SWITS), Backlog Waste Modifications, Software Requirements Specification (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.E. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1995-05-05

    Purpose of this document is to define the system requirements necessary to improve computer support for the WHC backlog waste business process through enhancements to the backlog waste function of the SWITS system. This SRS document covers enhancements to the SWITS system to support changes to the existing Backlog Waste screens including new data elements, label changes, and new pop-up screens. The pop-ups will allow the user to flag the processes that a waste container must have performed on it, and will provide history tracking of changes to data. A new screen will also be provided allowing Acceptable Services to perform mass updates to specific data in Backlog Waste table. The SWITS Backlog Waste enhancements in this document will support the project goals in WHC-SD-WM-003 and its Revision 1 (Radioactive Solid Waste Tracking System Conceptual Definition) for the control, tracing, and inventory management of waste as the packages are generated and moved through final disposal (cradle-to-grave).

  20. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  1. A comparative study on per capita waste generation according to a waste collecting system in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hwan; Lee, Eui-Jong; Oh, Jeong Ik; Kim, Jong-Oh; Jang, Am

    2016-04-01

    As cities are becoming increasingly aware of problems related to conventional mobile collection systems, automated pipeline-based vacuum collection (AVAC) systems have been introduced in some densely populated urban areas. The reasons are that in addition to cost savings, AVAC systems can be efficient, hygienic, and environmentally friendly. Despite difficulties in making direct comparisons of municipal waste between a conventional mobile collection system and an AVAC system, it is meaningful to measure the quantities in each of these collection methods either in total or on a per capita generation of waste (PCGW, g/(day*capita)) basis. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the difference in per capita generation of household waste according to the different waste collection methods in Korea. Observations on household waste show that there were considerable differences according to waste collection methods. The value of per capita generation of food waste (PCGF) indicates that a person in a city using AVAC produces 60 % of PCGF (109.58 g/(day*capita)), on average, compared with that of a truck system (173.10 g/(day*capita)) as well as 23 %p less moisture component than that with trucks. The value of per capita generation of general waste (PCGG) in a city with an AVAC system showed 147.73 g/(day*capita), which is 20 % less than that with trucks delivered (185 g/(day*capita)). However, general waste sampled from AVAC showed a 35 %p increased moisture content versus truck delivery.

  2. Joint optimisation of the future Danish waste and energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Pizarro, Amalia Rosa; Salvucci, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    In this article the impact of the future development of the energy system on the feasibility of waste treatment options is analysed. In the article two different optimization tools are used: a regional electricity model (Balmorel) and a national waste treatment and district heating model (OptiWaste......). When performing optimization by minimizing the socio-economic costs, into future energy systems with high wind power production, it proves feasible primarily to incinerate waste in large scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants, whereas more incineration takes place in decentralized CHP plants...... in future scenarios with higher biomass consumption, where the average heat prices are higher. In both scenarios, biogas produced from organic waste is upgraded and fed into the natural gas grid and waste is incinerated rather than being centrally sorted in a material recovery facility....

  3. Implementing a technique to improve the accuracy of shuffler assays of waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1996-07-01

    The accuracy of shuffler assays for fissile materials is generally limited by the accuracy of the calibration standards, but when the matrix in a large drum has a sufficiently high hydrogen density (as exists in paper, for example) the accuracy in the active mode can be adversely affected by a nonuniform distribution of the fissile material within the matrix. This paper reports on a technique to determine the distribution nondestructively using delayed neutron signals generated by the shuffler itself. In assays employing this technique, correction factors are applied to the result of the conventional assay according to the distribution. Maximum inaccuracies in assays with a drum of paper, for example, are reduced by a factor of two or three.

  4. Integrated ecological hazard assessment of waste site soil extracts using FETAX and short-term fathead minnow teratogenesis assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L. [Stover Group, Stillwater, OK (United States); Bantle, J.A. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo-larval assay designed to detect environmental developmental toxicants for use in ecological hazard assessment. FETAX offers several advantages in integrated biological hazard assessment including, time- and cost-effectiveness, technical ease, and versatility. FETAX has undergone extensive intra- and more recently interlaboratory validation with known mammalian teratogens and non-teratogens. Ecological hazard evaluations of contaminated sediments, waste site soils, and complex surface and groundwaters have also been performed. An integrated hazard assessment study using FETAX, the conventional, Pimephales promelas 7-d teratogenecity test, and an abbreviated P. promelas teratogenecity test utilizing the general FETAX protocol was conducted with specific reference toxicants and aqueous extracts of contaminated hazardous waste site soils. Results from the studies indicated that FETAX can be used as a component of a battery of bioassays designed to assess potential ecological hazard. Furthermore, the generalized FETAX protocol may be useful with other species in evaluating developmental toxicity hazard.

  5. What level of estrogenic activity determined by in vitro assays in municipal waste waters can be considered as safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Barbora; Bláha, Luděk; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2014-03-01

    In vitro assays are broadly used tools to evaluate the estrogenic activity in Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluents and their receiving rivers. Since potencies of individual estrogens to induce in vitro and in vivo responses can differ it is not possible to directly evaluate risks based on in vitro measures of estrogenic activity. Estrone, 17beta-estradiol, 17alfa-ethinylestradiol and to some extent, estriol have been shown to be responsible for the majority of in vitro estrogenic activity of municipal WWTP effluents. Therefore, in the present study safe concentrations of Estrogenic Equivalents (EEQs-SSE) in municipal WWTP effluents were derived based on simplified assumption that the steroid estrogens are responsible for all estrogenicity determined with particular in vitro assays. EEQs-SSEs were derived using the bioassay and testing protocol-specific in vitro potencies of steroid estrogens, in vivo predicted no effect concentration (PNECs) of these compounds, and their relative contributions to the overall estrogenicity detected in municipal WWTP effluents. EEQs-SSEs for 15 individual bioassays varied from 0.1 to 0.4ng EEQ/L. The EEQs-SSEs are supposed to be increased by use of location-specific dilution factors of WWTP effluents entering receiving rivers. They are applicable to municipal wastewater and rivers close to their discharges, but not to industrial waste waters.

  6. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae - iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland); Isoaho, S. [Tampere Univ. (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    ''Waste'' - Intelligent Information System for Waste Management - is a joint project of the University of Kuopio and the Tampere University of Technology. The main objective of the project is to create a basis for more comprehensive utilisation and management of waste management data and for the development of database management systems. The results of the project are numerous. A study of the present state of data management in the field of waste management was carried out. The studied aspects were for example information needs of different actors and their requirements for the information quality, interfaces for information exchange between different actors, and the characteristics of the software products. During the second phase of the project, a hyper document describing waste management systems, and a software application for describing material flows and their management will be finalized. Also methodologies and practices for processing data into information, which is needed in the decision making process, will be developed. The developed methodologies include e.g. data mining techniques, and the practices include e.g. the prediction of waste generation and optimisation of waste collection and transport. (orig.)

  7. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, D.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present...... the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining...

  8. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  9. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  10. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, L.G.

    1998-01-08

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance.

  11. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  12. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  13. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  14. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  15. Methods of Reducing Bias in Combined Thermal/Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) Assays of Heterogeneous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, R.J.; Melton, S.; Miko, D.

    1998-11-17

    We examined the effectiveness of two different methods for correcting CTEN passive and active assays for bias due to variations in the source position in different drum types. Both use the same drum-averaged correction determined from a neural network trained to active flux monitor ratios as a starting point. One method then uses a neural network to obtain a spatial correction factor sensitive to the source location. The other method uses emission tomography. Both methods were found to give significantly improved assay accuracy over the drum-averaged correction, although more study is needed to determine which method works better.

  16. Planning waste cooking oil collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tânia Rodrigues Pereira; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula

    2013-08-01

    This research has been motivated by a real-life problem of a waste cooking oil collection system characterized by the existence of multiple depots with an outsourced vehicle fleet, where the collection routes have to be plan. The routing problem addressed allows open routes between depots, i.e., all routes start at one depot but can end at the same or at a different one, depending on what minimizes the objective function considered. Such problem is referred as a Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Closed and Open Inter-Depot Routes and is, in this paper, modeled through a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation where capacity and duration constraints are taken into account. The model developed is applied to the real case study providing, as final results, the vehicle routes planning where a decrease of 13% on mileage and 11% on fleet hiring cost are achieved, when comparing with the current company solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste in health information systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang Kalong, Nadia; Yusof, Maryati

    2017-05-08

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss a systematic review on waste identification related to health information systems (HIS) in Lean transformation. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was conducted on 19 studies to evaluate Lean transformation and tools used to remove waste related to HIS in clinical settings. Findings Ten waste categories were identified, along with their relationships and applications of Lean tool types related to HIS. Different Lean tools were used at the early and final stages of Lean transformation; the tool selection depended on the waste characteristic. Nine studies reported a positive impact from Lean transformation in improving daily work processes. The selection of Lean tools should be made based on the timing, purpose and characteristics of waste to be removed. Research limitations/implications Overview of waste and its category within HIS and its analysis from socio-technical perspectives enabled the identification of its root cause in a holistic and rigorous manner. Practical implications Understanding waste types, their root cause and review of Lean tools could subsequently lead to the identification of mitigation approach to prevent future error occurrence. Originality/value Specific waste models for HIS settings are yet to be developed. Hence, the identification of the waste categories could guide future implementation of Lean transformations in HIS settings.

  18. Waste management system optimisation for Southern Italy with MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvia, M.; Cosmi, C. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, C. da S. Loja, 85050 (PZ) Tito Scalo (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, C. da Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    The MARKAL models generator was utilised to build up a comprehensive model of the anthropogenic activities system which points out the linkages between productive processes and waste disposal technologies. The aim of such a study is to determine the optimal configuration of the waste management system for the Basilicata region (Southern Italy), in order to support the definition of the regional waste management plan in compliance with the Italian laws. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of landfilling fees on the choice of waste processing technologies, in order to foster waste management strategies which are environmentally sustainable, economically affordable and highly efficient. The results show the key role of separate collection and mechanical pre-treatments in the achievement of the legislative targets.

  19. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site located near Idaho Falls, ID USA, has developed a comprehensive waste management and tracking tool that integrates multiple operational activities with characterization data from waste declaration through final waste disposition. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS) provides information necessary to help facility personnel properly manage their waste and demonstrate a wide range of legal and regulatory compliance. As a client?server database system, the IWTS is a proven tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of flexibility. This paper describes some of the history involved with the development and current use of IWTS as a comprehensive waste management tool as well as a discussion of IWTS deployments performed by the INL for outside clients. Waste management spans a wide range of activities including: work group interactions, regulatory compliance management, reporting, procedure management, and similar activities. The IWTS documents these activities and performs tasks in a computer-automated environment. Waste characterization data, container characterization data, shipments, waste processing, disposals, reporting, and limit compliance checks are just a few of the items that IWTS documents and performs to help waste management personnel perform their jobs. Throughout most hazardous and radioactive waste generating, storage and disposal sites, waste management is performed by many different groups of people in many facilities. Several organizations administer their areas of waste management using their own procedures and documentation independent of other organizations. Files are kept, some of which are treated as quality records, others not as stringent. Quality records maintain a history of: changes performed after approval, the reason for the change(s), and a record of whom and when

  20. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80l to containers of 2400l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60l or 80l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  2. GIS based solid waste management information system for Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Jain, Preeti; Sharma, N; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Sohony, R A

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major problems of today's world and needs to be addressed by proper utilization of technologies and design of effective, flexible and structured information system. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to design and develop a GIS based solid waste management information system as a decision making and planning tool for regularities and municipal authorities. The system integrates geo-spatial features of the city and database of existing solid waste management. GIS based information system facilitates modules of visualization, query interface, statistical analysis, report generation and database modification. It also provides modules like solid waste estimation, collection, transportation and disposal details. The information system is user-friendly, standalone and platform independent.

  3. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Intelligent information system for waste management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortio, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    'iWaste - Intelligent Information System for Waste Management' - was a joint project of the University of Kuopio and the Tampere University of Technology. The main objective of the project was to improve the management and use of waste management data. Also the project focused on the development of information management systems. The results of the project are numerous. A study of the present state of information management in the field of waste management was carried out. The studied aspects were for example information needs of different actors and their requirements for the information quality, communication requirements among different actors, and the characteristics and applications of the software products. The conceptual data model of waste management was developed and resulted as the hyper document for connecting waste and information management specialists, and for research and educational purposes. Also, this model can be used for the development of political regulation. Methodologies and models for processing data into information for decision making were developed. The methodologies and models include e.g. data mining techniques, prediction of waste generation and optimisation of waste pick-up and transport. (orig.)

  5. Devices, systems, and methods for conducting sandwich assays using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaff, Ulrich Y; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Hatch, Anson V

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting sandwich assays using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes on a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a capture agent, a target analyte, and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  6. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Environmental Factor{trademark} system: RCRA hazardous waste handler information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Environmental Factor{trademark} RCRA Hazardous Waste Handler Information on CD-ROM unleashes the invaluable information found in two key EPA data sources on hazardous waste handlers and offers cradle-to-grave waste tracking. It`s easy to search and display: (1) Permit status, design capacity and compliance history for facilities found in the EPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS) program tracking database; (2) Detailed information on hazardous wastes generation, management and minimization by companies who are large quantity generators, and (3) Data on the waste management practices of treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities from the EPA Biennial Reporting System which is collected every other year. Environmental Factor`s powerful database retrieval system lets you: (1) Search for RCRA facilities by permit type, SIC code, waste codes, corrective action or violation information, TSD status, generator and transporter status and more; (2) View compliance information -- dates of evaluation, violation, enforcement and corrective action; (3) Lookup facilities by waste processing categories of marketing, transporting, processing and energy recovery; (4) Use owner/operator information and names, titles and telephone numbers of project managers for prospecting; and (5) Browse detailed data on TSD facility and large quantity generators` activities such as onsite waste treatment, disposal, or recycling, offsite waste received, and waste generation and management. The product contains databases, search and retrieval software on two CD-ROMs, an installation diskette and User`s Guide. Environmental Factor has online context-sensitive help from any screen and a printed User`s Guide describing installation and step-by-step procedures for searching, retrieving and exporting. Hotline support is also available for no additional charge.

  8. Development and testing of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) system for Fernald wastes. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.S.; Matlack, K.S.; Mohr, R.K.; Brandys, M. Hojaji, H.; Bennett, S.; Ruller, J.; Pegg, I.L. [GTS Duratek, Columbia, MD (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of a treatability study for the evaluation of the MAWS process for wastes stored at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. Wastes included in the study were FEMP Pit 5 sludges, soil-wash fractions, and ion exchange media from a water treatment system supporting a soil washing system. MAWS offers potential for treating a variety of waste streams to produce a more leach resistant waste form at a lower cost than, say, cement stabilization.

  9. A plasma-arc pyrolysis system for hazardous waste treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A laboratory system for the treatment of medical and hazardous wastes via AC plasma-arc pyrolysis was recently built up by a research team led by Prof. SHENG Hongzhi at the CAS Institute of Mechanics (IMECH) in Beijing.

  10. Application Research of Developed Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The application researches such as variety of factors affecting the measurement, calibrating etc. are need before the drummed nuclear waste neutron counting system (WNC) can be really put into use after installed at the site.

  11. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    Article Number: C32D5A757374 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Key words: Transfer, waste, landfill, station, geographical information system (GIS), geographical positioning ..... USEPA-United State Environmental Protection Agency (1995).

  12. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  13. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-02

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis.

  14. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    The Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector has evolved from a simple control of emissions towards a resource recovery sector while still being constrained by strict emission regulations. For that waste authorities are paying increased attention to the waste hierarchy as a set of priorities for solid....... However, the waste hierarchy does not consider the local needs/conditions of each geographical area, and it cannot be used to identify sustainable SWM options by itself. Environmental impact assessment can help with this task as holistic decision-support tool. Nevertheless, waste authorities need economic...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...

