WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste amendments hswa

  1. 75 FR 65482 - Approval of a Petition for Exemption From Hazardous Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to ArcelorMittal Burns Harbor, LLC, Burns Harbor, IN AGENCY... restrictions under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and... hazardous waste injection well specifically identified as Spent Pickle Liquor No. 1; and of waste ammonia...

  2. 75 FR 30392 - Approval of a Petition for Exemption from Hazardous Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... petition for renewal of an existing exemption from the land disposal restrictions of hazardous waste on... Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to Cabot Corporation Tuscola, Tuscola, IL AGENCY: Environmental... under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  3. 77 FR 65314 - Missouri: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... application, subject to the limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). New... RCRA Cluster XI NESHAPS: Final Standards for 65 FR 42292, 07/10/ 10 CSR 25- Hazardous Air Pollutants 00... 66 FR 35087, 7/ *10 CSR 25- Checklist 188. 03/01. 7.7270(2)(D)6 is excluded from the authorization...

  4. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  5. Amendment of Ordinance on collection and despatch of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The Ordinance was amended to specify the conditions for interim storage of radioactive waste. Until it is finally disposed of, such waste will be stored on premises fitted up by the Federal Institute for Reactor Research. The amendment entered into force on 1 April 1987. (NEA) [fr

  6. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment AGENCY: Environmental...) 260.20 and 260.22 allows facilities to demonstrate that a specific waste from a particular generating facility should not be regulated as a hazardous waste. Based on waste-specific information provided by the...

  7. Tank waste remediation system retrieval authorization basis amendment task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and the Process Development group within the Waste Feed Delivery organization. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Waste Delivery Program, Project W-211, and Project W-TBD

  8. Review Guidance for the TWRS FSAR amendment for Waste Retrieval and waste feed delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRIFFITH, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This review guidance (Guide) was developed for Office of River Protection (ORP) reviewers to use in reviewing the amendment to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) covering waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. Waste retrieval and waste feed delivery are necessary to supply nuclear waste from TWRS storage tanks to the TWRS Privatization (TWRS-P) Contractor's vitrification facility and to receive intermediate waste from the vitrification facility back into the TWRS tank farms for interim storage. An amendment to the approved TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067,Rev. 0) is necessary to change the authorization basis to accommodate waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. The ORP'S safety responsibility in reviewing the FSAR amendment is to determine that reasonable assurance exists that waste retrieval and waste feed delivery operations can be accomplished with adequate safety for the workers, the public, and the environment. To carry out this responsibility, the ORP will evaluate the Contractor's amendment to the TWRS FSAR for waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to determine whether the submittal provides adequate safety and complies with applicable regulatory requirements

  9. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structure, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and addition additional information. 6 refs

  10. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and adding additional information. 6 refs

  11. Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.

  12. 78 FR 9747 - Request To Amend A License To Import; Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend A License To Import; Radioactive Waste Pursuant to... Country from application no.; docket no. Diversified Scientific Class A radioactive Up to 378,000 Volume reduction...... Canada Services, Inc.; January 10, mixed waste kilograms. Amend to: (1) add four 2013...

  13. 78 FR 9746 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to... radioactive disposition. Amend which was imported mixed waste) in to: 1) add four from Canada under NRC a....; docket No. country Diversified Scientific Class A radioactive Up to a maximum Return of non- Canada...

  14. Hanford Site Waste Managements Units reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC 1984). This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in this report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. The information in this report is extracted from the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The WIDS provides additional information concerning the waste management units contained in this report and is maintained current with changes to these units. This report is updated annually if determined necessary per the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990). This report identifies 1,414 waste management units. Of these, 1,015 units are identified as solid waste management units (SWMU), and 342 are RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal units. The remaining 399 are comprised mainly of one-time spills to the environment, sanitary waste disposal facilities (i.e., septic tanks), and surplus facilities awaiting decontamination and decommissioning

  15. 78 FR 53793 - Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to... (Class A total of 5,500 ``Foreign Suppliers.'' No IW022/04 radioactive tons of low- other changes to the existing 11005700 waste). level waste). license which authorizes the import of low-level waste for...

  16. 78 FR 26812 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to...; XW012/03; 11005699. A radioactive total of 5,500 Energy of Canada waste). tons of low- Limited facilities as level waste). ``Ultimate Foreign Consignee(s).'' No other changes to the existing license which...

  17. 77 FR 52073 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to..., 2012, July 31, 2012, XW012/ radioactive total of 5,500 materials and/or 02, 11005699. waste including tons or about radioactive various 1,000 tons waste that is materials (e.g., metal, 4,000 attributed to...

  18. 78 FR 7818 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to... Class A radioactive secondary waste will waste imported in either be returned accordance with NRC... Recipient country application no.; docket No. Eastern Technologies, Inc.; Class A radioactive The total...

  19. 78 FR 53793 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to... total of 5,500 ``Ultimate Foreign XW012/04 radioactive tons of low- Consignee(s).'' No other 11005699 waste). level waste). changes to the existing license which authorizes the export of non-conforming...

  20. 78 FR 26813 - Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to..., 2013, April 23, material (Class to a maximum the licensee name 2013, IW022/03, 11005700. A radioactive total of 5,500 from ``Perma-Fix waste). tons of low- Environmental level waste). Services, Inc.'' to...

  1. 78 FR 9111 - Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units: Reconsideration and Final Amendments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... impacts? 2. What are the water and solid waste impacts? 3. What are the energy impacts? 4. What are the.... Pulp and Paper Sludge 4. Rulemaking Petition Process for Other Categorical Non-Waste Determinations (40... and 241 Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units: Reconsideration and Final Amendments...

  2. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelle, P.A.; Aneja, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO 3 - -N -1 dry weight, NH 3 -N∼23,080mg Nkg -1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N∼41,700mg Nkg -1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9ngNm -2 s -1 . Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±l.7ngNm -2 s -1 . The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0ng Nm -2 s -1 . An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space (%WFPS) were observed

  3. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  4. 40 CFR 2.305 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. 2.305 Section 2.305 Protection of... § 2.305 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as...

  5. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía

    2016-01-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were...

  6. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, with appropriations acts appended. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This act provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, low-level radioactive wastes, and spent nuclear fuels. In addition, it establishes research and development programs, as well as demonstration programs regarding the disposal of these wastes. This Act consists of the Act of Jan. 7, 1983 (Public Law 97-425; 96 Stat. 2201), as amended by Public Law 100-203 and Public Law 102-486

  7. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  8. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds.

  9. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... waste, prevention of environmental pollution problems and conversion of low quality waste biomasses ... forests and farmland for sale in Africa (Onuoha et al., ..... maize in the absence of synthetic fertilizers (Nottidge et.

  10. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A; Cox, Lucia; Velarde, P; Koskinen, William C; Cornejo, Juan

    2007-06-13

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (alperujo) on soil sorption-desorption, degradation, and leaching of diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] and terbuthylazine [N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine], two herbicides widely used in olive crops. The soils used in this study were a sandy soil and a silty clay soil from two different olive groves. The sandy soil was amended in the laboratory with fresh (uncomposted) alperujo at the rate of 10% w/w, and the silty clay soil was amended in the field with fresh alperujo at the rate of 256 kg per tree during 4 years and in the laboratory with fresh or composted alperujo. Sorption of both herbicides increased in laboratory-amended soils as compared to unamended or field-amended soils, and this process was less reversible in laboratory-amended soils, except for diuron in amended sandy soil. Addition of alperujo to soils increased half-lives of the herbicides in most of the soils. Diuron and terbuthylazine leached through unamended sandy soil, but no herbicide was detected in laboratory-amended soil. Diuron did not leach through amended or unamended silty clay soil, whereas small amounts of terbuthylazine were detected in leachates from unamended soil. Despite their higher sorption capacity, greater amounts of terbuthylazine were found in the leachates from amended silty clay soils. The amounts of dissolved organic matter from alperujo and the degree of humification can affect sorption, degradation, and leaching of these two classes of herbicides in soils. It appears that adding alperujo to soil would not have adverse impacts on the behavior of herbicides in olive production.

  11. Planned amendment to the Atomic Energy Act in the area of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the present lack of agreement on nuclear energy utilization the lecturer would rather abide by the present legal status of the Atomic Energy Act and thus prefer no amendment. However he considers a jurisprudential discussion expedient and debates the main points of the Rengeling expertise from his point of view: privatization, licensing competence, plan approval, proof of having made provisions for waste disposal, European cooperation, direct ultimate waste disposal, financing. (HSCH) [de

  12. River Protection Double-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522

  13. Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIS, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522

  14. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  15. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Seven different substrates (A to G) were prepared from saw dust, palm press ... can grow in a wide range of soil types with relatively low ..... documented to include; cotton waste, sugar cane ..... Canada wood ash sources. Can.

  16. Nitrogen amendment of green waste impacts microbial community, enzyme secretion and potential for lignocellulose decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chaowei; Harrold, Duff R.; Claypool, Joshua T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Simmons, Christopher W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms involved in biomass deconstruction are an important resource for organic waste recycling and enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion. The goals of this paper were to examine the impact of nitrogen amendment on microbial community restructuring, secretion of xylanases and endoglucanases, and potential for biomass deconstruction. Communities were cultivated aerobically at 55 °C on green waste (GW) amended with varying levels of NH4Cl. Bacterial and fungal communities were determined using 16S rRNA and ITS region gene sequencing and PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) was applied to predict relative abundance of genes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased secretion of xylanases and endoglucanases, and microbial activity; enzyme activities and cumulative respiration were greatest when nitrogen level in GW was between 4.13–4.56 wt% (g/g), but decreased with higher nitrogen levels. The microbial community shifted to one with increasing potential to decompose complex polymers as nitrogen increased with peak potential occurring between 3.79–4.45 wt% (g/g) nitrogen amendment. Finally, the results will aid in informing the management of nitrogen level to foster microbial communities capable of secreting enzymes that hydrolyze recalcitrant polymers in lignocellulose and yield rapid decomposition of green waste.

  17. Consequences of the amended Biomass Waste Ordinance for biological waste treatment; Konsequenzen der novellierten Bioabfallverordnung fuer die biologische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehres, Bertram [Bundesguetegemeinschaft Kompost e.V. (BGK), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The amended Biomass Waste Ordinance will bring about changes in biological waste treatment to which operators of composting and fermenting plants will have to adapt. The contribution outlines the most relevant changes; at the time of publication, it was not known how the Bundesrat would decide with regard to the Amendment, probably in late March 2012. (orig.) [German] Die Novelle der Bioabfallverordnung wird fuer die biologische Abfallbehandlung verschiedene Veraenderungen mit sich bringen, auf die sich Betreiber von Kompostierungs- und von Vergaerungsanlagen einzustellen haben. Auf die wesentlichen Aenderungen wird in diesem Beitrag eingegangen. Zum Zeitpunkt der Abfassung dieses Beitrages ist allerdings noch nicht vollstaendig bekannt, wie der Bundesrat - voraussichtlich Ende Maerz 2012 - ueber die Novelle abschliessend entscheiden wird. (orig.)

  18. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  19. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...

  20. Weed seed inactivation in soil mesocosms via biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing waste amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmon, Yigal; Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Hernandez, Katie; McCurry, Dlinka G; Harrold, Duff R; Su, Joey; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-05-01

    Biosolarization is a fumigation alternative that combines passive solar heating with amendment-driven soil microbial activity to temporarily create antagonistic soil conditions, such as elevated temperature and acidity, that can inactivate weed seeds and other pest propagules. The aim of this study was to use a mesocosm-based field trial to assess soil heating, pH, volatile fatty acid accumulation and weed seed inactivation during biosolarization. Biosolarization for 8 days using 2% mature green waste compost and 2 or 5% tomato processing residues in the soil resulted in accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the soil, particularly acetic acid, and >95% inactivation of Brassica nigra and Solanum nigrum seeds. Inactivation kinetics data showed that near complete weed seed inactivation in soil was achieved within the first 5 days of biosolarization. This was significantly greater than the inactivation achieved in control soils that were solar heated without amendment or were amended but not solar heated. The composition and concentration of organic matter amendments in soil significantly affected volatile fatty acid accumulation at various soil depths during biosolarization. Combining solar heating with organic matter amendment resulted in accelerated weed seed inactivation compared with either approach alone. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 75 FR 78918 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... and Community Right-to-Know Act FDA Food and Drug Administration HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste...(f)), and hazardous substances (40 CFR 302.4) based solely upon the evidence that it is a potential... subsequently identified as hazardous wastes in Sec. 261.33(f) based solely on their potential for carcinogenic...

  2. Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Degraded land that is historically contaminated from different sources of industrial waste provides an opportunity for conversion to bioenergy fuel production and also to increase sequestration of carbon in soil through organic amendments. In pot experiments, As mobility was investigated in three different brownfield soils amended with green waste compost (GWC, 30% v/v) or biochar (BC, 20% v/v), planted with Miscanthus. Using GWC improved crop yield but had little effect on foliar As uptake, although the proportion of As transferred from roots to foliage differed considerably between the three soils. It also increased dissolved carbon concentrations in soil pore water that influenced Fe and As mobility. Effects of BC were less pronounced, but the impacts of both amendments on SOC, Fe, P and pH are likely to be critical in the context of As leaching to ground water. Growing Miscanthus had no measurable effect on As mobility. - Green waste compost enhances water-soluble iron, phosphorus and carbon, increasing arsenic mobility in soil pore water.

  3. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  4. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The genetic structure of soil bacterial community was transiently affected by diuron. • Soil amended with vermicompost regulated diuron persistence in soil. • puhB abundance increased after bacterial-community pre-exposure to diuron. • O-Vermicompost mitigated diuron fate by improving microbial activity. - Abstract: Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT_5_0 > 200 day"−"1, E2-DT_5_0 < 16 day"−"1). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability.

  5. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Jean Manuel, E-mail: jeanmanuel.castillo04@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Protection, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (EEZ-CSIC), C/Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain); Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [French National Institute for Agricultural Research—INRA, UMR 1347 Agroécologie, 17 rue Sully, B P 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex (France); Romero, Esperanza [Department of Environmental Protection, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (EEZ-CSIC), C/Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • The genetic structure of soil bacterial community was transiently affected by diuron. • Soil amended with vermicompost regulated diuron persistence in soil. • puhB abundance increased after bacterial-community pre-exposure to diuron. • O-Vermicompost mitigated diuron fate by improving microbial activity. - Abstract: Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT{sub 50} > 200 day{sup −1}, E2-DT{sub 50} < 16 day{sup −1}). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability.

  6. Metal mobility assessment for the application of an urban organic waste amendment in two degraded semiarid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Párraga-Aguado, Isabel; Álvarez-Rogel, José; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Urban organic waste materials may find a potential use as amendments in agricultural or environmental fields. However, before being applied in field practices, urban organic wastes must meet some environmental and legal requirements. The objective of this work was to assess the metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb

  7. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80Mgha-1) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tes...

  8. Changes on aggregation in mine waste amended with biochar and marble mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, María; Guzmán, Jose; Zornoza, Raúl; Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Faz, Ángel; Lal, Rattan

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities have produced large amounts of wastes over centuries accumulated in tailing ponds in Southeast Spain. Applications of biochar may have a high potential for reclamation of degraded soils. Distribution, size and stability of aggregates are important indices of soil physical quality. However, research data on aggregation processes at amended mining tailings with biochar are scanty. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of seven different treatments involving biochar and marble mud (MM) on the aggregation in mine waste (MW). Seven different treatments were tested after 90 days of incubation in the laboratory. These treatments were the mix of MW and: biochar from solid pig manure (PM), biochar from cotton crop residues (CR), biochar from municipal solid waste (MSW), marble mud (MM), PM+MM, CR+MM, MSW+MM and control without amendment. High sand percentages were identified in the MW. The biochars made from wastes (PM, CR, MSW) were obtained through pyrolysis of feedstocks. The water stability of soil aggregates was studied. The data on total aggregation were corrected for the primary particles considering the sandy texture of the MW. Moreover, partial aggregation was determined for each fraction and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates was computed. Soil bulk density and total porosity were also determined. No significant differences were observed in total aggregation and MWD among treatments including the control. For the size range of >4.75 mm, there were significant differences in aggregates > 4.75 mm between CR+MM in comparison with that for CT. There were also significant differences between MSW and PM+MM for the 1-0.425 mm fraction, and between CT and MM and CR for 0.425-0.162 mm aggregate size fractions. Therefore, CR-derived biochar applied with MM enhanced stability of macro-aggregates. Furthermore, soil bulk density was also the lowest bulk density and total porosity the highest for the CR-derived biochar

  9. Humic Substances in Organic Wastes and their Effects on Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, N.; Ciavatta, C.; Plaza, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil humic substances (HS) are universally recognized to play a major role in a wide number of agronomic and environmental processes. For example, soil HS are able to bind mineral particles together, thus promoting a good soil structure, constitute an important source of nutrients for plants and microorganisms, contribute largely to the acid-base buffering capacity of soils, and exert a marked control on the biological availability, physico-chemical behavior, and environmental fate of toxic metal ions and xenobiotics. For these reasons, the knowledge of the short- and long-term effects of organic amendments on the status, quality, and reactivity of indigenous soil HS is of paramount importance. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the chemical and physico-chemical data available in the literature for the evaluation of the effects of organic wastes of various origin and nature used as soil amendments on the composition, structure, and chemical reactivity of native soil HS. In general, HS-like components of organic wastes are typically characterized by a relatively larger presence of aliphatic, amide, and polysaccharide structures, simple structural components of wide molecular heterogeneity, smaller contents of oxygen, acidic functional groups, and organic free radicals, and smaller degrees of aromatic ring polycondensation, polymerization, and humification than native soil HS. Further, with respect to native soil HS, HS-like fractions from organic wastes generally exhibit smaller binding capacities and affinities for metal ions and organic xenobiotics. Appropriate treatment processes of raw organic wastes able to produce environmentally safe and agronomically efficient soil amendments, such as composting, yield HS-like fractions characterized by chemical and physico-chemical features that approach those of native soil HS. In general, aliphatic, polysaccharide, and lignin structures and S- and N-containing groups of the HS-like fractions

  10. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  11. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  12. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  13. Performance of waste-based amendments to reduce metal release from mine tailings: One-year leaching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Villaseñor, José; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2018-03-01

    A one-year leaching experiment has been conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of several amendments on metal immobilization in mine tailings from an old Pb/Zn mining area of Central Spain (San Quintín mine). Demineralized water was used as leaching solution, selecting doses equivalent to the annual rainfall conditions of the studied area. Columns with mine tailings without any amendment and others treated with 10% of sugar foam (SF), 15% of drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), 30% of paper mill sludge (PMS) and 15% of olive mill waste (OMW) were used. SF, DWS and PMS amendments increased the pH of leachates from values of approximately 4 to around neutrality. Additionally, the release of sulfate ions from the oxidation of pyritic residues was decreased in some extent by SF and DWS amendments. Metal leaching was effectively reduced by the amendments reaching overall decreases with respect to the unamended columns of 79-96% for Pb, 36-100% for Zn, 50-99% for Cu and 44-100% for Cd. The effect of the amendments in leachate pH, sulfate concentration and metal release from mine tailings was kept throughout the whole experimental period. Our results showed that the application of different organic and inorganic amendments based on by-products and waste materials may be a feasible alternative for the restoration of soils around abandoned metal mines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: asatou@ari.pref.niigata.jp [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroyuki [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Oyanagi, Wataru [Niigata Livestock Research Center, 178 Tanahire, Sanjo, Niigata 955-0143 (Japan); Nishihara, Eiji [Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Masaharu [Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  15. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  16. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  17. Phosphorus leaching from soils amended with thermally gasified piggery waste ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2009-01-01

    In regions with intensive livestock farming, thermal treatment for local energy extraction from the manure and export of the P rich ash as a fertilizer has gained interest. One of the main risks associated with P fertilizers is eutrophication of water bodies. In this study P and K mobility in ash...... from anaerobically digested, thermally gasified (GA) and incinerated (IA) piggery waste has been tested using water loads ranging from 0.1 to 200 ml g−1. Leaching of P from soil columns amended with GA was investigated for one P application rate (205 kg P ha−1 corresponding to 91 mg P kg−1 soil dry...... matter) as a function of precipitation rate (9.5 and 2.5 mm h−1), soil type (Jyndevad agricultural soil and sand), amount of time elapsed between ash amendment and onset of precipitation (0 and 5 weeks) and compared to leaching from soils amended with a commercial fertilizer (Na2HPO4). Water soluble P...

  18. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  19. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 43002 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... ConocoPhillips filter press processing of storm water Billings Refinery). tank sludge (F037) generated at... residual solids from the processed storm water tank sludge meet the delisting levels in 40 CFR 261 Appendix... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [FRL 9704-1] Hazardous Waste Management System...

  1. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  2. Carbon amendment stimulates benthic nitrogen cycling during the bioremediation of particulate aquaculture waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgina; MacTavish, Thomas; Savage, Candida; Caldwell, Gary S.; Jones, Clifford L. W.; Probyn, Trevor; Eyre, Bradley D.; Stead, Selina M.

    2018-03-01

    The treatment of organic wastes remains one of the key sustainability challenges facing the growing global aquaculture industry. Bioremediation systems based on coupled bioturbation-microbial processing offer a promising route for waste management. We present, for the first time, a combined biogeochemical-molecular analysis of the short-term performance of one such system that is designed to receive nitrogen-rich particulate aquaculture wastes. Using sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra) as a model bioturbator we provide evidence that adjusting the waste C : N from 5 : 1 to 20 : 1 promoted a shift in nitrogen cycling pathways towards the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), resulting in net NH4+ efflux from the sediment. The carbon amended treatment exhibited an overall net N2 uptake, whereas the control receiving only aquaculture waste exhibited net N2 production, suggesting that carbon supplementation enhanced nitrogen fixation. The higher NH4+ efflux and N2 uptake was further supported by meta-genome predictions that indicate that organic-carbon addition stimulated DNRA over denitrification. These findings indicate that carbon addition may potentially result in greater retention of nitrogen within the system; however, longer-term trials are necessary to determine whether this nitrogen retention is translated into improved sea cucumber biomass yields. Whether this truly constitutes a remediation process is open for debate as there remains the risk that any increased nitrogen retention may be temporary, with any subsequent release potentially raising the eutrophication risk. Longer and larger-scale trials are required before this approach may be validated with the complexities of the in-system nitrogen cycle being fully understood.

  3. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  4. No-migration variance petition for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, R.G.; Hart, J.S.; Knudtsen, K.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) project to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities and programs. The DOE is developing the WIPP facility as a deep geologic repository in bedded salt for transuranic (TRU) waste currently stored at or generated by DOE defense installations. Approximately 60 percent of the wastes proposed to be emplaced in the WIPP are radioactive mixed wastes. Because such mixed wastes contain a hazardous chemical component, the WIPP is subject to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In 1984 Congress amended the RCRA with passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), which established a stringent regulatory program to prohibit the land disposal of hazardous waste unless (1) the waste is treated to meet treatment standards or other requirements established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under section 3004(n), or (2) the EPA determines that compliance with the land disposal restrictions is not required in order to protect human health and the environment. The DOE WIPP Project Office has prepared and submitted to the EPA a no-migration variance petition for the WIPP facility. The purpose of the petition is to demonstrate, according to the requirements of RCRA section 3004(d) and 40 CFR section 268.6, that to a reasonable degree of certainty, there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the WIPP facility for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. This paper provides an overview of the petition and describes the EPA review process, including key issues that have emerged during the review. 5 refs

  5. No-migration variance petition for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, R.G.; Hart, J.S. (Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Knudtsen, K. (International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) project to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities and programs. The DOE is developing the WIPP facility as a deep geologic repository in bedded salt for transuranic (TRU) waste currently stored at or generated by DOE defense installations. Approximately 60 percent of the wastes proposed to be emplaced in the WIPP are radioactive mixed wastes. Because such mixed wastes contain a hazardous chemical component, the WIPP is subject to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In 1984 Congress amended the RCRA with passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), which established a stringent regulatory program to prohibit the land disposal of hazardous waste unless (1) the waste is treated to meet treatment standards or other requirements established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under {section}3004(n), or (2) the EPA determines that compliance with the land disposal restrictions is not required in order to protect human health and the environment. The DOE WIPP Project Office has prepared and submitted to the EPA a no-migration variance petition for the WIPP facility. The purpose of the petition is to demonstrate, according to the requirements of RCRA {section}3004(d) and 40 CFR {section}268.6, that to a reasonable degree of certainty, there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the WIPP facility for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. This paper provides an overview of the petition and describes the EPA review process, including key issues that have emerged during the review. 5 refs.

