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Sample records for wasp sting causing

  1. Rhabdomyolysis due to Multiple Wasp Stings

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    K. Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp sting is a relatively common arthropod assault, but is sometimes fatal because of anaphylaxis. Rhabdomyolysis is a serious condition, with destruction of striated muscles, and can be induced by various causes such as drugs, heart attacks, CRASH syndrome, and viper bites. Mass envenomation by multiple wasp stings can also cause rhabdomyolysis followed by acute renal failure, although it is extremely rare. We herein report a case who had an anaphylaxis-like reaction and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings.

  2. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

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    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. [Dorsal medulla oblongata stroke after a wasp sting].

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    Taurin, G; Canneva-Bourel, M L; Delafosse, J-M; Poirier, J; Merienne, M

    2006-03-01

    Although wasp stings can cause local reactions such as pain, flare, edema, swelling and severe reactions, including anaphylaxis; neurological vascular complications are rare. We report a case of a 36-year-old male who developed focal neurological symptoms after a wasp sting. The brain MRI showed an infarct in the left dorsal medulla. The blood test has showed an elevated level of venom-specific IgE antibodies and the skin test with wasp venom was highly positive. Improvement occurred rapidly after treatment with methylprednisone. The postulated mechanisms include vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation secondary to an injection of distinct allergens contained in wasp venom. It would thus be important to ask patients about any recent wasp sting, in order to provide appropriate treatment.

  4. A costly sting! Preputial gangrene following a wasp sting

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    Vishwanath S Hanchanale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile injuries due to bites and stings are under-reported. The extent of injury depends not only on the initial trauma but also on the secondary injuries due to toxins and bacterial infections transmitted by the bite. Wasp bites are on the increase worldwide as humans encroach on their habitat. We report a case of wasp bite to the preputial skin of the penis leading to severe phimosis, difficulty in micturition and localized gangrene requiring emergency circumcision. Analysis of such cases can provide important information on the determinants of severe morbidity that may then be used in injury prevention.

  5. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

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    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  6. Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those with Allergies

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    ... news/fullstory_167081.html Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those With Allergies Facing expected season-long ... News) -- A shortage of honeybee, wasp and hornet venom extract has allergists concerned. The extract treats people ...

  7. Clinical features of severe wasp sting patients with dominantly toxic reaction: analysis of 1091 cases.

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    Cuihong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

  8. Multiple cerebral infarctions with severe multi-organ dysfunction following multiple wasp stings

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    Mushtaq Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp and bee sting are commonly encountered worldwide. Local reactions are more common, generally are self-limiting and settle within a few hours. Multiple stings can lead to various clinical manifestations like vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, generalized edema, hypotension, syncope, acute renal failure, and even death. Rarely, they can cause vasculitis, serum sickness, neuritis, and encephalitis. We are reporting a case of 40-year-old male who presented with stroke, right hemiparesis with severe multi-organ dysfunction due to multiple wasp stings.

  9. [Lung edema and erosive gastroduodenitis as a sequela of inappropriate use of an adrenaline dose aerosol after wasp sting].

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    Balda, B R; Ludwig, A

    1997-03-01

    Epinephrine (adrenaline) is an important drug in the treatment of severe anaphylactic reactions. Along with other drugs such as H1-antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids, it is found in every first aid kit for at-risk individuals, such as those who are allergic to insect stings. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections if carried out by an untrained individual or the patient himself might give rise to potential problems. Therefore, it is common to prescribe epinephrine pressure aerosol as a safer alternative. If epinephrine aerosol is overused, it can cause serious problems. A patient developed by self-medication following a wasp sting lung edema as well as an erosive gastroduodenitis. She consumed two aerosol vials each of which contained about 73 mg of adrenaline. In order to avoid such incidents it is crucial that every doctor provides his or her patient with sufficient oral and written information regarding the correct use fo epinephrine inhalers.

  10. Prognosis of corneal wasp sting: case report and review of the literature.

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    Lai, Pinghong; Yang, Jun; Cui, Hua; Xie, Hui

    2011-12-01

    To report the ocular complications associated with corneal wasp sting and to highlight the importance of eye protection in case of wasp offense. This was a retrospective, observational chart review. A 34-year-old man was referred for severely decreased vision after being stung by a swap to the left cornea. Ophthalmologic examination showed a large corneal epithelial defect, anterior uveitis, and a left relative afferent pupillary defect. Vision was light perception. After treatment with cycloplegic, topical antibiotic, and systemic steroids for 2 weeks, the epithelial defect healed and anterior uveitis subsided; however, bulbous keratopathy and traumatic cataract developed. The visual acuity remained light perception with poor light projections. Twenty additional cases of corneal hymenoptera sting were reviewed from the English language literature, which shared certain characteristics including anterior uveitis, intractable glaucoma, traumatic cataract, toxic optic neuropathy, corneal scarring, and a catastrophic prognosis. Wasp stings of the cornea may bring disastrous ocular damages. Outdoor works should manage to protect your eyes when confronted with a hymenoptera attack.

  11. Late compartment syndrome of the hand due to wasp sting in a child.

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    Petratos, Dimitrios V; Galanakos, Spyridon P; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Anastasopoulos, John N

    2011-01-01

    We report a 6-year-old girl, with no history of previous anaphylactic reaction, who sustained a wasp sting to the volar aspect of her left hand. The child did not present any symptoms at the beginning. She was first examined at the emergency department with developed compartment syndrome, after more than 24 hours later and she was urgently taken to the operating theatre. The midpalmar, thenar, and hypothenar spaces were decompressed, and the transverse carpal ligament was released. At the 11-month followup, she presented with normal function of the hand and normal 2-point discrimination in all fingers. Although the accurate mechanism of the development of compartment syndrome after a wasp sting in children is not thoroughly clear, the treatment seems to be the same as in all other cases of compartment syndrome; urgent fasciotomy. It is very important to keep in mind the possibility, even if it is extremely low, of compartment syndrome after a wasp sting in children; even of those with no history of anaphylactic reaction.

  12. Insect Bites and Stings

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    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  13. Functional and Taxonomic Diversity of Stinging Wasps in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Areas.

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    Dos Santos, E F; Noll, F B; Brandão, C R F

    2014-04-01

    Vespoidea are the most functionally diverse superfamily of Hymenoptera. Ecological studies involving this family are primarily based on eusocial groups, including ants and social paper wasps. In the present study, we examine stinging wasp (Vespoidea) faunal diversity in the Atlantic Rain Forest, which is one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the World. Three conservation areas were sampled employing a standardized sample protocol. Families and functional groups of Vespoidea were collected in each area, with the exception ants (Formicidae), and analyzed using diversity analyses, to generate taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices. Results indicated Pompilidae was the most diverse family, and the idiobiont parasitoid type was the most diverse functional group in the three study areas. Núcleo Picinguaba of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar was taxonomically and functionally the most diverse and species rich area. Parque Estadual Intervales showed the highest number of dominant species and diversity of koinobiont parasitoids, while the Rebio Sooretama exhibited a decrease in several diversity parameters.

  14. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera.

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    Heavner, Mary E; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-09-10

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma's predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation is among the first functional genomic studies for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts' immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dermoscopic Findings of Jellyfish Stings Caused by Pelagia noctiluca.

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    Del Pozo, L J; Knöpfel, N; Martín-Santiago, A; Escudero-Góngora, M M; Saus, C; Izquierdo-Herce, N; Bauzà-Alonso, A

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are free-living members of the phylum Cnidaria who share a specialized stinging cell, the cnidocyte. Pelagia noctiluca is the most frequent and toxic jellyfish species found in the Balearic beaches and cnidocytes are arranged in pigmented clusters called "warts". Dermoscopy continues to expand its use much beyond the pigmentary lesions and to date, there is no data regarding dermoscopic findings in jellyfish stings. The aim of the present work was to study the dermoscopic findings of jellyfish stings in the island of Mallorca. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and dermoscopic images of 25 episodes of jellyfish stings caused by P. noctiluca that occurred between 2009 and 2015. Overall, the following dermoscopic features were found: brown dots (84%), pinkish hue (56%), pinpoint brown crusts (44%), scale-crust (40%), brown "Chinese characters pattern" (32%), "serpentine" ulceration (28%), linear purpura (20%), and whitish-yellow crusts (15%). Vessels were mainly dotted (36%) or reticular (16%). Scale-crust, serpentine ulceration and pinkish hue were significantly more frequent in lesions older than 2 days. Our study identifies 4 dermoscopic features that may represent the contact with P. noctiluca cnidocytes: brown dots, brown "Chinese characters pattern", pinpoint brown crusts and whitish-yellow crusts. A peculiar finding of "serpentine ulceration" with brown dots would be very suggestive of P. noctiluca sting. We believe dermoscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of jellyfish stings when a clear history of contact is lacking. Further studies are needed to validate our findings in other jellyfish species. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Animal sting and bites].

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    Pastrana, J; Blasco, R; Erce, R; Pinillos, M A

    2003-01-01

    Under the heading of this subject we deal with stings by arthropods, making reference to the differences that exist between the stings of wasps and bees, commenting on the composition of the poisons and the different local and general reactions that are caused by such stings. Also discussed are the stings/bites caused by scorpions, spiders, ticks, and marine animals, with the clinical picture they provoke and the treatment that must be administered. Finally, snakebites are considered, with reference to the most frequent types of ophidia to be found in Navarra, how to differentiate between the bites of snakes and vipers, the different clinical pictures they provoke and the treatment to be applied

  17. Stinging insect allergy.

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    Reisman, R E

    1992-07-01

    Insect sting anaphylaxis is a relatively common problem estimated to affect at least 0.4% of the population and is responsible for at least 40 deaths per year in the United States. The allergic reactions are mediated by IgE antibodies directed at constituents in honeybee, yellow jacket, hornet, and wasp venoms. In addition, increasing numbers of reactions occur from fire ant stings, non-winged Hymenoptera present in the Southeastern United States. The anaphylactic symptoms are typical of those occurring from any cause. Most reactions in children are mild, frequently involving dermal manifestations (hives, edema) only. The more severe reactions, such as shock and loss of consciousness, can occur at any age but are relatively more common in adults. Following sting anaphylaxis, approximately 50% of unselected patients will continue to have allergic reactions to subsequent stings. The natural history of the disease process is influenced by the severity of the anaphylactic symptoms. Children with dermal reactions only have a benign course and are unlikely to have recurrent reactions. Patients with more severe reactions are at risk for repeat anaphylaxis. Patients with a history of insect sting anaphylaxis and positive venom skin tests should have epinephrine available and are candidates for subsequent venom immunotherapy, which provides almost 100% protection against subsequent re-sting reactions. Recommendations for the duration of immunotherapy are evolving. Venom therapy can be stopped if skin test reactions become negative. For most patients, 3 years of therapy appears adequate, despite persistence of positive venom skin tests.

  18. A fatal case caused by massive honey bee stings.

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    Akyıldız, Başak; Özsoylu, Serkan; Öztürk, Mehmet Adnan; İnci, Abdullah; Düzlü, Önder; Yıldırım, Alparslan

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom is a complex substance which acts in different ways; local or systemic anaphylaxis associated with IgE and direct toxic effects of the large volume of injected venom. We report a 10- year-old boy who was the vulnerable of 5989 honey bee attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this case had the ultimate number of honey bee stings in the literature, until now. He was admitted to pediatric intensive care unit after 3 hours of incident. Plasmapheresis was started to remove circulating venom that can cause many systemic side effects. Unfortunately, multiorgan failure developed on the 2nd day of admission due to severe hemolysis and rabdomyolysis. Additional therapies modalities, mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, and antihypertensive drugs were added to the treatment during the disease process. Despite all of the treatments, the patient was failed on 12th day of hospitalization.

  19. Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health hazard.

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    Alsharani, Mohammad; Alashahrani, Mohammad; Alanazi, Marzouqah; Alsalamah, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.

  20. Stinging insect allergies. Assessing and managing.

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    Glaspole, I; Douglass, J; Czarny, D; O'Hehir, R

    1997-12-01

    Mortality secondary to insect sting anaphylaxis, though uncommon in this country, is a genuine risk to patients with venom hypersensitivity. A number of non specific and specific preventive measures are available to minimise this risk. They include proper patient counselling regarding sting avoidance and the use of self injectable adrenaline, as well as venom specific immunotherapy. This article attempts to review the spectrum of insect sting reactions, their appropriate assessment and subsequent management. Anaphylaxis is particularly emphasised with regard to first aid treatment and subsequent prevention. The most common causes of insect stings in Australia are bees and wasps. Insect sting reactions cover a spectrum of responses, from normal to anaphylactic. Immunotherapy is indicated in those patients who experience anaphylactic responses. The presence of venom specific IgE must be demonstrated before commencing immunotherapy. Venom sensitive patients should be educated in anaphylaxis first aid with adrenaline self injectable syringes.

  1. Bee, wasp and ant venomics pave the way for a component-resolved diagnosis of sting allergy.

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    de Graaf, Dirk C; Aerts, Maarten; Danneels, Ellen; Devreese, Bart

    2009-03-06

    With the complete sequencing of its genome, the honey bee is now a preferred model organism for Hymenoptera species, also with respect to venomic studies. Major pitfalls in proteomic profiling are: i) highly abundant proteins masking low-copy number proteins; ii) high heterogeneity in proteomes due to isoforms, protease activity and PTMs; iii) the inability for protein function assignment. If genomic information is not available, proteins still might be identified through cross-species protein identifications or MS/MS data-based de novo sequencing techniques. Venomic approaches discovered several new proteins and peptides from honey bees, bumble bees, ants and different wasp species, and some of these constituents were proven to be of immunological significance. Further digging in the proteome/peptidome will yield more so-called "venom trace elements" with only a local function in the venom duct or reservoir or released by leakage of the gland tissue. An impressive list of recombinants venom proteins has become available from a diverse range of Hymenopterans. Protein microarray allows the determination and monitoring of allergic patients' IgE reactivity profiles to disease-causing allergens using single measurements and minute amounts of serum. The information the physician will get from such a single run will largely exceed the output from current IgE capturing tools using whole venom preparations.

  2. A case of severe stinging caused by venomous marine animal, "Portuguese man of war" (Physalia species) in all probability.

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    Kajfasz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    There are about 150 million jellyfish stings every year. "Portuguese man of war" is responsible for substantial proportion of stings worldwide. The biggest risk from a jellyfish stings may come from incorrect management. A 42-year-old woman was severely stung by venomous marine animal while bathing in waters of the Thai Gulf. It was most likely "Portuguese man of war". The patient didn't remember while being rescued. Looking at damages it seems that first aid was incorrect. Inappropriate and delayed management caused disfiguring scars. On the ground of this case, first aid for "Portuguese man of war" stings is reminded.

  3. Epidemiologic Investigation of Hornet and Paper Wasp Stings in Forest Workers and Electrical Facility Field Workers in Japan

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    Yumeko Hayashih

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: 21% of FWs and 14% of EFFWs had experienced systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings with a higher frequency compared with office workers in the same area. 40% of FWs and 30% of EFFWs had sera that were sIgE positive to Hymenoptera venom.

  4. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

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    Sean McCann

    Full Text Available Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1 video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2 analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3 inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests. Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  5. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

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    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  6. Floor of the nose mucosa lysis and labial abscess caused by a bee sting

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    Alemán Navas,Ramón Manuel; Martínez Mendoza, María Guadalupe; Herrera, Henry; HERRERA, Helen Piccolo

    2009-01-01

    Hymenoptera order includes bees, which have a stinging apparatus at the tail capable of delivering venom to the affected tissues. Myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, Necrotizing fasciitis, fatal infection and hemifacial asymmetry, are some of the unusual reactions reported following hymenoptera stings. This paper reports a case of bee sting in the right floor of the nose that mimicked an odontogenic infection affecting the upper lip, canine space and nasal cavity such as in cases of i...

  7. Hymenoptera stings: a study of clinical profile, complication and outcome from a teaching hospital of central Nepal

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    M Ghimire

    2014-04-01

    seen in (n=7 cases. Low serum albumin (defined as Serum Albumin (<3.5gm/dl was seen in (n=6 cases. Among the complications, the most common complication was Hepatitis which was seen in (n=9 cases, followed by Acute Kidney Injury. There was no mortality associated with Hymenopterid stings in our study. However 1 patient left against medical advice. Conclusion Black Wasps were the commonest species to inflict the stings in (n=10 cases. The most common complication of Hymenoptera sting was Hepatitis, which was seen in (n=9 of cases, followed by Acute Kidney Injury. Majority of complications were seen in Wasp stings which caused significant morbidity. No mortality was observed in our study except one case; that left hospital against medical advice. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-3, 17-24   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i3.10210  

  8. Identification of allergens in the box jellyfish Chironex yamaguchii that cause sting dermatitis.

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    Horiike, Takumi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitani, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish stings cause painful, papular-urticarial eruptions due to the immediate allergic, acute toxic and persistent inflammatory responses. In spite of many marine accidents and their economic impact, modes of first-aid treatment remain conventional and specific allergen and medical treatment are not yet available. The purpose of this study was to define the specific allergen of the box jellyfish Chironex yamaguchii and to study the precise mechanism of the resulting dermatitis. We comprehensively studied the immunoglobulin-binding molecules from the box jellyfish C. yamaguchii with a purification procedure and Western blotting, using sera from 1 patient and from several controls. From the nematocyst wall and spine, we detected IgG-binding acidic glycoprotein (of 66 and 30 kDa) as determined by Western blot and ion-exchange chromatography. In addition, the 66-kDa protein was found to be an asparagine residue-coupled N-linked glycoprotein and the epitope resided in the protein fraction. We found that CqTX-A, the major toxic protein of the nematocyst, is also a heat-stable IgE-binding allergen. This was confirmed as a 45-kDa protein by Western blot from both nematocyst extracts and purified CqTX-A. The detection of these proteins may, in part, explain the combined immediate allergic-toxic and persistent allergic responses. Hopefully, our findings will lead to the development of specific venom immunotherapy for marine professional workers and tourists for jellyfish-sting dermatitis and anaphylaxis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

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    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  10. Fatal acute pulmonary oedema and acute renal failure following multiple wasp/hornet (Vespa affinis) stings in Sri Lanka: two case reports.

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    Kularatne, Keerthi; Kannangare, Thamara; Jayasena, Ajith; Jayasekera, Aruni; Waduge, Roshitha; Weerakoon, Kosala; Kularatne, Senanayake A M

    2014-06-13

    Vespa affinis is a hornet widely distributed in Sri Lanka and it is responsible for the highest number of deaths related to Hymenoptera stings. Apart from the early reactions, victims often die in hospital many hours later due to complications such as myocardial infarction and multiple organ failure. Increased microvascular permeability and acute pulmonary oedema as the primary pathology is less known in hornet envenoming. Here, we report clinical and postmortem findings of two Sinhalese patients, a 48-year-old husband and his 46-year-old wife, who both died following a massive attack by hornets 32 hours and 9 hours after the incidence respectively. At postmortem examination, both patients had pleural effusions, acute pulmonary oedema and red cell casts in their urine. Their coronary arteries and histology of myocardium were normal. Early recognition of acute pulmonary oedema in hornet stings is needed with implementation of crucial treatments to avert deaths.