  15. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  16. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  17. System Analysis on Absorption Chiller Utilizing Intermediate Wasted Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Miki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Usui, Hiromoto

    A system analysis has been performed for the multi-effect absorption chiller (MEAC) applied as a bottoming system of 30kW class hybrid system including micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system. In this paper, an intermediate wasted heat utilization (IWHU) system is suggested for lifting up the energy efficiency of the whole system and coefficient of performance (COP) of MEAC. From the results, the suggested IWHU system was found to show the very high energy efficiency compared with a terminal wasted heat utilization (TWHU) system that uses only the heat exhausted from the terminal of MGT/SOFC system. When TWHU system is applied for MEAC, the utilized heat from the MGT/SOFC system is found to remain low because the temperature difference between the high temperature generator and the wasted heat becomes small. Then, the energy efficiency does not become high in spite of high COP of MEAC. On the other hand, the IWHU system could increase the utilized heat for MEAC as performs effectively. The exergy efficiency of IWHU system is also revealed to be higher than that of a direct gas burning system of MEAC, because the wasted heat is effectively utilized in the IWHU system.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  19. System dynamic modeling on construction waste management in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Li, Jingru; Cai, Hong

    2014-05-01

    This article examines the complexity of construction waste management in Shenzhen, Mainland China. In-depth analysis of waste generation, transportation, recycling, landfill and illegal dumping of various inherent management phases is explored. A system dynamics modeling using Stella model is developed. Effects of landfill charges and also penalties from illegal dumping are also simulated. The results show that the implementation of comprehensive policy on both landfill charges and illegal dumping can effectively control the illegal dumping behavior, and achieve comprehensive construction waste minimization. This article provides important recommendations for effective policy implementation and explores new perspectives for Shenzhen policy makers.

  20. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  1. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  2. Comparative environmental evaluation of construction waste management through different waste sorting systems in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Wu, Zezhou; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to compare the environmental performance of building construction waste management (CWM) systems in Hong Kong. Life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied to evaluate the performance of CWM systems holistically based on primary data collected from two real building construction sites and secondary data obtained from the literature. Different waste recovery rates were applied based on compositions and material flow to assess the influence on the environmental performance of CWM systems. The system boundary includes all stages of the life cycle of building construction waste (including transportation, sorting, public fill or landfill disposal, recovery and reuse, and transformation and valorization into secondary products). A substitutional LCA approach was applied for capturing the environmental gains due to the utilizations of recovered materials. The results showed that the CWM system by using off-site sorting and direct landfilling resulted in significant environmental impacts. However, a considerable net environmental benefit was observed through an on-site sorting system. For example, about 18-30kg CO2 eq. greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission were induced for managing 1 t of construction waste through off-site sorting and direct landfilling, whereas significant GHGs emission could be potentially avoided (considered as a credit -126 to -182kg CO2 eq.) for an on-site sorting system due to the higher recycling potential. Although the environmental benefits mainly depend on the waste compositions and their sortability, the analysis conducted in this study can serve as guidelines to design an effective and resource-efficient building CWM system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are MUPs a Toxic Waste Disposal System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kwak

    Full Text Available Male house mice produce large quantities of major urinary proteins (MUPs, which function to bind and transport volatile pheromones, though they may also function as scavengers that bind and excrete toxic compounds ('toxic waste hypothesis'. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of an industrial chemical, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (DTBP, in the urine of wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride to male and female urine resulted in an increased release of DTBP. This increase was only observed in the high molecular weight fractions (HMWF; > 3 kDa separated from male or female urine, suggesting that the increased release of DTBP was likely due to the denaturation of MUPs and the subsequent release of MUP-bound DTBP. Furthermore, when DTBP was added to a HMWF isolated from male urine, an increase in 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT, the major ligand of MUPs and a male-specific pheromone, was observed, indicating that DTBP was bound to MUPs and displaced SBT. These results suggest that DTBP is a MUP ligand. Moreover, we found evidence for competitive ligand binding between DTBP and SBT, suggesting that males potentially face a tradeoff between eliminating toxic wastes versus transporting pheromones. Our findings support the hypothesis that MUPs bind and eliminate toxic wastes, which may provide the most important fitness benefits of excreting large quantities of these proteins.

  4. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2016-12-13

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  5. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2016-12-13

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  6. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  7. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  8. A systematic look at Tank Waste Remediation System privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, J.H.; Duffy, M.A.; Vieth, D.L.; Sohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Highly radioactive Hanford waste includes current and future tank waste plus the cesium and strontium capsules. In the TWRS program, as in other Department of Energy (DOE) clean-up activities, there is an increasing gap between the estimated funding required to enable DOE to meet all of its clean-up commitments and level of funding that is perceived to be available. Privatization is one contracting/management approach being explored by DOE as a means to achieve cost reductions and as a means to achieve a more outcome-oriented program. Privatization introduces the element of competition, a proven means of establishing true cost as well as achieving significant cost reduction.

  9. Comet assay as an indirect measure of systemic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Neutzner, Albert; Turtschi, Stephanie; Flammer, Josef; Mozaffarieh, Maneli

    2015-05-22

    Higher eukaryotic organisms cannot live without oxygen; yet, paradoxically, oxygen can be harmful to them. The oxygen molecule is chemically relatively inert because it has two unpaired electrons located in different pi * anti-bonding orbitals. These two electrons have parallel spins, meaning they rotate in the same direction about their own axes. This is why the oxygen molecule is not very reactive. Activation of oxygen may occur by two different mechanisms; either through reduction via one electron at a time (monovalent reduction), or through the absorption of sufficient energy to reverse the spin of one of the unpaired electrons. This results in the production of reactive oxidative species (ROS). There are a number of ways in which the human body eliminates ROS in its physiological state. If ROS production exceeds the repair capacity, oxidative stress results and damages different molecules. There are many different methods by which oxidative stress can be measured. This manuscript focuses on one of the methods named cell gel electrophoresis, also known as "comet assay" which allows measurement of DNA breaks. If all factors known to cause DNA damage, other than oxidative stress are kept constant, the amount of DNA damage measured by comet assay is a good parameter of oxidative stress. The principle is simple and relies upon the fact that DNA molecules are negatively charged. An intact DNA molecule has such a large size that it does not migrate during electrophoresis. DNA breaks, however, if present result in smaller fragments which move in the electrical field towards the anode. Smaller fragments migrate faster. As the fragments have different sizes the final result of the electrophoresis is not a distinct line but rather a continuum with the shape of a comet. The system allows a quantification of the resulting "comet" and thus of the DNA breaks in the cell.

  10. Waste removal systems and recycling participation in residential environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    form of recycling (Ackerman, 1997; Pieters, 1989). Therefore, residential environments in developed countries increasingly contain separate collection systems for that fraction of waste that can be recycled, and hence re-utilized, in the production of new goods. These collection systemsare in addition......Systems for the removal of waste are important although often overlooked elements of any residential environment. It is an old insight that when these systems are ineffective (and this is globally and historically the rule rather than the exception), human living conditions and often even human...

  11. Solid Waste Management System: Public-Private Partnership, the Best System for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nabukeera Madinah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management (SWM is a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries. Nairobi’s solid waste situation, which could be taken to generally represent the status which is largely characterized by low coverage of solid waste collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping of waste, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. This paper recapitulates on the public-private partnership as the best system for developing countries; challenges, approaches, practices or systems of SWM, and outcomes or advantages to the approach; the literature review focuses on surveying information pertaining to existing waste management methodologies, policies, and research relevant to the SWM. Information was sourced from peer-reviewed academic literature, grey literature, publicly available waste management plans, and through consultation with waste management professionals. Literature pertaining to SWM and municipal solid waste minimization, auditing and management were searched for through online journal databases, particularly Web of Science, and Science Direct. Legislation pertaining to waste management was also researched using the different databases. Additional information was obtained from grey literature and textbooks pertaining to waste management topics. After conducting preliminary research, prevalent references of select sources were identified and scanned for additional relevant articles. Research was also expanded to include literature pertaining to recycling, composting, education, and case studies; the manuscript summarizes with future recommendationsin terms collaborations of public/ private patternships, sensitization of people, privatization is important in improving processes and modernizing urban waste management, contract private sector, integrated waste management should be encouraged, provisional government

  12. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as

  13. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Hans; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as

  14. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Smart Waste Collection System Based on Location Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Jensen, Michael; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2015-01-01

    (IoT) integration with data access networks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), combinatorial optimization, and electronic engineering can contribute to improve cities’ management systems. We present a waste collection solution based on providing intelligence to trashcans, by using an IoT prototype...

  16. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  17. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  18. Wet oxidation as a waste treatment in closed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1981-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process has been investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life-support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste and oxygen gas was used as oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100% depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas account for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life-support systems are discussed.

  19. Wet Oxidation as a Waste Treatment Method in Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process was investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste, and oxygen gas was used as an oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100%, depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas accounted for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life support systems are discussed.

  20. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Pérez Acosta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically, describes the production of the piece called saucer, emphasizing the design of the die cutting thereof. These are also given the materials used in each of the components.

  1. Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

  2. Genetic damage induced by electronic waste leachates and contaminated underground water in two prokaryotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, A Okunola; Bakare, A Adekunle

    2017-07-14

    The inappropriate and unsafe management practices related to disposal and recycling of electronic wastes in Nigeria has led to environmental and underground water contamination. Reports on the level and type of contamination as well as the possible DNA damage effects of this contamination are insufficient. This study evaluated the DNA damaging potential of e-waste simulated and raw leachates, and its contaminated underground water using the SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, without and with metabolic activation. Physico-chemical parameters of the samples were also analyzed. The result of the Ames test showed induction of base pair substitution and frameshift mutation by the test samples. However, the TA100 was the more responsive strain for the three samples in terms of mutagenic index in the absence and presence of metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest results were in agreement with those of the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test. Nevertheless, the E. coli PQ37 system was slightly more sensitive than the Salmonella assay for detecting genotoxins in the tested samples. Lead, cadmium, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic, and zinc contents analyzed in the samples were believed to play a significant role in the observed DNA damage in the microbial assays. The results of this study showed that e-waste simulated and raw leachates, and its contaminated underground water are of potential mutagenic and genotoxic risks to the exposed human populace.

  3. Bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) system for nucleic acid quantification assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassibi, Arjang; Lee, Thomas H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Pourmand, Nader

    2003-07-01

    A new label-free methodology for nucleic acid quantification has been developed where the number of pyrophosphate molecules (PPi) released during polymerization of the target nucleic acid is counted and correlated to DNA copy number. The technique uses the enzymatic complex of ATP-sulfurylase and firefly luciferase to generate photons from PPi. An enzymatic unity gain positive feedback is also implemented to regenerate the photon generation process and compensate any decay in light intensity by self regulation. Due to this positive feedback, the total number of photons generated by the bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) can potentially be orders of magnitude higher than typical chemiluminescent processes. A system level kinetic model that incorporates the effects of contaminations and detector noise was used to show that the photon generation process is in fact steady and also proportional to the nucleic acid quantity. Here we show that BRC is capable of detecting quantities of DNA as low as 1 amol (10-18 mole) in 40μlit aqueous solutions, and this enzymatic assay has a controllable dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of this technology, due to the excess number of photons generated by the regenerative cycle, is not constrained by detector performance, but rather by possible PPi or ATP (adenosine triphosphate) contamination, or background bioluminescence of the enzymatic complex.

  4. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant [Information Systems Laboratories, 2235 East 25th Street, Suite 100, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  5. Antibiotic microbial assay using kinetic-reading microplate system

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Rebello Lourenço; Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal experimental conditions to develop a methodology for microbiological assay of apramycin employing microplate and kinetic reading mode, and to validate the developed method, through evaluation of parameters of selectivity, linearity, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy and precision. The turbidimetric assay principle is simple: the test solution is added to a suspension of test microorganism in culture media, the mix...

  6. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  7. Analysis of Ecodesign Implementation and Solutions for Packaging Waste System by Using System Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Alise; Dace, Elina; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research project which explored the packaging waste management system in Latvia. The paper focuses on identifying how the policy mechanisms can promote ecodesign implementation and material efficiency improvement and therefore reduce the rate of packaging waste accumulation in landfill. The method used for analyzing the packaging waste management policies is system dynamics modeling. The main conclusion is that the existing legislative instruments can be used to create an effective policy for ecodesign implementation but substantially higher tax rates on packaging materials and waste disposal than the existing have to be applied.

  8. Optimising waste treatment and energy systems - focusing on spatial and temporal issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    The aim of the TOPWASTE project is to evaluate current and future optimal treatment of waste fractions in terms of economy and the environment, with a focus on recycling versus Waste-to-Energy technologies. After optimization of the waste management system, results must be analysed so...... as to identify drivers and barriers that efficient waste utilization in Denmark is facing and discuss the economic and/or environmental benefits that might arise from a change of the current waste management system....

  9. System and method for the capture and storage of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina; Chapman, Karena; Chupas, Peter

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure is directed to systems and methods that absorb waste into a metal-organic framework (MOF), and applying pressure to the MOF material's framework to crystallize or make amorphous the MOF material thereby changing the MOF's pore structure and sorption characteristics without collapsing the MOF framework.

  10. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue consumpti

  11. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  12. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  13. Uncertainties in life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to assess environmental performances of waste management systems in many studies. The uncertainties inherent to its results are often pointed out but not always quantified, which should be the case to ensure a good decisionmaking process. This paper proposes...... a method to assess all parameter uncertainties and quantify the overall uncertainty of the assessment. The method is exemplified in a case study, where the goal is to determine if anaerobic digestion of organic waste is more beneficial than incineration in Denmark, considering only the impact on global...

  14. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  15. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  16. A highly scalable peptide-based assay system for proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A Kozlov

    Full Text Available We report a scalable and cost-effective technology for generating and screening high-complexity customizable peptide sets. The peptides are made as peptide-cDNA fusions by in vitro transcription/translation from pools of DNA templates generated by microarray-based synthesis. This approach enables large custom sets of peptides to be designed in silico, manufactured cost-effectively in parallel, and assayed efficiently in a multiplexed fashion. The utility of our peptide-cDNA fusion pools was demonstrated in two activity-based assays designed to discover protease and kinase substrates. In the protease assay, cleaved peptide substrates were separated from uncleaved and identified by digital sequencing of their cognate cDNAs. We screened the 3,011 amino acid HCV proteome for susceptibility to cleavage by the HCV NS3/4A protease and identified all 3 known trans cleavage sites with high specificity. In the kinase assay, peptide substrates phosphorylated by tyrosine kinases were captured and identified by sequencing of their cDNAs. We screened a pool of 3,243 peptides against Abl kinase and showed that phosphorylation events detected were specific and consistent with the known substrate preferences of Abl kinase. Our approach is scalable and adaptable to other protein-based assays.

  17. Waste Management Planning System – Factors Influencing Waste Composition in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Davidavičienė, Vida; Janeliūnienė, Rasma; Liberytė, Ginta

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in the field of information technologies, growing production and consumption forced by economic growth lead to growth of waste causing the new challenges to waste management. All these fields are widely analyzed by scientists as separate scientific, technological, environmental or economic problems as well as integrated questions. Waste management is analyzed comprehensively and systematically as well as individual questions of waste generation, waste forecasting, waste storage,...

  18. SYSTEM PLANNING WITH THE HANFORD WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAWFORD TW; CERTA PJ; WELLS MN

    2010-01-14

    At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

  19. Development of components for waste management systems using aerospace technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousar, D.; Young, M.; Sieger, A. [Aerojet-General Corp., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An aerospace fluid management technology called ``platelets`` has been applied to components that are critical to the economic operation of waste management systems. Platelet devices are made by diffusion bonding thin metal plates which have been etched with precise flow passage circuitry to control and meter fluid to desired locations. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising waste treatment technology for safe and environmentally acceptable destruction of hazardous wastes. Performance and economics of current SCWO systems are limited by severe salt deposition on and corrosion of the reactor walls. A platelet transpiring-wall reactor has been developed that provides a protective layer of water adjacent to the reactor walls which prevents salt deposition and corrosion. Plasma arc processing is being considered as a method for stabilizing mixed radioactive wastes. Plasma arc torch systems currently require frequent shutdown to replace failed electrodes and this increases operating costs. A platelet electrode design was developed that has more than 10 times the life of conventional electrodes. It has water cooling channels internal to the electrode wall and slots through the wall for injecting gas into the arc.