  6. The low-level waste handbook: A user's guide to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1986-11-01

    This report provides a detailed, section-by-section analysis of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Appendices include lists of relevant law and legislation, relevant Congressional committees, members of Congress mentioned in the report, and exact copies of the 1980 and 1985 Acts

  7. OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] mission plan amendment with comments on the draft amendment and responses to the comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) published in June 1985 the Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. That document was to provide an informational basis sufficient to permit informed decisions to be made in carrying out the program. DOE recognized that the Mission Plan would be revised. The first such revision is this amendment, which has been prepared to apprise the Congress of significant recent achievements in the waste-management program, the revised schedule for the first repository, and the intent to postpone site-specific work for the second repository and plans for continuing the technology-development program for the second repository. Included are the DOE's submittal to the Congress of a proposal for the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) as an integral part of the waste-management system and aspects of the consultation-and-cooperation interactions between the DOE and affected states and Indian tribes. The amendment presents the DOE's considered and informed judgments, based on its actual experience in administering these programs, of the preferred courses and schedules for the national program. 104 refs., 7 tabs

  8. Use of mixed solid waste as a soil amendment for saline-sodic soil remediation and oat seedling growth improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan; Ge, Tian; Zheng, Yanli; Li, Hua; Cheng, Fangqin

    2016-11-01

    Soil salinization has become a worldwide problem that imposes restrictions on crop production and food quality. This study utilizes a soil column experiment to address the potential of using mixed solid waste (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) as soil amendment to ameliorate saline-sodic soil and enhance crop growth. Mixed solid waste with vinegar residue content ranging from 60-90 %, sewage sludge of 8.7-30 %, and fly ash of 1.3-10 % was added to saline-sodic soil (electrical conductivity (EC 1:5 ) = 1.83 dS m -1 , sodium adsorption ratio (SAR 1:5 ) = 129.3 (mmol c L -1 ) 1/2 , pH = 9.73) at rates of 0 (control), 130, 260, and 650 kg ha -1 . Results showed that the application of waste amendment significantly reduced SAR, while increasing soil soluble K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ , at a dose of 650 kg ha -1 . The wet stability of macro-aggregates (>1 mm) was improved 90.7-133.7 % when the application rate of amendment was greater than 260 kg ha -1 . The application of this amendment significantly reduced soil pH. Germination rates and plant heights of oats were improved with the increasing rate of application. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of vinegar residue and the K/Na ratio in the soil solutions and roots. These findings suggest that applying a mixed waste amendment (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) could be a cost-effective method for the reclamation of saline-sodic soil and the improvement of the growth of salt-tolerant plants.

  9. Agronomic benefits of biochar as a soil amendment after its use as waste water filtration medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Steffen; Kätzl, Korbinian; Wichern, Marc; Buerkert, Andreas; Steiner, Christoph; Marschner, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In many water-scarce countries, waste water is used for irrigation which poses a health risk to farmers and consumers. At the same time, it delivers nutrients to the farming systems. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that biochar can be used as a filter medium for waste water treatment to reduce pathogen loads. At the same time, the biochar is becoming enriched with nutrients and therefore can act as a fertilizer for soil amendment. We used biochar as a filter medium for the filtration of raw waste water and compared the agronomic effects of this "filterchar" (FC) and the untreated biochar (BC) in a greenhouse pot trial on spring wheat biomass production on an acidic sandy soil from Niger. The biochar filter showed the same removal of pathogens as a common sand filter (1.4 log units on average). We did not observe a nutrient accumulation in FC compared to untreated BC. Instead, P, Mg and K were reduced during filtration while N content remained unchanged. Nevertheless, higher biomass (Triticum L. Spp.) production in BC (+72%) and FC (+37%) treatments (20 t ha -1 ), compared with the unamended control, were found. There were no significant differences in aboveground biomass production between BC and FC. Soil available P content was increased by BC (+106%) and FC (+52%) application. Besides, mineral nitrogen content was reduced in BC treated soil and to a lesser extent when FC was used. This may be explained by reduced sorption affinity for mineral nitrogen compounds on FC surfaces. Although the nutrients provided by FC decreased, due to leaching in the filter, it still yielded higher biomass than the unamended control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recycling soil nitrate nitrogen by amending agricultural lands with oily food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P

    2003-01-01

    With current agricultural practices the amounts of fertilizer N applied are frequently more than the amounts removed by the crop. Excessive N application may result in short-term accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in soil, which can easily be leached from the root zone and into the ground water. A management practice suggested for conserving accumulated NO3-N is the application of oily food waste (FOG; fat + oil + greases) to agricultural soils. A two-year field study (1995-1996 and 1996-1997) was conducted at Elora Research Center (43 degrees 38' N, 80 degrees W; 346 m above mean sea level), University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the effect of FOG application in fall and spring on soil NO3-N contents and apparent N immobilization-mineralization of soil N in the 0- to 60-cm soil layer. The experiment was planned under a randomized complete block design with four replications. An unamended control and a reference treatment [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop] were included in the experiment to compare the effects of fall and spring treatment of oily food waste on soil NO3-N contents and apparent N immobilization-mineralization. Oily food waste application at 10 Mg ha(-1) in the fall decreased soil NO3-N by immobilization and conserved 47 to 56 kg NO3-N ha(-1), which would otherwise be subject to leaching. Nitrogen immobilized due to FOG application in the fall was subsequently remineralized by the time of fertilizer N sidedress, whereas no net mineralization was observed in spring-amended plots at the same time.

  11. Evaluation of maifanite and silage as amendments for green waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2018-04-23

    Composting is a popular method for recycling organic solid wastes including agricultural and forestry residues. However, traditional composting method is time consuming, generates foul smells, and produces an immature product. The effects of maifanite (MF; at 0%, 8.5%, and 13.5%) and/or silage (SG; at 0%, 25%, and 45%) as amendments on an innovative, two-stage method for composting green waste (GW) were investigated. The combined addition of MF and SG greatly improved composting conditions, reduced composting time, and enhanced compost quality in terms of composting temperature, bulk density, water-holding capacity, void ratio, pH, cation exchange capacity, ammonia nitrogen content, dissolved organic carbon content, crude fibre degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, nutrient contents, and phytotoxicity. The two-stage composting of GW with 8.5% MF and 45% SG generated the highest quality and the most mature compost product and did so in only 21 days. With the optimized composting, the degradation rate of cellulose and hemicellulose reached 46.3 and 82.3%, respectively, and the germination index of Chinese cabbage and lucerne was 153 and 172%, respectively, which were all far higher than values obtained with the control. The combined effects of MF and SG on GW composting have not been previously explored, and this study therefore provided new and practical information. The comprehensive analyses of compost properties during and at the end of the process provided insight into underlying mechanisms. The optimized two-stage composting method may be a viable and sustainable alternative for GW management in that it converts the waste into a useful product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  13. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  14. Quaternary herbicides retention by the amendment of acid soils with a bentonite-based waste from wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateiro-Moure, M; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J C; Arias-Estévez, M; López-Periago, E; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2009-05-30

    The agronomic utility of a solid waste, waste bentonite (WB), from wine companies was assessed. In this sense, the natural characteristics of the waste were measured, followed by the monitoring of its effects on the adsorption/desorption behaviour of three quaternary herbicides in acid soils after the addition of increasing levels of waste. This was done with the intention of studying the effect of the added organic matter on their adsorption. The high content in C (294 g kg(-1)), N (28 g kg(-1)), P (584 mg kg(-1)) and K (108 g kg(-1)) of WB turned it into an appropriate amendment to increase soil fertility, solving at the same time its disposal. WB also reduced the potential Cu phytotoxicity due to a change in Cu distribution towards less soluble fractions. The adsorption of the herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat by acid soils amended with different ratios of WB was measured. In all cases, Langmuir equation was fitted to the data. Paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) were adsorbed and retained more strongly than difenzoquat (DFQ) in the acid soil studied. However, the lowest retention of DFQ in an acid soil can be increased by amendment with organic matter through a solid waste from wineries, and it is enough for duplicate retention a dosage rate of 10t/ha. Anyway, detritivores ecology can still be affected. Detritivores are the organisms that consume organic material, and in doing so contribute to decomposition and the recycling of nutrients. The term can also be applied to certain bottom-feeders in wet environments, which play a crucial role in benthic ecosystems, forming essential food chains and participating in the nitrogen cycle.

  15. Low-level radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility -- Permanent disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Jasen, W.G.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive mixed waste (RMW) disposal at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). Westinghouse Hanford Company, in Richland, Washington, has completed the design of a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility, which is based on the best available technology compliant with RCRA. When completed, this facility will provide permanent disposal of solid RMW, after treatment, in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The facility includes a double clay and geosynthetic liner with a leachate collection system to minimize potential leakage of radioactive or hazardous constituents from the landfill. The two clay liners will be capable of achieving a permeability of less than 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. The two clay liners, along with the two high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners and the leachate collection and removal system, provide a more than conservative, physical containment of any potential radioactive and/or hazardous contamination

  16. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    contents increased in BC10 treatment, while the K contents were similar in all treatments as well as C/N ratio (around 15). The organic matter content was BC10>BC5>BC0 and the dissolved organic C content was lower than 8.3 g kg-1 for all piles confirming the maturity of compost. The germination test showed a non-toxic effect of all amendments in the species assayed obtaining a germination index between 55% and 80.7% indicating maturity of the amendments evaluated. Our results indicated that the combined use of agricultural wastes and biochar by mean of a co-composting process is a suitable option for generating good quality amendments for improving soil condition and optimizing nutrient cycling at farm scale. Financial support for this research was provided by the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research through FONDECYT 11140508 Project

  17. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  18. APPROVAL OF WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT CONTRACTOR-INITIATED AUTHORIZATION BASIS AMENDMENT REQUESTS (ABAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JONES GL

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to describe the process used by the Office of River Protection (ORP) for evaluating and implementing Contractor-initiated changes to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Authorization Basis (AB). The WTP Project's history has provided a unique challenge for establishing and maintaining an ORP-approved AB during design and construction. Until operations begin, the project cannot implement the classic Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process to determine when ORP approval of Contractor-initiated changes is required. A 'quasiUSQ' process has been implemented that defines when AB changes could occur. The three types of AB changes are (1) Limited Scope Changes, (2) Authorization Basis Deviations, and (3) Authorization Basis Amendment Request (ABAR). DOE RL/REG 97-13, 'Office of River Protection Position on Contractor-Initiated Changes to the Authorization Basis', describes the process the WTP Contractor must follow to make changes to the AB, with and without ORP approval. The process uses a 'safety evaluation' process that is similar to the USQ process but at a more qualitative level. The maturation of the WTP Contractor's facility design and activities, and other changing conditions, resulted in a process that allows the Contractor to make changes to the AB without ORP approval; however, those changes that may significantly affect nuclear safety do require ORP approval. This process balances the WTP regulatory principle of efficiency with assurance that adequate safety will not be compromised. The process has reduced the number of ABARs requiring ORP approval and reduced the potential for delays in design and procurement activities

  19. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar is organic matter that has been pyrolized under low oxygen conditions for use as a soil amendment. Currently biochar is viewed as a way to improve soil quality (e.g., increased nutrient and water holding capacity) and increase in soil carbon (C) sequestration. The use of biochar in soil is not new, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that control the interactions between biochar and soil following amendment. In the past, the effects of biochar addition on crop yields, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in both in-situ and controlled experiments have produced inconsistent results. These discrepancies may be uncovered in part by chemical and physical characterization of the biochar prior to amendment and identification of soil- and biochar-specific interactions. Furthermore, a more holistic consideration of the system may demonstrate the virtues of biochar amendment beyond the typical considerations of yield and gas flux. We expect that as the differences between the physical and chemical properties of the biochar and the soil increase, the impact on the soil quality metrics will also increase. For this study, we used a waste product (i.e., anaerobic digester sludge) biochar with 81.5% C, pH of 10.44, pH-independent charge for anion exchange capacity (AEC) and a pH-dependent charge for cation exchange capacity (CEC), 4.14% moisture content and 25.75 cmol¬c /kg exchangeable base cations. This biochar was incorporated into both a low and a high fertility Hawaiian field soil to quantitate biochar effects on crop yield, soil pH, CEC, AEC, hot and cold water extractable C and nitrogen, bulk density, phosphorus, soil microbial ecology, and GHG flux in varying soil conditions. Compared to the higher fertility soil, we hypothesized that the low fertility soil would demonstrate a greater increase in soil quality, including higher pH, CEC and water holding capacity. Two crop management practices were included with each soil: traditional

  1. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors

  2. Order of 2 March 1984 amending Order of 7 November 1979 on the setting up, within the Atomic Energy Commission, of a National Radioactive Waste Management Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Order amends the Order of 7th November 1979 concerning the setting up, within the CEA, of a National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). In connection with implementing waste storage operations, ANDRA's role remains unchanged; however, it seemed desirable to further strengthen research, development and assessment in the area of radioactive waste policy. These tasks are included in the CEA's responsibilities and are financed by its research budget. (NEA) [fr

  3. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Ch’ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixt...

  4. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  5. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huck Ywih Ch’ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp. to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus, and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  6. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. State implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985: Progress and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, T.D.

    1987-03-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (Public Law 96-573) assigned each state the responsibility for providing disposal capacity for the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within its borders, except for certain LLW generated by the activities of the federal government. The law also authorized and encouraged states to enter into interstate compacts to provide for the establishment and operation of regional LLW disposal facilities. The January 1986 enactment of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA), resolved an impasse that had delayed congressional consent to seven interstate compacts formed for the regional disposal of LLW. The Act ensures that LLW generators will have continued access to the three existing commercial LLW disposal sites through 1992 as long as their states or regions are in compliance with milestones prescribed in the Act for development of new disposal facilities. Furthermore, the LLRWPAA assigned several responsibilities to the Department of Energy. The objective of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 is to ensure the development of an effective, safe, and environmentally acceptable nationwide system for the disposal of LLW by 1993. The Department of Energy is assisting the states and regions to achieve that objective and ensure that the system that is developed provides for the safe management and disposal of LLW at reasonable costs. Furthermore, the Department is working with the states and regions to ensure that while the new system is being developed, there are not disruptions in the current LLW management and disposal practices and that the public continues to receive the benefits of the industries that rely on nuclear materials to deliver their services

  8. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, O. P.; Agamuthu, P.; Abdul Aziz, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration. PMID:22919502

  9. Co-digestion of agricultural and municipal waste to produce energy and soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In agriculture, manure and cotton gin waste are major environmental liabilities. Likewise, grass is an important organic component of municipal waste. These wastes were combined and used as substrates in a two-phase, pilot-scale anaerobic digester to evaluate the potential for biogas (methane) produ...

  10. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  11. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-02-25

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  12. Marble waste and pig manure amendments decrease metal availability, increase soil quality and facilitate vegetation development in bare mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, José A.; Gómez, M. Dolores; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In order to bring out a functional and sustainable land use in a highly contaminated mine tailing, firstly environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated by suitable reclamation activities. Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards, such as acidity and toxic metals reaching to waters through wind and water erosions and leaching. As a consequence, soils have no vegetation and low soil organic matter and nutrients. Various physicochemical and biochemical properties, together with exchangeable metals were measured before, 6 months and 12 months after the application of marble waste and pigs manure as reclamation strategy in a tailing pond from SE Spain to reduce hazards for environment and human health. Three months after the last addition of amendments, eight different native shrub species where planted for phytostabilization. Results showed the pH increased up to neutrality. Aggregates stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, microbial biomass and microbial activity increased with the application of the amendments, while exchangeable metals drastically decreased (~90%). After one year of plantation, only 20% planted species died, with a high growth of survivals reaching flowering and fructification. This study confirms the high effectiveness of initial applications of marble wastes together with pig manure and plantation of shrub species to initialize the recovery of the ecosystem in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Key Words: pig manure, marble waste, heavy metals, mine soil. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project MIPOLARE (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000439). J.A. Acosta acknowledges a "Saavedra Fajardo" contract from Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia (Spain)

  13. Soil amendments promote vegetation establishment and control acidity in coal combustion waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Danker; D.C. Adriano; Bon-Jun Koo; C.D. Barton

    2003-01-01

    The effects of adding various soil amendments and a pyrite oxidation inhibitor to aid in the establishment of vegetation and to reduce acid drainage (AD) from coal fly ash and coal reject (FA + CR*) were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm study. Preliminary greenhouse experiments and field observations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS)...

  14. BIODEGRADATION OF DIESEL OIL IN SOIL AND ITS ENHANCEMENT BY APPLICATION OF BIOVENTING AND AMENDMENT WITH BREWERY WASTE EFFLUENTS AS BIOSTIMULATION-BIOAUGMENTATION AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Agarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the effects of natural bioattenuation, bioventing, and brewery waste effluents amendment as biostimulation-bioaugmentation agent on biodegradation of diesel oil in unsaturated soil. A microcosm system was constructed consisting of five plastic buckets containing 1 kg of soil, artificially contaminated or spiked with 10% w/w of diesel oil. Biodegradation was monitored over 28 days by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the soil and total hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The results showed that combination of brewery waste effluents amendment and bioventing technique was the most effective, reaching up to 91.5% of diesel removal from contaminated soil; with the brewery waste effluents amendment (biostimulation-bioaugmentation, the percentage of diesel oil removal was 78.7%; with bioventing, diesel oil percentage degradation was 61.7% and the natural bioattenuation technique resulted in diesel oil removal percentage be not higher than 40%. Also, the total hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (THDB count in all the treatments increased throughout the remediation period. The highest bacterial growth was observed for combined brewery waste effluents amendment with bioventing treatment strategy. A first-order kinetic model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and the corresponding half-life time was estimated. The model revealed that diesel oil contaminated-soil microcosms under combined brewery waste effluents amendment with bioventing treatment strategy had higher biodegradation rate constants, k as well as lower half-life times, t1/2 than other remediation systems. This study showed that the microbial consortium, organic solids, nitrogen and phosphorus present in the brewery waste effluents proved to be efficient as potential biostimulation-bioaugmentation agents for bioremediation processes of soils contaminated with diesel oil

  15. Law 16.867 International Agreement approve the Basilea amendment about the control of the transborder movement of the dangerous wastes and elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Approve you the Amendment to the Agreement of Basile on the Control of the Transborder Movements of the Dangerous Waste and their Elimination, adopted by the Conference of the Parts, in their Third Meeting, taken place in Geneva-Switzerland - of the 18 at the 22 of September of 1995 [es

  16. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-04-01

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Cement, Lime, and Asphalt Amended Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    the lime column over time ( Atlas & Bartha , 1987). Certainly, a more extensive evaluation of the lime amended residue’s microbial activity is required...4.02 ASTM D 1559 (1988) Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Road & Paving Materials; Traveled Surface Characteristics, Sec 4, Vol 4.03 Atlas , R. & R. Bartha ...1987) Microbial Ecology : Fundamentals & Applications, Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo, CA Barrow N., J. Bowden, A. Posner, & J. Quirk (1981) Describing the

  18. Waste control guidelines according to the Amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now, the Waste Control Guidelines are considered one of the essential evaluation standards for giving an expert opinion about an application for radioactive material disposal. When the new Radiation Protection Ordinance became effective, some parts of the Waste Control Guidelines have become legal regulation. Nevertheless, the Waste Control Guidelines have not been repealed and both regulations exist simultaneously. Therefore, it is now being under discussion how a new subordinate regulation should look like. 14 years of experience with the Waste Control Guidelines have shown that it is not only desirable but necessary to have nationwide standardized regulations for the disposal of radioactive waste. In the following parts, the results of a search made by the TUeV Nord e.V. have been summed up. This search shows for which aspects legal regulation will be necessary in future as well. Those parts of the Waste Control Guidelines, which have been transferred into the Radiation Protection Ordinance, can be found in 72-75 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Besides this, other parts are or will be determined by other regulations (AtAV, GGVSE for transport procedures, planned regulations for intermediate storage and clearance). Furthermore, there are some aspects which have hardly been applied in every day's practice (e.g. qualified procedures). In addition to this, there all still some aspects which have to be determined by the Waste Control Guidelines. This refers to the demand for a waste disposal concept, the obligatory application of the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Final Disposal for conditioning, rules for mixing of waste as well as regulations concerning recycling and reuse of radioactive residues. (orig.)

  19. Amendment of biosolids with waste materials and lime: Effect on geoenvironmental properties and leachate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Claudia; Larkin, Tam; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Residuals from wastewater treatment operations (biosolids) were mixed with lime, fly ash, lime kiln dust, or two smelter slags to assess their efficacy as potential stabilisation agents by assessing their effects on the shear strength, compressibility, and solids content of mixtures. In addition, the minerals formed and leachate produced during stabilisation were determined. Tests were performed to explore the change of the geoenvironmental properties of the amended biosolids, while under pressure, at different scales using laboratory, pilot and field scale tests. The settlement characteristics of the amended biosolids under a range of applied pressures were determined using a consolidometer. All amended biosolids mixtures showed higher strength than the unamended biosolids, with mixtures containing a combination of 20% fly ash and 20% lime giving the highest (up to eightfold) increase in strength, and that with lime kiln dust and the smelter slags showing the lowest (up to twofold). The biosolids mixtures with only lime gave the second highest increase in strength (up to fourfold), but produced the largest amount of leachate, with higher level of dissolved calcium. The increase in strength correlated with availability of calcium oxide in the mixtures which lead to calcium carbonate formation, accompanied with higher leachate production and settlement during consolidation. Copper, nickel and zinc concentrations increased with alkaline additives and corresponded to higher pH and DOC levels. Nonetheless, concentrations were within the New Zealand regulatory limits for Class A landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  1. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  2. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, I.R.; Orueetxebarria, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Schofield, P.F.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m 2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMS TM ) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  3. Biodiesel waste products as soil amendments : evaluation of microbial, biological, and plant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-22

    During biodiesel production, about 200 lbs of glycerol, commonly called glycerin, is produced for every 1 ton of biodiesel. As the : biodiesel industry grows, so does the need to dispose of this waste product. While potential uses for glycerin exist,...

  4. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  5. COMPOSTING AS A WAY TO CONVERT CELLULOSIC BIOMASS AND ORGANIC WASTE INTO HIGH-VALUE SOIL AMENDMENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived cellulosic materials play a critical role when organic wastes are composted to produce a beneficial amendment for topsoil. This review article considers publications dealing with the science of composting, emphasizing ways in which the cellulosic and lignin components of the composted material influence both the process and the product. Cellulose has been described as a main source of energy to drive the biological transformations and the consequent temperature rise and chemical changes that are associated with composting. Lignin can be viewed as a main starting material for the formation of humus, the recalcitrant organic matter that provides the water-holding, ion exchange, and bulking capabilities that can contribute greatly to soil health and productivity. Lignocellulosic materials also contribute to air permeability, bulking, and water retention during the composting process. Critical variables for successful composting include the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, the nature of the cellulosic component, particle size, bed size and format, moisture, pH, aeration, temperature, and time. Composting can help to address solid waste problems and provides a sustainable way to enhance soil fertility.

  6. Rhizosphere Environment and Labile Phosphorus Release from Organic Waste-Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh H.

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and biofertilizers are primary sources of nutrients for organic crop production. However, soils treated with large amounts of nutrient-enriched manure have elevated phosphorus (P) levels in regions of intensive animal agriculture. Surpluses occurred in these amended soils, resulting in large pools of exchangeable inorganic P (Pi) and enzyme-labile organic P (Po) that averaging 30.9 and 68.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Organic acids produced during crop residue decomposition can promote the complexation of counter-ions and decouple and release unbound Pi from metal and alkali metal phosphates. Animal manure and cover crop residues also contain large amounts of soluble organic matter, and likely generate similar ligands. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in P spatial distribution in such amended fields, arising from variances in substrate physical forms ranging from slurries to dried solids, composition, and diverse application methods and equipment. Distinct clusters of Pi and Po were observed, where accumulation of the latter forms was associated with high soil microbial biomass C and reduced phosphomonoesterases' activity. Accurate estimates of plant requirements and lability of soil P pools, and real-time plant and soil P sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in crop production systems. An in situ X-ray fluorescence-based approach to sensing canopy and soil XRFS-P was developed to improve the yield-soil P relationship for optimal nutrient recommendations in addition to allowing in-the-field verification of foliar P status.