  11. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee...... only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction...... was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...

  12. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects, bees, and spiders; Black widow spider bite; Brown recluse bite; Flea bite; Honey bee or hornet sting; ... spider bites, such as the black widow or brown recluse, can cause serious illness or death. Most spider ...

  13. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP does not affect oocyte polarity, but causes failure of meiosis II completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Shan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Meng, Tie-Gang; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Fan, Li-Hua; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Snapper, Scott B; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    There is an unexplored physiological role of N-WASP (neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in oocyte maturation that prevents completion of second meiosis. In mice, N-WASP deletion did not affect oocyte polarity and asymmetric meiotic division in first meiosis, but did impair midbody formation and second meiosis completion. N-WASP regulates actin dynamics and participates in various cell activities through the RHO-GTPase-Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3 complex) pathway, and specifically the Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42)-N-WASP-Arp2/3 pathway. Differences in the functions of Cdc42 have been obtained from in vitro compared to in vivo studies. By conditional knockout of N-WASP in mouse oocytes, we analyzed its in vivo functions by employing a variety of different methods including oocyte culture, immunofluorescent staining and live oocyte imaging. Each experiment was repeated at least three times, and data were analyzed by paired-samples t-test. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP did not affect the process of oocyte maturation including spindle formation, spindle migration, polarity establishment and maintenance, and homologous chromosome or sister chromatid segregation, but caused failure of cytokinesis completion during second meiosis (P meiosis completion and failures in this process that affect oocyte quality. None. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2012CB944404) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos 30930065, 31371451, 31272260 and 31530049). There are no potential conflicts of interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-06-15

    The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings.

  15. 'To swim or not to swim': the impact of jellyfish stings causing Irukandji Syndrome in Tropical Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Jennifer J; Usher, Kim; Buettner, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript presents both demographic and descriptive data related to a distressing clinical condition known as Irukandji syndrome. Chart audit and observation data were collected to explore trends in patient characteristics and to review the current practices surrounding the management of the syndrome by advanced practice ED nurses. Irukandji syndrome, a known health emergency in northern Australia, causes severe symptoms such as muscle pains, nausea and vomiting, headache and chest pain causing clinical challenges for emergency nurses. Little is written about this condition from a nursing perspective. A mixed methods case study approach. Data were collected by observation and chart audit from 186 patients diagnosed with Irukandji syndrome between 2001-2007. Of the 186 patients, 44.1% were local residents and 58.6% were men. Median age of the patients was 27 years (range 16-77). There was a time trend with a greater number of stings occurring out at the Great Barrier Reef than at mainland beaches (p swim in marine sting environments and fail to make use of available protective clothing such as body suits. Local residents continue to be stung regardless of the educational information available suggesting a review of the current public education campaign is required. Nurses failed to document assessment processes limiting adequately the ability to assess trends in the patient's condition effectively and treat symptoms efficiently. It is, therefore, timely to review the critical role that assessment plays in clinical care.

  16. Risk factors caused by scorpion stings and envenomations in the province of Kelâa Des Sraghna (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Hmimou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to elucidate the risk factors involved in deaths caused by scorpion envenomation. A retrospective study was carried out in the province of Kelâa des Sraghna from 2003 to 2004. The hospital charts of scorpion envenomation cases treated in the Essalama Hospital in Kelâa des Sraghna were exhaustively analyzed. Our study contains 31 cases of death among 470 hospitalization cases. Most stings had occurred during the hot period peaking in July and August (54.6%. Moreover, the scorpion stings occurred at night in 60.1% of the cases, between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am. In addition, all age groups were affected by envenomation, with a higher frequency in children aged less than 15 years (68.3%. The envenomation rate (class II + class III was 70.9%. The statistical analysis of the data shows that being less than 15 years old, having been stung during the night and belonging to class III are risk factors that aggravate vital prognosis of hospitalized patients. Furthermore, clinical severity factors, elicited by relative risk analysis, are cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological vital distresses, with relative risks of 14.84, 11.92 and 48.33, respectively. The results of our study clearly displayed the severity and extent of the scorpion envenomation problem. Thus, great attention must be paid to this region of Morocco by the national health authorities.

  17. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  19. Scorpion Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can increase your risk of a scorpion sting: Geography. In the United States, scorpions mainly live in ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  20. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jellyfish found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Box jellyfish (Cubozoa) all have a box-like body or " ... Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus ). Sometimes called "sea wasps," box jellyfish are highly dangerous, and more than 8 species ...

  1. Stings of the Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as Cause of Punctate Corneal Lesions in Humans and Other Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Diego; Wetterer, James K

    2017-09-25

    Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce. The purpose of this article is to link disparate literature on punctate or nummular corneal lesions published in medical, veterinary, wildlife, and entomology journals, because many researchers seem largely unaware of the literature from disciplines other than their own. Recognizing a common cause of this corneal condition is important to insure proper medical treatment and foster efforts to limit the spread and negative impact of W. auropunctata. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Jellyfish Stings: A Practical Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lakkis, Najla A; Maalouf, Grace J; Mahmassani, Dina M

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish have a worldwide distribution. Their stings can cause different reactions, ranging from cutaneous, localized, and self-limited to serious systemic or fatal ones, depending on the envenoming species...

  3. Deaths from bee stings: a report of three cases from Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Morris, Neil Kennith; Meyer, Pieter; Saayman, Gert

    2016-03-01

    In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). This appears to be a small number but, as was reported in Australia, these statistics might be inaccurate due to either over- or underreporting of cases. We report 3 cases of fatalities due to bee stings, including one with postmortem features of diffuse intravascular coagulopathy. A brief overview of the venom of the honey bee, reactions following a bee sting and possible mechanisms of death are presented. Confirming the diagnosis in these cases may be very problematic for the forensic pathologist, as in many cases minimal history is available and both external and internal examination could fail to reveal any specific signs of bee sting or other obvious morphologic abnormalities. Thus, there is a need for reliable confirmatory or supportive diagnostic tests.

  4. Anaphylactic shock caused by sting of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihama, Yoko; Fukasawa, Maki; Ninomiya, Kenji; Kawakami, Yuka; Nagai, Takumi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji

    2014-03-01

    A 40s-year-old woman with previous history of injury due to contact with crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, was stung on the right middle finger. After immediately losing consciousness, she died 13 h after injury despite intensive medical treatment. Examination of the respiratory system revealed narrowing due to severe edema of the laryngopharynx, as well as alveolar hemorrhage, eosinophilic infiltration, and extensive neutrophil and eosinophil aggregation in the intravascular lumen of the lungs. Examination of the liver revealed severe diffuse hepatocellular necrosis and extremely high levels of liver transaminases, indicating severe liver damage. Based on these findings, we concluded that she had died from anaphylactic shock induced by circulation of crown-of-thorns starfish venom in the bloodstream. Injurious contact with the spine of the crown-of-thorns starfish can cause severe symptoms as well as systematic reactions, including anaphylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anaphylactic shock or death caused by human contact with the crown-of-thorns starfish reported in the English-language literature. Although rare, anaphylaxis due to injury by marine animals is potentially fatal. Saving lives requires providing education regarding prevention and enabling prompt response to possible anaphylaxis, including preparation of adrenaline for auto-injection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually, and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascular and respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq. Objectives: To describe the ...

  6. RRH: envenoming syndrome due to 200 stings from Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

  7. Record of postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical social wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer (Hymenoptera, Vespidae on pig carcasses in the Eastern Amazon region: implications in forensic taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPostmortem injuries are a source of misinterpretations in forensic analysis and therefore are subject matter of taphonomic interest. Many types of injuries can cause different artifacts, which deserve attention of the forensic pathologists when evaluating corpses, either at the crime scene or during an autopsy. Insects can be important biotaphonomic agents and their activity may result in artifacts that resemble antemortem injuries. Here, we describe postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer, 1773 on domestic pig carcasses weighting 15 kg. The specimens showed extensive injuries to the lower lip, similar to lacerations, and some minor lesions on the snout and anus. In addition, we observed the same wasp species preying on larvae of Sarcophagidae (Peckia sp.. Besides causing postmortem injuries, the ability of this species to detect carcasses in the early and fresh decomposition stages should be noted. Thus, future applications aiming criminal, any biotaphonomic events caused by carrion insects need to be disclosed.

  8. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  9. WASP-120 b, WASP-122 b, AND WASP-123 b: Three Newly Discovered Planets from the WASP-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ≈ 11). WASP-120 b is a massive (4.85 M Jup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e={0.059}-0.018+0.025) around an F5 star. WASP-122 b is a hot Jupiter (1.28 M Jup, 1.74 R Jup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation caused by the atmosphere of WASP-122 b suggests it is well suited to characterization. WASP-123 b is a hot Jupiter (0.90 M Jup, 1.32 R Jup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (˜7 Gyr) G5 star.

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Allergy to Hymenoptera Stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Kijmassuwan, Teera; Visitsunthorn, Kittipos; Pacharn, Panchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of allergy to stings from the Hymenoptera order of insects in a hospital in Thailand. A descriptive retrospective analytical study was carried out in inpatients and outpatients suffering from Hymenoptera stings from 2009 to 2013 in Siriraj Hospital. Medical records of 386 patients with an allergy to Hymenoptera stings were evaluated. Anaphylaxis was more common in patients younger than 15 years, who comprised 22.3% of patients in this study. The most common sting type was from wasps (58.3%). Eighty-five percent of patients sought medical treatment less than 24 hours after being stung. A systemic reaction and anaphylaxis were found in 9.9% and 4.4% of subjects, respectively. In 17 patients with anaphylaxis, only 11 patients (64.7%) received an epinephrine (adrenaline) injection as treatment, and only 8 (47.1%) received epinephrine autoinjectors or epinephrine-prefilled syringes to prevent a possible subsequent severe reaction. Significantly more patients younger than 15 years received epinephrine for prevention of an allergic reaction than did those older than 15 years (87.5% vs 11.7%, P < 0.001). Antibiotics were given to 43.0% of patients. Anaphylaxis from Hymenoptera stings was more common in children than in adults. Only half of the patients visited the emergency room within 1 hour of being stung. Overuse of antibiotics and underuse of epinephrine were found. More information about Hymenoptera stings should be provided to the public, and the use of epinephrine should be encouraged in the case of severe reactions and anaphylaxis.

  11. Patients with massive honeybee stings: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Sh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Insect stings can cause local or systemic reactions that range from mild to fatal, and are among the most common causes of anaphylaxis. The major allergens of honeybee venom are phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase, allergen C and melitin. Phospholipase and melitin induce hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and liver damage due to cell membrane breakdown, damage of the vascular endothelium and activation of the inflammatory response. Rhabdomyolysis has been implicated as the cause of acute renal failure in approximately 5-7% of cases. However, bee stings are a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, and are usually associated with 50 or more stings. It has been reported that more than 250 bee stings are capable of causing death in humans. "nCase report: We report two cases of massive honeybee stings (>2000 with rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis and acute renal failure who survived with full recovery, and two cases of >500 honeybee stings who survived without significant complications.

  12. Acidente provocado por picada de abelhas como causa de morte de cães Bee sting as cause of death in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes causados por himenópteros são freqüentes em animais domésticos, mas apenas raramente reportados na literatura. Este relato descreve seis casos fatais de reação tóxica sistêmica decorrente de acidente por abelhas (Apis mellifera em cães. Os principais sinais clínicos foram icterícia e hemoglobinúria. Outros achados incluíram anorexia, apatia, vômito, diarréia e dispnéia. Na necropsia, cinco dos seis cães apresentavam icterícia, fígado vermelho-alaranjado, rins intensamente enegrecidos e urina com coloração semelhante à do vinho tinto. Na histologia, havia necrose hepática centrolobular e nefrose hemoglobinúrica, lesões típicas de crise hemolítica intravascular.Hymenopteran stinging events are frequent cause of disease and death in domestic animals, but rarely reported in the literature. This paper reports six cases of envenomation by bee (Apis mellifera sting in dogs with fatal outcome. The main clinical signs were icterus and hemoglobinuria. Other findings included anorexia, apathy, vomiting, diarrhea, and dyspnea. Necropsy findings in five dogs included icterus, red-orange discoloration of the liver, dark-red kidneys with an red-wine aspect to the urine. Histologically, there were centrolobular necrosis in the liver and hemoglobinuric nephosis, typical lesions of intravascular hemolysis.

  13. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R; Borowiec, Marek L; Chiu, Joanna C; Lee, Ernest K; Atallah, Joel; Ward, Philip S

    2013-10-21

    Eusocial behavior has arisen in few animal groups, most notably in the aculeate Hymenoptera, a clade comprising ants, bees, and stinging wasps [1-4]. Phylogeny is crucial to understanding the evolution of the salient features of these insects, including eusociality [5]. Yet the phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of aculeate Hymenoptera remain contentious [6-12]. We address this problem here by generating and analyzing genomic data for a representative series of taxa. We obtain a single well-resolved and strongly supported tree, robust to multiple methods of phylogenetic inference. Apoidea (spheciform wasps and bees) and ants are sister groups, a novel finding that contradicts earlier views that ants are closer to ectoparasitoid wasps. Vespid wasps (paper wasps, yellow jackets, and relatives) are sister to all other aculeates except chrysidoids. Thus, all eusocial species of Hymenoptera are contained within two major groups, characterized by transport of larval provisions and nest construction, likely prerequisites for the evolution of eusociality. These two lineages are interpolated among three other clades of wasps whose species are predominantly ectoparasitoids on concealed hosts, the inferred ancestral condition for aculeates [2]. This phylogeny provides a new framework for exploring the evolution of nesting, feeding, and social behavior within the stinging Hymenoptera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sting esitleb raamatut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Inglise rocklaulja Gordon Matthew Sumneri raamatu "Sting. Murtud muusika" esitlusest Tallinnas Viru Keskuse Rahva Raamatus ja kontserdist Saku Suurhallis Broken Musicu nimelise tuuri raames 28. juulil

  15. Acute myocardial infarction following a hornet sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković-Matić Danica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction following a hornet sting has been very rarely reported in the previous literature. Pathogenetic mechanisms include direct action of the venom components on the coronary endothelium and allergic reaction with mediators released from mast cells. The anaphylactic reaction and venom components can produce acute coronary artery thrombosis. Case report. We reported a 45-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction after a hornet sting in the presence of anaphylaxis. We also discussed clinical implications and pathophysiological mechanisms of acute myocardial infarction caused by hymenoptera sting. Conclusion. A case report of this unusual acute myocardial infarction highlights the potential acute myocardial ischemia associated with hymenoptera sting which requests early diagnosis, thorough cardiovascular evaluation and appropriate treatment.

  16. Allergen-specific immunosuppression by mucosal treatment with recombinant Ves v 5, a major allergen of Vespula vulgaris venom, in a murine model of wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Birgit; Bolwig, Caroline; Seppälä, Ulla; Spangfort, Michael D; Ebner, Christof; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2003-11-01

    Up to 5% of the population suffer from systemic, 19% from local allergic hypersensitivity reactions to stinging insects. Even though specific immunotherapy is very effective in treating allergy to insect venom, new concepts of treatment strategies with only the disease eliciting allergen in recombinant form, along with antigen application via a less invasive route might be suggested for enhanced treatment efficacy and compliance. In the present study we aimed (i) to establish a mouse model of wasp venom allergy, mimicking the natural mode of sensitization, and (ii) to develop a prophylactic treatment strategy based on mucosal tolerance induction, using one major wasp venom allergen in recombinant form, i.e. recombinant (r)Ves v 5. Immunization with wasp venom--with or without the use of the adjuvant aluminium hydroxide--led to comparable T helper 2-like immune responses in vivo and in vitro. Intranasal administration of rVes v 5 prior to sensitization with wasp venom resulted in a significant reduction of wasp venom-specific antibody levels (immunoglobulin E (IgE)/IgG2a), type I hypersensitivity reactions in vivo and cytokine production in vitro. Pretreatment with the whole venom was less effective and caused toxic side reactions in higher concentrations, suggesting a favourable use of the recombinant venom allergen for mucosal application. Increased mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10, along with adoptive cell transfer experiments indicated that the immunosuppression after intranasal rVes v 5-application has been mediated by regulatory mechanisms. This is further supported by the fact that the immunosuppression to rVes v 5 was associated with a bystander suppression to the unrelated aero-allergen Bet v 1. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the intranasal application of recombinant Ves v 5 prevented subsequent allergic sensitization to all components of the whole wasp venom. As allergy to insect venom develops in dependence of the

  17. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is a class of insects that sting in order to subdue their prey. Humans coming into accidental contact with these insects results in stings that may cause from mild local reaction like weal formation around the sting site to severe systemic reactions such as intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and rarely pancreatitis. We report here the clinical course of a patient who developed concurrent acute pancreatitis and pigment-induced acute renal failure after multiple hornet stings.

  18. Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Al-Rubiay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually,and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascularand respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq.Objectives: To describe the immediate and delayed skin reactions to White Jellyfish (Rhizostomasp. stings and the types of local treatment used by fishermen. Methods and Materials: 150fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types of skinreactions, systemic manifestations and kinds of treatments were collected. Results: Overall, 79% offishermen in all three Marine stations gave a history of having been stung. The common sites of singswere the hands and arms followed by the legs. Most fishermen claimed that stings led to skinreactions within 5 minutes. The presenting complaints were itching, burning sensation, anderythematic wheals. A few days after the sting, new groups of painless and itchy erythematousmonomorphic papular rashes developed at the site of the sting in 62% of cases as a delayed type ofskin reaction that resolved spontaneously. The local remedies commonly used by the fishermen wereseawater, tap water and ice. A few fishermen considered stings as insignificant and did not think therewas a need to seek medical help. Conclusions: We conclude that jellyfish causes many stingsamong fishermen in the Basra region. Their stings lead to immediate and delayed skin reactions. Selftreatmentby topical remedies is common.

  19. Honeybee sting of the sclera: occular features, treatment, outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocular bee sting injury has caused several reactions in the eye but has rarely been reported among local African farmers, and Nigerians in particular. This case seeks to report the first ocular and external eye reactions following a honey bee sting of the eye through the sclera, highlighting the treatment and outcome.