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  1. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  2. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  3. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  4. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

    1998-01-01

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

  5. Life cycle inventory and mass-balance of municipal food waste management systems: Decision support methods beyond the waste hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-08-14

    When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal. A life cycle inventory of seven waste management systems was calculated, including the first service wide inventory of FW management through kitchen in-sink disposal (food waste disposer). Results describe the mass, energy and water balance of each system along with key emissions profile. It was demonstrated that the energy balance can differ significantly from its' energy generation, exemplified by mechanical biological treatment, which was the best system for generating energy from waste but only 5(th) best for net-energy generation. Furthermore, the energy balance of kitchen in-sink disposal was shown to be reduced because 31% of volatile solids were lost in pre-treatment. The study also confirmed that higher FW landfill diversion rates were critical for reducing many harmful emissions to air and water. Although, mass-balance analysis showed that the alternative end-use of the FW material may still contain high impact pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation on Cooling System of Automotive Waste Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooling system of automobile waste heat Thermoelectric Generator (TEG is researched in the study. Integrated model of cooling system and vehicle is built based on GT-Cool, analysis of the different cooling ways shows that when using independent cooling system, the ratio between power consumption and output is high and system performance is poor; By using integrated cooling system, the expectation of keep constant engine warm up time and synchronous change of water temperature between different tanks is realized after water tanks are improved.

  7. Study on the construction and operation for management system of municipal domestic wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Wang Shuqiang; Chen Jingxin

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity of our country's municipal domestic wastes increase rapidly, but the waste disposal still has problems, such as the simple way of processing, wasting the resources, the serious environmental pollution and so on. By holding waste minimization as the center, the developed countries have formed perfect waste management system. Based on analyzing the status quo and problems of processing in our country, on the principle of benefit, scale,waste minimization, reclamation and hazard-free treatment, according to the recycling model of processing, the article has constructed our country's domestic wastes management system, proposed the measures of promoting the operation of system. It has realized the transformation of waste management system from terminal disposal to source reduction,achieved the goals, including domestic wastes categorizing and reclaiming, industrialization and non-pollution processing,and finally brought sustainable development for resources, environment, economy and society.

  8. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  9. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  10. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  11. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  12. Consolidation and Centralization of Waste Operations Business Systems - 12319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, D. Dean [Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This abstract provides a comprehensive plan supporting the continued development and integration of all waste operations and waste management business systems. These include existing systems such as ATMS (Automated Transportation Management System), RadCalc, RFITS (Radio Frequency Identification Transportation System) Programs as well as incorporating key components of existing government developed waste management systems and COTS (Computer Off The Shelf) applications in order to deliver a truly integrated waste tracking and management business system. Some of these existing systems to be integrated include IWTS at Idaho National Lab, WIMS at Sandia National Lab and others. The aggregation of data and consolidation into a single comprehensive business system delivers best practices in lifecycle waste management processes to be delivered across the Department of Energy facilities. This concept exists to reduce operational costs to the federal government by combining key business systems into a centralized enterprise application following the methodology that as contractors change, the tools they use to manage DOE's assets do not. IWITS is one efficient representation of a sound architecture currently supporting multiple DOE sites from a waste management solution. The integration of ATMS, RadCalc and RFITS and the concept like IWITS into a single solution for DOE contractors will result in significant savings and increased efficiencies for DOE. Building continuity and solving collective problems can only be achieved through mass collaboration, resulting in an online community that DOE contractors and subcontractors access common applications, allowing for the collection of business intelligence at an unprecedented level. This is a fundamental shift from a solely 'for profit' business model to a 'for purpose' business model. To the conventional-minded, putting values before profit is an unfamiliar and unnatural way for a contractor to operate

  13. Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yulin; Zamalloa, Carlos; Lin, Hongjian; Yan, Mi; Schmidt, David; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion (AD) brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD. This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. For single substrate, the bio-methane potential assays showed that kitchen waste had the highest methane yield of 352 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS added, 92% more than dairy manure alone. Chicken fat at the same Volatile Solid (VS) level (2 g L(-1)) inhibited bio-methane production. Addition of kitchen waste and chicken fat to a VS percentage of up to 40% improved overall methane yield by 44% and 34%, respectively. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste. However, addition of chicken fat VS over 0.8 g L(-1) should be cautiously done because it may cause reactor failure due to decrease in pH. The maximum methane yield was 425 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS, achieved at a VS ratio of 2:2:1 for kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure. Results from batch AD experiment demonstrated that supplementing dairy manure to chicken fat and/or kitchen waste improved alkalinity of substrate due to the inclusion of more titratable bases in dairy manure, and therefore stabilized the methanogenesis and substantially improved biogas yield. A mixture of substrates of kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure at a ratio of 1:1:3 was fed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operated at organic loading rates of 3.28, 6.55, and 2.18 g-COD L(-1)-day (hydraulic retention time of 20, 10, and 30 days, respectively) under mesophilic condition, and methane production rate reached 0.65, 0.95, and 0.34 L-CH4 L(-1)-reactor-day.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of solid agroindustrial waste in semi-continuous mode: Evaluation of mono-digestion and co-digestion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the anaerobic digestion of four agroindustrial waste, namely cotton gin waste, winery waste, olive pomace and juice industry waste, in semi-continuous mode, conducting mono-digestion and co-digestion assays, using an artificial organic fraction sample as co-substrate. These assays were divided into two groups, in which different conditions were applied. Group I investigated the variation in two operational parameters, i.e. the organic loading rate (OLR) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT), while in Group II, the assays were fed with different substrates in a sequential order. Results showed more elevated specific methane yields for co-digestion assays compared with mono-digestion assays. Maximum yields were achieved at an OLR of 1.0gVS/(L·d) and a HRT reduced to half of the initial. Further reduction of the HRT coupled to an increase of the OLR generally caused a significant decrease of specific methane yields, as well as one case of severe overloading, i.e. the mono-digestion of juice industry waste, which resulted in instability and ultimately system failure. Sequential feeding with different substrates led to a more equilibrated operation, especially for co-digestion systems, with higher specific methane yields being observed during the phases corresponding to winery waste and juice industry waste substrates. Overall more positive results were obtained in the cases in which the latter substrates were fed to the reactors at process startup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  16. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, Dominique; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining the selected methods: (Step 1) a sensitivity analysis evaluating the sensitivities of the results with respect to the input uncertainties, (Step 2) an uncertainty propagation providing appropriate tools for representing uncertainties and calculating the overall uncertainty of the model results, (Step 3) an uncertainty contribution analysis quantifying the contribution of each parameter uncertainty to the final uncertainty and (Step 4) as a new approach, a combined sensitivity analysis providing a visualisation of the shift in the ranking of different options due to variations of selected key parameters. This tiered approach optimises the resources available to LCA practitioners by only propagating the most influential uncertainties.

  17. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-09-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE`s plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations.

  18. Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Improved Waste Collection System (IWCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This high angle overall view shows the top side components of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Waste Collection System (WCS) scheduled to fly aboard NASA's Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, for the STS-54 mission. Detailed Test Objective 662, Extended duration orbiter WCS evaluation, will verify the design of the new EDO WCS under microgravity conditions for a prolonged period. OV-105 has been modified with additional structures in the waste management compartment (WMC) and additional avionics to support/restrain the EDO WCS. Among the advantages the new IWCS is hoped to have over the currect WCS are greater dependability, better hygiene, virtually unlimited capacity, and more efficient preparation between shuttle missions. Unlike the previous WCS, the improved version will not have to be removed from the spacecraft to be readied for the next flight. The WCS was documented in JSC's Crew Systems Laboratory Bldg 7.

  19. A Bioluminescence Assay System for Imaging Metal Cationic Activities in Urban Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Murata, Shingo; Nakayama, Takayoshi; Miller, Simon; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assay system was fabricated for an efficient determination of the activities of air pollutants. The following four components were integrated into this assay system: (1) an 8-channel assay platform uniquely designed for simultaneously sensing multiple optical samples, (2) single-chain probes illuminating toxic chemicals or heavy metal cations from air pollutants, (3) a microfluidic system for circulating medium mimicking the human body, and (4) the software manimulating the above system. In the protocol, we briefly introduce how to integrate the components into the system and the application to the illumination of the metal cationic activities in air pollutants.

  20. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  1. Modeling of waste to energy systems for rural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namuli, Rachel; Pragasen, Pillay

    2010-09-15

    A system to convert waste into heat and electricity is presented, where biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of manure, and fed to an internal combustion engine and generator. An overall system model that would meet annual heating and electrical loads, is formulated. The model is suited to rural farms that have no access to electricity or are connected to a diesel grid. The system is applicable to warm and cold climates. The sizing of the engines is such that they will adequately meet the annual heating and electrical load profile according to a given biogas sharing ratio.

  2. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  3. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  4. HOW TO DEAL WITH WASTE ACCEPTANCE UNCERTAINTY USING THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS CAPABILITY SYSTEM (WACFACS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, K. S.; Hampshire, G. J.; Patterson, J. E.; Perkins, A. B.

    2002-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria Forecasting and Analysis Capability System (WACFACS) is used to plan for, evaluate, and control the supply of approximately 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous wastes from over 60 environmental restoration projects between FY02 through FY10 to the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). WACFACS is a validated decision support tool that propagates uncertainties inherent in site-related contaminant characterization data, disposition volumes during EMWMF operations, and project schedules to quantitatively determine the confidence that risk-based performance standards are met. Trade-offs in schedule, volumes of waste lots, and allowable concentrations of contaminants are performed to optimize project waste disposition, regulatory compliance, and disposal cell management.

  5. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  6. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  7. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  8. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  9. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, M A; Bala, B K

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis.

  10. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...... into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together the two solutions may contribute to alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority to combined heat and power plants with high electric efficiency.......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste...

  11. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste...... into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together the two solutions may contribute to alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority to combined heat and power plants with high electric efficiency....

  12. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...; Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Environmental... Software (DRAS), EPA has concluded that the petitioned waste is not hazardous waste. This exclusion applies.... What are the limits of this exclusion? D. How will OxyChem manage the waste if it is delisted? E....

  13. 77 FR 12497 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Environmental... waste is not a hazardous waste. This exclusion conditionally excludes the petitioned waste from the.... What decision is EPA finalizing and why? B. What are the terms of this exclusion? C. When is...

  14. 77 FR 43002 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... leachate extract of the waste measured in any sample must not exceed the following concentrations (mg/L... used for generation of the leaching extract if oil and grease comprise 1 percent or more of the waste...; Vanadium- 12.3; Xylenes (total)-22; Zinc-500. ] 2. Verification Testing: To verify that the waste does...

  15. Antibiotic microbial assay using kinetic-reading microplate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rebello Lourenço

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal experimental conditions to develop a methodology for microbiological assay of apramycin employing microplate and kinetic reading mode, and to validate the developed method, through evaluation of parameters of selectivity, linearity, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy and precision. The turbidimetric assay principle is simple: the test solution is added to a suspension of test microorganism in culture media, the mixture is incubated under appropriate conditions and the microbial growth is measured by photometric reading. Microplate with kinetic reading mode employed in antibiotic assay is of considerable interest since it allows reduction of material and analysis time and enables a large number of samples to be analyzed simultaneously, with automated reading and calculating. Established conditions considered the standard-curve of apramycin at concentrations from 5.0 to 35.0 μg mL-1, and tryptic soy broth inoculated with 5% Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 suspension. Satisfactory results were obtained with 2 hours of incubation. The developed method showed appropriate selectivity, linearity in the range from 5.0 to 35.0 μg mL-1, limits of detection and quantification of 0.1 and 0.4 μg mL-1, respectively, as well as satisfactory accuracy (recuperation = 98.5% and precision (RSD = 6.0%. Microplate assay combined the characteristics of microbiological (evaluation of antibiotic activity against sensitive test microorganism and physico-chemical (operationally straightforward and faster results assays.O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar as condições experimentais ideais para o desenvolvimento de metodologia para a dosagem microbiológica de apramicina empregando microplacas e modo de leitura cinético e validar o método desenvolvido, através da avaliação dos parâmetros de especificidade e seletividade, linearidade, faixa ou intervalo linear, limite de detecção e

  16. Research of waste dump water mutagenicity of bacterial detection system SOS chromotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtková, H; Janáková, I

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with a possible use of the bacterial detection system of SOS chromotest to test mutagenicity of waste dump water checking the mutagenicity degree on real samples from Praksice waste dump, which is a controlled waste dump with mixed industrial, municipal and inert wastes. The waste dump surface water samples were taken from a no-name influent stream springing below the waste dump body between 2005 and 2009. After metabolic activation by microsomal fraction in vitro, medium to high mutagenicity was registered in all the samples. The SOS chromotest is assessed as an effective and economically acceptable method to check and determine the mutagenicity degree of contaminated water.

  17. A continuous-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear...

  18. Characterization of solid-waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.; Henriquez, M.; Kay, J.; Walzer, W.

    1978-08-15

    Recovery of municipal solid wastes (MSW) can reduce the mass of landfilled wastes by as much as 95% and can tap a vast new energy resource. The yearly collection of MSW is estimated to be 125 million tons nationwide. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from MSW are considered, namely: direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized, or pelleted refuse-derived fuel for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource-recovery systems as well as necessary pollution-control equipment for gaseous emissions. Three end-use applications of cogeneration systems are characterized, including: fluidized-bed cogeneration systems for use in the pulp and paper industry; diesel system using the digested sewage gas of a sewage treatment plant for electricity generation as well as heating and pumping; and an enhanced oil recovery system. Comparisons are made of system inputs per 10/sup 12/ Btu steam output for Landguard pyrolysis, Garrett flash pyrolysis, Union Carbide Purox process, direct combustion, refuse-derived fuels, fluidized-bed cogeneration, diesel cogeneration, and enhanced oil recovery (cogeneration). The RFD system is by far the cheapest to build and is also the most efficient in terms of energy recovery per ton of MSW. The fluidized-bed system has the highest overall system efficiency. However, the PUROX system uses the least ancillary energy and is the only system not requiring an input water flow. Thus the RFD is the most favorable for capital inputs and the PUROX is the most favorable for operational inputs.

  19. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

  20. Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

    2008-02-01

    Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

  1. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

  2. Mutagenicity test system based on a reporter gene assay for short-term detection of mutagens (MutaGen assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Claudia; Arndt, Christian; Reifferscheid, Georg

    2003-02-05

    The construction of a bacterial mutation assay system detecting reversions of base substitutions and frameshifts in tetracycline (tet) and ampicillin resistance genes located on low copy plasmids is described. Frameshift mutations were introduced into repetitive GC-sequences and G-repeats known to be mutagenic hot-spots. Base pair substitutions were inserted in or around the active site of the ampicillinase gene thus generating reversibility of the ampicilline sensitivity. The plasmids carry genes to enable sensitive, fast and specific detection of mutagens in bacteria. MucAB was cloned into the test plasmid to enhance error-prone DNA-repair. The conventional reversion principle has been combined with the luminometric measurement of an inducible reporter gene. The revertants are detected after induction of the beta-galactosidase-producing lacZ-gene either controlled by its natural lac-promotor or by the more stringently repressed (anhydrotetracyclin inducible) tetA promotor. The tester strains containing the tetA/lacZ reporter gene construct can grow in full medium over the complete assay. This test procedure enables screening for mutations within one working day. Incubation for 16 h reveals high sensitivity.