  7. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Modification of chemical properties, Cu fractionation and enzymatic activities in an acid vineyard soil amended with winery wastes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2017-11-01

    The effects of adding two winery wastes, perlite waste (PW) and bentonite waste (BW), to an acid vineyard soil were assessed using some chemical and biological soil properties in a field study that lasted 18 months. The addition of PW (up to 81 Mg ha -1 ) had neither significant nor permanent effects on soil characteristics such as the pH, organic matter content or nutrient concentrations, the amounts of copper or zinc, or the electrical conductivity. Moreover, no persistent negative effects were found on the enzymatic activities after PW application. In contrast, soil that was amended with up to 71 Mg BW ha -1 showed increases in its soil pH values, exchangeable potassium and water soluble potassium and phosphorus contents. In addition, it caused significant increases in the electrical conductivity and water-soluble Cu. In addition, the phosphomonoesterase enzymatic activity decreased significantly (up to 28%) in response to the amendment with 71 Mg BW ha -1 . These results showed that adding BW and PW to the soil may be a good agronomic practice for recycling these types of wastes. However, in the case of PW, its use as a soil amendment must be performed with caution to control its possible harmful effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amending the Structure of Renewable Carbon from Biorefinery Waste-Streams for Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoi Chun; Goswami, Monojoy; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong K; Naskar, Amit K

    2018-05-29

    Biorefineries produce impure sugar waste streams that are being underutilized. By converting this waste to a profitable by-product, biorefineries could be safeguarded against low oil prices. We demonstrate controlled production of useful carbon materials from the waste concentrate via hydrothermal synthesis and carbonization. We devise a pathway to producing tunable, porous spherical carbon materials by modeling the gross structure formation and developing an understanding of the pore formation mechanism utilizing simple reaction principles. Compared to a simple hydrothermal synthesis from sugar concentrate, emulsion-based synthesis results in hollow spheres with abundant microporosity. In contrast, conventional hydrothermal synthesis produces solid beads with micro and mesoporosity. All the carbonaceous materials show promise in energy storage application. Using our reaction pathway, perfect hollow activated carbon spheres can be produced from waste sugar in liquid effluence of biomass steam pretreatment units. The renewable carbon product demonstrated a desirable surface area of 872 m 2 /g and capacitance of up to 109 F/g when made into an electric double layer supercapacitor. The capacitor exhibited nearly ideal capacitive behavior with 90.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  10. Combined effect of diuron and simazine on photosystem II photochemistry in a sandy soil and soil amended with solid olive-mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea) and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of these herbicides on Photosystem II photochemistry of Olea europaea L., and whether the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from olive oil production industry modifies this effect. For this purpose, herbicide soil adsorption studies, with unamended and OW-amended soil, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in adult olive leaves, after one, two and three weeks of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment, were performed. Soil application of these herbicides reduced the efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry of olive trees due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect is counterbalanced by the addition of OW to the soil. OW reduces herbicide uptake by the plant due to an increase in herbicide adsorption.

  11. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  12. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...

  13. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, Ana M.; Cartagena, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste's wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems. PMID:25003139

  14. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as organic

  15. Optimizing the vermicomposting of organic wastes amended with inorganic materials for production of nutrient-rich organic fertilizers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu Allan; Mnkeni, Pearson Nyari Stephano

    2018-04-01

    Vermicomposting is a bio-oxidative process that involves the action of mainly epigeic earthworm species and different micro-organisms to accelerate the biodegradation and stabilization of organic materials. There has been a growing realization that the process of vermicomposting can be used to greatly improve the fertilizer value of different organic materials, thus, creating an opportunity for their enhanced use as organic fertilizers in agriculture. The link between earthworms and micro-organisms creates a window of opportunity to optimize the vermi-degradation process for effective waste biodegradation, stabilization, and nutrient mineralization. In this review, we look at up-to-date research work that has been done on vermicomposting with the intention of highlighting research gaps on how further research can optimize vermi-degradation. Though several researchers have studied the vermicomposting process, critical parameters that drive this earthworm-microbe-driven process which are C/N and C/P ratios; substrate biodegradation fraction, earthworm species, and stocking density have yet to be adequately optimized. This review highlights that optimizing the vermicomposting process of composts amended with nutrient-rich inorganic materials such as fly ash and rock phosphate and inoculated with microbial inoculants can enable the development of commercially acceptable organic fertilizers, thus, improving their utilization in agriculture.

  16. Coal Waste Powder Amendment and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance the Growth of Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq Seedling in Ultisol Soil Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wilarso Budi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal powder waste application on low nutrient media is expected to be able to increase plant growth and to improve Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF development. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of coal waste powder on the growth of Anthocephallus cadamba Jack and AMF development grown on ultisol soil. Two factors in a completely randomised experimental design was conducted under greenhouse conditions and Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to analyse of the effect the treatment. The first factor was ultisol soil ammended with coal waste powder (control, soil amanded with coal waste 5%, soil amanded with coal waste 10% and soil amanded with coal waste 15% and the second factor was AMF inoculation (uninoculated control, inoculated with Gigaspora margarita. Plant height, diameter, shoot dry weight, percentage of AMF colonization and nutrient uptake were measured in this experiment. Results of this study showed that coal amendment and AMF when applied separately significantly increased height, diameter, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and nutrient uptake of 12 weeks A. cadamba seedling, but when the coal waste powder and AMF were combined the plant growth parameters were lower than those applied separately but significantly higher than control. The application of coal waste powder or AMF in ultisol soil could increase A. cadamba growth and development.

  17. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Albacete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste’s wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems.

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Whitehouse Waste Oil Pits Site, Duval County, Jacksonville, FL. (First remedial action), (Amendment), June 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 7-acre Whitehouse Waste Oil Pits site was used by Allied Petroleum Products (Allied) to dispose of acidic waste oil sludges from its oil reclamation process in Whitehouse, Duval County, Florida. A cypress swamp system and residential area are immediately adjacent to the site. The acid sludge produced in the first step and clay used to decolorize the oil were dumped into the unlined pits at the site. A 1985 ROD addressed source control as a containment remedy consisting of a slurry wall construction, soil cap, and a ground water recovery and treatment system; however, EPA has re-evaluated the 1985 ROD selection and determined that the containment remedy failed to meet the requirements of SARA. As a result, the ROD Amendment focuses on an alternative for treating Whitehouse wastes by eliminating direct contact risk associated with pit soil/sludge wastes and preventing contaminated ground water in the surficial aquifer from migrating laterally. The primary contaminants of concern that affect the soil, sediment, surface water, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; organics, including PCBs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The amended remedial action for the site are included

  19. Effect of dissolved organic matter derived from waste amendments on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (III) in the Egyptian alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Mohamed [Land and Water Technologies Department, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), New Borg El-Arab, 21934 Alexandria (Egypt); Assaad, Faiz F. [Soils and Water Use Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Shalaby, Elsayed A. [Environmental Studies Department, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the decisive factors affecting pollutants mobility in soils receiving waste amendments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DOM1 derived from agricultural solid waste (ASW) and DOM2 derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (As) in two alluvial soils from the Nile River Delta. In column experiments, addition of DOM solutions significantly increased As concentration in the effluents. There was no significant difference between the two soils, the obtained results from soil2 columns revealed that DOM2 has stronger capability than DOM1 to facilitate As mobility. The pH of the studied soils is alkaline (8.1) which promoted the dissociation as well as deprotonation of DOM and as a consequence, humic substances in DOM become negatively charged organic anions, leading to their substantial competition with As for the adsorption sites on both soil surfaces. The results emphasized that in alkaline soils there is a risk of groundwater pollution in the long run by arsenic either naturally found in soil or originated at high soil pH when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from various organic amendments ASW and/or MSW and leached through soil profile.

  20. ON A NEW CRITERIA OF THE REFERRING WASTE TO RADIOACTIVE CATEGORIES AND ON THE AMENDMENTS INTRODUCED IN BSRRSP-99/2010 AND SRRWT-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new criteria of the referring solid, liquid and gaseous waste to radioactive categories are analyzed, which  were  approved  by  Russian  Federation  Government  Resolution  №  1069,  October  19,  2012.  Following amendments  introduced  in  BSRRSP-99/2010  (Supplement  №  1,  2013  and  SRRWT-2002  (Supplements  № 2, 2013 are analyzed as well. Brief analysis is given of the difference of new criteria of the reference waste to radioactive categories in comparison with BSRRSP-99/2010.

  1. Health risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in tomato and green pepper plants grown in soils amended with phosphogypsum waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Al-Khashman, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste produced by the phosphate fertilizer industry that has relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn). The present study was conducted to investigate heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables (tomatoes and green peppers) and to evaluate the possible health risks associated with the consumption of vegetables grown in PG-amended soils. The enrichment factor values indicated that Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V were depleted to minimally enriched, and Cd was moderately enriched. The pollution load index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were strongly polluted with Cd, moderately polluted with Cr and Ni, and slightly polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn and V. The geo-accumulation index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were uncontaminated with Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and moderately contaminated with Cd. The trace metal transfer for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations was below what are considered as acceptable limits ( Pb > Cd > Cr. The biological absorption coefficients in plants are, in order of highest to lowest, Pb > Zn > Cd > Cr, which suggests that Pb is more bioavailable to plants than Cd, Cr, and Zn. Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming vegetables (e.g., tomatoes and green peppers) grown in PG-amended soils ingest significant amounts of the metals studied. However, the daily intake of metals (DIM) and the health risk index (HRI) values are contaminated soils, which were not included in this study.

  2. 40 CFR 260.22 - Petitions to amend part 261 to exclude a waste produced at a particular facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the manufacturing processes or other operations and feed materials producing the waste and an assessment of whether such processes, operations, or feed materials can or might produce a waste that is not... a waste produced at a particular facility. 260.22 Section 260.22 Protection of Environment...

  3. Draft 1988 mission plan amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This draft 1988 amendment to the Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose is to inform the Congress of the DOE's plans for implementing the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-203) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. This document is being submitted in draft form to Federal agencies, states, previously affected Indian Tribes, affected units of local government, and the public. After the consideration of comments, this amendment will be revised as appropriate and submitted to the Congress. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA. A

  5. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-02-25

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA

  6. H.R. 1020: A Bill to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, February 23, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The report H.R. 1020 is a bill to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The purpose of the Act is to direct the Secretary of Energy to develop an integrated spent nuclear fuel management system and to commence acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in accordance with the acceptable schedule no later than January 31, 1998. The proposed legislative text is included

  7. Slovak Republic Act No. 409/2006 Coll. of 24 June 2006 on waste and amending some laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Act into system of law of the Slovak Republic were exrogared the legal acts of the European Communities listed in the Annex 1. This Act regulates the competence of state administration and municipalities, the rights and obligations of legal entities and individuals in preventing waste and in waste management, liability for breach of obligations in the waste management and the establishment of the Recycling Fund. This Act came into force on July 1, 2006.

  8. S. 1563: A Bill granting the consent of the Congress to amendments to the Southeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 4, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    S. 1563: A Bill granting the consent of the Congress to amendments to the Southeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact. The disposal facility located in Barnwell County, South Carolina shall be the considered the first host State disposal facility

  9. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large

  10. Conditions governing the acceptance of radioactive wastes by the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB). Full text of legal provisions, issue no.6 of July 1, 1991, as amended until January 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The conditions apply to the acceptance of radwaste by the Main Decontamination Dept. (HDB) of Karlsruhe Research Center, including radioactive remnants, contaminated plant components, and primary waste from the following waste generators: Institutes of the Karlsruhe Research Center, facilities located within the Center but run by other organisations, other outside facilities not linked with the Center, as e.g. waste generators in Baden-Wuerttemberg obliged to deliver their radwaste to the Radwaste Collecting Site of the Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Amendments are marked at the right-hand margin of the text

  11. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  12. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  13. Clarifying amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    When Section 20.103 of the Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation was amended recently the amendments did not indicate that radon-222 and its daughters may be averaged over 1 year, as specified in footnote 3 to appendix B of the Standards for Protection Against Radiation. This is clarified by the (amendments set forth below. Minor editorial changes also are made

  14. Bioremediation of Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD) through organic carbon amendment by municipal sewage and green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Pit lakes (abandoned flooded mine pits) represent a potentially valuable water resource in hot arid regions. However, pit lake water is often characterised by low pH with high dissolved metal concentrations resulting from Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD). Addition of organic matter to pit lakes to enhance microbial sulphate reduction is a potential cost effective remediation strategy. However, cost and availability of suitable organic substrates are often limiting. Nevertheless, large quantities of sewage and green waste (organic garden waste) are often available at mine sites from nearby service towns. We treated AMD pit lake water (pH 2.4) from tropical, North Queensland, Australia, with primary-treated sewage sludge, green waste, and a mixture of sewage and green waste (1:1) in a controlled microcosm experiment (4.5 L). Treatments were assessed at two different rates of organic loading of 16:1 and 32:1 pit water:organic matter by mass. Combined green waste and sewage treatment was the optimal treatment with water pH increased to 5.5 in only 145 days with decreases of dissolved metal concentrations. Results indicated that green waste was a key component in the pH increase and concomitant heavy metal removal. Water quality remediation was primarily due to microbially-mediated sulphate reduction. The net result of this process was removal of sulphate and metal solutes to sediment mainly as monosulfides. During the treatment process NH(3) and H(2)S gases were produced, albeit at below concentrations of concern. Total coliforms were abundant in all green waste-treatments, however, faecal coliforms were absent from all treatments. This study demonstrates addition of low-grade organic materials has promise for bioremediation of acidic waters and warrants further experimental investigation into feasibility at higher scales of application such as pit lakes. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Payments-Equal-To-Taxes (PETT): An interpretation of Sections 116(c) (3) and 118(b) (4) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.; Moore, W.E.; Lesko, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Payments-Equal-To-Taxes (PETT) program breaks new ground in government interaction by creating a tax-like transfer of funds from the federal government to states and local government. The PETT program is one of the financial assistance provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended [42 U.S.C. 10101, et seq.] (NWPAA). The NWPAA charges the US DOE with, among other things, the responsibility for investigation of potential sites and for licensing, constructing, and operating a repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel and an MRS facility. The NWPAA also called for financial assistance to the jurisdictions in which the repository and MRS facility are to be located. One of the financial impacts to the jurisdictions would be loss of tax revenue since the Supremacy clause of the Constitution prohibits jurisdictions from taxing the federal government. The objective of the PETT program is to provide payments that will offset this loss. Since the NWPAA authorizes continued site characterization activities only in the state of Nevada, the focus of this paper will be on the PETT program in Nevada. However, the information presented here generally applied to implementation of the program in other states where site characterization activities have been conducted

  17. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  18. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  19. Exploring the immediate and long-term impact on bacterial communities in soil amended with animal and urban organic waste fertilizers using pyrosequencing and screening for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Leise; Poulsen, Pernille H. B.; Al-Soud, Waleed A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated immediate and long-term effects on bacterial populations of soil amended with cattle manure, sewage sludge or municipal solid waste compost in an ongoing agricultural field trial. Soils were sampled in weeks 0, 3, 9 and 29 after fertilizer application. Pseudomonas isolates were...... time. Seasonal changes seemed to prevail with decreasing bacterial richness in week 9 followed by a significant increase in week 29 (springtime). The Pseudomonas population richness seemed temporarily affected by fertilizer treatments, especially in sludge- and compost-amended soils. To explain...... these changes, prevalence of antibiotic- and mercury-resistant pseudomonads was investigated. Fertilizer amendment had a transient impact on the resistance profile of the soil community; abundance of resistant isolates decreased with time after fertilizer application, but persistent strains appeared...

  20. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  1. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    This document makes available the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). The present document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA that affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements

  3. 16 October 1991-Royal Order amending the Royal Order of 30 March 1981 determining the duties and fixing the operating conditions of the Public Body for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 Royal Order amends and supplements the provisions of the 1981 0rder dealing with the duties and resources of ONDRAF, the National Body for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials. Its duties include, inter alia, treatment and conditioning of waste on behalf of producers without the necessary facilities, training of specialists for such work for the producers with such facilities, transport, storage and disposal of radioactive waste, transport, and storage of certain enriched fissile materials and plutonium-bearing materials. As regards decommissioned nuclear installations, ONDRAF must establish management programmes for the resulting waste and must also decommission a nuclear installation at the operator's request or if he defaults. (NEA)

  4. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  5. An overview of the mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prior to May 1992, field demonstrations of characterization technologies were performed at an uncontaminated site near the Chemical Waste Landfill. In mid-1992 through summer 1993, both non-intrusive and intrusive characterization techniques were demonstrated at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Subsurface and dry barrier demonstrations were started in summer 1993 and will continue into 1995. Future plans include demonstrations of innovative drilling, characterization and long-term monitoring, and remediation techniques. Demonstrations were also scheduled in summer 1993 at the Kirtland Air Force HSWA site and will continue in 1994. The first phase of the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) project occurred in April 1992 when two holes were drilled and vapor extraction wells were installed at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Obtaining the engineering design and environmental permits necessary to implement this field demonstration will take until early 1994. Field demonstration of the vapor extraction system will occur in 1994

  6. Federal and state regulatory schemes affecting liability for high-level waste transportation incidents: opportunities for clarification and amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friel, L.E.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act of 1957 provides extensive public liability coverage in the event of a serious accident involving the transportation of nuclear materials to or from certain federally-licensed, or federal contractor-operated facilities. While actual liability for a nuclear incident and the extent of damages are usually determined by state law, the Act establishes a comprehensive system for the payment of such damages. Despite the federally-mandated scheme for liability coverage several aspects of the Act's application to transportation to a permanent repository have not yet been settled and are open to various interpretations. Some areas of uncertainty apply not only to future waste transport to a repository, but also to current transportation activities, and include: coverage for emergency response and clean-up costs; coverage for precautionary evacuations; and the federal government's financial liability. The need to address liability issues is also increasingly recognized at the state level. The state laws which are used to determine liability and the extent of damages in the event of a transportation accident vary widely among states and significantly affect the compensation that an injured person will receive under the provisions of the Price-Anderson Act. Areas of state law deserving special attention include: standards for determining liability; statutes of limitations; standards for proof of causation; state sovereign immunity statutes; and recovery of unique emergency response costs

  7. Plans and schedules for implementation of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-240)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelman, M.M.; Kearney, M.S.; MacDougall, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to make available to the states and other interested parties, the plans and schedules for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) implementation of its responsibilities under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). This document identifies the provisions of the LLRWPAA which affect the programs of the NRC, identifies what the NRC must do to fulfill each of its requirements under the LLRWPAA, and establishes schedules for carrying out these requirements. The plans and schedules are current as of June 1986

  8. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940's by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown

  9. H.R. 1083: a bill to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act to improve procedures for the implementation of compacts providing for the establishment and operation of regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, and for other purposes. Introduced in the US House of Representatives, Ninety-Nineth Congress, First Session, February 7, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of H.R. 1083 is to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Act to improve the procedures for establishing regional disposal facilities. The bill defines several terms affecting compacts between states and the federal government. It also outlines state and federal responsibilities for disposing of low-level radioactive wastes, establishes procedures for Congressional review of each compact every five years, and designates the limitations of regional facilities for accepting wastes. The bill concludes with requirements for adequate financing of waste disposal facilities and both technical and financial assistance to states. Implementation of this Act will be the cooperative responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Secretary of Energy, and Secretary of Transportation

  10. Exploring the immediate and long-term impact on bacterial communities in soil amended with animal and urban organic waste fertilizers using pyrosequencing and screening for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Leise; Poulsen, Pernille H B; Al-Soud, Waleed A; Skov Hansen, Lea B; Bergmark, Lasse; Brejnrod, Asker; Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H; Magid, Jakob; Sørensen, Søren J

    2014-10-01

    We investigated immediate and long-term effects on bacterial populations of soil amended with cattle manure, sewage sludge or municipal solid waste compost in an ongoing agricultural field trial. Soils were sampled in weeks 0, 3, 9 and 29 after fertilizer application. Pseudomonas isolates were enumerated, and the impact on soil bacterial community structure was investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Bacterial community structure at phylum level remained mostly unaffected. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were the most prevalent phyla significantly responding to sampling time. Seasonal changes seemed to prevail with decreasing bacterial richness in week 9 followed by a significant increase in week 29 (springtime). The Pseudomonas population richness seemed temporarily affected by fertilizer treatments, especially in sludge- and compost-amended soils. To explain these changes, prevalence of antibiotic- and mercury-resistant pseudomonads was investigated. Fertilizer amendment had a transient impact on the resistance profile of the soil community; abundance of resistant isolates decreased with time after fertilizer application, but persistent strains appeared multiresistant, also in unfertilized soil. Finally, the ability of a P. putida strain to take up resistance genes from indigenous soil bacteria by horizontal gene transfer was present only in week 0, indicating a temporary increase in prevalence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  12. The draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The draft Mission Plan Amendment provides an opportunity for States and Indian Tribes and other involved parties to participate in a process that no other nation affords its citizens. More than just a comment period on a Department of Energy document, the amendment that is to be submitted later this year will lay before Congress, the documentary basis on which to make decisions about the scope and timing of the high-level waste program in what Secretary Herrington has called a ''crossroads'' years. The Amendment will distill the view of the participants and also preset them to Congress as an integral part of the document. After four years of effort, the Nation is being afforded an opportunity to ask itself again whether the Act passed in 1982 is working and remains the best way to protect the public interest

  13. Nitrogen turnover, crop use efficiency and soil fertility in a long-term field experiment amended with different qualities of urban and agricultural waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2017-01-01

    manure and deep litter) have been applied annually for 11 years (at normal and accelerated rates), were used to estimate the effects of the different qualities of organic wastes on soil fertility, N turnover and crop N availability. Soil physical fertility parameters, such as water retention and total......Organic wastes contain significant amounts of organic matter and nutrients and their recycling into agriculture can potentially contribute to closing the natural ecological cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement in overall soil fertility and soil nitrogen (N) supply capacity...... carbon, improved with the application of organic wastes. Cattle manure, sewage sludge and composted household waste in single or accelerated rates of application increased soil total N by 13–131% compared to the mineral fertiliser NPK treatment. The highest net N mineralisation capacity was observed...

  14. Mineralization of Nitrogen in Hydromorphic Soils Amended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to 320.00 mg kg-1 for Mangrove soil (mangal acid sulphate soils). The order of cumulative nitrogen released in the waste amended soil followed the order: sewage sludge>kitchen waste> poultry manure> oil palm waste> cow manure. Total mineralized N indicated negative correlation with total organic N and C:N ratio ...

  15. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, Y; Meyer, A H; Mulidzi, A R; Shange, P L; Nchu, F

    2017-01-01

    Waste management in winery and distillery industries faces numerous disposal challenges as large volumes of both liquid and solid waste by-products are generated yearly during cellar practices. Composting has been suggested as a feasible option to beneficiate solid organic waste. This incentivized the quest for efficient composting protocols to be put in place. The objective of this study was to experiment with different composting strategies for spent winery solid waste. Compost materials consisting of chopped pruning grape stalks, skins, seed and spent wine filter material consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic expend ingredients were mixed in compost heaps. The filter material component varied (in percentage) among five treatments: T1 (40%) lined, T2 (20%) lined, T3 (0%) lined, T4 (40%) ground material, lined and T5 (40%) unlined. Composting was allowed to proceed under open field conditions over 12months, from autumn to summer. Indicators such as temperature, moisture, enzyme activities, microbial counts, pH, and C/N ratio, were recorded. Generally, season (df=3, 16, Pwinery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be...

  17. Amendment of the administrative skeleton provision for minimum requirements to be met by waste water discharged into bodies of water. Administrative skeleton provision on waste water of 25 November, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This provision applies to waste water to be discharged into bodies of water and whose pollution load stems mainly from the sectors indicated in appendices. Without prejudice to stricter requirements governing the execution of the Water Resources Act, the requirements to be met by the discharge of waste water, as indicated in appendices, are defined in accordance with section 7a, subsection 1, number 3 of the Water Resources Act. - The maximum concentrations indicated in appendices, for instance for waste water from brown coal briquetting plant, black coal treatment plant, petroleum refineries and flue gas scrubbers at combustion plant, relate to waste water in the discharge pipe of the waste water treatment plant. Contrary to technical rules that may apply in each instance, these concentrations must not be attained by dilution or mixing. (orig.) [de

  18. Application of Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy for the characterisation of organic wastes and determination of their usefulness for bioenergy and as soil amendments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios

    of this project was the development of less time-consuming and inexpensive techniques that can partially replace laboratory assays in the determination the usefulness of organic wastes. In this project the potential of a relatively new spectroscopic technique, i.e. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic...

  19. Effects of Short-Term Biosolarization Using Mature Compost and Industrial Tomato Waste Amendments on the Generation and Persistence of Biocidal Soil Conditions and Subsequent Tomato Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmon, Yigal; Sade, Nir; Wilhelmi, María Del Mar Rubio; Fernández-Bayo, Jesus D; Harrold, Duff R; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Blumwald, Eduardo; Simmons, Christopher W

    2018-06-06

    Conventional solarization and biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing residue amendments were compared with respect to generation of pesticidal conditions and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant growth in treated soils. Soil oxygen depletion was examined as a response that has previously not been measured across multiple depths during biosolarization. For biosolarized soil, volatile fatty acids were found to accumulate concurrent with oxygen depletion, and the magnitude of these changes varied by soil depth. Two consecutive years of experimentation showed varying dissipation of volatile fatty acids from biosolarized soils post-treatment. When residual volatile fatty acids were detected in the biosolarized soil, fruit yield did not significantly differ from plants grown in solarized soil. However, when there was no residual volatile fatty acids in the soil at the time of planting, plants grown in biosolarized soil showed a significantly greater vegetation amount, fruit quantity, and fruit ripening than those of plants grown in solarized soil.

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  1. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  2. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  3. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  4. Effect of amendments addition on adsorption of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X. J.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Gu, J.; Wang, J. H.; Duan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The disposal of leachate has become one of the most pressing problems for landfills. This study taking three kinds of amendments, corn straw, mushroom residue and garden waste as adsorbent materials, evaluates the different amendments on the leachate adsorption effect through analyzing indicators as the saturation adsorption ratio, sulfur containing odor emission, heat value. The results showed that all three kinds of amendments can effectively adsorb leachate, with saturation adsorption ratio between 1: 2 and 1: 4. Adding amendment could significantly reduce the sulfur containing odor emission of leachate. Compared the three kinds of amendments, mushroom residue could adsorb leachate at a maximize degree with a low concentration of sulfur containing odor emission. The industrial analysis showed that the heat values of the amendments after absorbing leachate are more than 14MJ/kg, and it can be utilized as a biomass fuel.