  20. A case of anaphylaxis: horse-fly or hymenoptera sting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, O; Emiliani, F; Foschi, F G; Stefanini, G F

    2009-10-01

    In literature it has been described a high risk of systemic reaction after blood-sucking Dyptera bites, like mosquitoes and horsefly, in people sensitive to hymenoptera. A 51 year old man, allergic to hymenoptera venom and with a history of i.v. reaction after Mueller, who has been treated with Vespula sp. ITS for the last 3 years, was stung by a yellow, black and green insect on the neck. Five minutes after the bite, he suffered generalized hitching and urticaria, oral cavity and lower limbs paresthesia, followed by lost of consciousness. At the Emergency Room he was successfully treated with adrenaline, intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroid. The description of the insect as well as the lack of the sting on the site suggested a wasp as the culprit. By studying one of these insect that has been captured by the patient, it turned out it wasn't a Vespula, but a horsefly, the Tabanus bovinus, which resembles Hymenoptera. Skin prick test and RAST for Tabanus confirmed the allergology diagnosis. In conclusion, also Tabanus bovines can cause systemic reaction up to anaphylactic shock.

  1. Disease-associated missense mutations in the EVH1 domain disrupt intrinsic WASp function causing dysregulated actin dynamics and impaired dendritic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Austen J J; Metelo, Joao; Bouma, Gerben; Moulding, Dale; Fritzsche, Marco; Vernay, Bertrand; Charras, Guillaume; Cory, Giles O C; Thrasher, Adrian J; Burns, Siobhan O

    2013-01-03

    Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked immunodeficiency, results from loss-of-function mutations in the human hematopoietic cytoskeletal regulator gene WAS. Many missense mutations in the Ena Vasp homology1 (EVH1) domain preserve low-level WAS protein (WASp) expression and confer a milder clinical phenotype. Although disrupted binding to WASp-interacting protein (WIP) leads to enhanced WASp degradation in vivo, the intrinsic function of EVH1-mutated WASp is poorly understood. In the present study, we show that, despite mediating enhanced actin polymerization compared with wild-type WASp in vitro, EVH1 missense mutated proteins did not support full biologic function in cells, even when levels were restored by forced overexpression. Podosome assembly was aberrant and associated with dysregulated lamellipodia formation and impaired persistence of migration. At sites of residual podosome-associated actin polymerization, localization of EVH1-mutated proteins was preserved even after deletion of the entire domain, implying that WIP-WASp complex formation is not absolutely required for WASp localization. However, retention of mutant proteins in podosomes was significantly impaired and associated with reduced levels of WASp tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results indicate that the EVH1 domain is important not only for WASp stability, but also for intrinsic biologic activity in vivo.

  2. Intrinsic antiproliferative activity of the innate sensor STING in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboni, Silvia; Jeremiah, Nadia; Gentili, Matteo; Gehrmann, Ulf; Conrad, Cécile; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Picard, Capucine; Neven, Bénédicte; Fischer, Alain; Amigorena, Sébastian; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Manel, Nicolas

    2017-06-05

    Activation of the cyclic dinucleotide sensor stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) is critical for IFN and inflammatory gene expression during innate immune responses. However, the role of STING in adaptive immunity is still unknown. In this study, we show that STING activation reduces the proliferation of T lymphocytes. This activity was independent of TBK1 and IRF3 recruitment and of type I IFN but required a distinct C-terminal domain of STING that activates NF-κB. Inhibition of cell proliferation by STING required its relocalization to the Golgi apparatus and caused mitotic errors. T lymphocytes from patients carrying constitutive active mutations in TMEM173 encoding STING showed impaired proliferation and reduced numbers of memory cells. Endogenous STING inhibited proliferation of mouse T lymphocytes. Therefore, STING, a critical innate sensor, also functions intrinsically in cells of the adaptive immune system to inhibit proliferation. © 2017 Cerboni et al.

  3. Intrinsic antiproliferative activity of the innate sensor STING in T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboni, Silvia; Jeremiah, Nadia; Gehrmann, Ulf; Conrad, Cécile; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Neven, Bénédicte; Fischer, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the cyclic dinucleotide sensor stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) is critical for IFN and inflammatory gene expression during innate immune responses. However, the role of STING in adaptive immunity is still unknown. In this study, we show that STING activation reduces the proliferation of T lymphocytes. This activity was independent of TBK1 and IRF3 recruitment and of type I IFN but required a distinct C-terminal domain of STING that activates NF-κB. Inhibition of cell proliferation by STING required its relocalization to the Golgi apparatus and caused mitotic errors. T lymphocytes from patients carrying constitutive active mutations in TMEM173 encoding STING showed impaired proliferation and reduced numbers of memory cells. Endogenous STING inhibited proliferation of mouse T lymphocytes. Therefore, STING, a critical innate sensor, also functions intrinsically in cells of the adaptive immune system to inhibit proliferation. PMID:28484079

  4. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  5. An unusual case of sustained ventricular tachycardia following a wasp bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT is a life-threatening condition which requires immediate intervention. We report a case of unusual etiology of sustained VT in a 42-year-old male after a wasp bite in the absence of anaphylaxis. The patient was treated with amiodarone and improved within 48 h. Thus, wasp stings can lead to serious tachyarrhythmias which can be life-threatening. Emergency care physicians should be aware of such arrhythmias in the setting of wasp bites which can be fatal.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying the Nonconsumptive Effects of Parasitoid Wasps on Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerslew, K S; Finke, D L

    2017-02-01

    Natural enemies need not consume herbivores to suppress herbivore populations. Behavioral interactions can adversely impact herbivore fitness from reduced time feeding, investment in defense, or injury from failed attacks. The importance of such "nonconsumptive effects" for herbivore suppression may vary across species based on the specificity and intensity of the herbivore defensive response. In a series of manipulative studies, we quantified the nature and consequences of nonconsumptive interactions between two parasitoid wasps, Aphidius ervi Haliday and Aphidius colemani Viereck, on two aphid species, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)). Both wasps successfully parasitize green peach aphids, but only A. ervi parasitizes pea aphids. We observed A. ervi antennating and stinging pea aphids and documented a decrease in pea aphid longevity in response to stinging even when the aphid survived the interaction and no mummy formed. The primary defensive tactic of pea aphids in response to either wasp species was dropping from the host plant. Both wasp species antennated and stung green peach aphids, but they elicited unique defensive behaviors. Green peach aphids kicked or emitted cornicle secretions in response to A. colemani but spent more time off the plant in the presence of A. ervi. Green peach aphid longevity and fecundity were not affected by wasp stings when the aphid survived and no mummy formed. Our study demonstrates the complexity of behavioral interactions between parasitoids and their potential hosts and contributes to a mechanistic understanding of variation in the nonconsumptive suppression of herbivore populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Deletion of WASp and N-WASp in B cells cripples the germinal center response and results in production of IgM autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Torres, Magda-Liz; Petersen, Sven H; Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Volpi, Stefano; Grasset, Emilie K; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Walter, Jolan E; Snapper, Scott B; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2015-08-01

    Humoral immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is associated with failure to respond to common pathogens and high frequency of autoimmunity. Here we addressed the question how deficiency in WASp and the homologous protein N-WASp skews the immune response towards autoreactivity. Mice devoid of WASp or both WASp and N-WASp in B cells formed germinal center to increased load of apoptotic cells as a source of autoantigens. However, the germinal centers showed abolished polarity and B cells retained longer and proliferated less in the germinal centers. While WASp-deficient mice had high titers of autoreactive IgG, B cells devoid of both WASp and N-WASp produced mainly IgM autoantibodies with broad reactivity to autoantigens. Moreover, B cells lacking both WASp and N-WASp induced somatic hypermutation at reduced frequency. Despite this, IgG1-expressing B cells devoid of WASp and N-WASp acquired a specific high affinity mutation, implying an increased BCR signaling threshold for selection in germinal centers. Our data provides evidence for that N-WASp expression alone drives WASp-deficient B cells towards autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatal and severe box jellyfish stings, including Irukandji stings, in Malaysia, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John M; Fenner, Peter J; Winkel, Ken; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Jellyfish are a common cause of injury throughout the world, with fatalities and severe systemic events not uncommon after tropical stings. The internet is a recent innovation to gain information on real-time health issues of travel destinations, including Southeast Asia. We applied the model of internet-based retrospective health data aggregation, through the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP), together with more conventional methods of literature and media searches, to document the health significance, and clinical spectrum, of box jellyfish stings in Malaysia for the period January 1, 2000 to July 30, 2010. Three fatalities, consistent with chirodropid envenomation, were identified for the period-all tourists to Malaysia. Non-fatal chirodropid stings were also documented. During 2010, seven cases consistent with moderately severe Irukandji syndrome were reported to DAN and two representative cases are discussed here. Photographs of chirodropid (multi-tentacled), carybdeid (four-tentacled) box jellyfish, and of severe sting lesions were also submitted to DAN during this period. This study suggests that the frequency and severity of jellyfish stings affecting tourists in Southeast Asia have been significantly underestimated. Severe and fatal cases of chirodropid-type stings occur in coastal waters off Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, Borneo. Indeed, the first Malaysian cases consistent with Irukandji-like syndrome are reported here. Reports to DAN, a provider of emergency advice to divers, offer one method to address the historic lack of formalized reporting mechanisms for such events, for photo-documentation of the possible culprit species and treatment advice. The application of marine stinger prevention and treatment principles throughout the region may help reduce the incidence and severity of such stings. Meanwhile travelers and their medical advisors should be aware of the hazards of these stings throughout the Asia-Pacific. © 2011 International

  9. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 species ... bites or stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish ... sea urchins, sea anemone, hydroid, coral, cone shell, sharks, ...

  10. Current advances in ant venom proteins causing hypersensitivity reactions in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisong, Hathairat; Daduang, Sakda; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-01-01

    The main insects causing allergy reactions to stinging insect in humans are Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps, yellow jackets and hornets) and Formicidae (ants). Their venom stings are composed of various biologically active peptides and protein components, some of which can cause toxicity or anaphylaxis in humans. The protein venom demonstrate some common allergenic activity such as for fire ants and vespids, which have two common allergens that are phospholipase A1 (enzymatic activity) and antigen 5 with unknown biological activity. The common allergens seem to share some degree of immunological cross-reactivity, particularly when the sequence homology is above 70%. Therefore immunotherapeutic approaches targeting more than one specific species are of interest. Recent widespread increases of various ant species in many countries have resulted in higher number of reported about serious allergic reactions to stings. Most insect-allergy related cases have been reported for species from Solenopsis, Myrmecia and Pachycondyla genera, and their stings can often result in human fatalities. In addition, stinging ants can have serious health effects on livestock, agricultural damage adversely affecting the biodiversity of the region. This review discusses the impact of important ant species on human health in the Asia-Pacific region along with the molecular immunological aspects of the identified venoms and current status of diagnostics and therapeutics. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parkinsonism following Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting here a rare case of Parkinsonism (Hypokinetic dysarthria caused after a bee stung, a member of the hymenoptera order. The main aim of this report is to orient the clinicians with the possibility of extrapyramidal syndromes because of hymenoptera stings.

  12. Prospective study of jellyfish stings from tropical Australia, including the major box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, G M; Isbister, G K; Lawrie, P M; Treston, G T; Currie, B J

    To determine the immediate and delayed effects of jellyfish stings, and correlate these with microscopic identification of jellyfish nematocysts. Prospective study of patients presenting with jellyfish stings. 40 people presenting with jellyfish stings to the emergency department of a teaching hospital in tropical Australia between 1 August 1999 and 31 July 2000. Clinical diagnosis (sting by Chironex fleckeri, "Darwin carybdeid" or other jellyfish, or "Irukandji" syndrome); clinical severity; delayed hypersensitivity; and sticky-tape sampling and microscopic identification of nematocysts. Patients were aged 2-50 years, with eight aged under 15 years; 23 were male. Presentations were consistent with C. fleckeri sting in 28 cases, Darwin carybdeid sting in five, and Irukandji syndrome in four. Sticky-tape sampling was done in 39 patients and was positive for C. fleckeri nematocysts in 23 and for non-C. fleckeri nematocysts in six, with nematocysts not detected in 10 (including all four with Irukandji syndrome). All microscopically confirmed C. fleckeri stings had typical clinical presentations. None of the stings were life-threatening, and no antivenom was given. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions were seen in 11 of the 19 patients (58%) followed up after stings positive for C. fleckeri nematocysts. Although most jellyfish stings presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital I were caused by C. fleckeri, severe envenomation was rare. There was a strong association between clinical features and sticky-tape identification of nematocysts. Delayed hypersensitivity was common after C. fleckeri stings.

  13. WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b and WASP-142b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2017-03-01

    We describe seven exoplanets transiting stars of brightness V = 10.1-12.4. WASP-130b is a 'warm Jupiter' having an orbital period of 11.6 d around a metal-rich G6 star. Its mass and radius (1.23 ± 0.04 MJup and 0.89 ± 0.03 RJup) support the trend that warm Jupiters have smaller radii than hot Jupiters. WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 MJup and 1.22 RJup). Its large scaleheight and bright (V = 10.1) host star make it a good target for atmospheric characterization. WASP-132b (0.41 MJup and 0.87 RJup) is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, having a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. WASP-139b is a 'super-Neptune' akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b, being the lowest mass planet yet found by WASP (0.12 MJup and 0.80 RJup). The metal-rich K0 host star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-MJup planet in an eccentric (e = 0.047 ± 0.004) 2.2-d orbit. The planet's radius is large (1.4 RJup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit (b = 0.93). The 10.4-d rotation period of the K0 host star suggests a young age, and the time-scale for tidal circularization is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. WASP-141b (2.7 MJup, 1.2 RJup and P = 3.3 d) and WASP-142b (0.84 MJup, 1.53 RJup and P = 2.1 d) are typical hot Jupiters orbiting metal-rich F stars. We show that the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge does not depend on the metallicity of the host star.

  14. Eye injury after jellyfish sting in temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Hawdon, Gabrielle M; Ashby, Karen; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Although jellyfish stings are an uncommon medical problem in temperate Australia, significant morbidity can occur, particularly in association with infestations of large numbers of jellyfish in public swimming areas. We report a case of a jellyfish sting-related eye injury, probably caused by the "hair" jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) from southeast Australia. The patient, a 54-year-old man, was stung while swimming without goggles in a jellyfish-infested bay. He experienced severe pain in his right eye, requiring narcotic analgesia, and had decreased visual acuity associated with right-sided facial swelling. Although usually brief and self-limiting, eye injuries after jellyfish stings should be assessed and treated as early as possible to reduce the risk of longer term sequelae. Water safety campaigns should incorporate information on the prevention and early treatment of such stings.

  15. Systemic immediate allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Most of the encounters with biting and stinging insects result in more or less pronounced localized reactions. Typically, urticarial wheals and papular reactions are observed. Less often local bullous or hemorrhagic or disseminated papular reactions, particularly in children and immunologically naive adults, may be seen. With the exception of bee and wasp venom allergies, immediate-type allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites are rare. Systemic IgE-mediated hypersensitivity has also been reported from additional hymenoptera species, e.g. hornets, bumble bees and ants. Rare are systemic reactions to mosquitoes, flies or kissing bugs and exceptional from ticks, bed bugs, moths, caterpillars and spiders. A major problem is the often lacking standardization of extracts for skin testing and for the determination of specific IgE. Some of the allergens have been characterized and few of them synthesized using recombinant techniques. Most investigations have been made with whole-body extracts or extracts from salivary glands, while desensitization has rarely been attempted. Currently, primary prevention by avoidance of stings and bites, and adequate instruction of sensitized individuals in the use of emergency drugs are mandatory.

  16. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen® for the treatment of bee and wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenhull, J; Elremeli, M; Cherry, M G; Mahon, J; Lai, M; Darroch, J; Oyee, J; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Boyle, R

    2012-01-01

    Each year in the UK, there are between two and nine deaths from anaphylaxis caused by bee and wasp venom. Anaphylactic reactions can occur rapidly following a sting and can progress to a life-threatening condition within minutes. To avoid further reactions in people with a history of anaphylaxis to bee and wasp venom, the use of desensitisation, through a process known as venom immunotherapy (VIT), has been investigated and is in use in the UK. VIT consists of subcutaneous injections of increasing amounts of purified bee and/or wasp venom extract. Pharmalgen® products (ALK Abelló) have had UK marketing authorisation for VIT (as well as diagnosis) of allergy to bee venom (using Pharmalgen Bee Venom) and wasp venom (using Pharmalgen Wasp Venom) since March 1995. This review assessed the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen in providing immunotherapy to individuals with a history of type 1 [immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated] systemic allergic reaction to bee and wasp venom. A comprehensive search strategy using a combination of index terms (e.g. Pharmalgen) and free-text words (e.g. allerg$) was developed and used to interrogate the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library. Papers were included if they studied venom immunotherapy using Pharmalgen (PhVIT) in patients who had previously experienced a systemic reaction to a bee and/or a wasp sting. Comparators were any alternative treatment options available in the NHS without VIT. Included outcomes were systemic reactions, local reactions, mortality, anxiety related to the possibility of future allergic reactions, health-related quality of life (QoL) and adverse reactions (ARs) to treatment. Cost-effectiveness outcomes included cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Because of the small number of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), no meta-analyses were conducted. A de novo economic model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of Ph

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel protein toxin from the Hawaiian box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H; Takuwa, K; Nakao, M; Sakamoto, B; Crow, G L; Nakajima, T

    2000-08-28

    The box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1830 (Cubozoa) is distributed widely in the tropics. The sting of C. alata causes severe pain and cutaneous inflammation in humans. We successfully isolated C. alata toxin-A (CaTX-A, 43 kDa) and -B (CaTX-B, 45 kDa) for the first time from the tentacle of C. alata collected at a site along the Hawaiian shore. The experimental results showed that CaTX-A, but not CaTX-B, is present in the nematocyst, the organ responsible for stinging. Both CaTX-A and -B showed potent hemolytic activity, with CaTX-A being lethally toxic to crayfish when administered via intraperitoneal injection. Furthermore, we sequenced the cDNA encoding CaTX-A. The deduced amino acid sequence of CaTX-A (463 amino acids) showed 43.7% homology to Carybdea rastoni toxins (CrTXs) but not with any other known proteins. Therefore, these jellyfish toxins potentially represent a novel class of bioactive proteins. Secondary structure analysis of CaTX-A and CrTXs suggested the presence of amphiphilic alpha-helices, which are also seen in several known hemolytic or cytolytic protein toxins, including peptide toxins. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments.

  19. A case of jellyfish sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N S; Wu, M L; Tsai, W J; Deng, J F

    2001-08-01

    Jellyfish sting may result in a wide range of symptoms from common erythematous urticarial eruptions to the rare box-jelly induced acute respiratory failure. In Taiwan, with the increasing frequency of international travel, cases of jellyfish sting to foreigners are on the rise. We report a case of jellyfish sting with the rare presentation of painless contact dermatitis. A 38-y-o man accidentally stepped on a sea urchin with his right foot during scuba diving in a beach in Thailand. Traditional therapy with vinegar was applied on the lesion. However, when he returned to Taiwan, erythematous patches on the left thigh with linear radiations to the leg were discovered. The skin lesions had bizzare shapes and showed progressive change. No pain or numbness was noticed. Jellyfish stingwas suspected, topical medications were applied, and the patient recovered without complication. Jellyfish stings usually result in a painful erythematous eruption. In this case, though the lesion involved a large surface, there was no pain. Delayed diagnosis of jellyfish sting was due to the atypical presentation and the physician's unfamiliarity to the Thai jellyfish sting. Awareness to the wide spectrum of jellyfish sting symptoms should be promoted.