  3. Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

    1981-01-01

    Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal slide waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7 m (35 ft) diameter, nominal 378,000 liter (100,000 gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. This complex included two plants that collectively provided the solid waste/sewage sludge feedstock. One of the two mixing systems was a mechanical agitator--a vessel-centered rotary shaft with four blades at each of two levels to drive the slurry downward. The second system included three equidistantly placed gas gun assemblies that each produced bubbles at a constant rate to draw the slurry upward. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

  4. An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y; Wilson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The current status of solid waste management in Lahore, a metropolitan city of Pakistan, is reviewed in this article using an existing approach, the UN-Habitat city profile. This involves a systematic quantitative and qualitative assessment of physical components and governance features of the current waste management system. A material flow diagram (MFD) is developed, which allows visualisation of the current waste management system with all related inputs and outputs. This study shows that in the current system, waste collection and transportation is the main focus, however the collection coverage is only about 68%. There is no controlled or even semi-controlled waste disposal facility in Lahore. There is no official recycling system in the city. It is estimated that currently ~27% of waste by weight is being recycled through the informal sector. Making use of the organic content of the waste, a composting facility is operative in the city, producing 47,230 tonnes year(-1) of organic compost. Lahore does not perform very well in governance features. Inclusivity of users and providers of the waste management system is low in the city, as not all stakeholders are consulted in the decision making processes. Waste management costs US$20 per tonne of waste, where the main focus is only on waste collection, and the current user fees are much lower than the actual costs. This study recommends that recycling should be promoted by increasing public awareness and integrating the informal sector to make the current system sustainable and financially viable.

  5. Urolithins display both antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities depending on assay system and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Tuija; Kallio, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Mäki, Marianne; Kilpeläinen, Pekka; Virtanen, Vesa

    2013-11-13

    The biological effects of polyphenolic ellagitannins are mediated by their intestinal metabolites, urolithins. This study investigated redox properties of urolithins A and B using ORAC assay, three cell-based assays, copper-initiated pro-oxidant activity (CIPA) assay, and cyclic voltammetry. Urolithins were strong antioxidants in the ORAC assay, but mostly pro-oxidants in cell-based assays, although urolithin A was an antioxidant in cell culture medium. Parent compound ellagic acid was a strong extracellular antioxidant, but showed no response in the intracellular assay. The CIPA assay confirmed the pro-oxidant activity of ellagitannin metabolites. In the cell proliferation assay, urolithins but not ellagic acid decreased growth and metabolism of HepG2 liver cells. In cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of urolithin A was partly reversible, but that of urolithin B was irreversible. These results illustrate how strongly measured redox properties depend on the employed assay system and conditions and emphasize the importance of studying pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities in parallel.

  6. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems with Organic Rankine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Fang; Hong Yue; Yeli Zhou; Jiancun Feng; Jianhua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a linear active disturbance rejection controller is proposed for a waste heat recovery system using an organic Rankine cycle process, whose model is obtained by applying the system identification technique. The disturbances imposed on the waste heat recovery system are estimated through an extended linear state observer and then compensated by a linear feedback control strategy. The proposed control strategy is applied to a 100 kW waste heat recovery system to handle the power ...

  7. Socio-technical systems analysis of waste to energy from municipal solid waste in developing economies: a case for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Hope O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an inevitable by-product of human activity, and it is on the rise due to rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, increased wealth and population. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW in developed and developing economies differ, especially with the organic fraction. Research shows that the food waste stream of MSW in developing countries is over 50%. The case study for this investigation, Nigeria, has minimal formal recycling or resource recovery programs. The average composition of waste from previous research in the country is between 50–70% putrescible and 30–50% non-putrescible, presenting significant resource recovery potential in composting and biogas production. Waste-to-energy (WtE is an important waste management solution that has been successfully implemented and operated in most developed economies. This contribution reports the conditions that would be of interest before WtE potentials of MSW is harnessed, in an efficient waste management process in a developing economy like Nigeria. The investigation presents a set of socio-technical parameters and transition strategy model that would inform a productive MSW management and resource recovery, in which WtE can be part of the solution. This model will find application in the understanding of the interactions between the socio-economic, technical and environmental system, to promote sustainable resource recovery programs in developing economies, among which is WtE.

  8. Solid municipal wastes system using MIME/WASTE model Alava (Spain); Sistema para la gestion de residuos solidos municipales a partir del modelo MIMES/WASTE: el caso de Alava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaraz Minon, M.

    2001-07-01

    Environmental policies in European Union should be able to evolve looking for sustainable development. MIMES/Waste Models (Model for description and optimisation of Integrated Materials Flows and Energy Systems) have been developed for analysing solid waste management systems. This article describes the model and the methodology for using it to analyse municipal waste management systems, and processes to apply it in Alava (Spain). The author explains particularly the possibility of making source separation and later treatment of biodegradable waste fraction of household wastes on the one hand, and efficiency of a waste disposal tax on the other hand. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems.

  10. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

  11. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  12. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  13. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ladanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles; thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments.

  14. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management.

  15. High Level Waste Tank Closure Modeling with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLLINGER, JAMES

    2004-07-29

    Waste removal from 49 underground storage tanks located in two tank farms involves three steps: bulk waste removal, water washing to remove residual waste, and in some cases chemical cleaning to remove additional residual waste. Not all waste can be completely removed by these processes-resulting in some residual waste loading following cleaning. Completely removing this residual waste would be prohibitively expensive; therefore, it will be stabilized by filling the tanks with grout. Acceptable residual waste loading inventories were determined using one-dimensional groundwater transport modeling to predict future human exposure based on several scenarios. These modeling results have been incorporated into a geographic information systems (GIS) application for rapid evaluation of various tank closure options.

  16. WASTES-II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Release 24: User's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    WASTES models each reactor pool and an at-reactor, out-of-pool (ex-pool) storage facility for each reactor site. Spent fuel transfers between pools can be simulated under various constraints controlled by user input. In addition to simulating each pool and ex-pool facility, WASTES can accommodate up to ten other storage facilities of four different types: federal interim storage (FIS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS), auxiliary plants, and repositories. Considerable flexibility is allowed for the user to specify system configuration and priorities for fuel receipts. In addition, the WASTES computer code simulates very detailed (assembly-specific) movements of spent fuel throughout the waste management system. Spent fuel characteristics that are tracked by WASTES for each movement are: discharge year and month, number of assemblies, weight of uranium (MTU), exposure, original enrichment, and heat generation rate (calculated from the preceding characteristics). Data for the WASTES model is based upon the DOE reactor-specific spent fuel data base, which is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition to the spent fuel characteristics, this data includes reactor location, type, transportation access, and historical and projected discharge data on the number of fuel assemblies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  18. Reducing Waste in Extreme Scale Systems through Introspective Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Gainaru, Ana [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, National Center for Supercomputing Applications; Perarnau, Swann [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Gupta, Saurabh [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is an important challenge for extreme- scale supercomputers. Today, failures in supercomputers are assumed to be uniformly distributed in time. However, recent studies show that failures in high-performance computing systems are partially correlated in time, generating periods of higher failure density. Our study of the failure logs of multiple supercomputers show that periods of higher failure density occur with up to three times more than the average. We design a monitoring system that listens to hardware events and forwards important events to the runtime to detect those regime changes. We implement a runtime capable of receiving notifications and adapt dynamically. In addition, we build an analytical model to predict the gains that such dynamic approach could achieve. We demonstrate that in some systems, our approach can reduce the wasted time by over 30%.

  19. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  20. Urban solid waste collection system using mathematical modelling and tools of geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Claudia Andrea; Blazquez, Carola Alejandra; Lamas, Alejandro

    2010-04-01

    A poorly designed urban solid waste collection system has an enormous impact on labour, operational and transport costs, and on society in general due to road contamination and negative effects on public health and the environment. This study proposes a methodology for designing an urban solid waste collection system. This methodology uses combinatorial optimisation and integer programing, and GIS tools to minimise collection time, and operational and transport costs while enhancing the current solid waste collection system. This methodology establishes feasible collection routes, determines an adequate vehicle fleet size and presents a comparative cost and sensitivity analysis of the results. The implementation of this methodology in a study case of a zone in Santiago yields significant cost savings in the total collection system.

  1. Argonne National Laboratory`s photooxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.L.; Torres, T.; Conner, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) photo-oxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the waste management facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois.

  2. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-01-10

    Describes the hardware and software for the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Data Acquisition System. The purpose of the tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant.

  3. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wargocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

  4. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  5. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  6. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  8. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  9. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  10. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  11. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  12. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-01

    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines

  14. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  15. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  16. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  17. 77 FR 41720 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... wastewater treated). The biological waste streams include sanitary wastewaters, dilute organic waste (DOW... copper sulfate plating bath solutions (totaling less than 0.1 percent of the wastewater treated through... exclude (or ``delist'') up to 3,150 cubic yards per calendar year of F006 wastewater treatment...

  18. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... exclude (or delist) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge filter cake (called sludge hereinafter... to the petition submitted by Tokusen, to delist the WWTP sludge. After careful analysis and use of... waste. This exclusion applies to 2,000 cubic yards per year of the WWTP sludge with Hazardous Waste...

  19. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Marieta L.C. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Pinto, Paula C.A.G., E-mail: ppinto@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Santos, João L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S., E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Araujo, André R.T.S. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Unidade de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento do Interior, Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Av. Dr. Francisco de Sá Carneiro, n° 50, 6300-559 Guarda (Portugal)

    2015-08-19

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section.

  20. A New Approach for Solid Waste Handling in Mosul City, Comparison Study with the Existing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar T. Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  Municipal Solid waste management constitutes a serious problem in many developing countries. Cities spend increasing resources  to improve their Municipal solid waste management. Based on the concept that solid waste is a resource containing significant amounts of valuable materials, new approaches of solid waste management are adopted. The present work proposes a policy framework for improving a low-cost waste management system in Mosul city. The new approach induces additional services to the existing solid waste system to reduce the unit cost per ton of solid waste generated. The proposed system includes sorting, recycling and composting units.      This paper presents an application of a new computerized decision package for an integrated solid waste management within Mosul city. New software called "COSEPRE" is used to analyze the service cost for both existing and proposed solid waste management system. The input data is collected from different related directorates in Mosul city. Data that are difficult to be obtained are prepared by laboratory analysis or field investigations. The results revealed a 58% reduction in unit cost by employing the new system of solid waste management.

  1. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    from the LCAs of full waste management systems revealed that capital goods should be included in future LCAs. The impact share of capital goods was highest for resource depletion and the impacts of toxicity on humans and ecosystems. To evaluate the quality and consistency of available data...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...... a severe lack of data for these production processes. The results showed large variations in CO2 emissions from the production of each of the evaluated materials. An evaluation of the data revealed that energy systems are central to impacts and are thereby important to specify as background information...

  2. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  3. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  4. Wet-oxidation waste management system for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Ohya, H.

    1986-01-01

    A wet oxidation system will be useful in the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) as a facility to treat organic wastes and to redistribute inorganic compounds and elements. However at rather higher temperatures needed in this reaction, for instance, at 260 deg C, only 80% of organic in a raw material can be oxidized, and 20% of it will remain in the liquid mainly as acetic acid, which is virtually noncombustible. Furthermore, nitrogen is transformed to ammonium ions which normally cannot be absorbed by plants. To resolve these problems, it becomes necessary to use catalysts. Noble metals such as Ru, Rh and so on have proved to be partially effective as these catalysts. That is, oxidation does not occur completely, and the unexpected denitrification, instead of the expected nitrification, occurs. So, it is essential to develop the catalysts which are able to realize the complete oxidation and the nitrification.

  5. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  6. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.D. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  8. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...

  9. The use of ACV in the integrated waste systems of waste management; El uso del ACV en el desarrollo de sistemas integrados de gestion de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, F. R.; Navarro, M

    2000-07-01

    The treatment systems of Solid Wastes must be conceived for minimizing the environment charge originated by them and to be economically assumed by the sectors of a community. The waste integrated management represents a global proposal which implies a wide range of different treatment options for all waste. (Author)

  10. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  11. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R2) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R2 > 0.944 and RMSEP 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step. PMID:26861317

  12. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Conesa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R2 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP were determined as R2 > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R2 > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs, respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step.

  13. Energy efficiency in the waste water system; Energieeffizienz im Abwasserbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panckow, Kathrin; Wienke, Andreas (comps.)

    2008-08-15

    The volume 51 of the publication series of the Municipal Environmental Campaign U.A.N. (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the energy efficiency in the waste water section. This volume consists of the following contributions: (a) How much energy is necessary for the sewage plant? (Artur Mennerich); (b) Possibilities of energy saving in the sewer system (Wolfgang Buehler); (c) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: a Survey (Ulf Theilen); (d) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: Examples from the practice (Wilfried Osterloh); (e) Review of the possibilities of power generation at sewage plants (K.-H. Rosenwinkel, Linda Hinken); (f) Potentials of production and utilization of fouling gas (Johannes Mueller); (g) Realisation of a 5 MW biological gas facility with waste heat utilization for sewage sludge drying (Marc Stueben); (h) The micro gas turbine: An alternative for the compact cogeneration plant (Christian Schaum); (i) PR report: Energy efficiency - (rational utilization of energy), energy concepts - (analysis of energy, strategic perspectives) (Martin Mergelmeyer, Gerhard Seibert-Erling).

  14. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-02-04

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R²) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R² > 0.944 and RMSEP 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step.

  15. [PRIORITY TECHNOLOGIES OF THE MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samutin, N M; Butorina, N N; Starodubova, N Yu; Korneychuk, S S; Ustinov, A K

    2015-01-01

    The annual production of waste in health care institutions (HCI) tends to increase because of the growth of health care provision for population. Among the many criteria for selecting the optimal treatment technologies HCI is important to provide epidemiological and chemical safety of the final products. Environmentally friendly method of thermal disinfection of medical waste may be sterilizators of medical wastes intended for hospitals, medical centers, laboratories and other health care facilities that have small and medium volume of processing of all types of waste Class B and C. The most optimal method of centralized disposal of medical waste is a thermal processing method of the collected material.

  16. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  17. Developing a municipal urban waste management integrated system in Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E. Popiţa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop and modeling an integrated waste management system from the urbanpopulation in Cluj County is founded in evaluating the current waste management system. This systemdoes not pursue the objectives of the national and European strategy for waste and does not link withthe environmental existing problems in the county. The integrated management proposed systemincludes all stages passing through the population beginning the selective collection and to disposal.

  18. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-04-19

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  19. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  20. Continuous-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of a quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear correlations between amplified luminescence and initial ATP concentration were observed. When performing four cycles of continuous-flow ATP amplification, the gradient of amplification was 1.87(N). Whereas the lower quantifiable level was 500 pM without amplification, values as low as 50 pM ATP could be measured after amplification. The sensitivity thus increased 10-fold, with further improvements expected with additional amplification cycles. The continuous-flow system thus effectively increased the sensitivity of the quantitative bioluminescence assay.

  1. Part II--the effect of data on waste behaviour: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)).

  3. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  4. Installing and Commissioning a New Radioactive Waste Tracking System - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Miklos Garamszeghy; Fred Rodrigues; Ed Nicholls

    2005-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) recognizes the importance of information management particularly with regards to its low and intermediate level waste program. Various computer based waste tracking systems have been used in OPG since the 1980s. These systems tracked the physical receipt, processing, storage, and inventory of the waste. As OPG moved towards long-term management (e.g. disposal), it was recognized that tracking of more detailed waste characterization information was important. This required either substantial modification of the existing system to include a waste characterization module or replacing it entirely with a new system. After a detailed review of available options, it was decided that the existing waste tracking application would be replaced with the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS). Installing and commissioning a system which must receive historical operational waste management information (data) and provide new features, required much more attention than was originally considered. The operational readiness of IWTS required extensive vetting and preparation of historic data (which itself had been created from multiple databases in varied formats) to ensure a consistent format for import of some 30,000-container records, and merging and linking these container records to a waste stream based characterization database. This paper will discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses contributing to project success or hindrance so that others can understand and minimize the difficulties inherent in a project of this magnitude.

  5. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  6. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  7. Waste Management Using a Multilevel Distributed System and Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DANILESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration is conducted through the control of events and management of problems in the territory. Economical growth and nowadays technologies lead to difficult problems related to environmental protection against pollution and to people safety against various direct threats from air soil, food. In this respect, an increasing importance get the collection of information and its processing and interpretation just to understand and discover threats and potential disturbance of the environment and health. The paper proposes a multilevel system for the administrative bodies involved in environment matters at local regional and national levels, which may collect and scrutiny data on waste generation, spread and reuse/elimination, and provide sound instruments to assist decision makers of the corresponding levels, using Data Mining and Business Intelligence.