  5. Waste management, final waste disposal, fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Out of the legal poblems that are currently at issue, individual questions from four areas are dealt with: privatization of ultimate waste disposal; distribution of responsibilities for tasks in the field of waste disposal; harmonization and systematization of regulations; waste disposal - principles for making provisions for waste disposal - proof of having made provisions for waste disposal; financing and fees. A distinction has to be made between that which is legally and in particular constitutionally imperative or, as the case may be, permissible, and issues where there is room for political decision-making. Ultimately, the deliberations on the amendment are completely confined to the sphere of politics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. 75 FR 9345 - Michigan: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ....9109(q) ``Water 6/21/1994, Word ``which'' (bulk shipment)''. renumbered as changed to ``that.'' (jj... authority it is using, HSWA or non-HSWA, in each rulemaking. That explanation is generally found in the... requirement initiated Description of change modification MAC R 299.9101(a) 10/15/1996....... Words ``is able...

  7. Nevada state and local government comments on the US Department of Energy's report to Congress pursuant to Section 175 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The State of Nevada and affected local governments and Indian Tribes recognize the difficulties Department of Energy (DOE) encountered in attempting to compile a meaningful report on possible repository-related impacts in the relatively short amount of time available for the task. Overall, the Section 175 Report represents a positive beginning in what must, necessarily, be a much more thorough and detailed impact assessment effort. Although the current Report Does not identify the full range of repository impacts, nor seek to quantify them, it is useful as a framework or scoping document which, when supplemented with information on the specifics of impacts and costs/strategies for mitigation, may be useful in understanding the effects a repository will have upon the State of Nevada and affected communities. Subsequent socioeconomic analyses should follow-up this positive beginning and specify in greater detail the areas where undefined impacts may occur. Such analyses should expand the geographic scope of the Report, address transportation impacts along potential high-level waste routes, complete the project description (i.e., uncertainties with regard to labor force, materials requirements, etc.) used in forecasting effects within various categories of impacts, refine the section on impact mitigation strategies, and give fuller treatment to tourism and economic development impacts

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  9. Residuos de poda compostados y sin compostar: uso potencial como enmienda orgánica en suelo Pruning waste and its potential use as amendement to agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda M Arrigo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de materiales orgánicos al suelo es una práctica habitual en sistemas de agricultura sostenible. El objetivo de este trabajo fue: i estudiar el efecto de la incorporación al suelo de material orgánico obtenido en diferentes etapas del proceso de compostaje sobre el crecimiento de raygrass e ii determinar el efecto que causa el material orgánico incorporado sobre la nutrición nitrogenada en las plantas. Se armaron 4 pilas integradas por el mismo material inicial las cuales fueron monitoreadas en las siguientes etapas del proceso de compostaje: a- material inicial (T1, b- al final de la fase activa, 2 meses (T2, c- al promediar la fase de maduración, 7 meses (T3 y d- al finalizar la fase de maduración, 12 meses (T4. Se sembró raygrass sobre estos materiales y los mismos mezclado con suelo. La producción de materia seca de raygrass en los materiales T1 y T2 fue significativamente menor que en los restantes tratamientos. Resultados similares fueron cuantificados cuando los mismos materiales se incorporaron al suelo. El contenido de N en planta fue menor al incorporar al suelo los materiales T1 y T2 indicando inmovilización de este nutriente. Al adicionar los materiales T3 y T4 al suelo se comprobó que no hubo diferencias significativas entre ellos, en consecuencia, el empleo del material T3 puede considerarse una buena opción ya que puede utilizarse anticipadamente lográndose beneficios económicos y medioambientales.Land application of organic materials is a common practice in sustainable agriculture. Our aim was i to study the effect of the incorporation of organic material at different maturity stages on the ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. growth, and ii to estimate the stage capable to produce the product more efficient in providing nitrogen to the plant nutrition. Four compost samples consisted of pruning waste, leaves and grass clippings were selected from four different piles at different stages of the composting

  10. Regulatory aspects of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.R.; Orlando, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) and contains hazardous waste that is either: (1) listed as a hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D; or (2) causes the waste to exhibit any of the characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C. Low-level radioactive waste is defined in the LLRWPAA as radioactive material that is not high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material, as defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified as low-level waste by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses dual regulatory (NRC and Environmental Protection Agency) responsibility, overview of joint NRC/EPA guidance, workshops, national mixed waste survey, and principal mixed waste uncertainties

  11. The Second Ordinance for Amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, D.

    1989-01-01

    This Second Ordinance for Amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance has modified the most important legal provisions supplementing the Atomic Energy Act. But looking closer at the revised version of the Ordinance, many an amendment turns out to be just a new facade on the old brickwork. The article critically reviews the most important amendments, stating that the main principles have remained untouched, and discussing the modification of limiting values, the definition of regulatory scopes, the new meaning of the term 'wastes containing nuclear fuel', and the regulatory scope of provisions governing radioactive substances and their medical applications. (orig./RST) [de

  12. Effect of ageing on the availability of heavy metals in soils amended with compost and biochar: evaluation of changes in soil and amendment properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2016-10-01

    Remediation strategies using soil amendments should consider the time dependence of metal availability to identify amendments that can sustainably reduce available pollutant concentrations over time. Drying-wetting cycles were applied on amendments, soils and soil + amendment mixtures, to mimic ageing at field level and investigate its effect on extractable Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations from three contaminated soils. The amendments investigated were municipal waste organic compost and biochars. The amendments, soils and mixtures were characterised by their physicochemical properties at different ageing times. The amendments were also characterised in terms of sorption capacity for Cd and Cu. The sorption capacity and the physicochemical properties of the amendments remained constant over the period examined. When mixed with the soils, amendments, especially the compost, immediately reduced the extractable metals in the soils with low pH and acid neutralisation capacity, due to the increase in pH and buffering capacity of the mixtures. The amendments had a relatively minor impact on the metal availability concentrations for the soil with substantially high acid neutralisation capacity. The most important changes in extractable metal concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiments, ageing having a minor effect on metal concentrations when compared with the initial effect of amendments.

  13. Handling construction waste of building demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vondráčková Terezie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some building defects lead to their demolition. What about construction and demolition waste? According to the Waste Act 185/2001 Coll. and its amendment 223/2015 Coll., which comes into force on January 1, 2017, the production of waste has to be reduced because, as already stated in the amendment to Act No. 229/2014 Coll., the ban on landfilling of waste will apply from 2024 onwards. The main goals of waste management can thus be considered: Preventing or minimizing waste; Waste handling to be used as a secondary raw material - recycling, composting, combustion and the remaining waste to be dumped. Company AZS 98 s. r. o. was established, among other activities, also for the purpose of recycling construction and demolition waste. It operates 12 recycling centers throughout the Czech Republic and therefore we have selected it for a demonstration of the handling of construction and demolition waste in addressing the defects of the buildings.

  14. 77 FR 29935 - 2012 Technical Corrections, Clarifying and Other Amendments to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    .... Fluorinated Gas Production..... 325120 Industrial gases manufacturing facilities. Industrial Waste Landfills... 2012 Technical Corrections, Clarifying and Other Amendments to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule, and Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Certain Data Elements of the Fluorinated Gas Source Category...

  15. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, FSAR, amendment 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    FSAR Amendment No. 6 consists principally of revisions of the portions relating to: (1) facilities for the interim storage of solid waste, (2) handling of spent iodine scrubber solutions, and (3) the rise of N 2 O 4 as an oxidizer. (LK)

  16. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  17. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contaminated mine wastes and to promote the development of a mine waste stabilizing plant cover. The demonstrated properties of biochar make it a viable candidate as an amendment for remediating metal contaminated mine soils. In addition to sequestering potentially toxic metals, biochar can also be a source of plant nutrients, used to adjust soil pH, improve soil water holding characteristics, and increase soil carbon content. However, methods are needed for matching biochar beneficial properties with mine waste toxicities and soil health deficiencies. In this presentation we will report on a study in which we used mine soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine to develop a three-step procedure for identifying biochars that are most effective at reducing heavy metal bioavailability. Step 1: a slightly acidic extract of the mine spoil soil was produced, representing the potentially available metals, and used to identify metal removal properties of a library of 38 different biochars (e.g., made from a variety of feedstocks and pyrolysis or gasification conditions). Step 2: evaluation of how well these biochars retained (i.e., did not desorb) previously sorbed metals. Step 3: laboratory evalua

  18. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer.

  19. Chemical-Structural Changes of Organic Matter in a Semi-Arid Soil After Organic Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.NICOL(A)S; G.MASCIANDARO; T.HERN(A)NDEZ; C.GARCIA

    2012-01-01

    A 9-month incubation experiment using composted and non-composted amendments derived from vine pruning waste and sewage sludge was carried out to study the effects of the nature and stability of organic amendments on the structural composition of organic matter (OM) in a semi-arid soil. The changes of soil OM,both in the whole soil and in the extractable carbon with pyrophosphate,were evaluated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography and chemical analyses.By the end of the experiment,the soils amended with pruning waste exhibited less organic carbon loss than those receiving sewage sludge.The non-composted residues increased the aliphatic-pyrolytic products of the OM,both in the whole soil and also in the pyrophosphate extract,with the products derived from peptides and proteins being significantly higher.After 9 months,in the soils amended with pruning waste the relative abundance of phenolic-pyrolytic products derived from phenolic compounds,lignin and proteins in the whole soil tended to increase more than those in the soils amended with sewage sludge.However,the extractable OM with pyrophosphate in the soils amended with composted residues tended to have higher contents of these phenolic-pyrolytic products than that in non-composted ones.Thus,despite the stability of pruning waste,the composting of this material promoted the incorporation of phenolic compounds to the soil OM.The pyrolytic indices (furfural/pyrrole and aliphatic/aromatic ratios) showed the diminution of aliphatic compounds and the increase of aromatic compounds,indicating the stabilization of the OM in the amended soils after 9 months.In conclusion,the changes of soil OM depend on the nature and stability of the organic amendments,with composted vine pruning waste favouring humification.

  20. amended soils in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), Federal Ministry of Science and ... Key words: Food security, solid waste, carbon dioxide emission, organic .... Poultry manure was obtained from a commercial poultry farm and.

  1. Y-12 Plant waste minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) mandate that waste minimization be a major element of hazardous waste management. In response to this mandate and the increasing costs for waste treatment, storage, and disposal, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant developed a waste minimization program to encompass all types of wastes. Thus, waste minimization has become an integral part of the overall waste management program. Unlike traditional approaches, waste minimization focuses on controlling waste at the beginning of production instead of the end. This approach includes: (1) substituting nonhazardous process materials for hazardous ones, (2) recycling or reusing waste effluents, (3) segregating nonhazardous waste from hazardous and radioactive waste, and (4) modifying processes to generate less waste or less toxic waste. An effective waste minimization program must provide the appropriate incentives for generators to reduce their waste and provide the necessary support mechanisms to identify opportunities for waste minimization. This presentation focuses on the Y-12 Plant's strategy to implement a comprehensive waste minimization program. This approach consists of four major program elements: (1) promotional campaign, (2) process evaluation for waste minimization opportunities, (3) waste generation tracking system, and (4) information exchange network. The presentation also examines some of the accomplishments of the program and issues which need to be resolved

  2. Amendment of Atomic Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This amendment to the 1984 Ordinance on definitions and licences in the atomic energy field aims essentially to ensure that the commitments under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons are complied with in Switzerland. The goods and articles involving uranium enrichment by the gas centrifuge process and nuclear fuel reprocessing as specified by the competent international bodies, are henceforth included in the goods subject to notification or licensing listed in the Annex to the Ordinance. Also, it is provided that a construction and an operating licence for a nuclear installation may be granted simultaneously in cases where safe operating conditions can be fully assessed. (NEA) [fr

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  4. Expedient Approaches for the Management of Wastes ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The current study sought to determine waste decontamination conditions that would achieve complete kill for all material types. For these tests, more stringent decontamination procedures were evaluated specifically using pAB amended with a surfactant and/or waste submersion procedures involving agitation.

  5. Soil contamination with cadmium, consequences and remediation using organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Anwarzeb; Alam, Mehboob

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops. The stabilization of Cd in contaminated soil using organic amendments is an environmentally friendly and cost effective technique used for remediation of moderate to high contaminated soil. Globally, substantial amounts of organic waste are generated every day that can be used as a source of nutrients, and also as conditioners to improve soil quality. This review paper focuses on the sources, generation, and use of different organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil, discusses their effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Cd bioavailability, plant uptake, and human health risk. Moreover, it also provides an update of the most relevant findings about the application of organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil and associated mechanisms. Finally, future research needs and directions for the remediation of Cd contaminated soil using organic amendments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. RCRA Facilities Assessment (RFA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, container storage accumulation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) remedial action strategy is based on a memorandum from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in which EPA elected to enforce regulatory requirements for ORNL through its amended Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authority. This report, which completes the requirements of II.A.1 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit, identifies areas near the point of waste generation in which wastes are accumulated before they are transferred into the permitted waste storage facilities. In includes background information on each area and an assessment of the need for further remedial attention. The waste accumulation areas described in this addendum bear identification numbers indicative of the WAGs of which they are a part. Waste accumulation areas that are located inside a building and in which there is no potential for releases to the environment are not included in this report

  7. Educating for the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, J. William

    1995-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of researching, teaching, discussing, practicing, and understanding the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. The paper also examines what the First Amendment means to students in America's schools and colleges and discusses freedom of expression and censorship for students and student…

  8. Sugarcane Yield Response to Furrow-Applied Organic Amendments on Sand Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mabry McCray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been shown to increase sugarcane yield on sand soils in Florida. These soils have very low water and nutrient-holding capacities because of the low content of organic matter, silt, and clay. Because of high costs associated with broadcast application, this field study was conducted to determine sugarcane yield response to furrow application of two organic amendments on sand soils. One experiment compared broadcast application (226 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost, furrow application (14, 28, and 56 m3 ha−1 of these materials, and no amendment. Another experiment compared furrow applications (28 and 56 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost with no amendment. There were significant yield (t sucrose ha−1 responses to broadcast and furrow-applied mill mud but responses to furrow applications were not consistent across sites. There were no significant yield responses to yard waste compost suggesting that higher rates or repeated applications of this amendment will be required to achieve results comparable to mill mud. Results also suggest that enhancing water and nutrient availability in the entire volume of the root zone with broadcast incorporation of organic amendments is the more effective approach for low organic matter sands.

  9. Selected species and amendments for revegetating saline flue gas desulfurization sludge: greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, L.F.; Artiola, J.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science

    1997-07-01

    Codisposing low-volume wastes from electrical generating stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber sludge simplifies waste disposal but produces a saline waste that presents unique challenges to revegetation. This greenhouse study identified plants and amendments for revegetating a saline FGD sludge disposal pond in eastern Arizona. Survival and growth of 16 sown accessions plus two vegetatively propagated accessions of inland saltgrass were investigated in saline FGD sludge. Amendments used included two soils from the disposal site, Claysprings gravelly clay and Sheppard sand, composted steer manure, and N-P-K fertilizers. Sols and manure were added at 2:1 sludge/amendment (v/v). Plants were irrigated with a 1:1 mixture of disposal pond water and untreated well water. One accession of inland saltgrass, two cultivars of tall wheatgrass, Altai wildrye tall fescue and alkali sacaton show promise for revegetating saline FGD sludge disposal sites. Survival rates were the same in unamended sludge and in sludge amended with the clay soil or with N-P-K fertilizer. Plant dry matter produced was the same in unamended sludge and in sludge amended with either of the soils or with N-P-K. Although survival rates were significantly lower with manure than with any other amendment, growth was significantly greater by all measurements, due to the high fertility of this treatment. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Nuclear waste for NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Territory may be powerless to block the dumping of low-level nuclear waste in the Territory under legislation introduced into Parliament by Minister for Education Science and Training, Dr Brendan Nelson, in October. Despite strong opposition to the dumping of nuclear waste in the NT, the Australian Government will be able to send waste to one of the three nominated Commonwealth-owned Defence sites within the NT under the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management Bill 2005 and the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management (Related Amendment) Bill 2005. The Bills veto recently drafted NT legislation designed to scuttle the plans. Low-level nuclear waste is stored at more than 100 sites around Australia, including hospitals, factories, universities and defence facilities. Medical isotopes produced at Lucas Heights and provided for medical procedures are the source of much of this waste, including some 16 cubic metres currently held at Darwin Hospital. Dr Nelson stressed that the Government would take all die necessary steps to comply with safety and regulatory precautions, including handling waste in line with relevant environmental, nuclear safety and proliferation safeguards

  11. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  12. Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance brings about the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of limits for partial body dose, adoption of the radiotoxicity values of radionuclides as established by the EC Basis Standards; (2) introduction of a working-life-related dose limit of 400 mSv; (3) supplementing provisions for the protection of the population, particularly by the standard procedure for radioecological impact assessment and determination of dose factors; (4) supplementing provisions on the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research; (5) supplementing provisions on health physics monitoring; (6) provisions for improving the supervision and controls in the transport of radioactive substances; (7) definition of activities and their assignment to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; (8) revision of the waste management provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (HP) [de

  13. RCRA corrective action program guide (Interim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for compliance with an increasingly complex spectrum of environmental regulations. One of the most complex programs is the corrective action program proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The proposed regulations were published on July 27, 1990. The proposed Subpart S rule creates a comprehensive program for investigating and remediating releases of hazardous wastes and hazardous waste constituents from solid waste management units (SWMUs) at facilities permitted to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes. This proposed rule directly impacts many DOE facilities which conduct such activities. This guidance document explains the entire RCRA Corrective Action process as outlined by the proposed Subpart S rule, and provides guidance intended to assist those persons responsible for implementing RCRA Corrective Action at DOE facilities.

  14. Legislative and Regulatory Timeline for Fossil Fuel Combustion Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This timeline walks through the history of fossil fuel combustion waste regulation since 1976 and includes information such as regulations, proposals, notices, amendments, reports and meetings and site visits conducted.

  15. National waste management infrastructure in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. (author)

  16. Liners and Leak Detection Systems for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Units - Federal Register Notice, January 29, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is amending its current regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) concerning liner and leachate collection and removal systems for hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and waste piles.

  17. Act No. 430 of 7 June 1978 amending Sections 4 and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Act No. 430 amends Sections 4 and 5 of the Atomic Energy Act of 25/10/57. Under Section 4 as amended, a permit issued by virtue of the Atomic Energy Act may now be granted for specified reasons for a stated period of time. The possibility of granting permits for a period is considered important in the light of the uncertainties relating to nuclear waste management. Such permits may be renewed permanently provided the reasons for their periodic validity have ceased to exist. Amended Section 5 lays down the manner in which the responsibility for nuclear waste has been divided between the waste producer and the State. The waste producer has overall responsibility for the expenses caused by nuclear waste management. The State may, however, take over the nuclear waste, provided that the conditions approved by the Council of State have been fulfilled and provision for payment of expenses arising from the treatment and disposal of such waste has been made in a satisfactory manner. (NEA) [fr

  18. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  19. FUSRAP adapts to the amendments of Superfund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, R.G.; Liedle, S.D.; Clemens, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    With the promulgation of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) federal facilities were required to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) in the same manner as any non-government entity. This situation presented challenges for the Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies involved in remedial action work because of the requirements under SARA that overlap other laws requiring DOE compliance, e.g., the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This paper outlines options developed to comply with CERCLA and NEPA as part of an active, multi-site remedial action program. The program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), was developed to identify, clean up, or control sites containing residual radioactive contamination resulting from the nation's early development of nuclear power. During the Manhattan Project, uranium was extracted from domestic and foreign ores and resulted in mill concentrates, purified metals, and waste products that were transported for use or disposal at other locations. Figure 1 shows the steps for producing uranium metal during the Manhattan Project. As a result of these activities materials equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radionuclides. Currently, FUSRAP includes 29 sites; three are on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites

  20. Cyprodinil retention on mixtures of soil and solid wastes from wineries. Effects of waste dose and ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Salgado, I.; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Pérez-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its wide-world economic relevance, wine production generates a huge amount of waste that threatens the environment. A batch experiment was designed to assess the effect of the amendment of an agricultural soil with two winery wastes (perlite and bentonite wastes) in the immobilization...... increased. The use of these winery wastes contributes to a more sustainable agriculture preventing fungicide mobilization to groundwater....

  1. Impacts of hazardous waste regulation on low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since passage of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), major changes have occurred in the regulation of hazardous waste. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also greatly modified its interpretation of how these regulations apply to wastes from federal facilities, including defense wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. As a result, the regulatory distinctions between low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and hazardous waste are becoming blurred. This paper discusses recent statutory and regulatory changes and how they might affect the management of LLW at DOE facilities. 6 references

  2. Plant growth inhibition by soluble salts in sewage sludge-amended mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.S.; Anderson, R.C. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-07-01

    The growth response of prairie switchgrass {ital Panicum virgatum}L was compared in strip mine spoil amended with various levels of anaerobically digested waste-activated sewage sludge (0, 56, 111, 222, or 333 dry Mg ha{sup -1}) and commercial fertilizer, pure sludge, and glasshouse soil. Plants were grown in a growth chamber and substrates were maintained at field capacity during the study. Soluble salt concentrations of the substrates increased linearly as a function of sludge amendment and were within the range known to inhibit the growth of many plant species at the high levels of sludge application. There was, however, a linear response of biomass production to increasing levels of sludge amendment. Maintaining substrates at field capacity apparently prevented the high concentration of soluble salts from inhibiting plant growth. The increased biomass yield associated with sludge application was likely due to the increased availability of inorganic nutrients associated with sludge amendment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Damage identification in cement paste amended with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltangharaei, Vafa; Anay, Rafal; Assi, Lateef; Ziehl, Paul; Matta, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    Cement-based composites have been used as reliable materials in building and civil engineering infrastructure for many decades. Although there are several advantages, some drawbacks such as premature cracking may be problematic for sensitive applications such as those found in nuclear power plants or associated waste storage facilities. In this study, acoustic emission monitoring was employed to detect stress waves associated with damage progression during uniaxial compressive loading. Acoustic emission data resulting from loading of plain cement paste prisms and cement paste prisms amended with carbon nanotubes are compared. Unsupervised pattern recognition is employed to categorize the data. Results indicate that increased acoustic emission activity was recorded for the plain cement paste prisms when compared to prisms amended with carbon nanotubes.

  4. Reversible and irreversible sorption of agrochemicals in biochar amended soils: synergistic effects of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil amendment of biochar products from thermochemical waste-to-energy conversion (slow/fast pyrolysis and gasification) of biomass has received considerable interests for both contaminated and agricultural sites. Recalcitrant nature of biochar manifests in their decade-long effectiveness in soil a...

  5. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations. In a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to the 30-year goal of cleanup of all facilities by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planing for corrective activities, environmental restoration, and waste management operations at its facilities. During Calendar Year 1991 and early 1992, DOE made significant progress in reaching agreements with regulatory entities, undertaking cleanup actions, and initiating preventive measures designed to eliminate future environmental problems. These accomplishments are described

  6. Using different amendments to reduce heavy metals movement in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2005-01-01

    With long-term use of sewage waste, heavy metals can accumulate to phyto toxic levels and resulted in reduced plant growth and/or enhanced metal concentrations in plants, as a result food chain. If these metals penetrate too rapidly in a particular soil, especially with high water table, they can pollute ground water supplies. The aim of this research is prevention of movement of waste water-borne heavy metals in soils of southern parts of Tehran. These waste waters are used for irrigation of agricultural lands at regions since many years ago. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. In laboratory, sorption capacities of the soils for Ni, Cd and Pb were compared with those of calcite, Na-bentonite, Zeolite, illite and hematite amendments. The method was carried out by equilibration of known quantities of these adsorbents and soils with solutions containing these elements. The results showed that among the 5 amendments, Calcite and Na-bentonite had the greatest sorption percentages of the 3 elements and illite had the least one. The retention capacity of calcite and Na-bentonite for Cd was highest in all 8 soils. However, retention capacities of these 2 minerals for Pb and Ni were higher than those of loamy soils without lime and organic matter and also sandy soils. Because of abundance and low price of calcite, this amendment is preferred to Na-bentonite. Therefore, calcite is recommended for adding to soils with low sorption capacity of Ni, Cd and Pb

  7. Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlie, Ahmad Tholabi

    2013-01-01

    Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments. Indonesian constitutional amendments incorporated human rights principles into the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 (UUD NRI), especially in the second amendment in 2000. Under that amendment, the UUD NRI currently stipulates human rights principles as provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). However, there are some important notes, which at its core is a lack of emphasis on the vision and mission of ...

  8. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  9. Analysis of the impacts of the 1984 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act amendments on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Davis, K.D.; Johnson, R.D.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Wallace, M.T.