  20. A RARE CASE OF SURVIVAL OF HONEY BEE STING VICTIM WITH MORE THAN 1000 STINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bee sting is rarely seen because bee sting occurs when the beehive is distracted. All cases of bee stings are not fatal. Careful removal of stings from the wound without squeezing to prevent venom spread into the wound is essential. Multiple bee stings fo r a single human being is not always fatal if treated immediately. In our case, there are more than 1000 bee stings to a human being, who survived with immediate treatment

  1. Scorpion sting and hypertensive crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ratti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scorpion stings are very frequent in Centre-South America. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms are: local pain and redness, tachycardia, irritability, hypertensive crisis; but it differs with the scorpion species involved. CLINICAL CASE We describe a scorpion sting in a woman who came back from a holiday in Mexico. Consequently she had a hypertensive crisis treated with furosemide. DISCUSSION The scorpion sting can be very dangerous. There are many species which could be lethal; in these cases, identifying the exact species can be essential to save the patient’s life. The treatment consists of symptomatic measures, support of vital functions and i.v. antivenom.

  2. The uncertainty of the toxic effect of stings from the Urtica nettle on hunting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edom, Gillian

    2002-02-01

    This paper questions the effect of the sting from the Urtica species of nettle on hunting dogs, particularly in the US. Research in this area is limited and is reflected in the wide use of a particularly unsound literature reference on the subject. A general account is given of which types of "nettle" plant have a toxic sting, how the mechanism of the sting works, and the toxic substances it contains. The effects experienced by hunting dogs appear to represent a condition other than contact urticaria, which is normall the result of being stung by nettles (Urticas in particular). The possibility is discussed that the signs were caused by another plant, also commonly labelled a nettle, or that possibly they were caused by other than the direct stinging of soft tissues. Further research should be done on the toxic elements in the sting of Urtica chamaedryoides, indicated in some literature as the "guilty" plant.

  3. Novel proteinaceous toxins from the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H; Takuwa, K; Nakao, M; Ito, E; Miyake, M; Noda, M; Nakajima, T

    2000-08-28

    During summer and autumn, the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni is one of the most bothersome stinging pests to swimmers and bathers on the Japanese coast. Two labile but potent hemolytic toxins from the tentacles of Carybdea rastoni were isolated in their active forms using newly developed purification methods. The molecular masses of the isolated C. rastoni toxin-A and toxin-B (CrTX-A and CrTX-B) are 43 and 46 kDa, respectively, as calculated from SDS-PAGE. In the present study, we sequenced the full-length cDNA (1600 bp), which encodes both CrTX-A and CrTX-B. The deduced 450 amino acid sequence of the CrTXs, showed no significant homology with any known protein. This report presents the first complete sequence of a proteinaceous jellyfish toxin. Furthermore, it was revealed that CrTX-A was primarily localized in the nematocyst, whereas CrTX-B was detected only in the tentacle. Because the nematocyst is the organ responsible for the cnidarian sting, the remainder of the study focused on the toxicity of CrTX-A. We found that CrTX-A was fatally toxic to mice at 20 microg/kg (i.v.) and crayfish at 5 microg/kg (i.p.). Subcutaneously injected CrTX-A (0.1 microg) caused inflammation of mouse skin. These results showed that CrTX-A is responsible for the cutaneous inflammation observed in humans stung by C. rastoni. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. ABSORBING GAS AROUND THE WASP-12 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Floeer, L. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Ayres, T. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Haswell, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kochukhov, O., E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: lfloeer@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@colorado.edu, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: david.bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: oleg.kochukhov@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index ( log R{sup '}{sub HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets.

  5. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cloudy fluid in area of bite. Fire ants usually attack intruders and are commonly found in pastures, meadows, lawns and parks in southern states. Bees and Wasps These winged insects are usually found near flowers, shrubs, picnic ...

  6. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  7. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas K; Headlam, Jasmine L; Wilcox, Christie L; MacLoughlin, Eoin; Yanagihara, Angel A

    2017-07-07

    Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More(®) Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep's blood (in agar plates), a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment.

  8. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Doyle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep’s blood (in agar plates, a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment.

  9. STING-Dependent Signaling Underlies IL-10 Controlled Inflammatory Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyun Ahn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal immune homeostasis is preserved by commensal bacteria interacting with the host to generate a balanced array of cytokines that are essential for wound repair and for combatting infection. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, which can lead to colitis-associated cancer (CAC, is thought to involve chronic microbial irritation following a breach of the mucosal intestinal epithelium. However, the innate immune pathways responsible for regulating these inflammatory processes remain to be fully clarified. Here, we show that commensal bacteria influence STING signaling predominantly in mononuclear phagocytes to produce both pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as anti-inflammatory IL-10. Enterocolitis, manifested through loss of IL-10, was completely abrogated in the absence of STING. Intestinal inflammation was less severe in the absence of cGAS, possibly suggesting a role for cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs indirectly regulating STING signaling. Our data shed insight into the causes of inflammation and provide a potential therapeutic target for prevention of IBD.

  10. Clinical effects of stings by sponges of the genus Tedania and a review of sponge stings worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hooper, John N A

    2005-12-01

    Contact with sponges (Phylum Porifera) usually results in minimal effects or abrasions, except for species that produce crinitoxins and can cause irritation and dermatitis. There are few reports of sponge stings, mainly in divers or collectors. We report a group of sponge stings from handling flame red/orange sponges on the beach, confirmed to be Tedania anhelans in five cases. All seven patients suffered immediate effects ranging from mild to severe pain, and local inflammation. A 38-year-old female and three children had delayed skin involvement including itchiness, pain, swelling and redness. Blistering and desquamation occurred in the female adult and limited desquamation in one child. Similar delayed effects have been reported in Tedania spp. stings previously.

  11. Reducing honey bee defensive responses and social wasp colonization with methyl anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya

    2009-07-01

    Human victims of a massive number of stings have been steadily increasing since the invasion of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) to the United States in 1990. Multiple honey bee stings may result in venom toxicity, leading to renal failure and even death. Here we tested the efficacy of methyl anthranilate as a honey bee repellent during a massive defensive response by Africanized honey bees. An aerosolized solution of 10% methyl anthranilate reduced the number of defensive bee hits to a retreating victim by 95% compared with a water control. One hundred fifty milliliters of the 10% methyl anthranilate solution sprayed onto stationary foam balls covered with black suede leather located 2 m from provoked Africanized colonies received 80% fewer stings than targets treated with water. Methyl anthranilate (100%) delivered through a UV blocking 3 mil polyethylene pouch was 100% effective in preventing Polistes colonization in wildlife observation huts and from the roof overhang of home patios. Although methyl anthranilate was not 100% effective in preventing honey bee stinging, it seemed to reduce number of stings below the average human LD50, indicative of a promising tool for preventing honey bee venom toxicity and wasp colonization.

  12. Prophylactic treatment of jellyfish stings--a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Andersen, Torgrim Salvesen; Andresen, Torgrim Salvesen; Pripp, Are Hugo; Karlsen, Hans Erik

    2012-06-26

    Contact with jellyfish can cause skin irritation and manifestations. We wanted to investigate the prophylactic effect of a sun cream containing an inhibitor against jellyfish stings. We recruited 38 persons who were randomised such that each received two of three possible treatments, one on each underarm. Prophylactic treatment with sun cream containing jellyfish sting inhibitor, ordinary sun cream, and no cream. Their underarms were exposed to wet jellyfish tentacles in a watchglass. The following were recorded: time before pain, skin changes after four minutes, and pain intensity after 10 minutes, registered on a VAS scale. Thirteen of 25 subjects who had the sun cream with jellyfish sting inhibitor did not register any pain after 4 minutes' exposure, compared with two of 25 and two of 26 who had received pre-treatment with ordinary sun cream (p = 0.32) and no pre-treatment (p jellyfish sting inhibitor recorded a lower VAS score for pain/discomfort after 10 minutes. The difference was 10.6 mm (95 % CI 3.1-17.9) compared with ordinary sun cream and 14.2 mm (95 % CI 6.9-21.5) compared with no pre-treatment. A smaller number of subjects were found to have underarms with inflamed skin when prophylactic cream containing jellyfish sting inhibitor was used (6 of 25) than when ordinary sun cream was used (11 of 25) or no pre-treatment (12 of 26). There were no statistically significant differences between ordinary sun cream and no pre-treatment for any of the three outcomes. Prophylactic treatment with jellyfish sting inhibitor reduces the risk of subjects developing symptoms after exposure to jellyfish tentacles.

  13. Data Requirements for WAsP, CFD & WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas

    Flow model uncertainty is often caused by the models inability to correctly describe the wind flow. However, another important and often overlooked source of error is the topographical input data used for the flow modelling; these must be sufficiently detailed and accurate to obtain accurate resu...... results. This report reviews the equirements of WAsP, WAsP CFD and WRF on the topographical input data to obtain accurate results....

  14. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  15. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  16. [Management of scorpion sting in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, R Soulaymani; Khattabi, A; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I

    2008-04-01

    Scorpion stings are the first cause of poisoning, and represent between 30 and 50% of all cases reported to the Moroccan Poison Control Centre. Concerned by the size of the problem, we have paid special attention to this pathology. Through retrospective and prospective studies, it has been possible to determine the nature and the chronology of clinical stages, as well as the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic factors of gravity. On this basis, we worked out a new management to provide support for patients. This management will standardize support provided at the national level, and will reduce the number of lethal case and rationalize spending by reviewing medication, transfer of patients and hospital care. This standardization is an essential component of the national strategy against scorpion poisoning. Other components include training of medical staff, awareness campaigns, and information systems to monitor lethal cases. A survey over five years shows a reduction in the number of lethal cases and rationalization of costs. Medical care provided rests upon the distinction between patients stung by scorpions and patients actually poisoned. The first category of patients will be monitored up to four hours after the scorpion sting, while poisoned patients will be transferred to an intensive care unit.

  17. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  18. A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile 'zombie', incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG. A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1 Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2 injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3 artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4 spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the

  19. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  20. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vineeth Varghese; George, Tina; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mannam, Pavithra; Ramya, I

    2017-01-01

    Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  1. 3M Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film in the protection of vulnerable skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C

    Skin often becomes vulnerable in incontinent patients or following the use of aggressive adhesive tapes and dressings. Until recently the only products available for use on such skin have been ointments, creams and alcohol-based products. 3M Health Care has launched a range of no sting barrier film applicators that provide skin protection in many scenarios, but in a product that does not sting or cause pain on application.

  2. WASp identity theft by a bacterial effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Goode, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    EspF(U), a protein secreted by pathogenic enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), activates N-WASp/WASp to induce actin pedestal formation in host cells. Two recent papers in Nature show that EspF(U) exploits a WASp activation strategy so extreme that it may effectively sequester WASp, blinding it to both autoinhibition and cellular regulation.

  3. Bee sting allergy in beekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich-Wanger, C; Müller, U R

    1998-10-01

    Beekeepers are strongly exposed to honey bee stings and therefore at an increased risk to develop IgE-mediated allergy to bee venom. We wondered whether bee venom-allergic beekeepers were different from normally exposed bee venom-allergic patients with regard to clinical and immunological parameters as well as their response to venom immunotherapy. Among the 459 bee venom-allergic patients seen over the 5 year period 1987-91, 62 (14%) were beekeepers and 44 (10%) family members of beekeepers. These two groups were compared with 101 normally exposed bee venom-allergic patients matched with the allergic beekeepers for age and sex, regarding clinical parameters, skin sensitivity, specific IgE and IgG antibodies to bee venom as well as safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy. As expected, allergic beekeepers had been stung most frequently before the first allergic reaction. The three groups showed a similar severity of allergic symptoms following bee stings and had an equal incidence of atopic diseases. Allergic beekeepers showed higher levels of bee venom-specific serum IgG, lower skin sensitivity and lower levels of bee venom specific serum IgE than bee venom-allergic control patients. A negative correlation between number of stings and skin sensitivity as well as specific IgE was found in allergic beekeepers and their family members, while the number of stings was positively correlated with specific IgG in these two groups. Venom immunotherapy was equally effective in the three groups, but better tolerated by allergic beekeepers than the two other groups. The majority of allergic beekeepers continued bee-keeping successfully under the protection of venom immunotherapy. The lower level of sensitivity in diagnostic tests and the better tolerance of immunotherapy in allergic beekeepers is most likely related to the high level of specific IgG in this group.

  4. Carbohydrate epitopes as a cause of cross-reactivity in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzen, Renato; Korosec, Peter; Silar, Mira; Music, Ema; Kosnik, Mitja

    2009-01-01

    Among patients with allergy to insect stings, double positivity in tests for IgE antibodies specific to honey bee and wasp venoms is a frequent diagnostic problem. True double sensitization and possible cross-reactivity of venom hyaluronidases and with carbohydrate determinants must be considered in such patients. We studied the frequency of sensitization to carbohydrate determinants and the role of these in double positivity in tests for specific IgE antibodies. A group of 66 patients (41 men, 25 women; 16-66 years) with double positivity for wasp and bee venoms were tested in the FEIA inhibition test in order to distinguish true double sensitization from cross-reactivity. Patients were tested for the presence of IgE antibodies specific to oilseed rape (OSR) pollen and MUXF3 allergens, both of which are rich in cross-reacting carbohydrate epitopes. Inhibition tests revealed true double sensitization in 37 patients (56.1%) and cross-reactivity in 29. Among those showing cross-reactivity, five were sensitized to honey bee venom and 24 to wasp venom. The median value of IgE specific for OSR pollen in patients sensitized to honey bee venom was 4.350 IU/ml, in patients sensitized to wasp venom 0.61 IU/ml, and in patients with double sensitization 0.25 IU/ml (P = 0.028, Kruskal-Wallis test). Findings for IgE specific for MUXF3 were similar. Discordance between OSR pollen positivity and MUXF3 positivity was found in 11.1% of the patients. The values of IgE specific for OSR pollen and MUXF3 in patients with primary sensitization to either honey bee venom or wasp venom were significantly higher than in patients with double sensitization. These results confirm that IgE antibodies against carbohydrates epitopes are a frequent cause of double positivity in tests for anti-venom IgE antibodies.

  5. A case of Kounis syndrome after a hornet sting and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralapanawa, Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Priyantha Udaya Kumara; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2014-12-03

    Acute coronary syndrome after hymenoptera stings or exposure to environment toxins is referred to as the Kounis syndrome or allergic myocardial ischaemia with or without infarction. We report a case of hornet (Vespa affinis) sting causing Kounis syndrome in Sri Lanka and present a review of literature. A 60-year -old female with diabetes mellitus and known allergy to bee venom was stung by a hornet on the right hand. Within 30 minutes she developed hypotension and wide spread T wave inversion in the 12 leads ECG that remained unchanged about 5 hours and reversed back to normal. Hymenoptera stings can induce acute coronary syndrome either by direct effect of venom constituents on the coronary endothelium or through inflammatory mediators induced allergic reaction on coronary vasculature. Early recognition of Kounis syndrome is needed in hornet stings to implement necessary treatments.

  6. [Jellyfish sting injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, D

    2014-10-01

    Jellyfish are distributed worldwide; they cause local skin injuries upon contact which are often followed by systemic signs of envenoming. Which jellyfish species are of medical importance, which skin reactions and systemic symptoms occur, which first-aid measures and treatment options exist? Review of the medical literature and discussion of first-aid and therapeutic options. Jellyfish capable of causing skin injuries occur in almost all oceans. Several jellyfish species may cause severe, potentially lethal, systemic symptoms; they include the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) and box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus). Among the injuries and envenoming symptoms caused by marine organisms, jellyfish dermatitis should not be underestimated. Skin reactions may not only a dermatological problem, but also be accompanied by complex systemic toxic symptoms which are a challenge for internists.

  7. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or movement. AskMayoExpert. Stinging insect allergy (adult and pediatric). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Stinging insect allergy: Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/ ...

  8. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  9. An Isolated Bee Sting Involving Multiple Cranial Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Motamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows with little erythema and  cm in size, bilateral blindness developed and gradually improved. Lateral movement of eyes was restricted with no pain. Involvement of cranial nerves including II, V, and VI was found. With conservative therapy after a year significant improvement has been achieved.

  10. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  11. Ultrasensitive mycotoxin detection by STING sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Paolo; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2010-10-15

    Signal transduction by ion nano-gating (STING) technology is a label-free biosensor capable of identifying DNA and proteins. Based on a functionalized quartz nanopipette, the STING sensor includes specific recognition elements for analyte discrimination based on size, shape and charge density. A key feature of this technology is that it does not require any nanofabrication facility; each nanopipette can be easily, reproducibly, and inexpensively fabricated and tailored at the bench, thus reducing the cost and the turnaround time. Here, we show that STING sensors are capable of the ultrasensitive detection of HT-2 toxin with a detection limit of 100 fg/ml and compare the STING capabilities with respect to conventional sandwich assay techniques. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe reaction: If your child has injectable epinephrine (EpiPen), give it right away, then call 911. Tell ... to a stinging or biting insect injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) was used the site looks infected (increasing redness, ...