  8. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  9. Integrated data management system for radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Ho [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. So through the system, the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized, and public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information, it can ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management), the system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control and finally re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal. For this objectives, benchmark study was performed on similar data base system worldwide and data specification with major input/output data during the first phase of this project.

  10. 77 FR 36447 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... factors could cause the waste to be hazardous. EPA considered whether the waste is acutely toxic, the... Manganese 6.66E-01 3.11E+02 Mercury ND 2.00E-01 Methyl ethyl ketone......... ND 2.00E+00 Molybdenum 1.66E-02... toxic constituents. EPA is proposing to require ExxonMobil to analyze representative samples of...

  11. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Linda [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Scott, Dianne [University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Development Studies, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Difford, Mark [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  12. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized.

  13. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  14. Quality management system for the disposal of low and medium levels radioactive wastes - RBMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Antonio Mario P.; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Fraga, Rosane Rodrigues, E-mail: ampa@cdtn.br, E-mail: hauczmj@cdtn.br, E-mail: rosaner@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article compares the standards applied in quality and safety management systems for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The comparison will be a contribution to development, maintenance and improvement the safety and quality system of a disposal of low and medium radioactive waste (RBMN) coordinated by CDTN - Brazilian Development Center for Nuclear Technology). (author)

  15. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  16. Solid waste information and tracking system server conversion project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    1999-04-12

    The Project Management Plan governing the conversion of Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) to a client-server architecture. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the background, planning and management of the SWITS conversion. Requirements and specification documentation needed for the SWITS conversion will be released as supporting documents.

  17. Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). Data summary, fiscal year 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, H. M.

    1981-05-01

    The solid waste information management system (SWIMS) maintains computerized records on a master data base. It provides a comprehensive system for cataloging and assembling data into output reports. The SWIMS data base contains information on the transuranic (TRU) and low level waste (LLW) generated, buried, or stored.

  18. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.; De Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the engine

  19. 75 FR 3948 - Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc., Biosys... Energy Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended December 31, 2006. It... concerning the securities of Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  20. Life cycle assessment of capital goods in waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2016-01-01

    The environmental importance of capital goods (trucks, buildings, equipment, etc.) was quantified by LCA modelling 1 tonne of waste treated in five different waste management scenarios. The scenarios involved a 240L collection bin, a 16m3 collection truck, a composting plant, an anaerobic digestion...... plant, an incinerator and a landfill site. The contribution of capital goods to the overall environmental aspects of managing the waste was significant but varied greatly depending on the technology and the impact category: Global Warming: 1-17%, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: 2-90%, Ionising Radiation...... for treatment facilities than for the collection and transportation of waste and for the landfilling of waste. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of capital goods should always be included in the LCA modelling of waste management, unless the only impact category considered is Global Warming....

  1. Implementation of spatial smart waste management system in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Ahmad, N.

    2016-06-01

    One of the challenges to innovate and create an IoT -enabled solution is in monitoring and management of the environment. Waste collection utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) with the technology of smart wireless sensors will able to gather fill-level data from waste containers hence providing a waste monitoring solution that brings up savings in waste collection costs. One of the challenges to the local authority is how to monitor the works of contractor effective and efficiently in waste management. This paper will propose to the local authority the implementation of smart waste management in Malaysia to improve the city management and to provide better services to the public towards smart city applications.

  2. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  3. A review on organic waste to energy systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-08-31

    Waste generation is increasing day-by-day with the growth of population which directly affects the environment and economy. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) and agriculture sectors contribute towards maximum waste generation in India. Thus, management of organic waste is very much essential with the increasing demand for energy. The present paper mainly focusses on reviewing waste to energy (WtE) potentials, its technologies, and the associated challenges. Different substrates are utilized through various technological options in India. Organic waste has good potential to attain sustainable energy yields with and without affecting the environment. A realistic scenario of WtE technologies and their challenges in line with the existing Indian condition is presented in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The utility of system-level RAM analysis and standards for the US nuclear waste management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S.R.; Adickes, M.D.; Paul, B.K.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing a system to manage spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and its subsequent amendments. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is assisting OCRWM in its investigation of whether system-level reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) requirements are appropriate for the waste management system and, if they are, what appropriate form should be for such requirements. Results and recommendations are presented.

  5. A National system for the Management of Non-nuclear Radioactive Waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J. C.

    2004-07-01

    The Swedish government in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to suggest a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive waste with special consideration to the principle of polluter pays and the responsibility of the producers. The committee delivered its recommendations to the government at the end of last year. Funding for future costs for nuclear waste management and final storage is collected in a state governed funding system. For non-nuclear waste, however, there are no means today to secure the funding. If a company goes bankrupt and leaves radioactive waste behind it might be up to the taxpayers to pay for its safe management. This is due to the fact that the cost for the waste is paid at the time one wants to dispose of it and it is usually the last owner of a product etc. that has to pay. Sometimes the price comes as a surprise and the owner might not have the money available. Thus the waste might be kept longer than otherwise and might even end up as orphan waste. To solve this dilemma the committee recommends a funding system in parallel with the system for the nuclear waste. The cost for the waste should be paid up front before the waste has been created. E.g. when a customer buys a product the cost for the future waste management would be included in the price and he will not have to pay for this the day he disposes the product by returning it to the producer or leaves it to a waste-collecting organisation. It should be the responsibility of the producer (manufacturer, importer or re-seller) to guarantee the funding for the waste management. In summary the non-nuclear radioactive waste is divided into three main groups: waste from products, waste from practices and other waste. Waste from products includes household products as well as products used in research, industry and hospitals etc. For this category it is easy to identify a producer who imports or

  6. Toward a sustainable waste management system: a comprehensive assessment of thermal and electric energy recovery from waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvia, Monica; Cosmi, Carmelina; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Macchiato, Maria [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, Lucia [Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria e Fisica dell Ambiente; Pietrapertosa, Filomena [Univ. di Napoli Federico II, (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche

    2002-12-01

    Energy-environmental planning must join normative, environmental and socio-economic features to obtain effective strategies aimed to a sustainable development. Therefore a comprehensive methodology for the analysis and the optimisation of the anthropogenic activities system configuration, can usefully support decision-makers in the definition of harmonised sector plans, joining waste management issues with resource use problems and exploiting energy and materials feedback among supply and demand sectors. In this paper we present an innovative application of the Advanced Local Energy Environmental Planning methodology (ALEP), aimed to the definition of optimal waste management strategies which comply with comprehensive as well as sectorial issues.

  7. A decision support system for regional hazardous waste management alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar A. Amouzegar; Jacobsen, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    With the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the subsequent amendments to RCRA, efforts to provide tighter controls on the transportation and disposal of hazardous waste have been steadily gaining ground. This paper, intended as a decision support tool for regional planning, incorporates information on the hazardous waste generation, treatment capacity and the costs of waste treatment alternatives into an optimization problem of finding the relationship between g...

  8. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongchang [National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  9. A cost evaluation method for transferring municipalities to solid waste source-separated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Nardiya, Shlomit

    2013-05-01

    Most of Israel's waste is disposed in landfills, threatening scarce land resources and posing environmental and health risks. The aim of this study is to estimate the expected costs of transferring municipalities to solid waste source separation in Israel, aimed at reducing the amount of waste directed to landfills and increasing the efficiency and amount of recycled waste. Information on the expected costs of operating a solid waste source separation system was gathered from 47 municipalities and compiled onto a database, taking into consideration various factors such as costs of equipment, construction adjustments and waste collection and disposal. This database may serve as a model for estimating the costs of entering the waste source separation system for any municipality in Israel, while taking into consideration its specific characteristics, such as size and region. The model was used in Israel for determining municipalities' eligibility to receive a governmental grant for entering an accelerated process of solid waste source separation. This study displays a user-friendly and simple operational tool for assessing municipalities' costs of entering a process of waste source separation, providing policy makers a powerful tool for diverting funds effectively in promoting solid waste source separation.

  10. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1997 multi-year workplan WBS 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.E.

    1996-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program to manage and immobilize for disposal the waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The TWRS program was established as a DOE major system acquisition under an approved Justification of Mission Need (JMN) dated January 19, 1993. The JMN states that the purpose of the TWRS Program is to: Resolve the tank waste safety issues; Integrate the waste disposal mission with the ongoing waste management mission; Assess the technical bases for tank waste management and disposal; Determine the technology available and develop any needed technologies; and Establish a dedicated organization and provide the resources to meet the technical challenge. The principal objectives of management of existing and future tank wastes is to cost-effectively minimize the environmental, safety, and health risks associated with stored wastes, with reduction of safety risks given the highest priority. The potentials must be minimized for release of tank wastes to the air and to the ground (and subsequently to the groundwater) and for exposure of the operating personnel to tank wastes.

  11. Differentiated collection of wastes - Component of an integrated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butta, R.

    1989-04-01

    Effective measures to contrast enviromental pollution are seen as complementary to the control over materials and energy; a correct planning of urban and industrial waste disposal operations ensures that, where practicable, waste materials are recovered and recycled. It is necessary to activate a serious strategy even before waste materials are produced. With reference to a timely selection of waste materials, this article makes a fundamental distinction between those portions that offer immediate opportunities of recycling, provided that disposal is carried out to satisfactory standards, and other portions that may be dangerously polluting, unless they are carefully processed.

  12. Energy systems analysis of waste to energy technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.

    2009-04-15

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO{sub 2} reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat and power plants with high electrical efficiencies. (author)

  13. A proposed classification system for high-level and other radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D. C.; Croff, A. G.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents a proposal for quantitative and generally applicable risk-based definitions of high-level and other radioactive wastes. On the basis of historical descriptions and definitions of high-level waste (HLW), in which HLW has been defined in terms of its source as waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, we propose a more general definition based on the concept that HLW has two distinct attributes: HLW is (1) highly radioactive and (2) requires permanent isolation. This concept leads to a two-dimensional waste classification system in which one axis, related to ''requires permanent isolation,'' is associated with long-term risks from waste disposal and the other axis, related to ''highly radioactive,'' is associated with shorter-term risks due to high levels of decay heat and external radiation. We define wastes that require permanent isolation as wastes with concentrations of radionuclides exceeding the Class-C limits that are generally acceptable for near-surface land disposal, as specified in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's rulemaking 10 CFR Part 61 and its supporting documentation. HLW then is waste requiring permanent isolation that also is highly radioactive, and we define ''highly radioactive'' as a decay heat (power density) in the waste greater than 50 W/m/sup 3/ or an external radiation dose rate at a distance of 1 m from the waste greater than 100 rem/h (1 Sv/h), whichever is the more restrictive. This proposal also results in a definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste and Equivalent as waste that requires permanent isolation but is not highly radioactive and a definition of low-level waste (LLW) as waste that does not require permanent isolation without regard to whether or not it is highly radioactive.

  14. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, D. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, H. B. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Occhipinti, J. E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  15. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  16. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  17. Inter-laboratory comparison of the in vivo comet assay including three image analysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Guérard, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    To compare the extent of potential inter-laboratory variability and the influence of different comet image analysis systems, in vivo comet experiments were conducted using the genotoxicants ethyl methanesulfonate and methyl methanesulfonate. Tissue samples from the same animals were processed and analyzed-including independent slide evaluation by image analysis-in two laboratories with extensive experience in performing the comet assay. The analysis revealed low inter-laboratory experimental variability. Neither the use of different image analysis systems, nor the staining procedure of DNA (propidium iodide vs. SYBR® Gold), considerably impacted the results or sensitivity of the assay. In addition, relatively high stability of the staining intensity of propidium iodide-stained slides was found in slides that were refrigerated for over 3 months. In conclusion, following a thoroughly defined protocol and standardized routine procedures ensures that the comet assay is robust and generates comparable results between different laboratories.

  18. The complement system of the goat: Haemolytic assays and isolation of major proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Indias Isabel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts.

  19. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  20. Material Flow Analysis as a Tool to improve Waste Management Systems: The Case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Astrid; Brunner, Paul H

    2017-01-03

    This paper demonstrates the power of material flow analysis (MFA) for designing waste management (WM) systems and for supporting decisions with regards to given environmental and resource goals. Based on a comprehensive case study of a nationwide WM-system, advantages and drawbacks of a mass balance approach are discussed. Using the software STAN, a material flow system comprising all relevant inputs, stocks and outputs of wastes, products, residues, and emissions is established and quantified. Material balances on the level of goods and selected substances (C, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, N, Ni, P, Pb, Zn) are developed to characterize this WM-system. The MFA results serve well as a base for further assessments. Based on given goals, stakeholders engaged in this study selected the following seven criteria for evaluating their WM-system: (i) waste input into the system, (ii) export of waste (iii) gaseous emissions from waste treatment plants, (iv) long-term gaseous and liquid emissions from landfills, (v) waste being recycled, (vi) waste for energy recovery, (vii) total waste landfilled. By scenario analysis, strengths and weaknesses of different measures were identified. The results reveal the benefits of a mass balance approach due to redundancy, data consistency, and transparency for optimization, design, and decision making in WM.

  1. Design of an Optimal Waste Utilization System: A Case Study in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Rodionov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Storing municipal solid waste (MSW in landfills is the oldest and still the primary waste management strategy in many countries. Russia is the third largest methane (CH4 emitter country after USA and China, representing 5% of total global CH4 emissions from waste landfilling. Due to high economical growth, the amount of waste generated in Russia has risen sharply over the last ten years. However, waste management in Russia is mainly based on landfilling. In order to design an optimal MSW utilization system considering various aspects related to sustainable MSW management, a linear programming model was introduced for this research. The performance of the proposed MSW utilization system in the target area has been evaluated in light of energy, economic, and environmental (3Es aspects, such as system net cost, annual energy generated from the waste, and the carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions of the system. St. Petersburg city was considered as the target area for the present analysis. The results show that the introduction of the proposed MSW system with energy recovery from waste along with a high level of material recovery has energy, environmental and economic benefits compared to the conventional treatment system. This paper emphasizes the importance of introducing waste treatment methods as an alternative to landfilling, and to improve recycling activities in Russia.

  2. Development and design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as; the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections In safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  3. Design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as: the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  4. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  5. Improved Activity Assay Method for Arginine Kinase Based on a Ternary Heteropolyacid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝玉; 郭勤; 郭智; 王希成

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new system for the activity assay of arginine kinase (AK), based on the spectrophotometric determination of an ascorbic acid-reduced blue ternary heteropolyacid composed of bismuth, molybdate and the released phosphate from N-phospho-L-arginine (PArg) formed in the forward catalysis reaction.The assay conditions, including the formulation of the phosphate determination reagent (PDR), the assay timing, and the linear activity range of the enzyme concentration, have been tested and optimized.For these conditions, the ternary heteropolyacid color is completely developed within 1 min and is stable for at least 15 min, with an absorbance maximum at 700 nm and a molar extinction coefficient of 15.97 (mmol/L)-1 · cm-1 for the phosphate.Standard curves for phosphate show a good linearity of 0.999.Compared with previous activity assay methods for AK, this system exhibits superior sensitivity, reproducibility, and adaptability to various conditions in enzymological studies.This method also reduces the assay time and avoids the use of some expensive instruments and reagents.

  6. Environmental control and waste management system design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Passive device contains both solid and liquid animal waste matter for extended period without being cleaned and without contaminating animal. Constant airflow dries solid waste and evaporates liquid matter. Technique will maintain controlled atmospheric conditions and cage cleanliness during periods of 6 months to 1 year.