    1986-02-01

    The November 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on the management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These Amendments include new requirements specific to federal facilities such as the INEL. In this paper, areas of direct impact and associated INEL plans for complying with the 1984 RCRA Amendments will be described. The specific areas to be covered are the following: (1) changes in RCRA Part B permitting, including requirements for addressing past hazardous waste TSD sites; (2) the effects of increased restrictions on land disposal; (3) new requirements for undergrond tanks; (4) requirements for federal facilities; and (5) mandatory minimization of waste generation

  10. 21 CFR 312.31 - Information amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amendment essential information on the IND that is not within the scope of a protocol amendment, IND safety... toxicology, chemistry, or other technical information; or (2) A report regarding the discontinuance of a... required to bear prominent identification of its contents (e.g., “Information Amendment: Chemistry...

  11. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  12. Solid Waste Management: Abstracts From the Literature - 1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John A.; Stainback, Sandra E.

    The Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-272, Title II) and its amending legislation, the Resource Recovery Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-512, Title I), authorize collection, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to all aspects of solid-waste management. As part of this effort, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  13. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  14. 78 FR 77563 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... now amending Sec. Sec. 700.2, 701.14, and 704.4,\\1\\ which still reference the former CRIS rating... Administrative Procedure Act (APA) requires a federal agency to provide the public with notice and the... unions. The APA permits an agency to forego the notice and comment period under certain circumstances...

  15. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  16. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  17. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  18. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 918 - Oregon: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... hazardous waste management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA). On... has decided that the revisions to the Oregon hazardous waste management program satisfy all of the...

  20. 76 FR 42125 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9440-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ConocoPhillips... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  1. 76 FR 36129 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9321-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ExxonMobil... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  2. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9904-21-OW] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Mosaic... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  3. 75 FR 60457 - Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9208-4] Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Dow Chemical Company (DOW... 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act have been...

  4. 78 FR 42776 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL9834-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Blanchard Refining... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  5. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9724-1] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Cornerstone... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the...

  6. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  7. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Region IX is proposing to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF... final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for RD&D...

  8. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  9. 78 FR 15338 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R02-RCRA-2013-0144; FRL-9693-3] New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...

  10. 75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed Rule. SUMMARY: The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly... Agency (EPA) to authorize states to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the...

  11. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1994-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  12. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved modification allows the State..., EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in...

  13. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  14. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  15. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  16. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantt, D. A.

    1992-08-01

    This document provides the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 72 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) FSAR set. This amendment change incorporates Engineering Change Notices issued subsequent to Amendment 71 and approved for incorporation before June 24, 1992. These include changes in: Chapter 2, Site Characteristics; Chapter 3, Design Criteria Structures, Equipment, and Systems; Chapter 5B, Reactor Coolant System; Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control Systems; Chapter 8, Electrical Systems - The description of the Class 1E, 125 Vdc systems is updated for the higher capacity of the newly installed, replacement batteries; Chapter 9, Auxiliary Systems - The description of the inert cell NASA systems is corrected to list the correct number of spare sample points; Chapter 11, Reactor Refueling System; Chapter 12, Radiation Protection and Waste Management; Chapter 13, Conduct of Operations; Chapter 16, Quality Assurance; Chapter 17, Technical Specifications; Chapter 19, FFTF Fire Specifications for Fire Detection, Alarm, and Protection Systems; Chapter 20, FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix B, Primary Piping Integrity Evaluation.

  17. Assessment Strategies for Municipal Selective Waste Collection – Regional Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Boas Berg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal in landfill sites causes a potentialhazard for the human health, as they release substantial amounts of gas, odours and pollutants to the environment. There have been vast reductions in the volume of waste being landfilledin many European countries and a reduction in the number of illegal landfills The European Parliament’s laws obliged the Member States to amend the national waste law; the main objectives of the implemented directives are to create the conditions for the prevention of excessive waste. Directive 2008/98/EC establishes, as a goal for 2020, that waste reuse and recycling reach 50% of the total waste produced. Poland, having joined the European Union, committed itself to implementing many changes related to waste management. The amendment of the law on the maintenance of cleanliness and order in the municipalities imposed new obligations regarding the waste management (WM on the local government and residents. By adopting a municipal waste management system, the selected municipality made all its residents responsible for their waste. However, the fact of introducing changes does not solve the waste problem. The implementation of EU directives and the development of strategic documents such as the National Waste Management Plan (NWMP have made a clear change in the WM approach. One of the changes was the establishment of selective collection of municipal selective waste (MSW, with the issue of collecting the waste by the residents being a priority. This work describes the legal context of selective collection of MSW as one of the most effective means of reducing the amount of waste being landfilled.

  18. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part

  19. Tenth act amending the German atomic energy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2009-01-01

    On January 14, 2009, the German federal government introduced into parliament the 10th Act Amending the Atomic Energy Act. In the first reading in the federal parliament, Federal Minister for the Environment Gabriel emphasized 2 main points: Intensified protection of nuclear facilities and of transports of radioactive substances against unauthorized interventions; transfer by law to the Federal Office for Radiological Protection (BfS) of decommissioning of the Asse mine. Reliability review: The amendment to Sec.12 b of the Atomic Energy Act is to meet the different safety and security conditions after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States and other terrorist activities afterwards (London, Madrid) also with respect to hazards arising to nuclear facilities and nuclear transports. The bill must be seen in conjunction with the Ordinance on Reliability Reviews under the Atomic Energy Act dated July 1, 1999 which covers reviews of reliability of persons holding special responsibilities. Asse II mine: The competence of the Federal Office for Radiological Protection is achieved by an amendment to Sec.23, Para.1, Number 2, Atomic Energy Act, in which the words ''and for the Asse II mine'' are added after the word ''waste.'' Further proceedings depend on the additional provision in a new Sec.57 b, Atomic Energy Act. Accordingly, the operation and decommissioning of the Asse II mine are subject to the regulations applicable to facilities of the federation pursuant to Sec.9a, Para.3. In this way, Asse II is given the same legal status as the federal waste management facilities. Moreover, it is stipulated that the mine is to be shut down immediately. (orig.)

  20. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  1. Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command guidance manual for hazardous waste minimization (PACER REDUCE): Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.; Weeter, D.; Roth, J.A.; Debelak, K.A.; Bowers, A.R.

    1988-09-01

    This manual provides guidance for the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Waste Minimization Program, called PACER REDUCE, and applies to all AFLC installations and personel who are responsible for implementing and monitoring activities relating to PACER REDUCE. This guidance for waste minimization provides management and technical approaches for assessing potential waste reduction techniques and for making informed decisions concerning industrial process and waste stream management. Such actions will assist in achieving regulatory compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as updated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. 37 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993

  3. Study of amended reports to evaluate and improve surgical pathology processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Frederick A; Varney, Ruan C; Zarbo, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    : Amended surgical pathology reports record defects in the process of transforming tissue specimens into diagnostic information. : Systematic study of amended reports tests 2 hypotheses: (a) that tracking amendment frequencies and the distribution of amendment types reveals relevant aspects of quality in surgical pathology's daily transformation of specimens into diagnoses and (b) that such tracking measures the effect, or lack of effect, of efforts to improve surgical pathology processes. : We applied a binary definition of altered reports as either amendments or addenda and a taxonomy of defects that caused amendments as misidentifications, specimen defects, misinterpretations, and report defects. During the introduction of a LEAN process improvement approach-the Henry Ford Productions System-we followed trends in amendment rates and defect fractions to (a) evaluate specific interventions, (b) sort case-by-case root causes of misidentifications, specimen defects, and misinterpretations, and (c) audit the ongoing accuracy of the classification of changed reports. LEAN is the management and production system of the Toyota Motor Corporation that promotes continuous improvement; it considers wasted resources expended for purposes other than creating value for end customers and targets such expenditures for elimination. : Introduction of real-time editing of amendments saw annual amendment rates increase from 4.8/1000 to 10.1/1000 and then decrease in an incremental manner to 5.6/1000 as Henry Ford Productions System-specific interventions were introduced. Before introduction of HFPS interventions, about a fifth of the amendments were due to misidentifications, a 10th were due to specimen defects, a quarter due to misinterpretation, and almost half were due to report defects. During the period of the initial application of HFPS, the fraction of amendments due to misidentifications decreased as those due to report defects increased, in a statistically linked manner. As

  4. 1990 Amendments: The federal partner steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In October of 1990, Congress enacted a new set of amendments to the Clean Air Act. These amendments are longer and more complex than any previous environmental legislation. In enacting the 1990 Amendments, Congress did not evaluate the results of earlier efforts at air quality regulation. Rather, Congress accepted what it had created in 1970 and reinforced in 1977, and proceeded to build on that foundation. As a result, the 1990 Amendments create substantial new regulatory responsibilities, while leaving in place most of the pre-existing system of air quality control. The chapter highlights the key provisions of the 1990 Amendments, and discusses their relationship to the 1970 and 1977 Amendments to the Act. Included are changes in the requirements for the control of carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particulates, mobile sources, air toxics and acid rain

  5. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  6. Do plant-based amendments improve soil physiochemical and microbiological properties and plant growth in dryland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Background Land intensive practices including mining have contributed to the degradation of landscapes globally. Current challenges in post-mine restoration revolve around the use of substrates poor in organic materials (e.g. overburden and waste rock) and lack of original topsoil which may result in poor seedling recruitment and in later stages in soil nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity, decreased microbial activity and high salinity (Bateman et al., 2016; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Despite continuous efforts and advances we have not proportionally advanced our capability to successfully restore these landscapes following mining. Recent attempts to improve plant establishment in arid zone restoration programs have included the application of plant based amendments to soil profiles. This approach usually aims to accelerate soil reconstruction via improvement of soil aggregate stability and increase of soil organic carbon, and water holding capacity. Whilst a significant amount of recent research has focused on the application of such amendments, studies on the potential application of plant based materials to recover soil functionality and re-establish plant communities in post-mined landscapes in arid regions are limited. Here we will discuss our work investigating the application of a plant based amendment on soil substrates commonly used in post mining restoration in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Methodology The study was conducted in a glasshouse facility where environmental conditions were continuously monitored. Using two growth materials (topsoil and waste rock) and a plant based amendment (dry biomass of the most common grass in the Pilbara, Triodia wiseana) five different treatments were tested. Treatments consisted of control soil treatments (topsoil, waste and a mixture of the former soil types (mixture)) and two amended soil treatments (waste amended and mixture amended). Additionally, three different vegetation communities were studies

  7. Atomic ordinance - amendment of 28 october 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This Ordinance amends certain provisions of the 1984 Ordinance on licences for the construction and operation of nuclear installations, import, export and transit of nuclear fuel, as well as the export of nuclear reactors, equipment and technical data. The Order also amends the provisions on the delivery procedure for these licences and makes minor amendments to the 1983 Order on nuclear third party liability [fr

  8. Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 308) seeks to amend the Atomic Energy Commission Act of 1963 (Act 204) so as to provide for the establishment of a Radiation Protection Board and other institutes under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Law further repeats the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law of 1982 (P.N.D.C.L. 37). (EAA)

  9. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  10. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  11. Congressional-executive interaction and the nuclear waste repository site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Evanson, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) (P.L. 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA) (Title V of P.L. 100-203) provide the framework for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to find a permanent means for disposing of high-level nuclear waste in the US. The focus of this study is the congressional decision-making process associated with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The passage of NWPAA was a direct result of the failure of the policy adopted in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This study analyzes the nature of congressional nuclear waste policy-making through the lens of subsystems theory. The data analysis is primarily based on confidential interviews with over fifty key actors in the nuclear waste policy subsystem as well as an analysis of primary source documents

  12. Select geotechnical properties of a lime stabilized expansive soil amended with bagasse ash and coconut shell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jijo; Pandian, P. Kasinatha

    2018-03-01

    Lime stabilization has been and still is one of the most preferred methods for stabilization of expansive soils. However, in the recent times, utilization of solid waste materials in soil stabilization has gained prominence as an effective means to manage wastes generated from various sources. In this work, an attempt has been made to utilize waste materials from two sources as auxiliary additives to lime in the stabilization of an expansive soil. Bagasse ash (BA), a waste by-product from the sugar industry and Coconut shell powder (CSP), a processed waste obtained from left over coconut shells of oil extraction industry were used as auxiliary additives. An expansive soil obtained from a local field was subjected to chemical, mineral, microstructural and geotechnical characterization in the laboratory and stabilized using 3% lime. The waste materials were subjected to chemical, mineral and microstructural characterization. The stabilization process was amended with four different contents viz. 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% of BA and CSP separately and the effect of the amendment was studied on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS), plasticity, swell-shrink and microstructural characteristics of the expansive soil. The results of the study indicated that BA amendment of lime stabilization performed better than CSP in improving the UCS, plasticity, swell-shrink and microstructure of the lime stabilized expansive soil.

  13. Select geotechnical properties of a lime stabilized expansive soil amended with bagasse ash and coconut shell powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jijo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization has been and still is one of the most preferred methods for stabilization of expansive soils. However, in the recent times, utilization of solid waste materials in soil stabilization has gained prominence as an effective means to manage wastes generated from various sources. In this work, an attempt has been made to utilize waste materials from two sources as auxiliary additives to lime in the stabilization of an expansive soil. Bagasse ash (BA, a waste by-product from the sugar industry and Coconut shell powder (CSP, a processed waste obtained from left over coconut shells of oil extraction industry were used as auxiliary additives. An expansive soil obtained from a local field was subjected to chemical, mineral, microstructural and geotechnical characterization in the laboratory and stabilized using 3% lime. The waste materials were subjected to chemical, mineral and microstructural characterization. The stabilization process was amended with four different contents viz. 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% of BA and CSP separately and the effect of the amendment was studied on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, plasticity, swell-shrink and microstructural characteristics of the expansive soil. The results of the study indicated that BA amendment of lime stabilization performed better than CSP in improving the UCS, plasticity, swell-shrink and microstructure of the lime stabilized expansive soil.

  14. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.; Faison, G.P.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Midco II, Gary, IN. (First remedial action), (amendment), April 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 7-acre Midco II site is an abandoned chemical waste storage and disposal facility in Gary, Indiana. Land use in the surrounding area is predominantly industrial. The underlying aquifer, which is used primarily for non-drinking purposes, is highly susceptible to contamination from surface sources. From 1976 to 1978, the site was used for treatment, storage, and disposal of chemical and bulk liquid wastes. The ROD amends a 1989 ROD that addressed the remaining contaminated soil, pit wastes, and ground water by treatment of an estimated 35,000 cubic yards of soil wastes. The amended remedy reduces the estimated amount of soil to be treated, as a result of new information on arsenic data and amended soil CALs, further defines the site cover requirements, and further defines the requirements for deep well injection of contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the subsurface soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs, including methylene chloride, benzene, toluene, TCE, and xylenes; other organics, including PCBs, phenols, and PAHs; and metals, including chromium, and lead. The amended remedial action for the ROD is included

  16. Act No. 305 of 2 May 1983. Ratification and execution of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter, opened for signature in Mexico, London, Moscow and Washington on 29th December 1972, as modified by the amendments annexed to the resolution adopted in London on 12 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The London Convention provides for a system classifying radioactive waste for sea dumping. It prohibits the dumping of high level radioactive waste and makes the dumping of other categories of such waste subject to and in compliance with a special permit. (NEA) [fr

  17. H.R. 2580: This Act may be cited as the Waste Export and Import Prohibition Act, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 6, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Proposals to export solid waste from the United States to foreign countries are increasing. In numerous instances exported waste has contaminated the environment, adversely affected public health, and contributed to foreign policy liabilities for the United States. Imports of waste from foreign countries strain diminishing domestic waste disposal capacity, threaten public health, and contaminate the environment. This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 6, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to prohibit the international export and import of certain solid waste. Solid waste includes the following: low-level radioactive waste; hazardous waste; or a mixture of hazardous waste and low-level radioactive waste

  18. Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Lamb, Dane; Paneerselvam, Periyasamy; Choppala, Girish; Bolan, Nanthi; Chung, Jae-Woo

    2011-01-30

    As land application becomes one of the important waste utilization and disposal practices, soil is increasingly being seen as a major source of metal(loid)s reaching food chain, mainly through plant uptake and animal transfer. With greater public awareness of the implications of contaminated soils on human and animal health there has been increasing interest in developing technologies to remediate contaminated sites. Bioremediation is a natural process which relies on soil microorganisms and higher plants to alter metal(loid) bioavailability and can be enhanced by addition of organic amendments to soils. Large quantities of organic amendments, such as manure compost, biosolid and municipal solid wastes are used as a source of nutrients and also as a conditioner to improve the physical properties and fertility of soils. These organic amendments that are low in metal(loid)s can be used as a sink for reducing the bioavailability of metal(loid)s in contaminated soils and sediments through their effect on the adsorption, complexation, reduction and volatilization of metal(loid)s. This review examines the mechanisms for the enhanced bioremediation of metal(loid)s by organic amendments and discusses the practical implications in relation to sequestration and bioavailability of metal(loid)s in soils. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the transportation conformity rule to finalize provisions that were proposed on August 13, 2010. These amendments restructure several sections of the transportation conformity...

  1. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  2. Revegetating fly ash landfills with Prosopis juliflora L.: impact of different amendments and Rhizobium inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Pandey, K; Sinha, S; Singh, A; Saxena, R; Gupta, D K

    2004-05-01

    A revegetation trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of growing a legume species, Prosopis juliflora L., on fly ash ameliorated with combination of various organic amendments, blue-green algal biofertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation. Significant enhancements in plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, protein content and in vivo nitrate reductase activity were found in the plants grown on ameliorated fly ash in comparison to the plants growing in unamended fly ash or garden soil. Higher growth was obtained in fly ash amended with blue-green algae (BGA) than farmyard manure or press mud (PM), a waste from sugar-processing industry, due to the greater contribution of plant nutrients, supply of fixed nitrogen and increased availability of phosphorus. Nodulation was suppressed in different amendments of fly ash with soil in a concentration-duration-dependent manner, but not with other amendments. Plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr in various fly ash amendments than in garden soil. Further, inoculation of the plant with a fly ash tolerant Rhizobium strain conferred tolerance for the plant to grow under fly ash stress conditions with more translocation of metals to the above ground parts. The results showed the potential of P. juliflora to grow in plantations on fly ash landfills and to reduce the metal contents of fly ash by bioaccumulation in its tissues.

  3. Immobilization of Cadmium in a Cd-Spiked Soil by Different Kinds of Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboub Saffari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Chemical stabilization of heavy metals is one of the soil remediation methods based on the application amendments to reduce mobility of heavy metals. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the influence of different kinds of amendments on cadmium (Cd stabilization in a Cd-spiked soil. The amendments were municipal solid waste compost (MSWC, Coal fly ash (CFA, rice husk biochars prepared at 300°C (B300 and 600°C (B600, zero valent iron (Fe0 and zero valent manganese (Mn0. The Cd-spiked soils were separately incubated with selected amendments at the rates of 2 and 5% (W/W for 90 days at 25 °C. Soil samples were extracted by EDTA for periods of 5 to 975min. In addition, sequential extraction was used as a suitable method for identification of chemical forms of Cd and their plant availability. The addition of amendments to soil had significant effects on desorption and chemical forms of Cd. Changes in Cd fractions and their conversion into less soluble forms were clear in all treated soils. The addition of amendments resulted in a significant reduction in mobility factor of Cd compared to the control treatment. Among all amendments tested, Fe0 was the most effective treatment in decreasing dynamic of Cd. Biphasic pattern of Cd desorption kinetic was fitted well by the model of two first-order reactions. In general, from the practical point of view, Fe0, MSWC and Mn0 treatments are effective in Cd immobilization, while application of  Fe0 at 5% (W/W was the best treatment for stabilization of Cd. 

  4. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  5. Bulgaria: act on the safe use of nuclear energy (as last amended on 29 december 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This issue concerns the act on the Safe use of nuclear energy (as last amended on 29 december 2002) in Bulgaria. This act covers the activities associated with the State regulation of the Safe use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiations and with the safety of radioactive waste management and spent fuel management. it specifies the rights and duties of licenses in conducting those activities, to ensure nuclear safety and radiation protection. (N.C.)

  6. 75 FR 24790 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... 14 CFR Part 95 Airspace, Navigation (air). Issued in Washington, DC, on April 30, 2010. James J....6102 VOR Federal Airway V102 is Amended to Read in Part Ralls, TX FIX Guthrie, TX VORTAC...... *5000... VORTAC 40 Napoleon V278 is Amended to Add Changeover Point Guthrie, TX VORTAC Bowie, TX VORTAC 64 Guthrie...

  7. 77 FR 38477 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... MEA Sec. 95.6001 Victor Routes--U.S. Sec. 95.6016 VOR Federal Airway V16 is Amended to Delete TUCSON... NW 16500 Sec. 95.6366 VOR Federal Airway V366 is Amended to Read in Part HUGO, CO VOR/DME FALCON, CO...

  8. Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

    2008-02-01

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate

  9. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  10. Status of waste form testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.

    1984-01-01

    The promulgation of the amendment of 10 CFR Part 61 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of December 27, 1982 by Federal Register Notice with an effective date of December 27, 1983 established the criteria for licensing requirements, paragraph 60.56, contained the description to provide adequate stability of the site through the use of suitable waste forms. In May, 1983, the NRC published a final Branch Technical Position (BTP) paper on waste form. The position taken by the BTP was considerably more severe than indicated in 10 CFR Part 61. An extensive and expensive testing program was started in 1983. As an interim measure, the presently utilized solidification processes such as cement, Dow binder, Envirostone and bitumen, and the presently qualified High Integrity containers (HICs) were considered acceptable with the caveat that acceptable process control programs were being utilized. The NRC requested that topical reports for licenses be submitted. The topical reports were to contain test results to substantiate the acceptability of the waste forms. The test results to date show that the volume of wastes will have to increase to meet the position taken by the NRC in the BTP. This position will cause more waste to be generated which is contrary to the emphasis by states and others to reduce the volume of waste. The details of testing will be discussed in the paper to be presented

  11. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  12. Impacts of hazardous waste regulation on low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 have greatly expanded the universe of what, and who, is regulated under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Handling requirements for hazardous waste are becoming increasingly more stringent, particularly where land disposal is concerned. DOE needs to begin actively pursuing strategies directed at keeping the management of LLW clearly separated from wastes that are legitimately regulated under RCRA. Such strategies would include instituting systemwide changes in internal management practices, establishing improved location standards for LLW disposal, and negotiating interagency compromise agreements to obtain variances from RCRA requirements where necessary and appropriate

  13. Mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given [fr

  14. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  15. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  16. Solid waste management in faisalabad using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, A.; Ali, S.; Khan, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management is a global environmental issue which concerns about a very significant problem in today's world. There is a considerable amount of disposal of waste without proper segregation which has lead to both economic and environment sufferings. It is still practiced in many cities. There is a tremendous amount of loss in terms of environmental degradation, health hazards and economic descend due to direct disposal of waste. It is better to segregate the waste at the initial stages where it is generated, rather than going for a later option which is inconvenient and expensive. There has to be appropriate planning for proper waste management by means of analysis of the waste situation of the area. This paper would deal with, how Geographical Information System can be used as a decision support tool for planning waste management. A model is designed for the case study area in Pakistan city for the purpose of planning waste management. The suggestions for amendments in the system through GIS based model would reduce the waste management workload to some extent and exhibit remedies for some of the SWM problems in the case study area. The waste management issues are considered to solve some of the present situation problems like proper allocation and relocation of waste bins, check for unsuitability and proximity convenience due to waste bin to the users, proposal of recyclable waste bins for the required areas and future suggestions. The model will be implemented on the Faisalabad city's case study area data for the analysis and results will suggest some modification in the existing system which is expected to reduce the waste management workload to a certain extent. (author)

  17. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  18. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  20. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  1. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  2. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  3. The mythology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckhofer.

    1981-10-01

    This paper, while making a parallel between the mythology of the dangers of alcohol when the United States adopted a constitutional amendment prohibiting intoxicating liquor and public attitudes towards the dangers of nuclear waste burial, outlines the reason for these attitudes. Poor information of the public, from the start, on such dangers, the trauma of the atomic bomb and certain court decisions on nuclear activities which were in fact repealed by the Supreme Court. The paper also stresses the difficulty of dealing with this problem on a rational basis despite proven technical knowledge and successful experiments. (NEA) [fr

  4. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  6. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  7. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  8. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  9. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  10. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  11. 37 CFR 2.74 - Form and signature of amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form and signature of... signature of amendment. (a) Form of Amendment. Amendments should be set forth clearly and completely... record. (b) Signature. A request for amendment of an application must be signed by the applicant, someone...

  12. 33 CFR 104.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit. 104.415 Section 104.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Plan (VSP) § 104.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Vessel Security Plan...

  13. 33 CFR 105.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit. 105.415 Section 105.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 105.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Facility Securit...