  13. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b, and WASP-133 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3 MJup to 1.2 MJup and with radii from 1 RJup to 1.5 RJup. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 MJup,0.95 RJup), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 A has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other old G-type stars, particularly other planet host stars. These planetary systems are good targets for follow-up observations with ground-based and space-based facilities to study their atmospheric and dynamical properties. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55

  14. Cross-reactivity between Anisakis spp. and wasp venom allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Monsalve, Rafael I; Galán, Agustin; Perez-Piñar, Teresa; Umpierrez, Ana; Lluch-Bernal, Magdalena; Polo, Francisco; Caballero, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Anisakiasis is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods parasitized by live L3 larvae of nematode Anisakis spp. Larvae anchor to stomach mucosa releasing excretion/secretion products which contain the main allergens. It has been described that nematode larvae release venom allergen-like proteins among their excretion/secretion products. We investigated potential cross-reactivity between Anisakis and wasp venom allergens. Two groups of 25 patients each were studied: wasp venom- and Anisakis-allergic patients. Sera from patients were tested by ImmunoCAP, dot-blotting with recombinant Anisakis allergens and ADVIA-Centaur system with Hymenoptera allergens. Cross-reactivity was assessed by IgE immunoblotting inhibition assays. Role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was studied by inhibition with bromelain and periodate treatment. A total of 40% of wasp venom-allergic patients had specific IgE to Anisakis simplex and 20% detected at least one of the Anisakis recombinant allergens tested. Likewise, 44% of Anisakis-allergic patients had specific IgE to Vespula spp. venom and 16% detected at least one of the Hymenoptera allergens tested. Wasp venom-allergic patients detected CCDs in Anisakis extract and peptide epitopes on Anisakis allergens rAni s 1 and rAni s 9, whereas Anisakis-allergic patients only detected CCDs on nVes v 1 allergen from Vespula spp. venom. The only Anisakis allergen inhibited by Vespula venom was rAni s 9. This is the first time that cross-sensitization between wasp venom and Anisakis is described. CCDs are involved in both cases; however, peptide epitopes are only recognized by wasp venom-allergic patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. WASP-113b and WASP-114b, two inflated hot Jupiters with contrasting densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Hébrard, G.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Anderson, D. R.; Boumis, P.; Delrez, L.; Hay, K. L.; Lam, K. W. F.; Llama, J.; Lendl, M.; McCormac, J.; Skiff, B.; Smalley, B.; Turner, O.; Vanhuysse, M.; Armstrong, D. J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Liakos, A.; Meaburn, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Spake, J.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; Watson, C. A.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present the discovery and characterisation of the exoplanets WASP-113b and WASP-114b by the WASP surveys, SOPHIE and CORALIE. Methods: The planetary nature of the systems was established by performing follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations. The follow-up data were combined with the WASP-photometry and analysed with an MCMC code to obtain system parameters. Results: The host stars WASP-113 and WASP-114 are very similar. They are both early G-type stars with an effective temperature of ~5900 K, [Fe/H] ~ 0.12, and log g~ 4.1 dex. However, WASP-113 is older than WASP-114. Although the planetary companions have similar radii, WASP-114b is almost four times heavier than WASP-113b. WASP-113b has a mass of 0.48 MJup and an orbital period of ~4.5 days; WASP-114b has a mass of 1.77 MJup and an orbital period of ~1.5 days. Both planets have inflated radii, in particular WASP-113 with a radius anomaly of ℜ = 0.35. The high scale height of WASP-113b (~950 km) makes it a good target for follow-up atmospheric observations.

  16. Deletion analysis of the selfish B chromosome, Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR), in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is a “selfish” B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is transmitted via sperm, but causes supercondensation and destruction of the paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. Because this wasp has haplodiploid sex determination, the effect of PSR is

  17. [Skin cell response after jellyfish sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamicová, Katarína; Výbohová, Desanka; Fetisovová, Želmíra; Nováková, Elena; Mellová, Yvetta

    2016-01-01

    of inflammatory cells in lesional skin after the stinging by a jellyfish and compared them with the numbers of cells in the nonlesional skin of the same patient. Statistically significant differences were seen in the level of selected inflammation cells and numerically documented changes of cellularity in the inflammatory focus were caused by a hypersensitivity reaction after jellyfish injury in the period of 10 days after attack.

  18. Modifications to the current WAsP engine for Online WAsP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Troen, Ib; Bechmann, Andreas

    This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine".......This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine"....

  19. Conditional N-WASP knockout in mouse brain implicates actin cytoskeleton regulation in hydrocephalus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neeraj; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Wei Ting; George, Bhawana; Makeyev, Eugene; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2014-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus and moved by multi-ciliated ependymal cells through the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain. Defects in the ependymal layer functionality are a common cause of hydrocephalus. N-WASP (Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) is a brain-enriched regulator of actin cytoskeleton and N-WASP knockout caused embryonic lethality in mice with neural tube and cardiac abnormalities. To shed light on the role of N-WASP in mouse brain development, we generated N-WASP conditional knockout mouse model N-WASP(fl/fl); Nestin-Cre (NKO-Nes). NKO-Nes mice were born with Mendelian ratios but exhibited reduced growth characteristics compared to their littermates containing functional N-WASP alleles. Importantly, all NKO-Nes mice developed cranial deformities due to excessive CSF accumulation and did not survive past weaning. Coronal brain sections of these animals revealed dilated lateral ventricles, defects in ciliogenesis, loss of ependymal layer integrity, reduced thickness of cerebral cortex and aqueductal stenosis. Immunostaining for N-cadherin suggests that ependymal integrity in NKO-Nes mice is lost as compared to normal morphology in the wild-type controls. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses of coronal brain sections with anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies revealed the absence of cilia in ventricular walls of NKO-Nes mice indicative of ciliogenesis defects. N-WASP deficiency does not lead to altered expression of N-WASP regulatory proteins, Fyn and Cdc42, which have been previously implicated in hydrocephalus pathology. Taken together, our results suggest that N-WASP plays a critical role in normal brain development and implicate actin cytoskeleton regulation as a vulnerable axis frequently deregulated in hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  1. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambery Pradeep

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis. He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function

  2. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  3. Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, H; Tang, L; Linneberg, A

    2016-01-01

    -reacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) were collected from 2,090 adult participants in a cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: 13% of the population reported symptoms of sting reactions and about half were systemic in nature. In all, 15% were sensitized to venom but only 31% of these had reacted to stings and only 38......BACKGROUND: Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. METHODS: Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross......% of those with reactions had IgE to venom. In addition, 12% with IgE to venom were double-sensitized (DS), i.e. to both bee and wasp venom. Among DS IgE to major venom allergens, rApi m 1, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 were negative and of no help in 31%, but 59% could be identified as likely sensitized to bee...

  4. A randomized, controlled field trial for the prevention of jellyfish stings with a topical sting inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, David R

    2006-01-01

    Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacific regions. A new topical jellyfish sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fish prevents 85% of jellyfish stings in laboratory settings. The field effectiveness is unknown. The objective is to evaluate the field efficacy of the jellyfish sting inhibitor, Safe Sea. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial occurred at the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA and Sapodilla Cayes, Belize. Participants were healthy volunteers planning to snorkel for 30 to 45 minutes. Ten minutes prior to swimming, each participant was directly observed applying a blinded sample of Safe Sea (Nidaria Technology Ltd, Jordan Valley, Israel) to one side of their body and a blinded sample of Coppertone (Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) to the contralateral side as placebo control. Masked 26 g samples of both Safe Sea SPF15 and Coppertone SPF15 were provided in identical containers to achieve 2 mg/cm(2) coverage. Sides were randomly chosen by participants. The incidence of jellyfish stings was the main outcome measure. This was assessed by participant interview and examination as subjects exited the water. A total of 82 observed water exposures occurred. Thirteen jellyfish stings occurred during the study period for a 16% incidence. Eleven jellyfish stings occurred with placebo, two with the sting inhibitor, resulting in a relative risk reduction of 82% (95% confidence interval: 21%-96%; p= 0.02). No seabather's eruption or side effects occurred. Safe Sea is a topical barrier cream effective at preventing >80% jellyfish stings under real-world conditions.

  5. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  6. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne A. Madden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape sour (bunch rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes

  7. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Anne Yanagihara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as “venom load”, has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis. Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products. Seawater rinsing, considered a “no-harm” alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles.

  8. Insect sting allergy. A study from 1980 to 2003 of patients who started treatment with venom immunotherapy between 1980 and 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Døsen Liv

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we treated patients with insect sting allergy with venom immunotherapy (IT using whole body insect extracts. From 1980 we changed to insect venoms. The purpose of this study was to analyse data from the patients in order to improve our treatment. Methods This is an open, single centre study on patients treated with venom IT 14 years or older with a history of a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting, a positive skin prick test (SPT or a positive RAST and willingness to comply with five years of IT. Clinical and laboratory data were registered prospectively at the start of IT and after five years of treatment until 2003 on patients who started IT between 1980 and 1998. Questionnaires were answered in 1989, 1993 and 2003. Statistical analysis was done with Pearson's chi square, Fisher's exact or the t-test. Results Of 315 patients treated, 44 were given bee, 248 common wasp and 23 both venoms. Of the common wasp sting incidents 5.5 % resulted in a severe allergic reaction (SAR during adequate IT and 22% after cessation. Seventy-one per cent of the patients carried epinephrine. Precautionary steps were taken by 77% of the patients during or after inadequate IT. On or after adequate IT 83% felt completely or substantially safe. Surprisingly 29 % of those inadequately treated felt safer and 50% were satisfied with having had the opportunity to be treated. The SPT became negative in 68% of the wasp allergic patients after five years of adequate IT. Increased risk of experiencing SAR to a future sting in wasp allergic patients after cessation of adequate IT was significantly associated with a SAR due to IT during the rush regimen. SAR due to IT occurred very rarely during maintenance dosing. Conclusion Adequate venom IT is very effective while ongoing but somewhat less effective after cessation, while inadequate treatment gives poor results. More of our patients should complete five years of IT and some should

  9. Treatment of musculoskeletal pain with the sting of the stinging nettle: Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Colin F

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The author's interest in the therapeutic potential of the sting of nettles began with the presentation of two patients in his general practice surgery who were self-prescribing nettle sting for their arthritis pain. The publication of these two case reports produced responses from four other doctors about similar cases. Historical and contemporary research An extensive literature and database review produced few references from the medical literature but numero...

  10. Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  11. Evaluation of the effects of various chemicals on discharge of and pain caused by jellyfish nematocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsa, Laura M; Verity, Peter G; Lee, Richard F

    2010-05-01

    Jellyfish tentacles in contact with human skin can produce pain swelling and redness. The pain is due to discharge of jellyfish nematocysts and associated toxins and discharge can be caused by a variety of mechanical and chemical stimuli. A series of tests were carried out with chemicals traditionally used to treat jellyfish stings e.g. acetic acid ammonia meat tenderizer baking soda and urea to determine if these chemicals stimulated or inhibited nematocyst discharge and if they brought relief to testers who were exposed to jellyfish tentacles. Chrysaora quinquecirrha (sea nettle) Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (sea wasp) and Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-of-war) were used in the study. It was found that many of the chemicals traditionally used to treat jellyfish stings stimulated nematocyst discharge and did not relieve the pain. However there was immediate relief when a common anesthetic lidocaine was sprayed on the skin of testers in contact with jellyfish tentacles. Initial exposure of tentacle suspensions to lidocaine prevented the nematocyst discharge by subsequent exposure to acetic acid ethanol ammonia or bromelain. Thus lidocaine in addition to acting as an anesthetic on skin in contact with jellyfish tentacles inhibited nematocyst discharge possibly by blocking sodium and/or calcium channels of the nematocytes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  13. Impact of stinging jellyfish proliferations along south Italian coasts: human health hazards, treatment and social costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-02-27

    Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  14. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  15. Bee sting anaphylaxis in an urban population of South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Harvey, P; Sperber, S; Kupa, A; Heddle, R J

    1985-12-01

    The clinical manifestations and circumstances of bee sting anaphylaxis have been studied retrospectively in 98 subjects. Most reactions occurred in children but the most severe reactions were seen in adult males, of whom 7 lost consciousness and 2 required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most stings causing anaphylaxis occurred on the unprotected feet whilst the subject was on lawn in the afternoons in December, January and February when the maximum daily temperature was between 20 and 30 degrees C. This is the temperature range when bees are particularly active in gathering pollen. However, a significantly greater frequency of anaphylactic reactions occurred at higher temperatures when bees are less active, suggesting that high environmental temperature may predispose the individual to greater exposure to bees or possibly to anaphylactic reactions per se. The presence of atopy did not appear to predispose subjects to bee venom hypersensitivity. Considerable anxiety and lifestyle alteration were identified in some subjects. The alleviation of this anxiety is considered an appropriate indication for bee venom immunotherapy.

  16. Seven transiting hot-Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b & WASP-67b

    OpenAIRE

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3 to 12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range 3.9--4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4--2.3 Mjup and the radii from 1.1--1.4 Mjup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (rho = 0.13--1.07 rho_jup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investig...

  17. Identification of bradykinins in solitary wasp venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Palma, Mario Sergio; Hitara, Izaura Yoshico; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Yasuhara, Tadashi

    2002-03-01

    Bradykinins were identified in three solitary wasp venoms. Purification and characterization of the venom extract of the scoliid wasp Megacampsomeris prismatica led to the identification of bradykinin and threonine(6)-bradykinin as the major peptide components. The survey of a number of extracts from solitary wasp venom by MALDI-TOF MS revealed that the venoms of two other scoliid wasps, Campsomeriella annulata annulata and Carinoscolia melanosoma fascinata, also contained Thr(6)-BK as one of the major components. Thus, this study showed the presence of bradykinins in some of the solitary wasp venoms. Moreover, it indicated that these peptides play a major role in their paralyzing action for prey capture because these bradykinins have been shown to block the synaptic transmission of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the insect central nervous system.

  18. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  19. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  20. A novel protein toxin from the deadly box jellyfish (Sea Wasp, Habu-kurage) Chiropsalmus quadrigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroshi; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Nakao, Masahiro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Iwanaga, Setsuko; Nakajima, Terumi

    2002-01-01

    The deadly box jellyfish (Sea Wasp, Habu-kurage in Japanese) Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (Cubozoa) is distributed widely in the tropical Pacific region. In Japan, three fatal cases due to stings from this species have been reported officially. We successfully isolated C. quadrigatus toxin-A (CqTX-A, 44 kDa), a major proteinaceous toxin, for the first time, from the nematocysts of C. quadrigatus. CqTX-A showed lethal toxicity to crayfish when administered via intraperitoneal injection (LD50 = 80 microg/kg) and hemolytic activity toward 0.8% sheep red blood cells (ED50 = 160 ng/ml). Furthermore, we sequenced the cDNA encoding CqTX-A. The deduced amino acid sequence of CqTX-A (462 amino acids) showed 25.2% and 21.6% sequence similarity to Carybdea rastoni toxins (CrTXs) and Carybdea alata toxin-A (CrTX-A), respectively, which are Cubozoan jellyfish toxins.

  1. Now you see me - the WASP-117b version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Ludmila

    2017-08-01

    WASP-117b is an unique exoplanet as it's elliptical orbit causes the temperature of the atmosphere to cross the 970 K temperature boundary, which separates the disequilibrium and equilibrium chemistry regime. Due to the long orbital period (10.022 days) compared to chemistry and dynamical time scales and due to the orbital orientation, we can expect the planet to be well in the disequilibrium chemistry temperature regime (Teff albedo and cloud coverage. Since the planet is expected to spend several days each in the disequilibrium and equilibrium chemistry regime over the course of one orbit, HST observations will also provide a vital first input for planning future phase resolved JWST observations. The latter will allow to investigate atmosphere and cloud composition changes as WASP-117b switches in between chemical regimes.

  2. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  3. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuju Kitatani

    Full Text Available A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  4. The Role of WASp in Podosome Formation and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevrey, Jean-Claude; Dovas, Athanassios; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    -derived cells defective in WASp, a haematopoietic cell-specific activator of the Arp2/3 complex, show reduced number of podosomes and impaired chemotaxis. Despite the strong evidence linking WASp to podosomes, how their formation and dynamics are regulated by WASp remains unknown. A FRET-based WASp biosensor...... in decreased podosome formation and matrix degradation that could be rescued by re-expression of WT WASp. To assess the signal pathways required for WASp activation during podosome formation the ability of mutated versions of WASp to rescue WASp deficiency was also determined. Similar to re...... that continuous WASp activity is required for podosome maintenance and indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation is dispensable for the function of WASp in podosomes but Cdc42 is an important regulatory element....

  5. Experimental Research on an Active Sting Damper in a Low Speed Acoustic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnels usually use long cantilever stings to support aerodynamic models in order to reduce support system flow interference on experimental data. However, such support systems are a potential source of vibration problems which limit the test envelope and affect data quality due to the inherently low structural damping of the systems. When exposed to tunnel flow, turbulence and model flow separation excite resonant Eigenmodes of a sting structure causing large vibrations due to low damping. This paper details the development and experimental evaluation of an active damping system using piezoelectric devices with balance signal feedback both in a lab and a low speed acoustic wind tunnel and presents the control algorithm verification tests with a simple cantilever beam. It is shown that the active damper, controlled separately by both PID and BP neural network, has effectively attenuated the vibration. For sting mode only, 95% reduction of displacement response under exciter stimulation and 98% energy elimination of sting mode frequency have been achieved.

  6. WAsP engineering DK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Astrup, P.; Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hauge Madsen, P.; Heathfield, D.

    2000-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmoelledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complex terrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. The basic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load calculations. The most important change is the inclusion of a complex model for the roughness length on water bodies. This is particularly important for the estimation of extreme winds in the vicinity of sea shores. A second addition is the calculation of spatial derivatives of the mean flow to be used for the modeling of turbulence. The turbulence structure on hills is modeled by perturbing the flat, homogeneous terrain turbulence using Rapid Distortion Theory. A simple model for the adjustment of turbulence to roughness changes is also applied. Second order turbulence statistics such as turbulence intensities, spectra and cross-spectra can be estimated at user-chosen positions in the terrain. A program for simulation of turbulence with the calculated statistics has been developed. However, it has not yet been integrated into the windows interface. Climatological series of wind speed have been analyzed to establish the extreme wind climate over Denmark. The extreme wind climate contains directional information and is used for estimating the extreme winds at an arbitrary position in complex terrain. A net of high precision pressure sensors covering Denmark has been established in order to obtain a climatology of the geostrophic wind. A tentative conclusion from only one year of data is that, statistically , the geostrophic wind decreases when going from west toward east

  7. Effects of STING stimulation on macrophages: STING agonists polarize into "classically" or "alternatively" activated macrophages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuri, Takayuki; Kosaka, Akemi; Nagato, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroya

    2017-10-24

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was defined as an important molecule for promoting antitumor immunity through mediating type I interferon (IFN) production by sensing its ligands such as cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Our recent study indeed demonstrated that intratumoral injection of cGAMP showed effective antitumor responses via accumulating activated macrophages in the tumor microenvironment in a STING-dependent manner. Because the antitumor effect of cGAMP was abrogated when macrophages were depleted, the existence of the activated macrophages in the tumor site would be important for effective antitumor immune responses. Macrophages show phenotypic diversity and plasticity and are categorized into several groups by stimulation factors, e.g. IFN-γ and IL-4 for M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. However, the impact of STING stimulation on the macrophage activation status remains to be evaluated. Here we summarize the complex polarized status of macrophages and the signaling cascade triggered by STING stimulation and also discuss the impact of STING signaling on the macrophage activation status for future directions.

  8. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif

    2000-01-01

    calculations. The most important change is the inclusion of a complex model for the roughness length on water bodies. This is particularly important forthe estimation of extreme winds in the vicinity of sea shores. A second addition is the calculation of spatial derivatives of the mean flow to be used...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  9. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  10. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12b, WASP-17b, and WASP-19b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 microns most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis. Key words: planetary systems - techniques: photometric - techniques: spectroscopic

  11. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, which progressed to a fatal outcome; and the other case developed mild cerebral edema with a satisfactory evolution. The pathophysiology of this complication is not well known and probably is the consequence of hypoxia, secondary to respiratory failure, laryngospasm and seizures that are manifestations of envenomation by scorpion sting.