  7. Developing a Novel, Sustainable and Beneficial System for the Systematic Management of Hospital Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Indira N.; Ahuja, Harish S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is the 2nd most populated country in the world. Population of India is increasing at a tremendous rate. Proportionately, the numbers of people seeking health care are increasing. In that ratio the quantities of hospital wastes, in wider terms, healthcare wastes that are getting generated is also increasing. Current methods for the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are not able to cope up with the rate of generation of healthcare wastes and moreover are not eco-friendly at all. Due to this, the current rules and regulations regarding the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are getting violated, ultimately leading to improper management of healthcare wastes, posing a serious threat to the environment and to the community. Aim To develop a novel, sustainable and beneficial system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes utilizing the strategies of waste reduction, waste segregation and recycling of Non Hazardous Hospital Wastes (NHHWs). Materials and Methods Firstly a detailed study of the Healthcare Waste Management System (HCWMS) operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was done. A pilot study was then performed. After that, data regarding the generation and management of healthcare wastes in the other healthcare settings was collected and analyzed. Considering all this, a novel, sustainable and beneficial template system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes was proposed. Lastly the possible positive impacts from the implementation of HCWMSs designed using proposed template HCWMS in significant numbers of healthcare establishments was gauged. Results The healthcare waste management system operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was found to be very efficient and provided vital inputs about developing the novel HCWMS. The pilot study was successfully completed generating significant revenue from the hospital’s own NHHWs while managing them in an eco-friendly way. The total healthcare waste

  8. Developing a Novel, Sustainable and Beneficial System for the Systematic Management of Hospital Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, Sanket Mohan; Hinduja, Indira N; Ahuja, Harish S

    2016-09-01

    India is the 2(nd) most populated country in the world. Population of India is increasing at a tremendous rate. Proportionately, the numbers of people seeking health care are increasing. In that ratio the quantities of hospital wastes, in wider terms, healthcare wastes that are getting generated is also increasing. Current methods for the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are not able to cope up with the rate of generation of healthcare wastes and moreover are not eco-friendly at all. Due to this, the current rules and regulations regarding the safe disposal of healthcare wastes are getting violated, ultimately leading to improper management of healthcare wastes, posing a serious threat to the environment and to the community. To develop a novel, sustainable and beneficial system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes utilizing the strategies of waste reduction, waste segregation and recycling of Non Hazardous Hospital Wastes (NHHWs). Firstly a detailed study of the Healthcare Waste Management System (HCWMS) operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was done. A pilot study was then performed. After that, data regarding the generation and management of healthcare wastes in the other healthcare settings was collected and analyzed. Considering all this, a novel, sustainable and beneficial template system for the systematic management of healthcare wastes was proposed. Lastly the possible positive impacts from the implementation of HCWMSs designed using proposed template HCWMS in significant numbers of healthcare establishments was gauged. The healthcare waste management system operational at the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre was found to be very efficient and provided vital inputs about developing the novel HCWMS. The pilot study was successfully completed generating significant revenue from the hospital's own NHHWs while managing them in an eco-friendly way. The total healthcare waste generation in Maharashtra was approximately

  9. Prospect of municipal solid wastes incinerating systems. Means to cope with diversifying solid waste treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiozuki, H.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced techniques developed recently by the company to cope with the escalatory anti-pollution restrictions, needs of energy conservation, automation and labor conservation, and resources conservation are summarized. The techniques and apparatus developed by the company and applied to practical applications are introduced. Those techniques and apparatus are an improved stocker, elimination of injurious gases by the dry method, improvement of waste heat recovery and utilization, direct heat recovery through a fluidized bed combustion furnace, mixed combustion of sewage water, night soil and sludges, automations (combustion, control of heat generation, solid waste feeding and ash delivery, optimum control of combustion) and resources recycling techniques.

  10. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  11. Research of the multibarrier system for an underground deposition of radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Šofranko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals in brief with research problems of multiple protection barrier systems for an underground storage of highly radioactive waste in connection with the problem of resolving a definite liquidation of this waste. This problem has a worlwide importance and is comprehensively investigated, evaluated and resolved in many well accepted research centers. Present the experts agree, that the most suitable way of the long-lived radioactive wastes liquidation is their storage into suitable underground geological formations. The core insulation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere for an extremly long time can be achieved by using a technical isolation barrier in combination with an appropriate rock mass.

  12. Waste management system in the riparian towns of the Romanian Danube sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Săgeată

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, managing and recycling household garbage is one of the least performing systems in the European Union. Numerous waste dumping sites are unconformable to European standards, besides there is little garbage recycling. This paper makes a complex waste management analysis of the Romanian Danube riparian towns subjected to strong human pressure; this sector is also of great European interest for the protection of its biodiversity. The main dysfunctions of garbage dumping, the price asked by scavenging services, the steps taken for the ecological management of waste dumping sites in conformity with EU norms and better waste recycling, as well as future measures are also discussed in this paper.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland.

  14. Development of automated information system for domestic waste logistics management (by the example of Apatity town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladik A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for management information support of domestic waste logistics (by the example of Apatity town has been developed for management information support efficiency enhancement of domestic waste collection and transportation processes in the municipal systems subject to hygiene and sanitary norms and standards. The system is implemented as an interactive multilogic web-service. The system provides computational procedure execution of financial expenditure and ecological damage in the issue of domestic waste collection and transportation and environmental risk minimization on the basis of proposed algorithms for automated synthesis of adaptive journey routes in comparison with existing prototypes

  15. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  16. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after...... tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts...

  17. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Future scenario development within life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an acknowledged tool for quantifying the sustainability of waste management solutions. However, the use of LCA for decision-making is hindered by the strong dependency of the LCA results on the assumptions regarding the future conditions in which the waste management...... of the LCA. The main outcome of this thesis is a systematic framework that can be used to assess future scenarios in LCAs of waste management systems. The framework combines approaches developed during the PhD study in order to systematically address the modelling implications of combining future scenarios...... and LCAs of waste management systems. The study developed a systematic definition of importance of LCA model parameters based on their input uncertainty and their sensitivity on results with a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach. Within LCAs of waste management systems, the GSA approach allowed...

  19. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  20. Modelling sensitivity and uncertainty in a LCA model for waste management systems - EASETECH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    In the new model, EASETECH, developed for LCA modelling of waste management systems, a general approach for sensitivity and uncertainty assessment for waste management studies has been implemented. First general contribution analysis is done through a regular interpretation of inventory and impact...

  1. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the be

  2. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  3. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  4. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  5. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the be

  6. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  7. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... to leachate data or ground water monitoring data) or any other data relevant to the delisted waste... exclusion applies to the centrifuge solids generated at Beaumont Refinery's Beaumont, Texas facility... located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202,...

  8. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and analytical data from the Beaumont Refinery, Beaumont, Texas facility. C. How will Beaumont... offsite Landfill, so no ground water monitoring data for disposal of this waste stream in the landfill is... environmental data (including but not limited to leachate data or ground water monitoring data) or any...

  9. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... hereinafter) to exclude (or delist) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge filter cake (called just sludge... Sec. 261.11(a)(2) or (a)(3), or (3) the wastes are mixed with or derived from the treatment, storage... copper and zinc to produce a brass coating. The facility generates F006 filter cake by the dewatering...

  10. 76 FR 5110 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... proposing to grant a petition submitted by Gulf West Landfill, TX, LP. (Gulf West) to exclude (or delist) the landfill leachate generated by Gulf West in Anahuac, Texas from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA... viruses. Docket. All documents in the electronic docket are listed in the http://www.regulations.gov index...

  11. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the...

  12. Development of an assay for urinary free cortisol determination on the Technicon Immuno 1 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, M.; Levesque, A.; Daigle, F. [Centre Universitaire de Sante de l' Estrie, Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, Site Fleurimont, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-08-15

    To develop and evaluate a method using an ethyl acetate extraction procedure for the determination of urinary free cortisol on the Technicon Immuno 1 system from Bayer Corporation. We tested the assay precision, linearity, and correlation with the Urinary Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol radioimmunoassay. We also studied the efficiency of the extraction procedure, performed a cross-reactivity study with different cortisol metabolites, and determined the reference values. The assay shows within-run CVs varying from 1.6 to 5.3% and between-day CVs from 2.7 to 6.1% for urinary free cortisol concentrations from 58 to 1097 nmol/L. The assay demonstrates an excellent linearity and a very good correlation with the Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol assay (slope 0.94, y-intercept = 29 nmol/L, Sy|x = 54 nmol/L, r = 0.996). The reference values were estimated at 42-281 nmol/d. The extraction procedure shows an average recovery of 99.0% and minimal interference with the cortisol metabolites tested with the exception of cortisone. The evaluation shows that the developed assay has the analytical characteristics required for its utilization in a clinical laboratory. (author)

  13. ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Luv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a clear vision on better waste management system. The thesis introduced the sustainable waste management along with innovation. The aim of the research was to find out the types of waste being introduced to environment, their consequence on human beings and surroundings, best policies, principles and practices to minimize the effect of the waste to lowest. The study was based on literature. The thesis includes the introduction of types of waste, clarifi...

  14. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-02-14

    The proposed activity provides the description of the Data Acquisition System for Tank 241-AZ-101. This description is documented in HNF-5572, Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System (DAS). This activity supports the planned mixer pump tests for Tank 241-AZ-101. Tank 241-AZ-101 has been selected for the first full-scale demonstration of a mixer pump system. The tank currently holds over 960,000 gallons of neutralized current acid waste, including approximately 12.7 inches of settling solids (sludge) at the bottom of the tank. As described in Addendum 4 of the FSAR (LMHC 2000a), two 300 HP mixer pumps with associated measurement and monitoring equipment have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101. The purpose of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. HNF-5572 provides a basic description of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system DAS, including the field instrumentation and application software. The DAS is provided to fulfill requirements for data collection and monitoring. This document is not an operations procedure or is it intended to describe the mixing operation. This USQ screening provides evaluation of HNF-5572 (Revision 1) including the changes as documented on ECN 654001. The changes include (1) add information on historical trending and data backup, (2) modify DAS I/O list in Appendix E to reflect actual conditions in the field, and (3) delete IP address in Appendix F per Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. request.

  15. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  16. Evaluation of Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System on HIV Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Mark M; Hack, Holly R; Nair, Sangeetha V; Worlock, Andrew; Malia, Jennifer A; Peel, Sheila A; Jagodzinski, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    Quantitation of the HIV-1 viral load in plasma is the current standard of care for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA) for monitoring viral load by using 277 well-characterized subtype samples, including 171 cultured virus isolates and 106 plasma samples from 35 countries, representing all major HIV subtypes, recombinants, and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) currently in circulation worldwide. Linearity of the Aptima assay was tested on each of 6 major HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG) and demonstrated an R(2) value of ≥0.996. The performance of the Aptima assay was also compared to those of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v.2 (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime) assays on all subtype samples. The Aptima assay values averaged 0.21 log higher than the CAP/CTM values and 0.30 log higher than the RealTime values, and the values were >0.4 log higher than CAP/CTM values for subtypes F and G and than RealTime values for subtypes C, F, and G and CRF02_AG. Two samples demonstrated results with >1-log differences from RealTime results. When the data were adjusted by the average difference, 94.9% and 87.0% of Aptima results fell within 0.5 log of the CAP/CTM and RealTime results, respectively. The linearity and accuracy of the Aptima assay in correctly quantitating all major HIV-1 subtypes, coupled with the completely automated format and high throughput of the Panther system, make this system well suited for reliable measurement of viral load in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Development of a central nervous system axonal myelination assay for high throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariosa-Willingham, Karen D; Rosler, Elen S; Tung, Jay S; Dugas, Jason C; Collins, Tassie L; Leonoudakis, Dmitri

    2016-04-22

    Regeneration of new myelin is impaired in persistent multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, leaving neurons unable to function properly and subject to further degeneration. Current MS therapies attempt to ameliorate autoimmune-mediated demyelination, but none directly promote the regeneration of lost and damaged myelin of the central nervous system (CNS). Development of new drugs that stimulate remyelination has been hampered by the inability to evaluate axonal myelination in a rapid CNS culture system. We established a high throughput cell-based assay to identify compounds that promote myelination. Culture methods were developed for initiating myelination in vitro using primary embryonic rat cortical cells. We developed an immunofluorescent phenotypic image analysis method to quantify the morphological alignment of myelin characteristic of the initiation of myelination. Using γ-secretase inhibitors as promoters of myelination, the optimal growth, time course and compound treatment conditions were established in a 96 well plate format. We have characterized the cortical myelination assay by evaluating the cellular composition of the cultures and expression of markers of differentiation over the time course of the assay. We have validated the assay scalability and consistency by screening the NIH clinical collection library of 727 compounds and identified ten compounds that promote myelination. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values for these compounds were determined to rank them according to potency. We have designed the first high capacity in vitro assay that assesses myelination of live axons. This assay will be ideal for screening large compound libraries to identify new drugs that stimulate myelination. Identification of agents capable of promoting the myelination of axons will likely lead to the development of new therapeutics for MS patients.

  18. Bioregenerative technologies for waste processing and resource recovery in advanced space life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for producing oxygen, water, and food in space will require an interactive facility to process and return wastes as resources to the system. This paper examines the bioregenerative techologies for waste processing and resource recovery considered for a CELSS Resource Recovery system. The components of this system consist of a series of biological reactors to treat the liquid and solid material fractions, in which the aerobic and anaerobic reactors are combined in a block called the Combined Reactor Equipment (CORE) block. The CORE block accepts the human wastes, kitchen wastes, inedible refractory plant materials, grey waters from the CELLS system, and aquaculture solids and processes these materials in either aerobic or anaerobic reactors depending on the desired product and the rates required by the integrated system.

  19. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

  20. Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1998-11-04

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees.

  1. Development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Vesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment. The aim of this study was to present a new solutions of the system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes, which enable simplification and improvement of the process together with the reduction of total costs. Methods: The description of  the problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment as well as an alternative solution for the decentral fractioning of such wastes was presented. The influence onto the environment as well as the efficiency of the costly mechanical sorting of wastes was queried. The nowadays used principles of sorted and unsorted waste disposal were elucidated and their advantages and disadvantages evaluated. Results and conclusions: Based on this evaluation an innovative and future oriented development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes was presented. The new developed systems aim at the achievement of an easier, less costly and environment-friendlier process for the disposal of municipal wastes from apartment buildings.

  2. Sustainability of Solid Waste Management System in Urban Areas of Pakistan: Stakeholders Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of solid waste management system in Pakistan like other developing countries is a growing challenge. Stakeholders are vital for the successful running of solid waste management system and timely inclusion of stakeholders’ perspective can contribute to attain sustainability of solid waste management system. Therefore, stakeholders’ subjectivities and perspectives towards the sustainability of solid waste management system were studied in this research program. . Five components of the sustainable solid waste management system, that is, Technical, Environmental, Economic, Social and Institutional, were considered based on literature review. Nature of these components being part of an integrated system makes the system multicriteria. Relative importance of these components leading to define priorities for planning and execution of such system is the need for planning, development, and running of such systems. To acquire these priorities based on stakeholders input the stakeholders were classified into two major categories i.e. Technical and Social. A survey was undertaken in which the afore-mentioned stakeholders were asked to provide their input in the form of a pair wise comparison among the various components of the sustainable solid waste management system (SSWM. Analytical Hierarchy Process, a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA tool was used to quantify the relative importance of various components of SSWM. Environmental component of the sustainability came out to be the top priority of the stakeholders as it was given the highest weight by the stakeholders

  3. VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING WASTE AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. NAKAOKA; G. VEAZEY; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    A glove box vitrification system is being fabricated to process aqueous evaporator bottom waste generated at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The system will be the first within the U.S. Department of Energy Complex to routinely convert Pu{sup 239}-bearing transuranic (TRU) waste to a glass matrix for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Currently at LANL, this waste is solidified in Portland cement. Radionuclide loading in the cementation process is restricted by potential radiolytic degradation (expressed as a wattage limit), which has been imposed to prevent the accumulation of flammable concentrations of H{sub 2} within waste packages. Waste matrixes with a higher water content (e.g., cement) are assigned a lower permissible wattage limit to compensate for their potential higher generation of H{sub 2}. This significantly increases the number of waste packages that must be prepared and shipped, thus driving up the costs of waste handling and disposal. The glove box vitrification system that is under construction will address this limitation. Because the resultant glass matrix produced by the vitrification process is non-hydrogenous, no H{sub 2} can be radiolytically evolved, and drums could be loaded to the maximum allowable limit of 40 watts. In effect, the glass waste form shifts the limiting constraint for loading disposal drums from wattage to the criticality limit of 200 fissile gram equivalents, thus significantly reducing the number of drums generated from this waste stream. It is anticipated that the number of drums generated from treatment of evaporator bottoms will be reduced by a factor of 4 annually when the vitrification system is operational. The system is currently undergoing non-radioactive operability testing, and will be fully operational in the year 2003.