  14. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  15. Technical bases for OCRWM's [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] policy decisions on international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technical factors that contributed to the formulation of the international safeguards policy enunciated in September 1988 by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which is the federal organization responsible for the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended

  16. Effect of rice bran on the quality of vermicompost produced from food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pourzamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that composting and vermicomposting process can be used as a potential tool for bio convert rice bran and food waste. However, it is suggested that the rice bran can be amended with food waste to ensure better quality of vermicompost.

  17. Office of the US Nuclear Waste Negotiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Office of the US Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created as an independent federal agency by the US Congress pursuant to the 1987 amendments to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The office, which was authorized by Congress for 5 years following the enactment of the 1987 amendments, is headquartered in Boise, Idaho, and maintains a liaison office in Washington DC. The negotiator is charged with the responsibility of attempting to find a state or Indian tribe willing to host a repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility at a technically qualified site on reasonable terms. The negotiator is instructed to negotiate with any state or Indian tribe that expresses an interest in hosting a repository or MRS facility. The negotiator will formally submit the negotiated agreement and environmental assessment to Congress, and the agreement will become effective when acted on by Congress and signed by the President into law

  18. Native-plant amendments and topsoil addition enhance soil function in post-mining arid grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard J; Bateman, Amber; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2018-04-15

    One of the most critical challenges faced in restoration of disturbed arid lands is the limited availability of topsoil. In post-mining restoration, alternative soil substrates such as mine waste could be an adequate growth media to alleviate the topsoil deficit, but these materials often lack appropriate soil characteristics to support the development and survival of seedlings. Thus, addition of exogenous organic matter may be essential to enhance plant survival and soil function. Here, we present a case study in the arid Pilbara region (north-west Western Australia), a resource-rich area subject to intensive mining activities. The main objective of our study was to assess the effects of different restoration techniques such as soil reconstruction by blending available soil materials, sowing different compositions of plant species, and addition of a locally abundant native soil organic amendment (Triodia pungens biomass) on: (i) seedling recruitment and growth of Triodia wiseana, a dominant grass in Australian arid ecosystems, and (ii) soil chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of reconstructed soils, including microbial activity, total organic C, total N, and C and N mineralisation. The study was conducted in a 12-month multifactorial microcosms setting in a controlled environment. Our results showed that the amendment increased C and N contents of re-made soils, but these values were still lower than those obtained in the topsoil. High microbial activity and C mineralisation rates were found in the amended waste that contrasted the low N mineralisation but this did not translate into improved emergence or survival of T. wiseana. These results suggest a short- or medium-term soil N immobilisation caused by negative priming effect of fresh un-composted amendment on microbial communities. We found similar growth and survival rates of T. wiseana in topsoil and a blend of topsoil and waste (50:50) which highlights the importance of topsoil, even in a

  19. 1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities

  20. Effect of selenium-enriched organic material amendment on selenium fraction transformation and bioavailability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Dinh, Quang Toan; Anh Thu, Tran Thi; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Wenxiao; Wang, Mengke; Song, Weiwei; Liang, Dongli

    2018-05-01

    To exploit the plant byproducts from selenium (Se) biofortification and reduce environmental risk of inorganic Se fertilizer, pot experiment was conducted in this study. The effects of Se-enriched wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS + Se) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) (P + Se) amendment on organo-selenium speciation transformation in soil and its bioavailability was evaluated by pak choi uptake. The Se contents of the cultivated pak choi in treatments amended with the same amount of Se-enriched wheat straw and pak choi were 1.7 and 9.7 times in the shoots and 2.3 and 6.3 times in the roots compared with control treatment. Soil respiration rate was significantly increased after all organic material amendment in soil (p organic materials and thus resulted in soluble Se (SOL-Se), exchangeable Se (EX-Se), and fulvic acid-bound Se (FA-Se) fraction increasing by 25.2-29.2%, 9-13.8%, and 4.92-8.28%, respectively. In addition, both Pearson correlation and cluster analysis showed that EX-Se and FA-Se were better indicators for soil Se availability in organic material amendment soils. The Marquardt-Levenberg Model well described the dynamic kinetics of FA-Se content after Se-enriched organic material amendment in soil mainly because of the mineralization of organic carbon and organo-selenium. The utilization of Se in P + Se treatment was significantly higher than those in WS + Se treatment because of the different mineralization rates and the amount of FA-Se in soil. Se-enriched organic materials amendment can not only increase the availability of selenium in soil but also avoid the waste of valuable Se source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  2. Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has arisen in recycling of the waste created by modern society. A common way of recycling the organic fraction is amendment on farmland. However, these wastes may contain possible hazardous components in small amounts, which may prevent their use in farming. The ob...... phenol ethoxylates. The results are promising as they indicate that a great potential for biological degradation is present, though the inoculum containing the microorganisms capable of transforming the recalcitrant xenobiotics has to be chosen carefully....

  3. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  4. Activities in department of energy hazardous and mixed waste defense waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    In January 1986, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP) created the Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) was assigned the responsibility for supporting DOE Headquarters (HQ) in planning nationally integrated activities for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act/Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (RCRA/CERCLA/SARA) compliance. In turn, ORO created the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program Support Contractor Office (HAZWRAPSCO) to assist with the expanded lead assignment. The HAZWRAPSCO activities are currently supported by three distinct DOE-HQ funding elements: the Environmental Restoration Program, the Hazardous Waste Compliance Technology Program, and the Hazardous Waste Research and Development R and D Program. The Environmental Restoration Program is discussed in the paper, entitled The DOE Defense Program for Environmental Restoration

  5. Nitrous Oxide flux measurements under various amendments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions from soils under three different amendments: glucose, cellulose, and manure. Data includes the...

  6. Pb speciation results in amended soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the distribution of Pb phases resulting from various amendments to change Pb speciation. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  7. Mass Media and the First Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses five Supreme Court decisions that relate to the First Amendment and freedom of the press. Includes small group decision-making exercises and discussion questions focusing on these interpretations for use in a college speech communication class. (MH)

  8. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haramaya Law Review ... The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) under Article 104 and 105 sets ... that sets procedures to be observed in the process of constitutional amendments: both initiation and approval.

  9. Proposed Amendments to the Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr

  10. Compost-amended biofiltration swale evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    From May 2009 through June 2010, Herrera Environmental Consultants conducted hydrologic : and water quality monitoring of a compost-amended biofiltration swale and a standard (control) : biofiltration swale in the median of State Route 518 for the Wa...

  11. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  12. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans

  13. A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.; Munger, D.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

  14. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This is the fifth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report covers the activities and expenditures of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987, which ended on September 30, 1987. The activities and accomplishments of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987 are discussed in chapters 1 through 9 of this report. The audited financial statements of the Nuclear Waste Fund are provided in chapter 10. Since the close of the fiscal year, a number of significant events have occurred. Foremost among them was the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act) on December 21, 1987, nearly 3 months after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report. As a result, some of the plans and activities discussed in chapters 1 through 9 are currently undergoing significant change or are being discontinued. Most prominent among the provisions of the Amendments Act is the designation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only candidate first repository site to be characterized. Therefore, the site characterization plans for Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington, discussed in chapter 3, will not be issued. The refocusing of the waste management program under the Amendments Act is highlighted in the epilogue, chapter 11. 68 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Consolidated permit regulations and hazardous waste management system: Environmental Protection Agency. Notice of issuance of regulation interpretation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-10

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing today a Regulation Interpretation Memorandum (RIM) which provides official interpretation of the issue of whether a generator who accumulates hazardous waste pursuant to 40 CFR 262.34, may qualify for interim status after November 19, 1980. This issue arose when the requirements for submitting a Part A permit application (one of the prerequisites to qualifying for interim status) were amended on November 19, 1980. The provisions interpreted today are part of the Consolidated Permit Regulations promulgated under Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA).

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to insects, mediated by an earthworm-produced organic soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2011-02-01

    Vermicompost is an organic soil amendment produced by earthworm digestion of organic waste. Studies show that plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost grow faster, are more productive and are less susceptible to a number of arthropod pests. In light of these studies, the present study was designed to determine the type of insect resistance (antixenosis or antibiosis) present in plants grown in vermicompost-amended potting soil. Additionally, the potential role of microarthropods, entomopathogenic organisms and non-pathogenic microbial flora found in vermicompost on insect resistance induction was investigated. Findings show that vermicompost from two different sources (Raleigh, North Carolina, and Portland, Oregon) were both effective in causing Arabidopsis plants to be resistant to the generalist herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). However, while the Raleigh (Ral) vermicompost plant resistance was expressed as both non-preference (antixenosis) and milder (lower weight and slower development) toxic effect (antibiosis) resistance, Oregon (OSC) vermicompost plant resistance was expressed as acute antibiosis, resulting in lower weights and higher mortality rates. Vermicompost causes plants to have non-preference (antixenosis) and toxic (antibiosis) effects on insects. This resistance affects insect development and survival on plants grown in vermicompost-amended soil. Microarthropods and entomopathogens do not appear to have a role in the resistance, but it is likely that resistance is due to interactions between the microbial communities in vermicompost with plant roots, as is evident from vermicompost sterilization assays conducted in this study. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of biosludge and biofertilizer amendment on growth of Jatropha curcas in heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha Ashok; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Phani; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soils, amended with biosludge and biofertilizer on the growth of Jatropha curcas which is a biodiesel crop. The results further showed that biosludge alone and in combination with biofertilizer significantly improved the survival rates and enhanced the growth of the plant. With the amendments, the plant was able to grow and survive upto 500, 250 and 4,000 mg kg(-1) of As, Cr and Zn contaminated soils, respectively. The results also showed that zinc enhanced the growth of J. curcas more as compared to other metals contaminated soils. The heavy metal accumulation in plant increased with increasing concentrations of heavy metals in soil, where as a significant reduction in the metal uptake in plant was observed, when amended with biosludge and biofertilizer and biosludge alone. It seems that the organic matter present in the biosludge acted as metal chelator thereby reducing the toxicity of metals to the plant. Findings suggest that plantation of J. curcas may be promoted in metal contaminated soils, degraded soils or wasteland suitably after amending with organic waste.

  18. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part.Volume two contains Sections 4.0 through 6.0 and the following appendices: Appendix A -- acronyms and definition of terms; Appendix B -- unplanned releases that are not considered to be units; and Appendix C -- operable unit maps

  19. Role of disposal in developing Federal Facility Compliance Act mixed waste treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Rhoderick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was enacted on October 6, 1992. This act amends the Solid Waste Disposal Act, which was previously amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The FFCA set in place a process for managing the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed low-level radioactive wastes (MLLW), wastes that contain both hazardous and low-level radioactive constituents, with full participation of the affected states. The FFCA provides the framework for the development of treatment capacity for DOE's mixed waste. Disposal of the treatment residues is not addressed by the FFCA. DOE has initiated efforts in concert with the states in the development of a disposal strategy for the treated mixed wastes. This paper outlines DOE efforts in development of a mixed waste disposal strategy which is integrated with the FFCA Site Treatment Planning process

  20. Waste -92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekwall, K.

    1992-11-01

    The report gives a review of waste incineration in Sweden today, including environmental and legal aspects. 21 incinerator plants are in use, producing heat to district heating network and, to a minor part, electric power. In 1991 1.31 Mton household waste and 0.35 Mton industrial waste were incinerated producing 4.4 Twh of energy. In a few cities 30-40 percent of the district heat comes from waste incineration. The theoretical and practical potentials for energy production in Sweden are estimated to 7 respective 5 TWh for household waste and 9 respective 5-6 TWh for industrial waste. Landfill gas is extracted at about 35 sites, with a yearly production of 0.3 TWh which corresponds to 3-5 percent of the potentially recoverable quantity. (8 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.)

  1. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  3. Long-term effects of different type and rates of organic amendments on reclamation of copper mine tailing in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Eduardo; Garreton, Bruna; Ginocchio, Rosanna

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of a single application of organic amendments on a copper mine tailings. Seven years after seeding of a mix of herbaceous plant and planting of ten native trees, and the application of organic amendment, plant community and soil fertility was measured in replicated plots that received six different treatments of waste water treatment plant biosolids (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha), olive oil waste (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha) and pisco grapes waste (90 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha). A control treatment that received no organic amendment was also measured after seven years. Field measurements demonstrated that application of biosolids and pisco grapes waste, at both rates significantly improved vegetation coverage in comparison to the control treatment (80 and 100% vs control, 25%). The high rates of pisco waste had the highest vegetation diversity and survival in comparison to the other treatments. The high rate of olive oil waste had a negative effect on vegetation development in comparison to the control treatment. The application of organic amendment improved soil fertility in the long-term. All the treatments had a significant higher nitrogen concentration in comparison to the control treatment. The high rates of biosolids and pisco grape waste had a significantly effect of soil carbon concentration. Soil macro-aggregate in the high rate of pisco grape waste were also higher than the control, showing a positive relation between soil recover and vegetation development. We can conclude assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings is likely a technically effective solution for the valorisation of organic residues.

  4. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  5. A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Adilah Shariff; Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Alexander Lau; Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, ...

  6. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  7. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Wasting away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  9. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  10. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  11. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  12. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  13. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when the ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the preliminary assessment/site investigation/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. This document incorporates requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA in the form of an RI report for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  14. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Project quarterly technical report, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-18

    This quarterly report describes the technical status of activities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. Each activity is identified by an activity data sheet number, a brief title describing the activity or the technical area where the activity is located, and the name of the project leader. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) portion of the facility operating permit requires the submission of a technical progress report on a quarterly basis. This report, submitted to fulfill the permit`s requirement, summarizes the work performed and the results of sampling and analysis in the ER Project. Suspect waste found include: Radionuclides, high explosives, metals, solvents and organics. The data provided in this report have not been validated. These data are considered ``reviewed data.``

  16. The Pinellas Plant RCRA facility investigation - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbury, Richard; Keshian, Berg; Farley, Dwain; Meyer, David; Ingle, David; Biedermann, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque Field Office Environmental Restoration Program, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) was completed at the Pinellas Plant to fulfill requirements of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) permit issued on February 9, 1990 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RFI addressed potential contaminant releases and environmental conditions at 15 solid waste management units (SWMUs). The RFI characterization program began in April 1990 and was completed in May 1991. The scope of RFI data collection activities is presented in the Pinellas Plant RFI Workplan issued in May 1990 and approved by EPA on April 16, 1991. An RFI Report was submitted to EPA on September 1, 1991. This paper presents a summary of RFI results and conclusions. Primary environmental concerns at the Pinellas Plant are emphasized. (author)

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste fadities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCIA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RIFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Coffective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the Pre at sign ary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/Sl) Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study (RI/FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCIA into an RI Work Plan for the lint phase of characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 4

  18. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcollar (Spain): The effect of soil amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J.; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcollar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH -1 , respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. - Although organic amendments improved soil conditions and plant growth, the phytoextraction capacity of Brassica juncea (cv. Z1) is too low for efficient soil remediation

  19. Waste analysis plan for confirmation or completion of Tank Farms backlog waste designation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This waste analysis plan satisfies the requirements of Item 3 of Ecology Order 93NM-201 as amended per the Settlement Agreement. Item 3 states: ''Within forty (40) calendar days of receipt of this Order, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) shall provide Ecology with a plan for review and approval detailing the established criteria and procedures for waste inspection, segregation, sampling, designation, and repackaging of all containers reported in item number-sign 1. The report shall include sampling plan criteria for different contaminated media, i.e., soils, compactable waste, high-efficiency particular air (HEPA) filters, etc., and a schedule for completing the work within the time allowed under this Order.'' Item 3 was amended per the Settlement Agreement as follows: ''In addition to the waste inspection plans for the ''unknowns'' previously provided and currently being supplemented, DOE-RL and WHC shall provide a draft waste analysis plan for the containers reported in Item 1 of the Order to Ecology by July 12, 1993. A final, DOE-RL approved waste analysis plan shall be submitted to Ecology by September 1, 1993, for Ecology's written approval by September 15, 1993.'' Containers covered by the Order, Settlement Agreement, and this waste analysis plan consist of all those reported under Item 1 of the Order, less any containers that have been identified in unusual occurrences reported by Tank Farms. This waste analysis plan describes the procedures that will be undertaken to confirm or to complete designation of the solid waste identified in the Order

  20. Impact of dynamic certification requirements on the Nuclear Materials Technology Division's transuranic waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, J.J.; Montoya, A.J.; Wieneke, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    The issuance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit in August of 2000, specifically the attachment I3 Waste Analysis Plan (WAP),had a profound impact upon transuranic (TRU) waste certification at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Plutonium Facility. Program certification was lost until Laboratory internal program documents could be amended to meet the new WAP requirements, waste management personnel could be retrained to incorporate the changes into waste operations and the entire program successfully pass subsequent Carlsbad Field Ofice (CBFO) audit. This action resulted in the suspension of transuranic waste shipments from LANL to WIPP. In addition the changes unnecessarily increased the complexity of TRU waste program activities in waste handling.

  1. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  2. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  3. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Current planning for the management of radioactive wastes, with some emphasis on plutonium contaminated wastes, includes the provision of re-positories from which the waste can be safely removed to permanent disposal. A number of possibilities for permanent disposal are under investigation with the most favorable, at the present time, apparently disposal in a stable geological formation. However, final choice cannot be made until all studies are completed and a pilot phase demonstrates the adequacy of the chosen method. The radioactive wastes which result from all portions of the fuel cycle could comprise an important source of exposure to the public if permitted to do so. The objectives of the AEC waste management program are to provide methods of treating, handling and storing these wastes so that this exposure will not occur. This paper is intended to describe some of the problems and current progress of waste management programs, with emphasis on plutonium-contaminated wastes. Since the technology in this field is advancing at a rapid pace, the descriptions given can be regarded only as a snapshot at one point in time. (author)

  4. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  5. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  6. The interactions of composting and biochar and their implications for soil amendment and pollution remediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haipeng; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Chen, Jin; Xu, Jijun; Dai, Juan; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Liang; Wan, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities. The composting could also change the physico-chemical properties and facial functional groups of biochar, such as the improvement of nutrients, CEC, functional groups and organic matter. These changes would potentially improve the efficiency of the biochar and composting for soil amendment and pollution remediation. Based on the above review, this paper also discusses the future research required in this field.

  7. Bentonite-amended soils special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of a two-phased special study to evaluate the viability of soil amended with a high percentage of bentonite as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Phase I of the study was initiated in order to examine the feasibility of using bentonite-amended soils as a cover component on sideslopes and topslopes. The Phase I objectives were to test a variety of materials to determine if low hydraulic conductivities were achievable in materials exhibiting sufficient strength and to select suitable materials for further testing. Phase II objectives were to (1) optimize designs -- test materials with various percentages of bentonite added; (2) provide design recommendations; (3) address constructibility concerns; and (4) evaluate long-term performance with respect to desiccation effects on the amended materials

  8. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  11. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  12. Potential Environmental Benefits from Blending Biosolids with Other Organic Amendments before Application to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Clough, Timothy J; Horswell, Jacqui; Robinson, Brett H

    2017-05-01

    Biosolids disposal to landfill or through incineration is wasteful of a resource that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients. Land application can improve soil fertility and enhance crop production but may result in excessive nitrate N (NO-N) leaching and residual contamination from pathogens, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. This paper evaluates evidence that these concerns can be reduced significantly by blending biosolids with organic materials to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application to soils. It appears feasible to combine organic waste streams for use as a resource to build or amend degraded soils. Sawdust and partially pyrolyzed biochars provide an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application, with studies showing reductions of NO-N leaching of 40 to 80%. However, other organic amendments including lignite coal waste may result in excessive NO-N leaching. Field trials combining biosolids and biochars for rehabilitation of degraded forest and ecological restoration are recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Changes in microbial communities in green waste and sewage sludge composts following maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Ruaudel, F.; Petit, J. Le; Terrom, G.; Perissol, C.

    2009-01-01

    Composting is an interesting way to valorize various bio wastes and is becoming an increasingly used soil amendment. compost is a product obtained after a humification process. However, compost utilization as amendment needs to know precisely its stability and maturity. since composting is mainly a microbial process, knowledge of the various microbial groups and their role in the process of bio-oxidation is essential. (Author)

  14. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  15. Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L.; Lin, J.-G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

  16. Nuclear waste: Quarterly report on DOE's Nuclear Waste Program as of March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act established a national program and policy for safely storing, transporting, and disposing of nuclear waste. This fact sheet provides the status of the Department of Energy's program activities. They include (1) the release of a draft amendment to the mission plan in which DOE extends by 5 years its target date for beginning first repository operations and information on DOE's decision to postpone site-specific activities for the second repository; (2) a monitored retrievable storage proposal and related documents; (3) receipts of comments from utilities, state regulators, and others on its Notice of Inquiry on proposals for the calculation of fees for defense waste disposal; and (4) information on the Nuclear Waste Fund collection of over /135.4 million in fees and investment income and obligations of $139 million for program activities. The fund balance as of March 31, 1987, was about $1.5 billion

  17. Atomic Energy Amendment Act 1978, No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act amends certain Sections of the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The principal modifications concern the definitions of atomic energy, prescribed substances, the provision and supply of uranium in relation to the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission, compliance with the agreement with the IAEA on the application of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty as well as with any agreement with any other international organization or another country. The Act also amends the 1953 Act in respect of the control of prescribed substances and repeals the section concerning jurisdiction of courts. (NEA) [fr

  18. 75 FR 77745 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... purposes of updating. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 3, 5, 7, and 10 Government procurement. Dated... [Amended] 0 2. Amend section 3.104-1 by removing from the definition ``Federal agency procurement,'' in the...

  19. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment 80...

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christel, Wibke [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Department of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 1401 Copenhagen C (Denmark); Zhu, Kun [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Hoefer, Christoph [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Kreuzeder, Andreas [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Land Salzburg, Natur- und Umweltschutz, Gewerbe (Abteilung 5), Michael-Pacher-Straße 36, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Santner, Jakob [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Division of Agronomy, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Jensen, Lars Stoumann, E-mail: lsj@plen.ku.dk [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2016-06-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residuesphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O{sub 2} content and had emitted significantly more CO{sub 2} than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residuesphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O_2 content and had emitted significantly more CO_2 than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in order to

  2. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  3. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Meredith T.; Neher, Deborah A.; Roy, Eric D.; Tichenor, Nicole E.; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015. A biophysical simulation model was used to estimate the amount of cropland associated with wasted food. This analysis finds that US consumers wasted 422g of food per person daily, with 30 million acres of cropland used to produce this food every year. This accounts for 30% of daily calories available for consumption, one-quarter of daily food (by weight) available for consumption, and 7% of annual cropland acreage. Higher quality diets were associated with greater amounts of food waste and greater amounts of wasted irrigation water and pesticides, but less cropland waste. This is largely due to fruits and vegetables, which are health-promoting and require small amounts of cropland, but require substantial amounts of agricultural inputs. These results suggest that simultaneous efforts to improve diet quality and reduce food waste are necessary. Increasing consumers’ knowledge about how to prepare and store fruits and vegetables will be one of the practical solutions to reducing food waste. PMID:29668732

  4. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Amendment No. 7 to Allied-General Nuclear Services application for licensing of the Fuel Receiving and Storage Station consists of revised pages for: Amendment No. 7 to AG-L 105, ''Technical Description in Support of Application for FRSS Operation''; Amendment No. 1 to AG-L 105A, ''Early Operation of the Service Concentrator''; and Amendment No. 2 to AG-L 110, ''FRSS Summary Preoperational Report.''

  5. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Waste segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures

  7. Response to comments background document for the Third Third land-disposal restrictions proposed rule November 22, 1989 (54 FR 48372). Volume 2-2. Capacity-related comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On November 22, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, the Agency) proposed a rule to prohibit the land disposal of the final third of the schedule of restricted hazardous wastes, known as the Third Third (see 54 Federal Register 48372). The proposal outlined treatment standards and effective dates of prohibition for these wastes as well as for some First and Second Third soft hammer wastes, characteristic wastes, certain waste groups (e.g., multi-source leachate, radioactive mixed waste), and newly listed wastes. The proposed rule was issued pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Agency requested public comment on the proposal. The regulated community, environmental organizations, trade associations, State and Federal agencies, and concerned citizens submitted over 300 written letters on the proposed rule. EPA developed three volumes of a comment response document. This document (Volume 2 of 3) presents a summary of and responses to capacity-related comments received by the EPA docket clerk in response to the proposed rule. The comments have been divided into 17 chapters, each addressing specific comment categories. This volume contains Chapters 8-12. These chapters discuss mercury wastes, other metals, F, K, U, and P wastes, KO48-KO52 wastes, and deepwell injected wastes

  8. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities

  9. 76 FR 2799 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-4] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Jet Route J-93 in California between...) to amend J-93, (75 FR 66344). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking...

  10. 40 CFR 265.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 265.54... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever: (a) Applicable regulations...

  11. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1432; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-25] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boone, IA, area, creating additional...

  12. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1435; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-28] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Perry, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Perry, IA, area, creating additional...

  13. 30 CFR 938.16 - Required regulatory program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consistent with section 510(d) of SMCRA by requiring that the restoration of prime farmland soil productivity... of the reclamation fee, as amended in § 86.17(e), will assure that the Surface Mining Conservation... current market value. (n) By November 1, 1991, Pennsylvania shall amend § 86.158(b)(2) or otherwise amend...