  12. Climate Change Impact on Neotropical Social Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

  13. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Pinyol

    Full Text Available Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  14. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyol, Roser; Haeckel, Akvile; Ritter, Anett; Qualmann, Britta; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2007-05-02

    Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  15. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-09-01

    SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  16. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Evolutionary Ecology: Wasp Mother's Little Helpers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose.......The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose....

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bites and stings at home, dermatologists recommend the following tips: For painful bites , such as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Always follow the directions on the label and use the correct dose. ...

  19. STING Pathway Activation Stimulates Potent Immunity against Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Curran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN, essential for spontaneous T cell priming against solid tumors, is generated through recognition of tumor DNA by STING. Interestingly, we observe that type I IFN is not elicited in animals with disseminated acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Further, survival of leukemia-bearing animals is not diminished in the absence of type I IFN signaling, suggesting that STING may not be triggered by AML. However, the STING agonist, DMXAA, induces expression of IFN-β and other inflammatory cytokines, promotes dendritic cell (DC maturation, and results in the striking expansion of leukemia-specific T cells. Systemic DMXAA administration significantly extends survival in two AML models. The therapeutic effect of DMXAA is only partially dependent on host type I IFN signaling, suggesting that other cytokines are important. A synthetic cyclic dinucleotide that also activates human STING provided a similar anti-leukemic effect. These data demonstrate that STING is a promising immunotherapeutic target in AML.

  20. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Asai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61. All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6–14 days (median: 10 after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  1. WASP and SCAR are evolutionarily conserved in actin-filled pseudopod-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K; Lord, Samuel J; Mullins, R Dyche

    2017-06-05

    Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call "α-motility." Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE-activators of branched actin assembly-make actin-filled pseudopods. Although SCAR has been shown to drive pseudopod formation, WASP's role in this process is controversial. We hypothesize that these genes collectively represent a genetic signature of α-motility because both are used for pseudopod formation. WASP depletion from human neutrophils confirms that both proteins are involved in explosive actin polymerization, pseudopod formation, and cell migration. WASP and WAVE also colocalize to dynamic signaling structures. Moreover, retention of WASP together with SCAR correctly predicts α-motility in disease-causing chytrid fungi, which we show crawl at >30 µm/min with actin-filled pseudopods. By focusing on one migration mode in many eukaryotes, we identify a genetic marker of pseudopod formation, the morphological feature of α-motility, providing evidence for a widely distributed mode of cell crawling with a single evolutionary origin. © 2017 Fritz-Laylin et al.

  2. WASP family proteins and formins compete in pseudopod- and bleb-based migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Amato, Clelia; Thomason, Peter A; Insall, Robert H

    2017-11-30

    Actin pseudopods induced by SCAR/WAVE drive normal migration and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Cells can also migrate using blebs, in which the edge is driven forward by hydrostatic pressure instead of actin. In Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of SCAR is compensated by WASP moving to the leading edge to generate morphologically normal pseudopods. Here we use an inducible double knockout to show that cells lacking both SCAR and WASP are unable to grow, make pseudopods or, unexpectedly, migrate using blebs. Remarkably, amounts and dynamics of actin polymerization are normal. Pseudopods are replaced in double SCAR/WASP mutants by aberrant filopods, induced by the formin dDia2. Further disruption of the gene for dDia2 restores cells' ability to initiate blebs and thus migrate, though pseudopods are still lost. Triple knockout cells still contain near-normal F-actin levels. This work shows that SCAR, WASP, and dDia2 compete for actin. Loss of SCAR and WASP causes excessive dDia2 activity, maintaining F-actin levels but blocking pseudopod and bleb formation and migration. © 2018 Davidson et al.

  3. A novel stimulator of interferon gene (STING) from Larimichthys crocea and their involvement in immune response to ectoparasite Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Bing; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Chen, Ruan-Ni; Su, Yong-Quan; Chen, Jia; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    The marine white spot disease caused by protozoan ectoparasite Cryptocaryon irritans is a severe problem to the large yellow croaker farming industry. To understand the molecular immune mechanisms and improve its immune capacity are particular important. STING, one of the important second messengers in innate immune response process, plays pivotal roles in defensing against different pathogenic microorganisms. Many reports have pointed that STING could not only combine the uncovered dsDNA, ssDNA directly in the cytoplasm from the pathogens or biology itself, but it also could recognize cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP). Based on the STING sequence, a variant of the L. crocea STING (termed LcSTING2) was found by accident. RACE was used to clone the full-length cDNA of LcSTING2 which contained a 5'- UTR of 154 bp, a 3'-UTR of 592 bp and an ORF of 1227 bp encoding 408 amino acids. The predicted protein molecular weight (Mw) was 45.83 KDa and the estimated theoretical isoelectric point (pI) was 6.24. The deduced protein of LcSTING2 contains no signal peptide. One transmembrane motif (TM) in the N-terminal region, a TMEM173 domain and five putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins were also conserved. According to the partial genomic sequence, the unknown sequences were amplified, it contained 6 exons and 5 introns, and all the exon-intron boundaries were in accordance with classical GT-AG rule (GT/intron/AG). The similarity shared with fishes was higher than other high vertebrates. qRT-PCR results showed that LcSTING (two variants) distributed in all examined tissues, and it was the most abundant in gill. After challenged by C. irritans, LcSTING mRNA only appeared instantaneous up-regulation during the infective stage of theronts in the head kidney and was also up-regulated during the whole infectious cycle of C. irritans in the liver, which implied LcSTING gene was likely to be

  4. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  5. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  6. Epidemiology of animal bites and stings in Khuzestan, Iran, 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Alavi, Leila

    2008-01-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of the injuries caused by animals among the population of Khuzestan region, Iran admitted to teaching hospital emergency departments. Retrospective study. From 1997 to 2006 in teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. The medical records of 894 patients admitted to hospital with animal bites or stings were studied. Data including epidemiological aspects, clinical findings and outcomes of treatment were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the chi(2) test. Of 894 patients 62.0% were male, and the median age of males and females was 24.4 years and 26.2 years, respectively. Dogs, scorpions, mice and snakes were the most commonly involved animal species, causing injuries with a frequency of 69%, 12.5%, 8.8% and 4.4%, respectively. Feet (58.1%) and hands (30.6%) were the most commonly affected body parts, followed by the face and other parts. Infectious complications were seen in 127 patients, among them 94 soft tissue infections (74.1%), 28 cases of sepsis (22.0%) and five of endocarditis (3.9%). Thirty-five cases (3.9%) died following animal bites and stings, among them 28 (80%) due to scorpion stings, four (11.4%) related to dogs and three (8.6%) from snake bites. No cases of rabies were observed in these patients. Animal bite is a major public health problem in Khuzestan, with a high frequency, a high percentage of hospitalization and considerable mortality.

  7. Wasp-inspired needle insertion with low net push force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprang, T.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Lepora, N.F.; Mura, A.; Mangan, M.; Verschure, P.F.M.J.; Desmulliez, M.; Prescott, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a four-part needle prototype inspired by the ovipositor of parasitic wasps. In the wasp ovipositor, three longitudinal segments called valves move reciprocally to gain depth in the substrate. It has been suggested that serrations located along the wasp

  8. Peculiar architectures for the WASP-53 and WASP-81 planet-hosting systems★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Lendl, Monika; Anderson, David R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Delrez, Laetitia; Doyle, Amanda; Gillon, Michaël; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuël; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Queloz, Didier; Pollacco, Don; Southworth, John; Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We report the detection of two new systems containing transiting planets. Both were identified by WASP as worthy transiting planet candidates. Radial velocity observations quickly verified that the photometric signals were indeed produced by two transiting hot Jupiters. Our observations also show the presence of additional Doppler signals. In addition to short-period hot Jupiters, we find that the WASP-53 and WASP-81 systems also host brown dwarfs, on fairly eccentric orbits with semimajor axes of a few astronomical units. WASP-53c is over 16 MJupsin Ic and WASP-81c is 57 MJupsin Ic. The presence of these tight, massive companions restricts theories of how the inner planets were assembled. We propose two alternative interpretations: the formation of the hot Jupiters within the snow line or the late dynamical arrival of the brown dwarfs after disc dispersal. We also attempted to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both hot Jupiters. In the case of WASP-81b, we fail to detect a signal. For WASP-53b, we find that the planet is aligned with respect to the stellar spin axis. In addition we explore the prospect of transit-timing variations, and of using Gaia's astrometry to measure the true masses of both brown dwarfs and also their relative inclination with respect to the inner transiting hot Jupiters.

  9. Insect sting allergy with negative venom skin test responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D B; Kagey-Sobotka, A; Norman, P S; Hamilton, R G; Lichtenstein, L M

    2001-05-01

    In our 1976 controlled venom immuno rapy trial, 33% of 182 patients with a history of systemic reactions to insect stings were excluded because of negative venom skin test responses. There have been reports of patients with negative skin test responses who have had severe reactions to subsequent stings. Our aim is to increase awareness about the patient with a negative skin test response and insect sting allergy and to determine the frequency and significance of negative skin test responses in patients with a history of systemic reactions to insect stings. We prospectively examined the prevalence of negative venom skin test responses in patients with a history of systemic reactions to stings. In patients who gave informed consent, we analyzed the outcome of retesting and sting challenge. Of 307 patients with positive histories screened for our sting challenge study, 208 (68%) had positive venom skin test responses (up to 1 microg/mL concentration), and 99 (32%) had negative venom skin test responses. In 36 (36%) of the 99 patients with negative skin test responses, the venom RAST result was a low positive (1-3 ng/mL), or repeat venom skin test responses were positive; another 7 (7%) patients had high venom-specific IgE antibody levels (4-243 ng/mL). Notably, 56 (57%) of 99 patients with positive histories and negative skin test responses had negative RAST results. In patients with positive skin test responses, sting challenges were performed in 141 of 196 patients, with 30 systemic reactions. Sting challenges were performed on 37 of 43 patients with negative skin test responses and positive venom-specific IgE and in 14 of 56 patients with negative skin test responses and negative RAST results. There were 11 patients with negative skin test responses who had systemic reactions to the challenge sting: 2 had negative RAST results, and 9 had positive RAST results at 1 ng/mL. The frequency of systemic reaction was 21% in patients with positive skin test responses and 22

  10. Epidemiology of the Cnidarian Physalia physalis stings attended at a health care center in beaches of Adicora, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla-Perfetti, Dalmiro J; Loyo, Jesus; Lugo, Lusneida; Acosta, María E; Morales, Pedro; Haddad, Vidal; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2012-09-01

    Stings caused by jellyfish and jellyfish-like colonies are common all around the world, with serious manifestations and occasional deaths reported in some countries. Between December 2006 and 2007, epidemiological, clinical and treatment aspects of stings caused by the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) in 59 patients consulting the ambulatory emergency in Adicora, Falcon State, Venezuela, were studied. Most of the stings occurred in males (59%) preschool and school-aged children (49%), visitors from other areas of the country (92%) during holidays when bathing or diving at the beach (97%). Injuries presented linear erythematous plaques at the point of contact with the animal, located in several anatomical sites. Most clinical manifestations observed were: intense burning pain, urticaria, erythema and inflammation (100%), as well dyspnea with laryngeal edema and fever (19%). Patients were treated with topical drugs, including antihistamine and antipyretic drugs, but also with systemic hydrocortisone. P. physalis stings in Adicora appeared to have a seasonal pattern, with systemic complications potentially life-threatening. Thus, epidemiological surveillance program is recommended, particularly in travelers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  12. Geographic variation in the status signals of Polistes dominulus paper wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Tibbetts

    Full Text Available Understanding intraspecific geographic variation in animal signals poses a challenging evolutionary problem. Studies addressing geographic variation typically focus on signals used in mate-choice, however, geographic variation in intrasexual signals involved in competition is also known to occur. In Polistes dominulus paper wasps, females have black facial spots that signal dominance: individuals wasps with more complex 'broken' facial patterns are better fighters and are avoided by rivals. Recent work suggests there is dramatic geographic variation in these visual signals of quality, though this variation has not been explicitly described or quantified. Here, we analyze variation in P. dominulus signals across six populations and explore how environmental conditions may account for this variation. Overall, we found substantial variation in facial pattern brokenness across populations and castes. Workers have less broken facial patterns than gynes and queens, which have similar facial patterns. Strepsipteran parasitism, body size and temperature are all correlated with the facial pattern variation, suggesting that developmental plasticity likely plays a key role in this variation. First, the extent of parasitism varies across populations and parasitized individuals have lower facial pattern brokenness than unparasitized individuals. Second, there is substantial variation in body size across populations and a weak but significant relationship between facial pattern brokenness and body size. Wasps from populations with smaller body size (e.g. Italy tend to have less broken facial patterns than wasps from populations with larger body size (e.g. New York, USA. Third, there is an apparent association between facial patterns and climate, with wasp from cooler locations tending to have higher facial pattern brokenness than wasps from warmer locations. Additional experimental work testing the causes and consequences of facial pattern variation will be

  13. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Lichen planus-like eruption resulting from a jellyfish sting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sudip Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contact with a jellyfish can cause a wide variety of conditions, ranging from cutaneous eruption to fatal cardiovascular and respiratory collapse. Cutaneous features can be both acute and chronic. We report a case of persistent lichen planus-like eruption in a young boy after a jellyfish sting, a hitherto unreported occurrence. Case presentation A 15-year-old boy presented with multiple lichen planus-like violaceous papules over the lower part of his left thigh on the anterior aspect and also over the patellar region. He had a history of a jellyfish sting over his lower limbs incurred while bathing in the sea four weeks prior to presentation. Histopathology revealed a predominantly perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrate immediately beneath the dermoepidermal junction underneath the hyperplastic epidermis. The lesions significantly subsided with topical corticosteroid application. Conclusion This case report demonstrates a new variant of chronic cutaneous change following a jellyfish sting. We report it because of its uniqueness and we believe that physicians should be aware of the possibility of an aquatic animal-induced disease when dealing with lesions with lichen planus-like morphology.

  15. Detection of a microbial metabolite by STING regulates inflammasome activation in response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J Webster

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is a critical component of host defence against microbial pathogens, but effective responses require an ability to distinguish between infectious and non-infectious insult to prevent inappropriate inflammation. Using the important obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis; an organism that causes significant immunopathology, we sought to determine critical host and pathogen factors that contribute to the induction of inflammasome activation. We assayed inflammasome activation by immunoblotting and ELISA to detect IL-1β processing and LDH release to determine pyroptosis. Using primary murine bone marrow derived macrophages or human monocyte derived dendritic cells, infected with live or attenuated Chlamydia trachomatis we report that the live organism activates both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes, but only canonical inflammasomes controlled IL-1β processing which preceded pyroptosis. NADPH oxidase deficient macrophages were permissive to Chlamydia trachomatis replication and displayed elevated type-1 interferon and inflammasome activation. Conversely, attenuated, non-replicating Chlamydia trachomatis, primed but did not activate inflammasomes and stimulated reduced type-1 interferon responses. This suggested bacterial replication or metabolism as important factors that determine interferon responses and inflammasome activation. We identified STING but not cGAS as a central mediator of interferon regulated inflammasome activation. Interestingly, exogenous delivery of a Chlamydia trachomatis metabolite and STING ligand-cyclic di-AMP, recovered inflammasome activation to attenuated bacteria in a STING dependent manner thus indicating that a bacterial metabolite is a key factor initiating inflammasome activation through STING, independent of cGAS. These data suggest a potential mechanism of how the innate immune system can distinguish between infectious and non-infectious insult and instigate

  16. The use of concentrated heat after insect bites/stings as an alternative to reduce swelling, pain, and pruritus: an open cohort-study at German beaches and bathing-lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Müller1,*, Beatrice Großjohann1,*, Lutz Fischer2,*1Department of Medical Science and Operations, RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, An der Wiek 7, 17489 Greifswald, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Straße 23b, 17493 Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Swelling, pain, and pruritus are the most relevant symptoms after insect bites/stings. Glucocorticoids and antihistamines are well established in insect sting treatment. Bite Away® is a CE-certified medical device of class 2A (noninvasive device intended for administration to the body, which exchanges energy with the patient in a therapeutic manner to reduce swelling, pruritus, and pain after insect bites/stings via non-invasive administration of concentrated heat to the skin. We therefore performed a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study with 146 volunteers using the visual analog scale (VAS for insect bites/stings to study the reduction of swelling, pruritus, and pain. Demographic data, time from insect sting to treatment, number and duration of administrations of concentrated heat, relevant symptoms, and the development of a VAS score of swelling, pruritus, and pain on baseline, after 2, 5, and 10 minutes after administration, were registered.Results: In total 146 subjects with a mean age of 29.4 ± 20.7 years (range 2–81 were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three (63.7% of the subjects were stung by wasps, 33 (22.6% of the subjects were bitten by mosquitoes, and eight suffered bee stings (5.3%. VAS score swelling decreased with statistical significance after the use of Bite Away® from 4 before treatment to 2 and 1 after 2–5 and 10 minutes, respectively. VAS pain score was 6 before treatment, 2 after 2 minutes, 1 after 5 minutes, and 0 after 10 minutes (median. VAS pruritus score was only available for 52 (35.2% of the patients. The score decreased from 5 before

  17. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Excellence in Pediatric Dermatology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member resources and programs 2018 AAD ... to bites and stings FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-6", " ...

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    Full Text Available ... as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Always follow ... apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option ...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Dialogues in Dermatology quizzes JAAD quizzes CME transcript program AAD publications JAAD JAAD Case Reports Dermatology ... so that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: ...

  5. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  6. Tidal Dissipation in WASP-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Essick, Reed

    2017-11-01

    WASP-12 is a hot Jupiter system with an orbital period of P = 1.1 days, making it one of the shortest-period giant planets known. Recent transit timing observations by Maciejewski et al. and Patra et al. found a decreasing period with P/| \\dot{P}| = 3.2 Myr. This has been interpreted as evidence of either orbital decay due to tidal dissipation or a long-term oscillation of the apparent period due to apsidal precession. Here, we consider the possibility that it is orbital decay. We show that the parameters of the host star are consistent with either a M * ≃ 1.3 M ⊙ main sequence star or a M * ≃ 1.2 M ⊙ subgiant. We find that if the star is on the main sequence, the tidal dissipation is too inefficient to explain the observed \\dot{P}. However, if it is a subgiant, the tidal dissipation is significantly enhanced due to nonlinear wave-breaking of the dynamical tide near the star’s center. The subgiant models have a tidal quality factor Q{{\\prime} }* ≃ 2× {10}5 and an orbital decay rate that agrees well with the observed \\dot{P}. It would also explain why the planet survived for ≃3 Gyr while the star was on the main sequence and yet is now inspiraling on a 3 Myr timescale. Although this suggests that we are witnessing the last ∼0.1% of the planet’s life, the probability of such a detection is a few percent given the observed sample of ≃30 hot Jupiters in P 1.2 M ⊙ hosts.