  4. Survey on the FRP waste recycling system; FRP haikibutsu recycle system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Using the area around the Ariake Sea in Kyushu as a model case, the FRP (fiber reinforced plastics) waste recycling system which can be established in Japan has been investigated in cooperation with local government bodies and fishery organizations. As a result, some proposals are provided. The recovery of waste boats utilizing existing sales outlets for fishing boats will facilitate efficient transport, efficient removal of vessel fixtures, and information management and user guidance via existing sales routes. This should make it possible to systematically secure and dispose a certain volume of scrapped FRP boats, and thus generate savings in the disposal costs. In the Phase 1, the main focus will be on establishing the recovery system for scrapped FRP boats to promote reuse and prevent improper disposal. In the Phase 2, the economics will be improved by expanding the recovery system to include other FRP waste products. In the Phase 3, the number of recyclable items will be increased, and thus the recycling system will be completed. 3 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

  6. Integration of electrochemistry in micro-total analysis systems for biochemical assays: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

    2009-11-15

    Micro-total analysis systems (microTAS) integrate different analytical operations like sample preparation, separation and detection into a single microfabricated device. With the outstanding advantages of low cost, satisfactory analytical efficiency and flexibility in design, highly integrated and miniaturized devices from the concept of microTAS have gained widespread applications, especially in biochemical assays. Electrochemistry is shown to be quite compatible with microanalytical systems for biochemical assays, because of its attractive merits such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and sample/reagent economy. This review presents recent developments in the integration of electrochemistry in microdevices for biochemical assays. Ingenious microelectrode design and fabrication methods, and versatility of electrochemical techniques are involved. Practical applications of such integrated microsystem in biochemical assays are focused on in situ analysis, point-of-care testing and portable devices. Electrochemical techniques are apparently suited to microsystems, since easy microfabrication of electrochemical elements and a high degree of integration with multi-analytical functions can be achieved at low cost. Such integrated microsystems will play an increasingly important role for analysis of small volume biochemical samples. Work is in progress toward new microdevice design and applications.

  7. Life cycle assessment of capital goods in waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2016-10-01

    The environmental importance of capital goods (trucks, buildings, equipment, etc.) was quantified by LCA modelling 1 tonne of waste treated in five different waste management scenarios. The scenarios involved a 240L collection bin, a 16m(3) collection truck, a composting plant, an anaerobic digestion plant, an incinerator and a landfill site. The contribution of capital goods to the overall environmental aspects of managing the waste was significant but varied greatly depending on the technology and the impact category: Global Warming: 1-17%, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: 2-90%, Ionising Radiation, Human Health: 2-91%, Photochemical Ozone Formation: 2-56%, Freshwater Eutrophication: 0.05-99%, Marine Eutrophication: 0.03-8%, Terrestrial Acidification: 2-13%, Terrestrial Eutrophication: 1-8%, Particulate Matter: 11-26%, Human Toxicity, Cancer Effect: 10-92%, Human Toxicity, non-Cancer Effect: 1-71%, Freshwater Ecotoxicity: 3-58%. Depletion of Abiotic Resources - Fossil: 1-31% and Depletion of Abiotic Resources - Elements (Reserve base): 74-99%. The single most important contribution by capital goods was made by the high use of steel. Environmental impacts from capital goods are more significant for treatment facilities than for the collection and transportation of waste and for the landfilling of waste. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of capital goods should always be included in the LCA modelling of waste management, unless the only impact category considered is Global Warming.

  8. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system - application to the "household waste management chain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, H.; Barroca, B.; Hubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site. 1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.). These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005).

  9. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system – application to the "household waste management chain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beraud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site.


    1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.. These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  11. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  12. Development of A Web based GIS Waste Disposal Management System for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo P. Idowu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste management has to do with handling of solid refuse from their sources of generation through storage, collection, transportation, recovery and treatment processes to disposal This research developed a web based GIS waste disposal management system, with aim of achieving an effective waste management system and a spatial view of waste collection locations in any local government area in Nigeria. The system was developed using Extensive Hypertext Markup Language and Cascading Style Sheet (XHTML/CSS, and Asynchronous Java Scripting with XML (AJAX and the software packages used for the development of the application are Adobe Dreamweaver and Adobe Fireworks, MySQL, Apache Server and PHP scripting. With this waste management system, the locations of all the waste collection tanks in any location will be, monitored, managed and maintained. The use of this system will ease the job of the waste management unit of the local government areas in Nigeria in achieving a clean environment and mitigate the spread of epidemic in a way to ensure safety of all and sundry.

  13. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  14. Transportable Waste-to-Energy System (TWES) Energy Recovery From Bare Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    removed and/or partially burned. Instead the furnace, coupled with a shredder , will completely burn the waste and provide heat for water or other...Photos from Ali Al Salem, AF bare base Nov 1998, FOUO-for official use only 8 8 TWES Fuel Processing Bulk Trash Shredder Shredded Fuel TWES Furnace...Program (FEMP) to initiate the conversion. • Will install and test electricity production at Tyndall AFB 15 15 TWES Process Diagram Shredders Useful

  15. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...... incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste...

  16. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    treatment of bulky wastes such as Anatomical wastes, their usage seems logic considering the very low amounts of such wastes. Also, considering the amount of generated wastes in Isfahan hospitals, a combination of centralized and non-centralized autoclaves is recommended for treatment of infected wastes. Mobile autoclaves may also be considered according to technical and economical conditions. It must not be forgotten that the priority must be given to the establishment of waste management systems particularly to personnel training to produce less wastes and to well separate them.

  17. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  18. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debere, Mesfin Kote; Gelaye, Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo, Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa, Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system...

  19. Evaluation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation system using polarography and spectrophotometric enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Antoni; Fontanesi, Flavia; Díaz, Francisca

    2009-10-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multimeric complexes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. They work in concert to drive the aerobic synthesis of ATP. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations affecting the accumulation and function of these enzymes are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases and have also been associated with neurodegeneration and aging. For this reason, several approaches for the assessment of the OXPHOS system enzymes have been developed. Based on the methods described elsewhere, the assays describe methods that form a biochemical characterization of the OXPHOS system in cells and mitochondria isolated from cultured cells or tissues.

  20. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part I: lessons learned and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-03-01

    The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities.

  1. Knowledge and technology transfer to improve the municipal solid waste management system of Durango City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén

    2014-09-01

    As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway.

  2. A study of the incubation of microbead agglutination assays in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2016-12-19

    This work reports on a quantitative study of the incubation of a microbead-based agglutination assay inside a microfluidic system. In this system, a droplet (1.25µL) consisting of a mixture of functionalized microbeads and analyte is flowed through a 0.51mm internal diameter silicone tube. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a very efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet. We tested the agglutination at different speeds and show a robust response at the higher range of speeds (150 – 200µL/min), while also reaching a completion in the agglutination process. At these velocities, a length of 180cm is shown to be sufficient to confidently measure the agglutination assay, which takes between 2.5 – 3 minutes. This high throughput quantification method has the potential of accelerating the measurements of various types of biomarkers, which can greatly benefit the fields of biology and medicine.

  3. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  4. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  5. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  6. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  7. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  8. Understanding uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessments of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Conradsen, Knut; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis in Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of waste management systems often results obscure and complex, with key parameters rarely determined on a case-by-case basis. The paper shows an application of a simplified approach to uncertainty coupled with a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA......) perspective on three alternative waste management systems for Danish single-family household waste. The approach provides a fast and systematic method to select the most important parameters in the LCAs, understand their propagation and contribution to uncertainty....

  9. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated data management system for radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Taek [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Through the system, the five principles(independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized and public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted. By providing reliable information and openness within the international nuclear community can be ensured and efficient support of international agreements among contracting parties can be ensured. By operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management), the system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible for holistic control and reorganization of the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy so as to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal. To meet this objectives, design of the database system structure and the study of input/output data validation and verification methodology was performed during the second phase of this project.

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure.

  12. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  13. Waste reduction possibilities for manufacturing systems in the industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, P.; Illés, B.; Dobos, P.

    2016-11-01

    The industry 4.0 creates some new possibilities for the manufacturing companies’ waste reduction for example by appearance of the cyber physical systems and the big data concept and spreading the „Internet of things (IoT)”. This paper presents in details the fourth industrial revolutions’ more important achievements and tools. In addition there will be also numerous new research directions in connection with the waste reduction possibilities of the manufacturing systems outlined.

  14. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  15. Tank-connected food waste disposer systems--current status and potential improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, A; Davidsson, A; Tsai, J; Persson, E; Bissmont, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2013-01-01

    An unconventional system for separate collection of food waste was investigated through evaluation of three full-scale systems in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Ground food waste is led to a separate settling tank where food waste sludge is collected regularly with a tank-vehicle. These tank-connected systems can be seen as a promising method for separate collection of food waste from both households and restaurants. Ground food waste collected from these systems is rich in fat and has a high methane potential when compared to food waste collected in conventional bag systems. The content of heavy metals is low. The concentrations of N-tot and P-tot in sludge collected from sedimentation tanks were on average 46.2 and 3.9 g/kg TS, equalling an estimated 0.48 and 0.05 kg N-tot and P-tot respectively per year and household connected to the food waste disposer system. Detergents in low concentrations can result in increased degradation rates and biogas production, while higher concentrations can result in temporary inhibition of methane production. Concentrations of COD and fat in effluent from full-scale tanks reached an average of 1068 mg/l and 149 mg/l respectively over the five month long evaluation period. Hydrolysis of the ground material is initiated between sludge collection occasions (30 days). Older food waste sludge increases the degradation rate and the risks of fugitive emissions of methane from tanks between collection occasions. Increased particle size decreases hydrolysis rate and could thus decrease losses of carbon and nutrients in the sewerage system, but further studies in full-scale systems are needed to confirm this.

  16. A Rule-Based Expert System for Construction and Demolition Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Ooshaksaraie; Alireza Mardookhpour

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The construction industry generates lots of construction waste which caused significant impacts on the environment and aroused growing public concern in the local community. Construction waste is becoming a serious environmental problem in many large cities in the world. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CDWM- developed by using Microsof...

  17. A sensitive colorimetric assay system for nucleic acid detection based on isothermal signal amplification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Guo, Jing; Xu, Ying; Wei, Hua; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2017-08-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of microRNAs in biological systems is of great importance. Here, we report the development of a visual colorimetric assay which possesses the high amplification capabilities and high selectivity of the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method and the simplicity and convenience of gold nanoparticles used as a signal indicator. The designed padlock probe recognizes the target miRNA and is circularized, and then acts as the template to extend the target miRNA into a long single-stranded nucleotide chain of many tandem repeats of nucleotide sequences. Next, the RCA product is hybridized with oligonucleotides tagged onto gold nanoparticles. This interaction leads to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and the color of the system changes from wine red to dark blue according to the abundance of miRNA. A linear correlation between fluorescence and target oligonucleotide content was obtained in the range 0.3-300 pM, along with a detection limit of 0.13 pM (n = 7) and a RSD of 3.9% (30 pM, n = 9). The present approach provides a simple, rapid, and accurate visual colorimetric assay that allows sensitive biodetection and bioanalysis of DNA and RNA nucleotides of interest in biologically important samples. Graphical abstract The colorimetric assay system for analyzing target oligonucleotides.

  18. Technological processing waste water using the dressing the ejector system for pretreament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter industry produces large amounts of waste water, which endanger and degrade the natural recipients - recipients, given that the waste vode najčešće discharged without any form of treatment or purification. Wastewater slaughter industry carry faeces, straw, unprocessed animal feed, various stomach secretions, blood, fat, a variety of solid waste and other organic matter present. Many applied technical and technological solutions in order to prevent harming the recipients are not given adequate results from the ecological aspect. The reconstruction of a system for pre-treatment and slaughter waste water by applying technological solutions ejector - pump, not only have obtained good results required by the project, but also pointed to the possibility of their use in many types of agro-industrial waste water, especially with the growing number of small agro-industrial drive .

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM.

  20. Lifecycle assessment of a system for food waste disposers to tank - A full-scale system evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad Saraiva, A; Davidsson, Å; Bissmont, M

    2016-08-01

    An increased interest for separate collection of household food waste in Sweden has led to development of a number of different collection-systems - each with their particular benefits and drawbacks. In the present study, two systems for collection of food waste in households were compared; (a) use of food waste disposers (FWD) in kitchen sinks and (b) collection of food waste in paper bags for further treatment. The comparison was made in relation to greenhouse gas emissions as well as primary energy utilization. In both cases, collected food waste was treated through anaerobic digestion and digestate was used as fertilizer on farmland. Systems emissions of greenhouse gases from collection and treatment of 1ton of food waste (dry matter), are according to the performed assessment lower from the FWD-system compared to the reference system (-990 and -770kgCO2-eq./ton food waste dry matter respectively). The main reasons are a higher substitution of mineral nitrogen fertilizer followed by a higher substitution of diesel. Performed uncertainty analyses state that results are robust, but that decreasing losses of organic matter in pre-treatment of food waste collected in paper bags, as well as increased losses of organic matter and nutrients from the FWD-system could change the hierarchy in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. Owing to a higher use of electricity in the FWD-system, the paper bag collection system was preferable in relation to primary energy utilization. Due to the many questions still remaining regarding the impacts of an increased amount of nutrients and organic matter to the sewage system through an increased use of FWD, the later treatment of effluent from the FWD-system, as well as treatment of wastewater from kitchen sinks in the reference system, was not included in the assessment. In future work, these aspects would be of relevance to monitor.

  1. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  2. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seri; Yang, Heeyoung; Hwang, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT). The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6), including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72) and MCT (0.85) than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE.

  3. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, S.A. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Holter, G.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  4. Municipal solid waste system analysis through energy consumption and return approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Tihomir; Schneider, Daniel Rolph

    2017-12-01

    Inappropriate waste management and poor resource efficiency are two of the biggest problems which European Union is trying to solve through Landfill Directive, Waste Framework Directive and Circular Economy Package by increasing recycling and reuse and reducing waste disposal. In order to meet set goals, new European Union member states must quickly change national legislature and implement appropriate solutions. In the circumstances of strong EU resource and energy dependence, decision makers need to analyse which of the considered waste management systems leads to higher overall benefits ie. which is more sustainable. The main problem in this kind of analysis is a wide range of possible technologies and the difference in inputs and outputs. Sustainability of these systems is analysed through single-score LCA based assessment, using primary energy used to produce materials and energy vectors as a common measure. To ensure reliable results, interoperability between different data sources and material flows of waste and its components are monitored. Tracking external and internal material, and energy flows enable modelling of mutual interactions between different facilities. Resulting PERI, primary energy return based index, is used for comparison of different waste management scenarios. Results show that time and legislation dependent changes have great influence on decision making related to waste management and interconnected systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tank waste remediation system simulation analysis retrieval model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-09-30

    The goal of simulation was to test tll(., consequences of assumptions. For the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model, l@lie specific assumptions are primarily defined with respect to waste processing arid transfer timing. The model tracks 73 chem1913ical constituents from underground waste tanks to glass; yet, the detailed (@hemistrv and complete set of unit operations of the TWRS process flow sheet are represented only at the level necessary to define the waste processing and transfer logic and to estimate the feed composition for the treatment facilities. Tlierefor(,, the model should net be regarded as a substitute for the TWRS process flow sheet. Pra(!ticallv the model functions as a dyrt(imic extension of the flow sheet model. I I The following sections present the description, assunipt@ions, architecture, arid evalua- tion of the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model. Section 2 describes the model in terms of an overview of the processes represented. Section 3 presents the assumptions for the simulation model. Specific assumptions 9.tt(l parameter values used in the model are provided for waste retrieval, pretreatment, low-level waste (LLNN7) immobilization, and high-level waste (HLW) immobilization functions. Section 4 describes the model in terms of its functional architec- rare to d(@fine a basis for a systematic evaluation of the model. Finally, Section 5 documents an independent test and evaluation of the niodel`s performance (i.e., the verification and validation). Additionally, Appendix A gives a complete listing of the tank inventory used. Appendix B documents the verification and validation plan that was used for the (Section 5) evaluation work. A description and listing of all the model variables is given in Appendix C along with a complete source listing.