  14. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  15. 31 CFR 355.15 - Can these regulations be amended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can these regulations be amended? 355.15 Section 355.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... CHECKS § 355.15 Can these regulations be amended? We may, at any time, supplement, amend, or revise the...

  16. 32 CFR 635.13 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Amendment of records. 635.13 Section 635.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of Information § 635.13 Amendment of records. (a) Policy. An amendment of records is...

  17. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7047] Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section 303 of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amending program manager's management... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications. (a... specifications; or (2) The program manager applies for the amendment of any management specifications, and the...

  19. Effect of organic amendments and compost extracts on tomato production and storability in ecological production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorbani reza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Shiravan, Iran, during 2005 in order to investigate the effects of organic amendments, synthetic fertilizers and compost extracts on crop health, productivity and storability of commonly used tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. Treatments included different fertilizers of cattle, sheep and poultry manures, house-hold compost and chemical fertilizers, and five aqueous extracts from cattle manure, poultry manures, green-waste and house-hold composts and water as control. The effect of fertilizer type on tomato yield and marketable yield was significant (P

  20. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  1. Impact of organic amendments on soil carbon sequestration, water use efficiency and yield of irrigated wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzadi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Soil organic carbon (SOC plays critical role in terrestrial carbon (C cycling and is central to preserving soil quality, food security and environmental protection in agroecosystem. The prevailing soil and climatic conditions of cultivated and irrigated soils in warm semi-arid areas favor the rapid decomposition, mineralization and loss of SOC to the atmosphere which contribute to global warming. One potential strategy to address this C loss is the addition of organic amendments. Objectives. To investigate the effect of four contrasting organic wastes with and without NPK mineral fertilizer on SOC retention, water use efficiency (WUE and wheat yield in irrigated wheat-maize cropping system. Method. A 2-year field experiment was conducted using four organic wastes included municipal solid waste (MSW, farm yard manure (FYM, sugar industry waste (filter cake and maize cropping residues. All wastes were applied at 3 t C·ha-1 alone and with a full or half dose of NPK mineral fertilizer. Results. On average, among organic wastes as sole treatment, highest SOC content in the 0-15 cm layer was recorded in filter cake (6.5 t·ha-1 and MSW (5.9 t·ha-1. Addition of NPK fertilizer along with organic wastes, improved the SOC contents with the highest SOC (7.7 t·ha-1 by filter cake + full NPK treatment followed by the MSW + NPK (6.9 t·ha-1. On average, maximum wheat grain WUE (18 kg·ha-1·mm-1 and grain yield (4.8 t·ha-1 were obtained by MSW + full NPK treatment followed by filter cake + NPK. Conclusions. These results indicate that the targeted addition of organic wastes (filter cake or MSW have the best potential for improving SOC retention, WUE and wheat yield in irrigated maize-wheat cropping system.

  2. 75 FR 67210 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ..., ensure navigation aid coverage that is adequate for safe flight operations and free of frequency... Federal Airway V8 is Amended To Read in Part GRAND JUNCTION, CO VOR/DME....... *SQUAT, CO FIX **10500 *11700--MRA *11700--MCA SQUAT, CO FIX, NE BND. **9600--MOCA *SQUAT, CO FIX RIFLE, CO VOR/DME....... 13200...

  3. Untangling the Strands of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Ira C.

    1979-01-01

    Explores trends in the Court's interpretation of the libertarian and egalitarian dimensions of the Fourteenth Amendment and offers a theory of the two strands. Available from Michigan Law Review, Hutchins Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; single issues $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  4. 29 CFR 102.17 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such complaint may be amended upon such terms as may be deemed just, prior to the hearing, by the... hearing; and after the case has been transferred to the Board pursuant to § 102.45, at any time prior to... to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10 (a...

  5. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The amendments to the AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations have been made with a view to simplifying the registration procedure for obtaining such a certificate or approval under the above Transport Regulations. In effect there will no longer be a need for a separate fee system for registered users of certified package designs. (NEA)

  6. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  7. The Nineteenth Amendment: Reform or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Brooks, Della Barr

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, although many suffrage supporters anticipated a new political age after passage of the 19th Amendment, women have begun to realize their electoral potential only in recent years. Describes the role of women in politics and political opinion from the 1920s to the present. (CFR)

  8. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  9. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  10. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  11. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  12. Kinetic characteristic of phenanthrene sorption in aged soil amended with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanyang; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Biochar has been recently highlighted as an amendment that affects yield of the crops by increasing pH, cation exchange capacity and water retention, and reduces the lability of contaminants by increasing sorption capacity in the soil system. Biochar's physico-chemical properties, high CEC, surfaces containing abundant micropores and macropores, and various types of functional groups, play important roles in enhancing sorption capacity of contaminants. Aging through a natural weathering process might change physico-chemical properties of biochar amended in soils, which can affect the sorption behavior of contaminants. Thus, in this study, the sorption characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) on biochar-amended soils were studied with various types of chars depending on aging time. To do this, 1) soil was amended with sludge waste char (SWC), wood char (WC), and municipal waste char (MWC) during 0, 6, and 12 month. Chars were applied to soil at 1% and 2.5% (w/w) ratio. 2) Several batch kinetic and equilibrium studies were conducted. One-compartment first order and two-compartment first order model apportioning the fraction of fast and slow sorbing were selected for kinetic models. Where, qt is PHE concentration in biochar-amended soils at each time t, qeis PHE concentration in biochar-amended soils at equilibrium. ff is fastly sorbing fraction and (1-ff) is slowly sorbing fraction. k is sorption rate constant from one-compartment first order model, k1 and k2 are sorption rate constant from two-compartment first order model, t is time (hr). The equilibrium sorption data were fitted with Fruendlich and Langmuir equation. 3) Change in physico-chemical properties of biochar-amended soils was investigated with aging time. Batch equilibrium sorption results suggested that sorbed amount of PHE on WC was greater than SWC and MWC. The more char contents added to soil, the greater sorption capacity of PHE. Sorption equilibrium was reached after 4 hours and equilibrium pH ranged

  13. Air pollution control arising from waste incineration. Status of the amendment of the 17th BImSchV within the national implementation of the European industry emission guideline; Luftreinhaltung bei der Abfallverbrennung. Stand der Novelle der 17. BImSchV im Rahmen der nationalen Umsetzung der Europaeischen Industrieemissionsrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleis, Markus; Wiechmann, Benjamin [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    With its publication in December 2010, the new Directive 2010/75/EU (abbreviated IED) is a trigger in the national laws of the Member States of the European Union. For Germany and other member states a two-year period results from this in order to implement the requirements of the IED into national law. IED is more than a mere amendment to the 'old IVU Directive' in which several European sectorial guidelines are summarized. The implementation has a major impact on a number of regulations in Germany. Not only the Federal Pollution Control Act has to be changed, but also numerous minor set of rules such as the 4th, 13th, and 17th Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance.

  14. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  15. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  17. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  19. First-year plant density of seeded vegetation on amended lead-zinc chat tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norland, M.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Mining of lead and zinc sulfides began in the Kansas portion of the Tri-State Mining District in 1976 and continued until the 1950s when a decrease in the demand for lead and zinc forced operations to shut down. As a result of this shallow underground mining, chat tailing and other mine wastes were deposited on the soil surface or as mine waste piles. In 1983, the U.S. EPA added 285 km of Cherokee County, Kansas, to the National Priorities List due to the risks to human health and the environment by heavy metal contamination. In 1985, the EPA declared the Cherokee County portion of the Tri-State District to be a Superfund Site and began remedial action investigations at the Galena, Kansas subsite. The Bureau of Mines is evaluating site stabilization techniques in Galena, to minimize wind and water erosion, infiltration and percolation through the mine wastes. Vegetation and the use of locally available organic wastes are being tested as site stabilization techniques. A 4x3x3 factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block was initiated in 1990. Four organic waste materials (composted yard waste, composted cattle manure, spent mushroom compost and turkey litter) were applied with inorganic fertilizer. Control plots were included in the design. A total of 39 combinations were assigned to 2.5 by 4 m test plots at random and each combination was replicated three times. All experimental plots were seeded with a mix of introduced or native and cool or warm season grasses and leguminous forbs. First-year results of this long-term study suggest that the type of organic waste material used as a soil amendment has a significant effect on first-year plant density. Applications of composted cattle manure, composted yard waste and spent mushroom compost resulted in mean plant densities of 90, 83 and 76 plants M-2 which are significantly higher than the mean plant density of control plots and plots amended with turkey litter, 37 and 21 plants M-2

  20. TRU Waste Inventory Collection and Work-Off Plans for the Centralization of TRU Waste Characterization/Certification at INL - On Your Mark - Get Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, J.; Lott, S.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage of Transuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification of TRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities of TRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization of this TRU waste will avoid the cost of building treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each of the small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all of the small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number of waste in containers that are over-packed into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume of much of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD. (authors)

  1. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  2. Can nuclear waste be stored safely at Yucca mountain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987 the federal government narrowed to one its long-term options for disposing of nuclear waste: storing it permanently in a series of caverns excavated out of the rock deep below Yucca mountain in southern Nevada. Whether it makes sense at this time to dispose permanently of spent fuel and radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository is hotly disputed. But the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendements of 1987 decree that waste be consolidated in Yucca Mountain if the mountain is found suitable. Meanwhile the spent fuel continues to pile up across the country, and 1998 looms, adding urgency to the question: What can science tell us about the ability of the mountain to store nuclear waste safely? This paper discusses this issue and describes how studies of the mountain's history and geology can contribute useful insights but not unequivocal conclusions

  3. Enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes in soil receiving composts derived from swine manure, yard wastes, or food wastes, and evidence for multiyear persistence of swine Clostridium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Drury, Craig F; Reynolds, W Daniel; Topp, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The impact of amendment with swine manure compost (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared with untreated control soil, all 3 amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to 4 years postapplication. The abundance of several gene targets was much higher in soil amended with SMC than in soil receiving either YWC or FWC. The gene target ermB remained higher in the SMC treatment for a decade postapplication. Clostridia were significantly more abundant in the SMC-amended soil throughout the decade following application. Eight percent of Clostridium spp. isolates from the SMC treatment carried ermB. Overall, addition of organic amendments to soils has the potential to increase the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. Amendments of fecal origin, such as SMC, will in addition entrain bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Environmentally recalcitrant clostridia, and the antibiotic resistance genes that they carry, will persist for many years under field conditions following the application of SMC.

  4. Development of a working set of waste package performance criteria for deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbo, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-11-01

    The United States ocean dumping regulations developed pursuant to PL92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, as amended, provide for a general policy of isolation and containment of low-level radioactive waste after disposal into the ocean. In order to determine whether any particular waste packaging system is adequate to meet this general requirement, it is necessary to establish a set of performance criteria against which to evaluate a particular packaging system. These performance criteria must present requirements for the behavior of the waste in combination with its immobilization agent and outer container in a deepsea environment. This report presents a working set of waste package performance criteria, and includes a glossary of terms, characteristics of low-level radioactive waste, radioisotopes of importance in low-level radioactive waste, and a summary of domestic and international regulations which control the ocean disposal of these wastes

  5. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  6. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  7. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  8. Elemental transport and distribution in soils amended with incinerated sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, S; Sajwan, K S; Alva, A K; VanClief, D; Hostler, K H

    2003-05-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) is the major solid waste of sewage and wastewater treatment plants in cities around the world. Even though treated effluent water from wastewater treatment plants are utilized for irrigation, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a serious problem. This is due to its high content of certain heavy metals still posing threat of accumulation in plants and groundwater contamination when it is used as soil amendment or disposed in landfills. Water treatment plants incinerate the dewatered activated sewage sludge (ISS) and dissolve the ash in water to store in ash ponds for long-term storage (WISS). A study was undertaken to evaluate the transport and leaching potential of various elements and their distribution within soil columns amended with various rates of ISS. Results of this study indicates that ISS from wastewater treatment plants can be used as soil amendment on agricultural lands at low to medium rates (< or = 100 Mg ha(-1)) without causing potential loading of metals into groundwater.

  9. Assessing the influence of compost and biochar amendments on the mobility and toxicity of metals and arsenic in a naturally contaminated mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Inneh, Onyeka S; Norton, Gareth J; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Dawson, Julian J C

    2014-03-01

    Amending contaminated soils with organic wastes can influence trace element mobility and toxicity. Soluble concentrations of metals and arsenic were measured in pore water and aqueous soil extracts following the amendment of a heavily contaminated mine soil with compost and biochar (10% v:v) in a pot experiment. Speciation modelling and toxicity assays (Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition and Lolium perenne germination) were performed to discriminate mechanisms controlling metal mobility and assess toxicity risk thereafter. Biochar reduced free metal concentrations furthest but dissolved organic carbon primarily controlled metal mobility after compost amendment. Individually, both amendments induced considerable solubilisation of arsenic to pore water (>2500 μg l(-1)) related to pH and soluble phosphate but combining amendments most effectively reduced toxicity due to simultaneous reductions in extractable metals and increases in soluble nutrients (P). Thus the measure-monitor-model approach taken determined that combining the amendments was most effective at mitigating attendant toxicity risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  11. Effects of compost and phosphate amendments on arsenic mobility in soils and arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.; Shiralipour, Aziz

    2003-01-01

    Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate As-contaminated soils. This study investigated the effects of soil amendments on the leachability of As from soils and As uptake by Chinese brake fern. The ferns were grown for 12 weeks in a chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil or in As spiked contaminated (ASC) soil. Soils were treated with phosphate rock, municipal solid waste, or biosolid compost. Phosphate amendments significantly enhanced plant As uptake from the two tested soils with frond As concentrations increasing up to 265% relative to the control. After 12 weeks, plants grown in phosphate-amended soil removed >8% of soil As. Replacement of As by P from the soil binding sites was responsible for the enhanced mobility of As and subsequent increased plant uptake. Compost additions facilitated As uptake from the CCA soil, but decreased As uptake from the ASC soil. Elevated As uptake in the compost-treated CCA soil was related to the increase of soil water-soluble As and As(V) transformation into As(III). Reduced As uptake in the ASC soil may be attributed to As adsorption to the compost. Chinese brake fern took up As mainly from the iron-bound fraction in the CCA soil and from the water-soluble/exchangeable As in the ASC soil. Without ferns for As adsorption, compost and phosphate amendments increased As leaching from the CCA soil, but had decreased leaching with ferns when compared to the control. For the ASC soil, treatments reduced As leaching regardless of fern presence. This study suggest that growing Chinese brake fern in conjunction with phosphate amendments increases the effectiveness of remediating As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching. - Phosphate amendment increases the effectiveness of Chinese brake fern to remediate As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching

  12. Status of the nuclear industry's petition for BRC waste disposal rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the petition for rulemaking regarding disposal of the Below Regulatory Concern radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. The author addresses Section 10 of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 which directed NRC to develop standards and procedures for expeditious handling of rulemaking petitions to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from regulation by the Commission due to the presence of radionuclides in sufficiently low concentrations or quantities as to be below regulatory concern. Basically, this means that NRC may grant rulemaking petitions for alternative disposal of waste that is low enough in radioactivity to present no undue risk to public health and safety

  13. Test phase plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Test Phase Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to satisfy the requirements of Public Law 102-579, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act (LWA). The Act provides seven months after its enactment for the DOE to submit this Plan to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for review. A potential geologic repository for transuranic wastes, including transuranic mixed wastes, generated in national-defense activities, the WIPP is being constructed in southeastern New Mexico. Because these wastes remain radioactive and chemically hazardous for a very long time, the WIPP must provide safe disposal for thousands of years. The DOE is developing the facility in phases. Surface facilities for receiving waste have been built and considerable underground excavations (2150 feet below the surface) that are appropriate for in-situ testing, have been completed. Additional excavations will be completed when they are required for waste disposal. The next step is to conduct a test phase. The purpose of the test phase is to develop pertinent information and assess whether the disposal of transuranic waste and transuranic mixed waste in the planned WIPP repository can be conducted in compliance with the environmental standards for disposal and with the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (as amended by RCRA, 42 USC. 6901 et. seq.). The test phase includes laboratory experiments and underground tests using contact-handled transuranic waste. Waste-related tests at WIPP will be limited to contact-handled transuranic and simulated wastes since the LWA prohibits the transport to or emplacement of remote-handled transuranic waste at WIPP during the test phase

  14. US Department of Energy acceptance of commercial transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Bennett, W.S.; Brown, C.M.

    1980-02-01

    Contaminated transuranic wastes generated as a result of non-defense activities have been disposed of by shallow land burial at a commercially operated (NECO) facility located on the Hanford federal reservation, which is licensed by the State of Washington and by the NRC. About 15,000 ft 3 of commercial TRU waste have been generated each year, but generation for the next three years could triple due to decontamination and decommissioning scheduled to start in 1980. Disposal at other commercial burial sites has been precluded due to sites closing or prohibitions on acceptance of transuranic wastes. The State of Washington recently modified the NECO-Hanford operating license, effective February 29, 1980, to provide that radioactive wastes contaminated with transuranics in excess of 10 nCi/g will not be accepted for disposal. Consistent with the state policy, the NRC amended the NECO special nuclear material license so that Pu in excess of 10n Ci/g cannot be accepted after February 29, 1980. As a result, NRC requested DOE to examine the feasibility of accepting these wastes at a DOE operated site. TRU wastes accepted by the DOE would be placed in retrievable storage in accordance with DOE policy which requires retrievable storage of transuranic wastes pending final disposition in a geologic repository. DOE transuranic wastes are stored at six major DOE sites: INEL, Hanford, LASL, NTS, ORNL, and SRP. A specific site for receiving commercial TRU waste has not yet been selected. Shipments to DOE-Hanford would cause the least disruption to past practices. Commercial TRU wastes would be subject to waste form and packaging criteria established by the DOE. The waste generators would be expected to incur all applicable costs for DOE to take ownership of the waste, and provide storage, processing, and repository disposal. The 1980 charge to generators for DOE acceptance of commercial TRU waste is $147 per cubic foot

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  16. TRU waste inventory collection and work-off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne; Lott, Sheila; Gadbury, Casey

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage ofTransuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization ofthis TRU waste will avoid the cost ofbuilding treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each ofthe small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all ofthe small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number ofwaste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume ofmuch of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  17. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  19. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  20. The amendment of the Labour Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of the Labour Code, No. 365/2011 Coll., effective as from 1st January 2012, brings some of fundamental changes in labour law. The amendment regulates relation between the Labour Code and the Civil Code; and is also formulates principles of labour law relations newly. The basic period by fixed-term contract of employment is extended and also frequency its conclusion is limited. The length of trial period and the amount of redundancy payment are graduated. An earlier legislative regulation which an employee is temporarily assign to work for different employer has been returned. The number of hours by agreement to perform work is increased. The monetary compensation by competitive clause is reduced. The other changes are realised in part of collective labour law. The authoress of article notifies of the most important changes. She compares new changes of the Labour Code and former legal system and she also evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. The main objective of changes ensures labour law relations to be more flexible. And it should motivate creation of new jobs opening by employers. Amended provisions are aimed to reduction expenses of employers under the reform of the public finances. Also changes are expected in the Labour Code in connection with the further new Civil Code.

  1. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosby, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  2. Low occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agricultural soils with and without organic amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eNazaret

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored at a broad spatial scale in French agricultural soils, from various soil types and under various land uses to evaluate the ability of soil to be a natural habitat for that species. To appreciate the impact of agricultural practices on the potential dispersion of P. aeruginosa, we further investigated the impact of organic amendment at experimental sites in France and Burkina Faso. A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to analyze a set of 380 samples selected within the French RMQS (‘Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols’ soil library. In parallel, a culture-dependent approach was tested on a subset of samples. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was very rarely detected suggesting a sporadic presence of this bacterium in soils from France and Burkina Faso, whatever the structural and physico-chemical characteristics or climate. When we analyzed the impact of organic amendment on the prevalence of P. aeruginosa, we found that even if it was detectable in various manures (at levels from 103 to 105 CFU or DNA targets (g drywt-1 of sample, it was hardly ever detected in the corresponding soils, which raises questions about its survival. The only case reports were from a vineyard soil amended with a compost of mushroom manure in Burgundy, and a few samples from two fields amended with raw urban wastes in the sub-urban area of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In these soils the levels of culturable cells were below 10 CFU (g drywt-1.

  3. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal-arsenic polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V., E-mail: vga220@ual.es [Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, ESI CITE IIB, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04129 Almeria (Spain); Garcia, I.; Del Moral, F.; Simon, M. [Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, ESI CITE IIB, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04129 Almeria (Spain)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of soil amendments was studied in lixiviates and in pore water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals and arsenic showed different partitioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amendment which was effective against arsenic was not effective against metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amendment that fixed metals increased the arsenic concentration in lixiviates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using amendments in combination did not improve the effectiveness. - Abstract: A metal-arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO{sub 3}), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most

  4. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal–arsenic polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, V.; García, I.; Del Moral, F.; Simón, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effectiveness of soil amendments was studied in lixiviates and in pore water. ► Heavy metals and arsenic showed different partitioning. ► The amendment which was effective against arsenic was not effective against metals. ► The amendment that fixed metals increased the arsenic concentration in lixiviates. ► Using amendments in combination did not improve the effectiveness. - Abstract: A metal–arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO 3 ), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most phytotoxic.

  5. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  6. Application of calcium carbonate slows down organic amendments mineralization in reclaimed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2014-05-01

    A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 days. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralised C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3 days these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. Keywords: organic wastes, mine soils stabilization, carbon mineralization, microbial activity.

  7. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Wisnubroto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the international trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on waste management, such as definition of radioactive waste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW, and classification of waste. Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactive waste management infrastructure is required since some radioactive waste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactive waste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term waste management in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactive waste will not be the burden on future generations.

  8. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnubroto, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the international trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on waste management, such as definition of radioactive waste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), and classification of waste. Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactive waste management infrastructure is required since some radioactive waste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactive waste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term waste management in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactive waste will not be the burden on future generations (author)

  9. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Wolfram [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Jessica G. [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Mašek, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.masek@ed.ac.uk [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg{sup −1} biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg{sup −1} biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni

  10. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C.; Shepherd, Jessica G.; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg −1 biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg −1 biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni from the

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  12. Effect of an organic amendment on availability and bio-accessibility of some metals in soils of urban recreational areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florido, Maria del Carmen; Madrid, Fernando [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madrid, Luis, E-mail: madrid@irnase.csic.e [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A composted biosolid from wastewater treatment was added to soils of two public parks of Sevilla, and successive samples were taken during one year. In one of the parks, a second addition of biosolid was carried out after the first year. The soil contents in metals (pseudo-total) and their plant-available and oral bio-accessible fractions were significantly altered when the soils were amended with biosolid. Increase of the bio-accessible metal contents represents a deterioration of the environmental quality of recreational areas, where hand-to-mouth transfer of pollutants to children is likely to occur, although part of the metals added might be leached by rainfall or irrigation. The limits established in several countries for metal contents of soils in recreational areas are often exceeded after application of the biosolid. A careful study of the metal contents of recycled wastes is thus recommended before being used for green area maintenance. - Research highlights: Metal bio-accessibility in urban soils is significant for quality of life of citizens. Some metal-rich amendments can alter metal availability in urban soils. Metal contents of amendments in recreational areas must then be kept to a minimum. A case study of a composted biosolid used in urban green areas of Sevilla is given. - Metal-containing amendments can deteriorate the environmental quality of soils of urban recreational areas.

  13. Effect of an organic amendment on availability and bio-accessibility of some metals in soils of urban recreational areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, Maria del Carmen; Madrid, Fernando; Madrid, Luis

    2011-01-01

    A composted biosolid from wastewater treatment was added to soils of two public parks of Sevilla, and successive samples were taken during one year. In one of the parks, a second addition of biosolid was carried out after the first year. The soil contents in metals (pseudo-total) and their plant-available and oral bio-accessible fractions were significantly altered when the soils were amended with biosolid. Increase of the bio-accessible metal contents represents a deterioration of the environmental quality of recreational areas, where hand-to-mouth transfer of pollutants to children is likely to occur, although part of the metals added might be leached by rainfall or irrigation. The limits established in several countries for metal contents of soils in recreational areas are often exceeded after application of the biosolid. A careful study of the metal contents of recycled wastes is thus recommended before being used for green area maintenance. - Research highlights: → Metal bio-accessibility in urban soils is significant for quality of life of citizens. → Some metal-rich amendments can alter metal availability in urban soils. → Metal contents of amendments in recreational areas must then be kept to a minimum. → A case study of a composted biosolid used in urban green areas of Sevilla is given. - Metal-containing amendments can deteriorate the environmental quality of soils of urban recreational areas.