  7. Ocular Jellyfish Stings: Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Tai

    2016-09-01

    An ocular jellyfish sting is an ophthalmic emergency and is rarely reported in the medical literature. With the evolution of aquatic activities and entertainment in recent decades, we anticipate that more patients with ocular jellyfish stings may be taken to the emergency department. However, most physicians are unaware of the typical presentations, suitable treatments, prognosis, and possible complications of ocular jellyfish stings. We reported 2 cases with ocular jellyfish stings and collected cases series from literature review. The most common clinical features of ocular jellyfish stings were pain, conjunctival injection, corneal lesion, and photophobia. All patients who sustained ocular stings did so during aquatic activities, and the best management at the scene was proper analgesics and copious irrigation of affected eyes with seawater or saline. The ocular lesions were treated with topical cycloplegics, topical steroids, topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines, and removal of nematocysts. The prognosis was good, and all patients recovered without any permanent sequelae. However, symptoms in some patients may last longer than 1 week. Reported complications included iritis, increased intraocular pressures, mydriasis, decreased accommodation, and peripheral anterior synechiae. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Jellyfish venomics and venom gland transcriptomics analysis of Stomolophus meleagris to reveal the toxins associated with sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Xue, Wei; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-06-25

    Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris is a very dangerous animal because of its strong toxicity. However, the composition of the venom is still unclear. Both proteomics and transcriptomics approaches were applied in present study to investigate the major components and their possible relationships to the sting. The proteomics of the venom from S. meleagris was conducted by tryptic digestion of the crude venom followed by RP-HPLC separation and MS/MS analysis of the tryptic peptides. The venom gland transcriptome was analyzed using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000 with de novo assembly. A total of 218 toxins were identified including C-type lectin, phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), potassium channel inhibitor, protease inhibitor, metalloprotease, hemolysin and other toxins, most of which should be responsible for the sting. Among them, serine protease inhibitor, PLA₂, potassium channel inhibitor and metalloprotease are predominant, representing 28.44%, 21.56%, 16.06% and 15.14% of the identified venom proteins, respectively. Overall, our combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach provides a systematic overview of the toxins in the venom of jellyfish S. meleagris and it will be significant to understand the mechanism of the sting. Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris is a very dangerous animal because of its strong toxicity. It often bloomed in the coast of China in recent years and caused thousands of people stung and even deaths every year. However, the components which caused sting are still unknown yet. In addition, no study about the venomics of jellyfish S. meleagris has been reported. In the present study, both proteomics and transcriptomics approaches were applied to investigate the major components related to the sting. The result showed that major component included C-type lectin, phospholipase A₂, potassium channel inhibitor, protease inhibitor, metalloprotease, hemolysin and other toxins, which should be responsible for the effect of

  9. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth

    . The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  10. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  11. Mutualism: wasp keeps watchdogs to protect young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2008-09-23

    The adaptive value of acarinaria - specialized structures in some wasps and bees that harbour symbiotic mites - has long been elusive. A new study has now shown that the mites are actually beneficial to their host by actively defending it against parasitoids.

  12. Rush immunotherapy for wasp venom allergy seems safe and effective in patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, M; Oldhoff, J M; Klemans, R J B; Lahey-de Boer, A; de Bruin-Weller, M S; Röckmann, H; Sanders, C; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Pasmans, S G M A; Knulst, A C

    2015-11-01

    Patients with mastocytosis and wasp venom allergy (WA) may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). However, fatal insect sting reactions have been described in mastocytosis patients despite previous immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. We describe nine patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and WA who received VIT. Cutaneous mastocytosis was confirmed by histopathology and systemic mastocytosis was diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. VIT was given according to a rush protocol. Given the difference in safety and efficacy of VIT in patients with WA and honeybee venom allergy, we reviewed the literature for VIT with the focus on WA patients with mastocytosis and addressed the difference between patients with cutaneous versus systemic mastocytosis. Nine patients had WA and mastocytosis, of whom six had cutaneous mastocytosis, two combined cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis and one systemic mastocytosis. All patients received rush IT with wasp venom. Most patients had only mild local side effects, with no systemic side effects during the course of VIT. One patient had a systemic reaction upon injection on one occasion, during the updosing phase, with dyspnoea and hypotension, but responded well to treatment. Immunotherapy was continued after temporary dose adjustment without problems. Two patients with a previous anaphylactic reaction were re-stung, without any systemic effects. VIT is safe in cutaneous mastocytosis patients with WA, while caution has to be made in case of systemic mastocytosis. VIT was effective in the patients who were re-stung.

  13. Sublingual targeting of STING with 3'3'-cGAMP promotes systemic and mucosal immunity against anthrax toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tara L; Jee, Junbae; Kim, Eunsoo; Steiner, Haley E; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Boyaka, Prosper N

    2017-04-25

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen affecting humans and livestock worldwide. The current human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), is an injected vaccine with a cumbersome administration schedule and fails to promote mucosal immunity. Bacterial enterotoxins, which stimulate production of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP are effective experimental mucosal vaccine adjuvants, but their inherent toxicity has precluded their use in humans. We investigated whether cyclic dinucleotides that target Stimulator of Interferon Gamma Genes (STING) in mammalian cells could represent an alternative to bacterial enterotoxins as adjuvant for sublingual immunization and promotion of mucosal immunity and secretory IgA responses in addition to systemic immunity. We found that sublingual immunization of mice with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) and the STING ligand 3'3'-cGAMP promotes PA-specific serum IgG Ab responses of the same magnitude as those induced after immunization with PA and the experimental adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). Interestingly, this STING ligand also promoted serum anti-PA IgA and IgA-producing cells in the bone marrow. Furthermore, the saliva of mice immunized with the STING ligand exhibited similar levels of PA-specific IgA Abs as groups immunized with CT as adjuvant. The adjuvant activity of 3'3'-cGAMP was associated with mixed Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses. This STING ligand also induced rapid IFN-β and IL-10 responses in sublingual tissues and cervical lymph nodes, and TGF-β responses in the cervical lymph nodes, which could contribute to promoting IgA responses after sublingual immunization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large local reactions from stinging insects: from epidemiology to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Maurizio; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Large local reactions (LLRs) caused by insect stings have attracted the interest of clinicians for decades, especially because of their possible role as risk factor for subsequent more severe reaction. Nonetheless, the literature on epidemiological and clinical aspects of LLR is fragmentary. Therefore, we aimed at reviewing the data available so far on the argument and the clinical implications. Our knowledge on the epidemiology and risk factors of LLR relies on studies performed many years ago. All those studies and our personal observation agree on the fact that LLRs are followed by a systemic reaction in not a negligible proportion of patients (10-15%). More recent studies have underlined the possible role of specific immunotherapy, including sublingual, in the treatment and prevention of LLRs. LLRs should deserve a detailed diagnostic work-up, just as for systemic reactions. The prescription of autoinjectable adrenaline would seem advisable. Specific research on the predictive role of LLR for systemic reactions is needed, as well as studies assessing the benefits of treating all patients with LLR with immunotherapy.

  15. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions SAVI STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy Printable PDF Open All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy ( SAVI ) is a disorder ...

  17. Anaphylaxis caused by the new ant, Pachycondyla chinensis: demonstration of specific IgE and IgE-binding components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S S; Park, H S; Kim, H Y; Lee, S K; Nahm, D H

    2001-06-01

    There have been no reports dealing with the pathogenic mechanism and IgE-binding components in patients with anaphylaxis caused by a sting from Pachycondyla chinensis. This study was conducted to observe the clinical features of patients with P chinensis -induced anaphylaxis. The roles of specific (s) IgE and sIgG4 antibodies were evaluated, and IgE-binding components were identified. Seven patients with P chinensis -induced anaphylaxis and 15 unexposed control subjects were enrolled. P chinensis ants were collected at the patients' homes, and venom was prepared as P chinensis extract. Five patients complained of bee venom-induced anaphylaxis and had positive sIgE levels to yellow jacket venom, wasp venom, or both as well. Serum sIgE and sIgG4 were detected by means of ELISA. To identify IgE-binding components within P chinensis extracts, 12% SDS-PAGE with immunoblot analysis was applied. All patients had positive skin prick test responses to P chinensis antigen and positive sIgE levels. Five (71%) patients had positive sIgG4 levels. Eight IgE-binding components (58, 46, 3l, 29, 27, 25, 22, and 12 kd) were noted, and the component at 12 kd was the most frequently found allergen (85%). IgE ELISA inhibition tests were performed on 2 groups of sera: one from patients with anaphylaxis induced by both P chinensis and bee venom (group A) and the other from patients with anaphylaxis induced by P chinensis venom alone without bee venom allergy (group B). ELISA inhibition tests with serum from group A showed significant inhibitions with addition of P chinensis extract, partial inhibitions with yellow jacket antigen, and minimal inhibitions with wasp or imported fire ant antigens. However, ELISA inhibition tests with serum from group B showed significant inhibitions with P chinensis antigen but no inhibition with wasp, yellow jacket, or imported fire ant antigens. IgE-mediated reactions contributed to the development of P chinensis -induced anaphylaxis. Eight Ig

  18. Honey bee sting pain index by body location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Schmidt Sting Pain Index rates the painfulness of 78 Hymenoptera species, using the honey bee as a reference point. However, the question of how sting painfulness varies depending on body location remains unanswered. This study rated the painfulness of honey bee stings over 25 body locations in one subject (the author. Pain was rated on a 1–10 scale, relative to an internal standard, the forearm. In the single subject, pain ratings were consistent over three repetitions. Sting location was a significant predictor of the pain rating in a linear model (p < 0.0001, DF = 25, 94, F = 27.4. The three least painful locations were the skull, middle toe tip, and upper arm (all scoring a 2.3. The three most painful locations were the nostril, upper lip, and penis shaft (9.0, 8.7, and 7.3, respectively. This study provides an index of how the painfulness of a honey bee sting varies depending on body location.

  19. STING Pathway Activation Stimulates Potent Immunity against Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Emily; Chen, Xiufen; Corrales, Leticia; Kline, Douglas E; Dubensky, Thomas W; Duttagupta, Priyanka; Kortylewski, Marcin; Kline, Justin

    2016-06-14

    Type I interferon (IFN), essential for spontaneous T cell priming against solid tumors, is generated through recognition of tumor DNA by STING. Interestingly, we observe that type I IFN is not elicited in animals with disseminated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Further, survival of leukemia-bearing animals is not diminished in the absence of type I IFN signaling, suggesting that STING may not be triggered by AML. However, the STING agonist, DMXAA, induces expression of IFN-β and other inflammatory cytokines, promotes dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and results in the striking expansion of leukemia-specific T cells. Systemic DMXAA administration significantly extends survival in two AML models. The therapeutic effect of DMXAA is only partially dependent on host type I IFN signaling, suggesting that other cytokines are important. A synthetic cyclic dinucleotide that also activates human STING provided a similar anti-leukemic effect. These data demonstrate that STING is a promising immunotherapeutic target in AML. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Jellyfish (Chrysaora lactea, Cnidaria, Semaeostomeae aggregations in southern Brazil and consequences of stings in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C Marques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of jellyfish blooms is generating a world-wide discussion about medusae population explosions, mainly those associated with stings. We report over 20,000 envenomations caused by Chrysaora lactea (Scyphozoa in the State of Paraná (southern Brazil during the austral summer of 2011 -2012. Envenomations were considered mild, but almost 600 cases were treated in emergency services, with either toxic and allergic reactions, some with systemic manifestations. We proposed non-exclusive hypotheses to explain this large number of cases.

  1. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent,

  2. A Call for sting treatment protocol: Case report of a 3 year old with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Kidney Injury in children following bee sting envenomation is rare and survival is hinged on early recognition and prompt appropriate management. This report is aimed at raising awareness among healthcare workers, of one of the systemic effects of massive bee sting and the need to develop sting treatment protocol.

  3. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  4. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...... improved significantly if displacement height and roughness length as calculated from the forest mast data were used or if a simple model estimate of roughness length and displacement height based on stand density (frontal area index) was used. The two estimates of displacement height and roughness length...... (mast data and simple model) did not agree well with each other. One reason for this may be that all evaluated sites are windy and that both d and z0 depend on the wind speed. All analysed forest sites are dense, in which case the influence from the roughness sublayer is limited and the effect on mean...

  5. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  6. Reversible thrombin detection by aptamer functionalized STING sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R. Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the difficult correlation between the measured ionic current and the analyte concentration in solution. Here we show that STING sensors functionalized with aptamers allow the quantitative detection of thrombin. The binding of thrombin generates a signal that can be directly correlated to its concentration in the bulk solution. PMID:21636261

  7. Field Method for Testing Repellency of an Icaridin-Containing Skin Lotion against Vespid Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Boevé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm2, in 30 min intervals, from t = −120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = −120, −90, −60, −30, and 0 min remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions.

  8. Hypertonic saline in the treatment of corneal jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Yao, Hsin; Cho, Ta Hsiung; Lu, Ching Hsiang; Lin, Feng Chi; Horng, Chi Ting

    2016-02-01

    A 20-year-old male soldier was hit by the jellyfish. The ophthalmic examination revealed that epithelial keratitis and corneal oedema in the right eye. We prescribed 3% NaCl eyedrops and 0.3% Norfloxacin eyedrops in the treatment of the corneal jellyfish stings. Two weeks later, the cornea in the right eye healed. In this case report, 3% NaCl eyedrops was effective in the treatment of acute phase of jellyfish stings of the cornea. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. High generalization in flower-visiting networks of social wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Santos, Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça; Mechi, Maria Rita; Hermes, Marcel G.

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting interactions, such as nectarivory and pollination, are considered to form networks with higher interaction specialization than other plant-animal facultative mutualisms. However, subsets within each network sometimes are different from the complete system. Social wasps are one subset within flower-visiting networks; they use nectar as a secondary food of adults. Some of the visited plants depend on wasps for pollination, and many are further benefited through predation of herbivores captured to feed wasp larvae. Therefore, mutual dependence is lower in the wasp subset compared to complete pollination networks, so we expected wasp-flower networks to exhibit more generalistic interactions. Quantitative datasets were built by recording wasp visits to flowers in six Brazilian localities in four ecoregions, and comparisons were made with complete pollination networks from the literature (with different taxa included). Nestedness (NODF = 0.39 ± 0.06) was similar in wasp-flower and complete pollination networks (NODF = 0.32 ± 0.18). Interaction specialization in wasp-flower networks was lower (median H2' = 0.31 ± 0.09) than in complete pollination networks (median H2' = 0.55 ± 0.17). Modularity in wasp-flower networks (M = 0.36 ± 0.05) was also lower than in complete pollination networks (M = 0.47 ± 0.09); there were on average 5 ± 1 modules on each network formed by species of different genera. In summary, our findings confirm that wasps that feed on nectar interact with similar subsets of plants; therefore, wasp-flower networks are more generalistic than other pollination networks. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that, despite some universal properties found in facultative mutualisms, parts of a system differ from the complete system. Furthermore, mutual dependence influences interaction specialization, and so it is an important structuring factor of mutualistic networks.

  10. Radiologic Findings of Foreign Body Granuloma by the Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Won; Yang, Ik; Kim, Jeong Won; Jung, Ah Young; Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Hong Dae; Woo, Ji Young; Yoon, Sa Rah; Choi, Seon Hyeong [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Bee sting therapy is a folk remedy used for arthralgia. An adverse reaction to bee sting therapy can be variable, ranging from a local inflammatory reaction to generalized anaphylaxis. There have been reports of dermatologic findings pertaining to bee sting granulomas, which results from a foreign body reaction to the persistence of venom and stinger at the sting site. However to the best of our knowledge, the radiologic findings of bee sting granulomas have not been reported on in Korea. We describe the ultrasound and MRI findings of bee sting granulomas at the lower extremity in a 36-year-old woman who underwent bee-sting therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joints 3 months prior.

  11. Insuficiência renal aguda por picada de abelhas: relato de casos Acute renal failure following bee stings: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabdomiólise é uma síndrome caracterizada por injúria muscular, mais freqüentemente decorrente de esmagamento e traumas musculares. No entanto, a rabdomiólise pode ter também causas não traumáticas, como por exemplo, picadas de abelhas africanizadas. Descrevemos dois casos de rabdomiólise que apresentaram insuficiência renal aguda dialítica após várias picadas de abelhas.Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle injury, most frequently due to muscle crushing and trauma. However, it may also be induced by non-traumatic causes, for example by means of stinging by Africanized bees. We describe two cases of rhabdomyolysis that presented dialytic acute renal failure after several bee stings.

  12. STING Report: convenient web-based application for graphic and tabular presentations of protein sequence, structure and function descriptors from the STING database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshich, Goran; Mancini, Adauto L.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Kuser, Paula R.; Fileto, Renato; Pinto, Ivan P.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; Krauchenco, João N.; Baudet, Christian; Montagner, Arnaldo J.; Higa, Roberto H.

    2005-01-01

    The Sting Report is a versatile web-based application for extraction and presentation of detailed information about any individual amino acid of a protein structure stored in the STING Database. The extracted information is presented as a series of GIF images and tables, containing the values of up to 125 sequence/structure/function descriptors/parameters. The GIF images are generated by the Gold STING modules. The HTML page resulting from the STING Report query can be printed and, most importantly, it can be composed and visualized on a computer platform with an elementary configuration. Using the STING Report, a user can generate a collection of customized reports for amino acids of specific interest. Such a collection comes as an ideal match for a demand for the rapid and detailed consultation and documentation of data about structure/function. The inclusion of information generated with STING Report in a research report or even a textbook, allows for the increased density of its contents. STING Report is freely accessible within the Gold STING Suite at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://www.es.embnet.org/SMS/, http://gibk26.bse.kyutech.ac.jp/SMS/ and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS (option: STING Report). PMID:15608194

  13. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to

  14. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    m

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Species richness of oak gall wasps was estimated for each region and also species diversity indices such as Simpson's index, Shannon's H', and Sorensen similarity quotient were calculated. In this survey, 40 oak gall wasps species were identified. Most galls were found on Quercus infectoria. All of the ...

  15. Species richness and true diversity of cynipid galling-wasps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, the oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) were collected from oak forests of West-Azerbaijan Province in six sites, from April to October. Species richness, heterogeneity, evenness and true diversity were measured. Based on the result of this study, 37 of oak gall wasps species on oak trees ...

  16. WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J

    1980-11-01

    The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook ... stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos= ...

  18. Scorpion sting pain: Which way to treat? | Amucheazi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of reporting this case is to highlight the clinical usefulness of chloroquine in the management of scorpion sting pain with the hope of stimulating interest and research, especially in areas where local anesthetic agents may not be available. In this case reported here, lidocaine failed to provide sustained ...

  19. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41% was preferred followed by roots (19%, whole plant (14% and seeds (9%. The use of latex (4%, stem (3%, flowers (3% and bark (3% was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%, rhizome (1% and shoot (1% were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ ...

  1. Infantile multicystic encephalomalacia after maternal bee sting anaphylaxis during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, C; Blackwood, W.; Wilson, J.