  6. APPLICATION OF THE ELECTRE III METHOD FOR A SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun ÖZKAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, effective disposing of solid waste environmentally and economically has become mandatory due to the increase in environmental problems resulted by the solid waste. Furthermore, choosing a solid waste management system appears to be an important decision making problem. Hence, economical, social, cultural and technical factors in choosing thesolid waste management systems should be considered together. A solid waste management system may have different alternatives to be evaluated by considering several criteria. Hence, this type of problem is considered as Multi Criteria Decision Making problem. Therefore, in this study, there were five alternative system scenarios (MRF, recycling, composting, incinerating and landfilling processes ranked by using ELECTRE III for Eskisehir city/Turkey. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where approximately 750 tons/day waste is generated in total. It is required to apply an effective MSW management system since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Final ranking for scenarios was in the following order: S3>S2>S1>S4=S5. According to the comparisons and the sensitivity analysis, scenario S3 (15% recycling+77% composting + 8% landfilling for MSW management system in Eskisehir should be preferred.

  7. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  8. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred.

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  10. Minimax regret optimization analysis for a regional solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Davila, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) facilities are crucial for environmental management and public health in urban regions. Due to the waste management hierarchy, one of the greatest challenges that organizations face today is to figure out how to diversify the treatment options, increase the reliability of infrastructure systems, and leverage the redistribution of waste streams among incineration, compost, recycling, and other facilities to their competitive advantage region wide. Systems analysis plays an important role for regionalization assessment of integrated SWM systems, leading to provide decision makers with break-through insights and risk-informed strategies. This paper aims to apply a minimax regret optimization analysis for improving SWM strategies in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), an economically fast growing region in the US. Based on different environmental, economic, legal, and social conditions, event-based simulation in the first stage links estimated waste streams in major cities in LRGV with possible solid waste management alternatives. The optimization analysis in the second stage emphasizes the trade-offs and associated regret evaluation with respect to predetermined scenarios. Such optimization analyses with multiple criteria have featured notable successes, either by public or private efforts, in diverting recyclables, green waste, yard waste, and biosolids from the municipal solid waste streams to upcoming waste-to-energy, composting, and recycling facilities. Model outputs may link prescribed regret scenarios in decision making with various scales of regionalization policies. The insights drawn from the system-oriented, forward-looking, and preventative study can eventually help decision-makers and stakeholders gain a scientific understanding of the consequences of short-term and long-term decisions relating to sustainable SWM in the fast-growing US-Mexico borderland.

  11. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  12. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  13. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Discriminant analyzing system for wood wastes using a visible-near-infrared chemometric imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Hikaru; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Noma, Junichi; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2008-08-01

    A new optical system was developed and applied to automated separation of wood wastes, using a combined technique of visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) imaging analysis and chemometrics. Three kinds of typical wood wastes were used, i.e., non-treated, impregnated, and plastic-film overlaid wood. The classification model based on soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was examined using the difference luminance brightness of a sample. Our newly developed system showed a good/promising performance in separation of wood wastes, with an average rate of correct separation of 89%. Hence, it is concluded that the system is efficiently feasible for online monitoring and separation of wood wastes in recycling mills.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  17. Performance objectives of the tank waste remediation system low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-25

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the U.S. Department of Energy. The performance assessment is to determine whether {open_quotes}reasonable assurance{close_quotes} exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal require: the protection of public health and safety; and the protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all exposure pathways exposure limit is 25 mrem/year), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the Peer Review Panel which DOE has established to review performance assessments, interacting with program management to establish their needs, and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Indian tribes) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Comet Assay: A Method to Evaluate Genotoxicity of Nano-Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eskandani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug delivery systems could induce cellular toxicity as side effect of nanomaterials. The mechanism of toxicity usually involves DNA damage. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE is a sensitive method for detecting strand damages in the DNA of a cell with applications in genotoxicity testing and molecular epidemiology as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. Methods: In the current study, we reviewed recent drug delivery researches related to SCGE. Results: We found that one preference for choosing the assay is that comet images may result from apoptosis-mediated nuclear fragmentation. This method has been widely used over the last decade in several different areas. Overall cells, such as cultured cells are embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, lysed with detergent, and treated with high salt. Nucleoids are supercoiled DNA form. When the slide is faced to alkaline electrophoresis any breakages present in the DNA cause the supercoiling to relax locally and loops of DNA extend toward the anode as a ‘‘comet tail’’. Conclusion: This article provides a relatively comprehensive review upon potentiality of the comet assay for assessment of DNA damage and accordingly it can be used as an informative platform in genotoxicity studies of drug delivery systems.

  20. Influence of hydrodynamic conditions on quantitative cellular assays in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huabing; Zhang, Xunli; Pattrick, Nicola; Klauke, Norbert; Cordingley, Hayley C; Haswell, Stephen J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-09-15

    This study demonstrates the importance of the hydrodynamic environment in microfluidic systems in quantitative cellular assays using live cells. Commonly applied flow conditions used in microfluidics were evaluated using the quantitative intracellular Ca2+ analysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a model system. Above certain thresholds of shear stress, hydrodynamically induced intracellular Ca2+ fluxes were observed which mimic the responses induced by chemical stimuli, such as the agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate tris salt (UTP). This effect is of significance given the increasing application of microfluidic devices in high-throughput cellular analysis for biophysical applications and pharmacological screening.

  1. The NOx system in nuclear waste. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Camaioni, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to assist EM sites in the resolution of outstanding safety issues involved in the temporary storage of high-level waste (HLW) in large tanks. To achieve this objective, mechanisms of the radiolytic and radiolytically induced processes that occur in the waste are quantitatively studied. The information is incorporated into a computer modeling of the tanks chemistry under various scenarios and the predicted results are rapidly conveyed to the site operators. This report summarizes the technical achievements of a 3-year project that is now in its 2nd year of operation. The project is a collaborative effort between the ANL and PNNL and is strongly coupled to another EMSP project (``Interfacial Radiolysis Effects in Tank Waste Speciation'''' PI: T. Orlando, PNNL) and to the safety programs at the Hanford site (``Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste Aging Studies'''', PI D. Camaioni, PNNL). Information from the project is also shared directly with Westinghouse Savannah River personnel. In general, the basic studies are performed at ANL and PNNL and the information is continuously shared with Tanks Safety Programs. To further facilitate the exchange of information and the immediate incorporation of results into operations, the authors conducted at least twice a year coordination meetings at the various laboratories where the site operators (e.g. from DE and SH, Numatec, WSRC, etc.) participate, both to present their needs and to obtain updated information.'

  2. A New Waste Disposal Technology-plasma arc Pyrolysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建军; 施嘉标; 梁荣庆; 刘正之

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new waste disposal technology with plasma arc. Being different from conventional combustion or burning such as incineration, it is based on a process called controlled pyrolysis-thermal destruction and recovery process. It has four advantages, they are completely safe, clean, high-energy synthesis gas, non-toxic vitrified slag and metal.

  3. Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    new patients and those who had some other health services at .... Pharmacy. 0.436 ± 0.209. 24.3. 357.89. Injection & Dressing. 0.597 ± 0.135. 33.3 ... buckets and safety boxes were used to transport manually .... Waste segregation and treatment are the most important ... recent times, although its documentation is grossly.

  4. RTG Waste Heat System for the Cassini Propulsion Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, V.; Stultz, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal design for the propulsion module subsystem (PMS), and presents the results from the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) waste heat thermal test, and it summarizes the adjustment techniques and their relative effectiveness; it also shows the resulting predicted PMS flight temperatures relative to the requirements.

  5. An Accounting System for Solid Waste Management in Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zausner, Eric R.

    This pamphlet provides a guide to the type and quantity of information to be collected for effective solid waste management in small communities. It is directed at municipal or private personnel involved in the operation and ownership of management facilities. Sample activity reports are included for reference. (CS)

  6. Diagnosis of internal acariasis with avidin-biotin system enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Bo Zhang; Yong Huang; Chao-Pin Li; Yu-Bao Cui

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the value of avidin-biotin system enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ABC-ELISA) in diagnosis of intestinal acariasis.METHODS: Mite-specific IgG levels in serum of 48 patients with intestinal acariasis were measured with ABC-ELISA.The sensitivity of this method was compared with that of staphylococcal protein A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPA-ELISA).RESULTS: The positive rate of mite-specific IgG detected with ABC-ELISA and SPA-ELISA was 89.58% (43/48) and 56.25% (27/48), respectively. The positive rate with ABCELISA was statistically higher than that with SPA-ELISA (X2=13.50, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: ABC-ELISA is an effective method for the diagnosis of intestinal acariasis.

  7. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  8. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts...... of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life...

  9. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design: pyrolysis and waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-08

    The University of Minnesota is studying and planning a grid-connected integrated community energy system to include disposal of wastes from health centers and utilizing the heat generated. Following initial definition of the 7-county metropolitan region for which the solid waste management system is to be planned, information is then necessary about the nature of the waste generated within this region. Estimates of the quantities generated, generation rates, and properties of the waste to be collected and disposed of are required in order to determine the appropriate size and capacity of the system. These estimates are designated and subsequently referred to as ''system input''. Institutional information is also necessary in designing the planned system, to be compatible with existing institutional operations and procedures, or to offer a minimum amount of problems to the participating institution in the region. Initial considerations of health care institutions generating solid waste within the defined region are made on a comprehensive basis without any attempt to select out or include feasible candidate institutions, or institutional categories. As the study progresses, various criteria are used in selecting potential candidate institutional categories and institutions within the 7-county region as offering the most feasible solid waste system input to be successfully developed into a centralized program; however, it is hoped that such a system if developed could be maintained for the entire 7-county region, and remain comprehensive to the entire health care industry. (MCW)

  10. Biohydrogen production in the suspended and attached microbial growth systems from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Li, Feifei; Tang, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201.8mL/(h·L)) and CMISR (255.3mL/(h·L)) were obtained at HRT of 6h and 4h, respectively. The first-order reaction could be used to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste pastry. The carbon content of the waste pastry remained 22.8% in the undigested waste pastry and consumed 77.2% for carbon dioxide and soluble microbial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reports biohydrogen production from waste pastry.

  11. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  12. Bulk-assay calorimeter: Part 1. System design and operation. Part 2. Calibration and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.B.; Roche, C.T.; Harkness, A.L.; Winslow, G.H.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Bulk-Assay Calorimeter is designed to measure the thermal power emitted by plutonium-containing samples. The sample power range of the instrument is 1.4 to 22.4 W. The instrument package consists of the calorimeter measurement chamber, the control circuit power bin, and the data acquisition system. Two sample preheating chambers and five calorimeter canisters for containing the samples are included. A set of 32 test points which monitor voltages at points within the calorimeter and its control circuitry are accessed by the data acquisition system. The use of the test points is described. System start-up and checkout are described. Sample assay and preheater operation procedures are given. The data acquisition system and data analysis software are described. The calorimeter was calibrated at 23 points with heat sources from 1.4 to 22.4 watts. The combined measurement error varied with sample power from 1.4% to 0.1% over the range of calibration measurements. Circuit diagrams for the calorimeter and schematics for the data acquisition system are included. (LEW)

  13. A systems study of the waste management system in Gothenburg. Part of the project: Thermal and biological waste treatment in a systems perspective; Systemstudie Avfall i Goeteborg. Delprojekt i Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan; Haraldsson, Maarten; Norrman Eriksson, Ola

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the project A system study of waste management in Gothenburg is to evaluate new waste treatment options for municipal and industrial waste from a system perspective. The project has been carried out as a part of the project Thermal and biological waste treatment in a systems perspective - WR21. The focus is set to the waste and district heating system in Gothenburg. The project has been running for 2,5 years with an active group consisting of persons from Renova, Kretsloppskontoret, Goeteborg Energi, Gryaab and Profu. The work on development of models and of methods of handling strategic questions within the field has gone back and forth within the group. This report focuses on presenting the final results from the project, which means that the process in which we've excluded several treatment options and scenarios are only briefly described

  14. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie

    2014-01-01

    , e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement......The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where...

  15. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  16. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste; Informe de seguridad del sistema caracterizador de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-09-15

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of a new Syphilis assay on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusy Longo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A new homogeneous immunoassay for detection of primary infection of Treponema Pallidum (TP on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System was evaluated.The scope of the study was to verify analytical performances and diagnostic accuracy in comparison to commercial methods (Immunoblotting test, ELISA test, Immunoturbidimetric test. Methods. The new Syphilis assay from SENTINEL CH. SpA, is an immunoturbidimetric assay, using microparticles coated with TP fixed on the surface of polystyrene latex particles which agglutinate by an antigen-antibody reaction when anti-TP antigen is present in the specimen. The assay was implemented on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System. Modified CLSI protocols were adopted. Acceptance criteria for total imprecision were 5% for negative samples (or SD 0.5 U/mL and 4% for positive samples. In comparison to commercial methods, sensitivity must be 99.5% and specificity 99.5%. Results. Total imprecision (22 days gave SD at 6 U/mL lower than 0.5 U/mL, and CV% at 10 U/mL and 45 U/mL lower than 4%. Low quantitation limit is 5 U/mL. No prozone up to 13000 U/mL was found. In the on-board calibration stability study no drift was found up to 4 weeks. 153 samples were tested vs immunoblotting method and specificity was 100%, sensitivity was 100%. 495 samples were tested vs ELISA method and test specificity and sensitivity were 99.6% and 100% respectively. 521 samples were tested vs immunoturbidimetric method and specificity was 99.8%, sensitivity was 100%. Interference from Bilirubin (20 mg/dL, Hemoglobin (500 mg/dL and Triglycerides (1000 mg/dL was not detected.All the sample collection tubes tested (K2EDTA, SST, LH PST II, LH, NH did not interfere with the assay. Conclusion. Performances of the new SENTINEL Syphilis assay on Vitros® 5600 Integrated System meet the requirements for its use as screening tool in blood bank, thus allowing consolidation with general chemistry on a single high volume chemistry analyzer, which is

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. EVALUATION OF CHRONOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW SYSTEM IN URMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalilzadeh, Y. Rahimi and A. Parvaresh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW is a serious environmental hazard and social problem in Iran. Currently a high volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Iran and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated due to the limited resources to handle the increasing rate of generated waste. Due to this fact that more than 60% of solid waste management cost is usually alocated for purpose collection and transportation of generated solid waste in the city. Analysis of this section and understanding of its effect on the management system could have a great role in reduction the costs and solving many of exist problems. This study illustrate the effectiveness of timing managing an MSW economy and that has been carried out as a case study in Urmia. Results of this research illustrsate that 58.3% in Neisan, 68.7% in Khavar, 61.5% in Benz, 81.3% in Compactor and 59.3% in FAUN 0f each cycle time is pickup time.. Mean of traveling speed for Van, Mini-truck, Truck, FAUN and Compactor was 35,46,41,38 and 42 kilometer per hour respectively. Total spent time for collection and transportation of solid waste were 1:21 hour with Van, 1:23 hour with Mini-truck, 1:29 hour with Truck, 17 minutes with FAUN and 57 minutes with Compactor. Result of this study illustrated Van is the most economic vehicle for solid waste collection system in Urmia city. Generally, priority to usage of solid waste collection vehicles illustrate in below: Truck < Mini-truck < Compactor < Van < FAUN