  14. De-oiled two-phase olive mill waste may reduce water contamination by metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-01-15

    The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  16. Plans for managing greater-than-glass C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, W.F.; Coleman, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Low-level waste is defined in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Title I, Public Law 99-240) as radioactive waste that is neither high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, nor by-product material (mill tailings). This paper presents proposed plans for the Department of Energy to fulfill its responsibility to dispose of GTCC LLW under the 1985 law, and to ensure that safe options are available for long-term management of such, pending the availability of disposal capacity. In the absence of a concentration-based definition for high-level waste, there currently is no upper bound for the concentration of radionuclides in low-level waste. DOE's plans for managing and disposing of GTCC LLW are generally consistent with a report issued by the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment in October 1988, An Evaluation of Options for Managing Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

  17. Phytoextraction of rhenium by lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) from alkaline soils amended with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Pang, Jiayin; Wu, Gao-Lin; Zheng, Jiyong; Zhang, Xingchang

    2018-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is an industrial waste generated in huge amounts worldwide, and the management of CFA has become an environmental concern. Recovery of valuable metals from CFA is one of the beneficial reuse options of CFA. Rhenium (Re) is one of the rarest metals in the Earth's crust and one of the most expensive metals of strategic significance in the world market. A CFA at the Jungar Thermal Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, contains more Re than two alkaline soils in the surrounding region. Pot experiments were undertaken to grow lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) in a loessial soil and an aeolian sandy soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%) of CFA. The results show that plant growth was considerably enhanced and Re concentration in plants was significantly increased when CFA was applied to the alkaline soils at rates of ≤20%; while in some cases plant growth was also markedly enhanced by the 40% CFA treatment, which increased plant Re concentration the most of all treatments. Both lucerne and erect milkvetch showed potential for phytoextracting Re from CFA-amended alkaline soils. Using CFA for soil amendment not only offers a potential solution for the waste disposal problem of CFA, but the phytoextraction of Re by both lucerne and erect milkvetch may also bring an economic profit in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  20. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  1. Fermentation of sugar beet waste by ¤Aspergillus niger¤ facilitates growth and P uptake of external mycelium of mixed populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, A.; Jakobsen, Iver; Vassilev, N.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet waste has potential value as a soil amendment and this work studied whether fermentation of the waste by Aspergillus niger would influence the growth and P uptake of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Plants were grown in compartmentalised growth units, each with a root compartment (RC...

  2. Defining mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several months, staffs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been developing a working definition of Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). Such wastes are currently being regulated by NRC under authority of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, and by EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended. Development of the definition is one component of a comprehensive program to resolve differences between the regulatory programs of the two agencies pertaining to the regulation of the management and disposal of Mixed LLW. Although the definition is still undergoing legal and policy reviews in both agencies, this paper presents the current working definition, discusses a methodology that may be used by NRC licensees to identify Mixed LLW, and provides responses to anticipated questions from licensees about the definition. 3 references, 1 figure

  3. Effects of Lime and Concrete Waste on Vadose Zone Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jessen, Søren; Postma, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate how lime and crushed concrete waste (CCW) affect carbon cycling in the vadose zone and explore whether these amendments could be employed to mitigate climate change by increasing the transport of CO2 from the atmosphere to the groundwater. We use a combination of exper......In this work we investigate how lime and crushed concrete waste (CCW) affect carbon cycling in the vadose zone and explore whether these amendments could be employed to mitigate climate change by increasing the transport of CO2 from the atmosphere to the groundwater. We use a combination...... of experimental and modeling tools to determine ongoing biogeochemical processes. Our results demonstrate that lime and CCW amendments to acid soil contribute to the climate forcing by largely increasing the soil CO2 efflux to the atmosphere. In a series of mesocosm experiments, with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.......) grown on podzolic soil material, we have investigated inorganic carbon cycling through the gaseous and liquid phases and how it is affected by different soil amendments. The mesocosm amendments comprised the addition of 0, 9.6, or 21.2 kg m−2 of crushed concrete waste (CCW) or 1 kg lime m−2. The CCW...

  4. Waste Transfer Leaks Control Decision Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN, G.W.

    2000-01-01

    Control decision meetings for Waste Transfer Leaks were held on April 24,25,26, and 27, 2000. The agenda for the control decision meetings is included in Appendix A, and attendee lists are included in Appendix B. The purpose of the control decision meetings was to review and revise previously selected controls for the prevention or mitigation of waste transfer leak accidents. Re-evaluation of the controls is warranted due to revisions in the hazard and accident analysis for these Tank Farm events. In particular, calculated radiological consequences are significantly reduced from those currently reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Revised hazard and accident analysis and a revised control recommendation will be reflected in an Authorization Basis Amendment to be submitted at the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection's (ORP's) request by June 30, 2000 to satisfy ORP Performance Incentive (PI) 2.1.1, Revision 1, ''Authorization Basis Management Process Efficiency Improvement''. The scope of the control decision meetings was to address all waste transfer leak-related hazardous conditions identified in the Tank Farm hazard analysis database, excluding those associated with the use of the Replacement Cross-Site Transfer System (RCSTS) slurry line and sluicing of Tank 241-C-106, which is addressed in FSAR Addendum 1. The scope of this control decision process does include future waste feed delivery waste transfer operations

  5. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Wisnubroto

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the International trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorpo...

  6. Incineration of hazardous and low-level radioactive waste by a small generator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    The results from Arizona State University's study of the feasibility of a small generator incinerating low-level radioactive waste in a pathological incinerator are reported. The research included various aspects of environmental impact, public relations, cost versus benefit, and licensing procedures. Three years of work resulted in a license amendment authorizing the University to incinerate certain hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. 13 references, 6 figures, 16 tables

  7. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program use caps and... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Amendment 80 Program § 679.92 Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits. (a) Use caps—(1) General. Use caps limit the amount of Amendment 80 QS units and Amendment 80 species...

  8. 75 FR 33167 - Technical Amendment Language Change From “Wholly” to “Fully”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ....953 [Amended] 0 5. In Sec. 404.953, amend the paragraph heading, and the first, second, and fifth... ``fully favorable''. Sec. 404.966 [Amended] 0 6. In Sec. 404.966, amend the second sentence of paragraph... WORLD WAR II VETERANS Subpart J--[Amended] 0 14. The authority citation for subpart J of part 408...

  9. The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, amending the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, the new bill, The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016 was introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha (or Council of States, the upper house of the Parliament of India. Central aim of this article is to critically review the amendments to the bill regarding geographies of maternity leave and its associated facilities.

  10. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA) [fr

  11. The NRC perspective on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.L. Jr.; Knapp, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) actions in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (the Act) and NRC's assistance to States and Compacts working to discharge their responsibilities under the Act. Three of NRC's accomplishments which respond explicitly to direction in the Act are highlighted. These are: development of the capability of expedited handling of petitions addressing wastes below regulatory concern (BRC); development of capability to review and process an application within fifteen months; and development of guidance on alternatives to shallow land burial. Certain NRC efforts concerning special topics related to the Act as well as NRC efforts to assist States and Compacts are summarized

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  14. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  15. Research on the management of the wastes from plant accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant released large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas within and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though the regulations for radioactive wastes discharged from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendments of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accidents which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possibility to accompany hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics, treatment and disposal of wastes from accidents were surveyed by literature and the radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  16. The changing Arena: New DOE waste management orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.; Kluk, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    There are five orders that address waste management within the Department of Energy (DOE); three of these orders are being revised, which emphasize the rapidly changing arena in which the department is contending in this field. The need to change the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Order arose from the Superfund amendments of 1986 (SARA) with its hammer provisions in Section 120 for compliance at Federal facilities. The need to change the Hazardous and Mixed Waste Management Order was accelerated by the promulgation by DOE of the new mixed waste rule on May 1, 1987, (1) and cancellation of the obsolete existing order on October 5, 1987. The new rule requires coregulation of all DOE mixed waste with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the respective authorized states. 5 refs

  17. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste has become an important problem in Switzerland, and work has now begun on technical investigations and the preparation of a regulatory framework for deep-underground disposal. The law currently in force is the Federal Law on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energyy and Radiation Protection, under which two licences are required, one for construction and one for operation. An amendment to this Law is envisaged whereby the licensing system will be modified, in particular by requiring an additional licence which will be granted by the Federal Government, with the consent of Parliament, if the safe disposal of waste can be guaranteed. The producers of radioactive waste are primarily responsible for the management thereof, but the National Co-operative Society for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) has the task of planning, constructing and operating repositories. The licensing authority in Switzerland is the Federal department of Communications and Energy. (NEA) [fr

  18. Reducing the leachability of nitrate, phosphorus and heavy metals from soil using waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridullah

    Full Text Available Abstract Contaminants like nitrate (NO3, phosphorus (P and heavy metals in water are often associated with agricultural activities. Various soil and water remediation techniques have been employed to reduce the risk associated with these contaminants. A study was conducted to examine the extent of leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr, NO3 and P. For this purpose sandy and silt loam soils were amended with different waste materials, namely wood ash, solid waste ash, vegetable waste, charcoal, and sawdust. The soils were saturated with wastewater. Irrespective of the waste applied, the pH and EC of the amended soils were found to be greater than the control. Charcoal, sawdust and wood ash significantly decreased heavy metals, nitrate and phosphorus concentrations in the leachate. Treatments were more efficient for reducing Ni than other heavy metals concentrations. Waste amendments differed for heavy metals during the process of leaching. Heavy metals in the soil were progressively depleted due to the successive leaching stages. This research suggests that waste material may act as an adsorbent for the above contaminants and can reduce their leachability in soils.

  19. Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in north China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The ability of the following four organic amendments to ameliorate saline soil in coastal northern China was investigated from April 2010 to October 2012 in a field experiment: green waste compost (GWC, sedge peat (SP, furfural residue (FR, and a mixture of GWC, SP and FR (1∶1∶1 by volume (GSF. Compared to a non-amended control (CK, the amendments, which were applied at 4.5 kg organic matter m(-3, dramatically promoted plant growth; improved soil structure; increased the cation exchange capacity (CEC, organic carbon, and available nutrients; and reduced the salt content, electrical conductivity (EC, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP. At the end of the experiment in soil amended with GSF, bulk density, EC, and ESP had decreased by 11, 87, and 71%, respectively, and total porosity and organic carbon had increased by 25 and 96% respectively, relative to the CK. The GSF treatment resulted in a significantly lower Na(++K(+ content than the other treatments. CEC and the contents of available N, P, and K were significantly higher in the GSF-treated soil than in the CK and were the highest in all treatments. The FR treatment resulted in the lowest pH value and Ca(2+ concentration, which decreased by 8% and 39%, respectively, relative to the CK. Overall, the results indicate that a combination of green waste compost, sedge peat and furfural residue (GSF treatment has substantial potential for ameliorating saline soils in the coastal areas of northern China, and it works better than each amendment alone. Utilization of GWC and FR can be an alternative organic amendment to substitute the nonrenewable SP in saline soil amelioration.

  20. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  1. Risk management at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Doty, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be ''protective of public health and the environment'' and ''significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs

  2. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains ''umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit

  3. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  4. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  5. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  7. 76 FR 56490 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... No., docket No. Duratek Services, Inc., August Class A radioactive Radionuclide For recycle and Canada. 17, 2011, August 18, 2011, waste in the form reallocation: beneficial reuse IW017/02, 11005621. of radioactively Amend to: to the greatest contaminated (1) Reduce the possible extent, materials...

  8. 75 FR 39041 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Water Services, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:10-CV-00128-ABJ, was lodged with the United States District... the Solid Waste Disposal Act (as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), 42 U.S.C. 6973, in connection with Defendant's failure to comply with an Administrative Order issued by EPA...

  9. 77 FR 50716 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-838] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainant's Motions To Amend the Notice of Investigation and Complaint AGENCY: U.S...

  10. LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES RESULTING FROM TANNERY WASTE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown on Willamette sil (Pachic Ultic Argixerolls) amended 1 and 2 yr earlier with chrome tannery wastes at rates up to 192 Mg ha to determine nutrient and trace element availability. Soils were sam...

  11. 77 FR 34229 - Idaho: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program; Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... waste regulated under RCRA. In 2003, EPA proposed the sector as an enforcement priority for fiscal years...) Amendments (73 FR 18970, April 8, 2008); F019 Exemption for Wastewater Treatment Sludges from Auto... Comparable Fuel Exclusion (75 FR 33712, June 15, 2010). The federal regulation for the Export of Shipments of...

  12. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  14. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  15. Molecular speciation of phosphorus in organic amendments and amended soils using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibove, B.

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) in organic amendments is essential for environmentally sustainable fertilization of agricultural soils. The sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique commonly used for P characterization does not provide any direct molecular information about P species. Studies were conducted to characterize P species in organic amendments and amended soils at a molecular level. The SCE was used to fractionate P in organic amendments including biosolids, hog, dairy and beef cattle manures, and poultry litter. The extracts were analyzed for total P and P species using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The relative proportions of P species in intact organic amendments and residues after each extraction, and calcareous soils amended with organic amendments and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were estimated using the synchrotron-based P 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The solution 31 P NMR provided a detailed characterization of organic P in the non-labile NaOH and HCl fractions of organic amendments, but was limited in characterizing the labile fractions of most of these organic amendments due to their proneness to alkaline hydrolysis. The XANES analysis, however, identified the actual chemical species constituting the labile P that was only characterized as inorganic P or orthophosphates by sequential extraction and solution 31 P NMR. In the amended Vertisolic and Chernozemic soils, XANES analysis estimated 'soluble and adsorbed P' as the dominant P species. For the Vertisolic soil, both the unamended and soil amended with biosolids and MAP contained hydroxyapatite (HAP). In addition, soil amended with biosolids, hog and dairy manures contained β-tricalcium phosphate (TRICAL), a more soluble CaP than HAP. TRICAL was found in all amended soils except in that amended with hog manure, while HAP was present

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  17. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  19. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  20. Bio-treatment of oily sludge: the contribution of amendment material to the content of target contaminants, and the biodegradation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Nammari, Diauddin R; Hogland, William

    2007-09-30

    The objective was to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of oily sludge generated by a flotation-flocculation unit (FFU) of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant. Four 1m(3) pilot bioreactors with controlled air-flow were filled with FFU sludge mixed with one of the following amendments: sand (M1); matured oil compost (M2); kitchen waste compost (M3) and shredded waste wood (M4). The variables monitored were: pH, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total carbon (C(tot)), total nitrogen (N(tot)) and total phosphorus (P(tot)). The reduction of TPH based on mass balance in M1, M2, M3 and M4 after 373 days of treatment was 62, 51, 74 and 49%; the reduction of PAHs was 97%, +13% (increase), 92 and 88%, respectively. The following mechanisms alone or in combination might explain the results: (i) most organics added with amendments biodegrade faster than most petroleum hydrocarbons, resulting in a relative increase in concentration of these recalcitrant contaminants; (ii) some amendments result in increased amounts of TPH and PAHs to be degraded in the mixture; (iii) sorption-desorption mechanisms involving hydrophobic compounds in the organic matrix reduce bioavailability, biodegradability and eventually extractability; (iv) mixture heterogeneity affecting sampling. Total contaminant mass reduction seems to be a better parameter than concentration to assess degradation efficiency in mixtures with high content of biodegradable amendments.

  1. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces on the bill project authorizing the approval of the 5. amendment to the convention of 19 January 1967, modified by the amendment of 6 July 1971 between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the German Federal Republic on the construction and exploitation of a very high flow reactor, and later modified by the convention of 19 July 1974 between the both above mentioned governments and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great-Britain and Northern Ireland related to the adhesion of this latter government to the convention and by the amendment of 27 July 1976, the second amendment of 9 December 1981, the third amendment of 25 March 1993 and the fourth amendment of 4 December 2002 between the three above-mentioned governments (accelerated procedure). Nr 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMBON, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This report first presents the Laue-Langevin Institute as a centre of excellence in the field of neutron technology. It is an example of successful European cooperation in neutron sciences: recall of the construction of the very high flow reactor at the initiative of France and Germany, with a financing which is now essentially tripartite. The report then outlines that the Institute is an extremely cooperative world leader in neutron technology. The second part discusses the content of the 5. amendment: the convention must comply with the law of 2006 for aspects related to waste management and dismantling. The three associates contribute to the waste management and dismantling costs

  2. Bio Medical Waste Management- ‘An Emerging Problem’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Inayatulla Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As per Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling Rules, 1998 and amendments, any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining there to or in the production of testing of biological and including categories mentioned in schedule 1 of the Rule, is the bio-medical waste The private sector accounts for more than 80% of total healthcare spending in India. Unless there is a decline in the combined federal and state government deficit, which currently stands at roughly 9%, the opportunity for significantly higher public health spending will be limited. The growth of this sector has not only increased the quality of patient care but also put a tremendous strain on the environment due to generation of huge amounts of Bio-Medical waste. It is estimated that quantity of waste generated from hospitals in our country ranges from 0.5-2 kg/bed/day and annually 0.33 million tons of waste is generated in India [2]. The waste generated in the hospitals and institutions essentially consists of solids and liquid, which may be hazardous, infectious and non-infectious. According to a WHO report, around 85% of the hospital wastes are actually non- hazardous, 10% are infectious and 5% are non-infectious but hazardous.

  3. Bio Medical Waste Management- ‘An Emerging Problem’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Inayatulla Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As per Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling Rules, 1998 and amendments, any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining there to or in the production of testing of biological and including categories mentioned in schedule 1 of the Rule, is the bio-medical waste The private sector accounts for more than 80% of total healthcare spending in India. Unless there is a decline in the combined federal and state government deficit, which currently stands at roughly 9%, the opportunity for significantly higher public health spending will be limited. The growth of this sector has not only increased the quality of patient care but also put a tremendous strain on the environment due to generation of huge amounts of Bio-Medical waste. It is estimated that quantity of waste generated from hospitals in our country ranges from 0.5-2 kg/bed/day and annually 0.33 million tons of waste is generated in India [2]. The waste generated in the hospitals and institutions essentially consists of solids and liquid, which may be hazardous, infectious and non-infectious. According to a WHO report, around 85% of the hospital wastes are actually nonhazardous, 10% are infectious and 5% are non-infectious but hazardous.

  4. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport

  5. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  6. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  7. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  8. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on the bill project adopted by the Senate after initiation of an accelerated procedure, authorizing the approval of the 5. amendment to the Convention of the 19 Jan 1967, modified by the 6 July 1971 amendment between the Govt of the French Republic and the Govt of the German Federal Republic on the construction and exploitation of a very high flow reactor and subsequently modified by the convention of the 19 July 1974 between the above-mentioned Govts and the Govt of the UK of Great-Britain and Northern Ireland related to adhesion of this last Govt to the convention by the amendment of the 27 July 1976, the second amendment of the 9 Dec 1981, the third amendment of the 25 Mar 1993, and the fourth amendment of the 4 Dec 2002 between the 3 above-mentioned Govts. Nr 2588, Nr 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumel, Philippe; Cambon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers two reports, one published by the French National Assembly and one published by the French Senate. The first part of the first report presents the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL), an international research centre of excellence located in Grenoble. It outlines the position of this centre as a world leader at the scientific and technical level in some specific fields (development of the neutron probe, improved capacities of the Millennium program, very wide fields of research and application), recalls that this initially French-German cooperation is now very much extended (large scientific partnership, description of the Institute governance, presentation of staff and budget), and highlights the role of this large research infrastructure for the Rhone-Alpes region and for France. The second part discusses the issues which the Commission has been asked to approve: the approval of the fifth amendment of the 1 July 2013 (extension of the convention's application, compliance with the 2006 bill related to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes), and the implicit ratification of previous issues related to the ILL. The Commission's discussion is reported. Hearing, and previous conventions and amendments are reported in appendix. The second report, published by the Senate, addresses the same issues: presentation of the ILL activities, organisation and governance, issues of the fifth amendment, and general framework of the law on waste management (law content, presentation of the different waste categories)

  9. Assessment of current quality of biodegradable municipal waste separated by residents of Kroměříž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Stejskal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to meet the requirements for maximum material utilization, which is set forth in the Act No. 185/2001 Coll. on Waste and amendments to other Acts, and to achieve the objectives of the Waste Management Plan of the Czech Republic to reduce biodegradable waste going to landfill, a proposal for widespread deployment of separate collection and processing of biodegradable municipal waste in municipalities has become part of the amendment Act prepared by the ministry. In many places of the country pilot projects have been launched to test the technology and logistics of sorting, collecting, processing and utilizing biodegradable municipal waste separated by residents.Separate collection of biodegradable municipal waste in Kroměříž was launched as a pilot project in 1992. Despite all the residents’ education, the management of Biopas is not satisfied with the quality of biodegradable waste separation; problems occur especially in the residential area. Biodegradable waste separated by residents, due to its unacceptable amount of impurities, is transported to the landfill Kuchyňky near the village Zdounky 10 km distant but detailed data on the amount of impurities in separate biodegradable municipal waste were missing.Therefore an analysis of separate biodegradable municipal waste has been carried out. Individual samples were collected within two days of separate waste delivery, without any modifications (scattering, compaction. The sample size was at least 200 kg, the sample was manually sorted according to the Catalogue of Waste into biodegradable waste (200201, other non-biodegradable waste (200203 and biodegradable waste unsuitable for composting (e.g. animal by-products. It was found that the amount of unacceptable impurities in separate biodegradable waste considerably varies from 1 to 9 %wt.It can be concluded that the amount of unacceptable impurities in biowaste is too large to allow composting and compost production (in

  10. Uptake of heavy metals and As by Brassica juncea grown in a contaminated soil in Aznalcollar (Spain): The effect of soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management. Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC. Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Walker, David J. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management. Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC. Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Bernal, M. Pilar [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management. Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC. Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: pbernal@cebas.csic.es

    2005-11-15

    Two crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in a field experiment, at the site affected by the toxic spillage of acidic, metal-rich waste in Aznalcollar (Seville, Spain), to study its metal accumulation and the feasibility of its use for metal phytoextraction. The effects of organic soil amendments (cow manure and mature compost) and lime on biomass production and plant survival were also assessed; plots without organic amendment and without lime were used as controls. Plots, with or without organic amendment, having pH<5 were limed for the second crop. Soil acidification conditioned plant growth and metal accumulation. The addition of lime and the organic amendments achieved higher plant biomass production, although effects concerning metal bioavailability and accumulation were masked somewhat by pH variability with time and between and within plots. Tissue metal concentrations of B. juncea were elevated for Zn, Cu and Pb, especially in leaves of plants from plots with low pH values (maxima of 2029, 71 and 55 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively). The total uptake of heavy metals in the plants was relatively low, emphasising the problems faced when attempting to employ phytoextraction for clean-up of pluri-contaminated sites. - Although organic amendments improved soil conditions and plant growth, the phytoextraction capacity of Brassica juncea (cv. Z1) is too low for efficient soil remediation.

  11. The Hyde Amendment and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, J I

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed the constitutionality of the Hyde Amendment prohibiting federal funding for virtually all abortions for indigent women eligible for medical assistance. The Hyde Amendment represents a compromise on the politically sensitive issue of legality of all abortions. Despite the political controversy, however, real gains have been made since the Court decision legalizing abortion in 1973, in providing abortions services and lowering their costs. With the cutoff of Federal funds, however, most states will probably not support abortion services, thus rendering the poor and young especially vulnerable to the consequences of unwanted pregnancies. Barring the restoration of public funding, and noting that the cost of replacing it with private philanthropy is too high to be realistic, the author suggests some ways in which the cost of abortion services could be held down. Among these are setting up low cost clinic services in areas where no such services exist, thus alleviating substantial travel expenses for poor rural women; advertising the availability of such services and making other efforts to assure earlier, safer, less expensive procedures; encouraging clinics and hospitals to bill Medicaid for medical services related to (but not involved in) the abortion procedure; instituting outpatient abortion services in hospitals; and establishing satellite and mobile services by larger facilities to serve outlying areas.

  12. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    1998-01-01

    In the first stage of the revision process, the only goal was to amend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention. Later, in what might be called the second stage, the question was seriously raised of establishing a new supplementary convention by which additional funds were to be provided by the international community of States. Most experts felt that the nuclear liability regime of the Vienna Convention, as amended, would really serve the interests of potential victims of nuclear incidents only if it were supported by an international supplementary fund providing additional compensation for nuclear damage to that provided by the operator. Thus, the Standing Committee started to consider the establishment, under the Vienna Convention, of a mechanism for mobilizing additional funds for compensation of nuclear damage. During the negotiations it was deemed necessary to establish a separate treaty for such a supplementary fund, and indeed, efforts were undertaken to draw up such an instrument concurrently with the revision of the Vienna Convention. (K.A.)

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  14. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). Countries are moving waste up the waste management hierarchy away from landfilling towards waste prevention, reuse, recycling and recovery. According to the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA, 2012:5), around “70% of the municipal waste produced...

  15. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  18. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  19. 14 CFR 151.29 - Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... resolution or ordinance must, as appropriate under the local law— (1) Set forth the terms of the offer at... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer, amendment, and... § 151.29 Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. (a) Upon approving a project, the Administrator...

  20. Newspaper Advertising and the First Amendment: The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph H., III

    The purpose of this paper is to help identify newspaper advertisements which fall under the protection of the First Amendment. Although the Supreme Court declared in 1942 that advertisements which propose a purely commercial transaction were not protected by the First Amendment, in 1976 it decided that commercial expression, like other forms of…