    1982-01-01

    We report a case of infantile multicystic encephalomalacia after maternal bee sting anaphylaxis in the 30th week of pregnancy. The clinical features and findings at necropsy are described, and it is suggested that these are the result of severe fetal hypoxia secondary to maternal hypotension.

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image ... stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos= ...

  3. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  4. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, B. M.; Søndergaard, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results: The proteins...... their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating....... The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  6. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  7. MITA/STING and Its Alternative Splicing Isoform MRP Restrict Hepatitis B Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Zhao, Kaitao; Su, Xi; Lu, Lu; Zhao, He; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Jizheng; Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Xue; Wang, Yanyi; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen; Pei, Rongjuan

    2017-01-01

    An efficient clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires the coordinated work of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. MITA/STING, an adapter protein of the innate immune signaling pathways, plays a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA virus infection. Previously, we identified an alternatively spliced isoform of MITA/STING, called MITA-related protein (MRP), and found that MRP could specifically block MITA-mediated interferon (IFN) induction while retaining the ability to activate NF-κB. Here, we asked whether MITA/STING and MRP were able to control the HBV replication. Both MITA/STING and MRP significantly inhibited HBV replication in vitro. MITA overexpression stimulated IRF3-IFN pathway; while MRP overexpression activated NF-κB pathway, suggesting these two isoforms may inhibit HBV replication through different ways. Using a hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model, we found that HBV replication was reduced following MITA/STING and MRP expression vectors in mice and was enhanced by the knockout of MITA/STING (MITA/STING-/-). The HBV specific humoral and CD8+ T cell responses were impaired in MITA/STING deficient mice, suggesting the participation of MITA/STING in the initiation of host adaptive immune responses. In summary, our data suggest that MITA/STING and MRP contribute to HBV control via modulation of the innate and adaptive responses.

  8. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, K M; Steidle, J L M; Werren, J H; Vet, L E M; Smid, H M

    2012-10-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of parasitic wasps display substantial variation in memory dynamics and can be instrumental to understanding both the adaptive benefit of and mechanisms underlying this variation. Parasitic wasps of the genus Nasonia offer excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research on this topic. Genetic and genomic resources available for Nasonia are unrivaled among parasitic wasps, providing tools for genetic dissection of mechanisms that cause differences in learning. This study presents a robust, high-throughput method for olfactory conditioning of Nasonia using a host encounter as reward. A T-maze olfactometer facilitates high-throughput memory retention testing and employs standardized odors of equal detectability, as quantified by electroantennogram recordings. Using this setup, differences in memory retention between Nasonia species were shown. In both Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis, memory was observed up to at least 5 days after a single conditioning trial, whereas Nasonia giraulti lost its memory after 2 days. This difference in learning may be an adaptation to species-specific differences in ecological factors, for example, host preference. The high-throughput methods for conditioning and memory retention testing are essential tools to study both ultimate and proximate factors that cause variation in learning and memory formation in Nasonia and other parasitic wasp species. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. A Survey of Jellyfish Sting Knowledge among Naval Personnel in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Ting; Gui, Li; Shi, Wenwen; Huang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen

    2016-07-19

    Jellyfish envenomation is common along the coastal area, and can cause severe consequences. Naval personnel are among the high-risk population for this injury. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding jellyfish envenomation among naval personnel in a navy unit in northeast China. A predesigned questionnaire was distributed to 120 naval members in January 2015. The data of 108 respondents were included in the statistical analysis. We found that 38.0% of the respondents selected jellyfish sting as the common wound in their units, and 13.0% had experienced or observed this injury. In addition, 63.0% of the participants rated their own knowledge as "low" or "none". The average score they got was 5.77 ± 2.50, with only 16.7% getting a score above 60% of the full score. The correct rates of five questions were below 60%. No statistical differences existed in the knowledge score among different groups of respondents defined by socio-demographic variables. Jellyfish sting is common in this navy unit, but personnel got a low score on the knowledge assessment. They also lacked confidence in first aid. Medical education and training should be implemented to address this issue.

  10. A Survey of Jellyfish Sting Knowledge among Naval Personnel in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Kan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jellyfish envenomation is common along the coastal area, and can cause severe consequences. Naval personnel are among the high-risk population for this injury. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding jellyfish envenomation among naval personnel in a navy unit in northeast China. Methods: A predesigned questionnaire was distributed to 120 naval members in January 2015. The data of 108 respondents were included in the statistical analysis. Results: We found that 38.0% of the respondents selected jellyfish sting as the common wound in their units, and 13.0% had experienced or observed this injury. In addition, 63.0% of the participants rated their own knowledge as “low” or “none”. The average score they got was 5.77 ± 2.50, with only 16.7% getting a score above 60% of the full score. The correct rates of five questions were below 60%. No statistical differences existed in the knowledge score among different groups of respondents defined by socio-demographic variables. Conclusions: Jellyfish sting is common in this navy unit, but personnel got a low score on the knowledge assessment. They also lacked confidence in first aid. Medical education and training should be implemented to address this issue.

  11. Candidate genes for individual recognition in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, A J; Tibbetts, E A; Toth, A L

    2016-02-01

    Few animals are known to individually recognize conspecifics, i.e. learn and recall unique individuals during subsequent encounters, and nearly all are social vertebrates. Remarkably, the social paper wasp Polistes fuscatus has recently been discovered to possess this ability, which is useful for remembering identities during competitive social interactions. We analyzed brain gene expression in staged encounters between pairs of individuals to explore potential mechanisms underlying wasps' ability to recall familiar individuals using real-time qRT-PCR. We identified four candidate genes (IP3K, IP3R, Nckx30C and Su(var)2-10) that were down-regulated in the presence of familiar individuals compared to single wasps and pairs of wasps meeting for the first time. These candidate genes are related to calcium signaling, therefore, we treated wasps with lithium chloride, a pharmacological agent that inhibits calcium signaling in neurons. This treatment decreased aggression in paper wasps, but did not affect expression of genes related to calcium signaling. The results suggest calcium signaling differences may be related to individual memory recall in wasps, and we present four promising candidate genes for future study. These data suggest genes associated with dominance behavior may be co-opted for individual recognition, but further work is needed to establish a causal association with the behavior.

  12. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  13. Clinical features and management of ocular lesions after stings by hymenopteran insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Siddharthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the ocular alterations and the management after stings from Hymenopteran insects. In all the five patients, the insect was identified as bee. The patients presented with significant corneal edema, which resolved dramatically in three of them after removal of stingers. Among the other two one went for permanent corneal decompensation and the other developed Intumuscent cataract with increased intraocular pressure. Although a rare occurrence, ocular trauma caused by Hymenopteran insects has a potential to cause severe ocular damage in humans. A high level of clinical suspicion and immediate removal of the stingers along with administration of high doses of topical and systemic steroids is a must to prevent chances of permanent corneal damage and intraocular complications.

  14. Hubble/WFC3 Spectroscopy of the Transiting Exoplanets WASP-19b and WASP-17b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, A.; Haynes, K.; Sinukoff, E.; Deming, D.; Wlikins, A.; Madhusudhan, N.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Gilliland, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of transiting exoplanets that target extremes in parameter space offer the best chance to disentangle the structure and composition of the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. WASP-19b is one of the hottest exoplanets discovered to date, while WASP-17b has a much lower equilibrium temperature but has one of the largest atmospheric radii of known transiting planets. We discuss results from HST/WFC3 grism 1.1-1.7 micron spectroscopy of these planets during transit. We compare our integrated-light transit depths to previous IR transit photometry, and derive the 1.4-micron water absorption spectrum. We discuss implications for the atmospheric composition and structure of these hot Jupiters, and outline future observations that will further expand on these results.

  15. Analysis of the Reliable STING Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Decisions. The SHORAD leadership (oattery and platcon) and the divi- sion airspace management element (DAME) are concerned with the irplementation of the...REO.GER ’El test it was aeterrrined that the rost significant feature of Reliable STING was its ability tc pinpcint aircraft Locations. Also, the rate of...distance that an aircraft travels between radar detection and fire unit receipt of tne track report is the rost critical of the Trobleirs identified above

  16. Injuries caused by venomous animals and folk medicine in farmers from Cuité, State of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Hellyson Fidel Araujo; da Costa, Cristiane Francisca; Sassi, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Injuries caused by venomous animals reported by the agricultural workers from the municipality of Cuité, Curimataú region of Paraiba State, Northeast of Brazil, and the practices of folk medicine which they use to treat these cases were studied in this work from June to August 2010. The farmers studied aged from 11 to 90 years. The number of people who reported cases of injury by these animals in their families was high (89.3%). Scorpions, wasps, bees and snakes were the most cited and the extremities of the body (hands, feet, legs and head) were the most affected. The practice of folk medicine to treat these injuries includes various procedures ranging from ritualistic treatments, use of animals or parts of them, and some herbal preparations. The folk treatment was reported as effective by most of the workers injured (63.9%). Body parts of dead snakes are used in various zootherapic treatments. In the imaginary of the agricultural workers the venomous animals are considered hazardous (48.7%) or disgusting (11.3%), and several parts of such animals as the rattle, bee sting or snake leather are used as amulet. Several legends have also been reported about snakes, scorpions and bees. The need for educational activities that aim to clarify these workers about the dangers of such practices is urgent.

  17. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  18. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  19. [Scorpion stings: a public health problem in Morelos (Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, Patrice; Frinot Joseph, P; Fernot Joseph, P; Gil, R E Morell; Fils-Aimé, F; Barrera, R Rosales; Goyffon, M

    2005-01-01

    Scorpion stings represent a major public health problem in Mexico. Their annual incidence is estimated at 150,000 cases; 800-1,000 people die from them each year, 72.5% of whom are children younger than 5 years old. The states most affected are Aguascalientes, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, and Zacatecas. Morelos is an endemic zone, and scorpion stings are relatively frequent, but the indigenous population underestimates the risks. In this locality, scorpion stings lead to high morbidity, with an average of 10,219 cases each year, and a prevalence varying from 584.86 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1994 to 2043.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2003. Because of this upsurge, systematic medical supervision and serum therapy are necessary if scorpion poisoning is suspected in a child. The indigenous community as well as tourists visiting Mexico must be informed about the substantial risk of scorpion poisoning.

  20. Stinging Nettle: the Bad, the Good, the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging nettle have been proposed for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and other disorders including osteoarthritis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, bleeding problems and diabetes. While in vitro studies have shown that stinging nettle possesses a number of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory and modulating properties, beneficial effects have often not been confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. Further study, perhaps with novel types of extracts, are needed to determine the clinical utility of this plant in human inflammatory-related conditions and diabetes mellitus.

  1. Wasp Work: An Anytime Study of Summer Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses use of a hornet or wasp nest as an inexpensive science investigation on thermoregulation. The investigation can be done during the winter months and adapted to various levels. Sample results and background material are included. (JM)

  2. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  3. From dense hot Jupiter to low-density Neptune: The discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b, and WASP-138b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18±0.02 MJ and radius 1.37±0.04 RJ. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (Vmag = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days. WASP-127b is a low-density planet that has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500 ± 400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.38 ± 0.16 RJ, and 1.22 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.09 ± 0.05 RJ, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 ± 0.07 M⊙ and a radius of 2.21 ± 0.22 R⊙. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constrain the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 10 M⊕. The discovery of these new planets helps in exploring the diverse compositional range of short-period planets, and will aid our understanding of the physical characteristics of both gas giants and low-density planets. Radial velocity and photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A3

  4. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  5. Follow-up Observations of WASP-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Taylor; Boley, Aaron; Hughes, Anna; Hickson, Paul

    2017-06-01

    This ongoing work aims to provide follow-up observations of known transiting extrasolar planets using the 35-cm robotic telescope at The University of British Columbia's Southern Observatory (USO), located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The observations are part of a long-term effort to search for changes in transit signatures, such as transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs), which could indicate, for example, the presence of additional planets. To help characterize the USO for transit searches, we acquired I-band observations of WASP-36 spanning from 17 January 2017 to 27 February 2017. Three complete transits and one partial transit are included in the data. We present the analysis of these new observations and discuss potential future targets.

  6. Larval RNAi in Nasonia (parasitoid wasp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, John H; Loehlin, David W; Giebel, Jonathan D

    2009-10-01

    Nasonia is a complex of four closely related species of wasps with several features that make it an excellent system for a variety of genetic studies. These include a short generation time, ease of rearing, interfertile species, visible and molecular markers, and a sequenced genome. Furthermore, its parasitoid lifestyle allows investigations of questions relating to parasitoid/host dynamics, host preference, and specialist versus generalist biology. It also can serve as a behavior model for studies of courtship, male aggression and territoriality, female dispersal, and sex ratio control. This protocol describes a method to use RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down genes in Nasonia larvae. Unlike in Drosophila, RNAi in Nasonia is systemic. In the example presented here, adult red-eye-color phenotypes are produced by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against the eye color gene cinnabar into last-instar Nasonia larvae.

  7. Natural Thermoelectric Heat Pump in Social Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J.

    2003-05-01

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 °C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 °C.

  8. Natural thermoelectric heat pump in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J

    2003-05-30

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 degrees C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 degrees C.

  9. Repression of Wasp by JAK/STAT signalling inhibits medial actomyosin network assembly and apical cell constriction in intercalating epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertet, Claire; Rauzi, Matteo; Lecuit, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires stereotyped cell shape changes, such as apical cell constriction in the mesoderm and cell intercalation in the ventrolateral ectoderm of Drosophila. Both processes require force generation by an actomyosin network. The subcellular localization of Myosin-II (Myo-II) dictates these different morphogenetic processes. In the intercalating ectoderm Myo-II is mostly cortical, but in the mesoderm Myo-II is concentrated in a medial meshwork. We report that apical constriction is repressed by JAK/STAT signalling in the lateral ectoderm independently of Twist. Inactivation of the JAK/STAT pathway causes germband extension defects because of apical constriction ventrolaterally. This is associated with ectopic recruitment of Myo-II in a medial web, which causes apical cell constriction as shown by laser nanosurgery. Reducing Myo-II levels rescues the JAK/STAT mutant phenotype, whereas overexpression of the Myo-II heavy chain (also known as Zipper), or constitutive activation of its regulatory light chain, does not cause medial accumulation of Myo-II nor apical constriction. Thus, JAK/STAT controls Myo-II localization by additional mechanisms. We show that regulation of actin polymerization by Wasp, but not by Dia, is important in this process. Constitutive activation of Wasp, a branched actin regulator, causes apical cell constriction and promotes medial 'web' formation. Wasp is inactivated at the cell cortex in the germband by JAK/STAT signalling. Lastly, wasp mutants rescue the normal cortical enrichment of Myo-II and inhibit apical constriction in JAK/STAT mutants, indicating that Wasp is an effector of JAK/STAT signalling in the germband. We discuss possible models for the role of Wasp activity in the regulation of Myo-II distribution.

  10. Sting of Shingles: Vaccine, Treatments Reduce Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of getting shingles.” Shingles is caused by the varicella-zoster virus—the same virus that causes chickenpox. Once you’ ... a blistery shingles rash to pass on the varicella-zoster virus to someone who’s never had chickenpox or a ...

  11. Box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) in Waikiki. The analgesic effect of sting-aid, Adolph's meat tenderizer and fresh water on their stings: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C S; Scott, S A; Galanis, D J; Goto, R S

    2001-08-01

    The study measured the analgesic effects of three popular Hawaii remedies for stings from the box jellyfish, Carybdea alata. Analysis of data showed that aerosol sprays of Sting-Aid (an aluminum sulfate solution), Aldolph's meat tenderizer dissolved in water, and fresh water neither increased nor decreased the pain of box jellyfish stings more than the control (seawater).

  12. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. Chem I Supplement: Bee Sting: The Chemistry of an Insect Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rod; Peck, Larry

    1980-01-01

    Considers various aspects of bee stings including the physical mechanism of the venom apparatus in the bee, categorization of physiological responses of nonprotected individuals to bee sting, chemical composition of bee venom and the mechanisms of venom action, and areas of interest in the synthesis of bee venom. (CS)

  14. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings : a systematic review and health economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, R.; Elremeli, M.; Cherry, M.; Oude Elberink, J.N.G.; Bulsara, M.; Mahon, J.; Daniels, M.; Hockenhull, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects

  16. The sting of death: a case report of breaking bad news with maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sting of death: a case report of breaking bad news with maternal death. A Kihara, RJ Kosgei, EJ Cheserem, S Mueke, P Owende, NM Ojanga, JG Karanja. Abstract. Maternal death stings core deep for the relatives and the service providers in an obstetric unit where they had anticipated a joyful experience from childbirth ...

  17. Immunochromatographic purification of a nematocyst toxin from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C E; Pockl, E E; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1984-01-01

    A cardiotoxin from "milked venom" of the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) was purified by immunochromatography on an immobilized mouse monoclonal anti-Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) venom antibody column. The 20,000 molecular weight toxin caused bradycardia followed by cell lysis when applied to cultured chick embryonic cardiocytes at concentrations higher than 1.7 micrograms protein per ml and was lethal to mice at 0.04 micrograms protein per g. The toxin affected ion permeability in lipid bilayer membranes by forming monovalent cation channels.

  18. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...

  19. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludman SW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sian W Ludman,1 Robert J Boyle2 1Paediatric Allergy Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28, but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment.Keywords: anaphylaxis, quality of life

  20. A mimic of sexually-motivated homicide: insect stings and heat exhaustion in a forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy X; Pollanen, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia. There were multiple apparent bruises on the body and neck. At autopsy, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination, the apparent bruises were found to be hemorrhagic insect bites. No significant injuries were present and no semen was found. Death appeared to be related to heat exhaustion and innumerable insect stings. Investigation of the medical history revealed longstanding schizoaffective disorder with episodic psychotic decompensations. In the past, during an acute psychotic episode the decedent removed her clothing and ran wildly in a forest, until she was rescued in a state of exhaustion and marked agitation, and taken to hospital for treatment. We concluded that the same circumstances had been repeated but with a fatal outcome. This case is an example of a mimic of sexually-motivated homicide and is a reminder to forensic pathologists to avoid tunnel vision. We need to be skeptical of the allure of common sense based on first impressions of the scene and the body. Forensic pathologists must be unafraid to scientifically explore improbable, but true, alternate explanations.

  1. Respiratory allergy to the indoor ant (Monomorium pharaonis) not related to sting allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2005-02-01

    Many studies are available on systemic reactions to ant sting, but few have described the direct role of ants in respiratory allergy. The nonstinging house ant, Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant), is a highly infesting species in indoor environments. To determine whether the pharaoh ant is an indoor source of aeroallergens. Two patients with asthma who lived in homes with ant infestation were enrolled. Pharaoh ants were collected at the patients' homes, and crude extracts were prepared. Skin prick tests with ant extracts were performed. Specific IgE to pharaoh ant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the allergenic components were determined by using immunoblot analysis. Cross-reactivity among pharaoh ant, imported fire ant, Pachycondyla chinensis ant, and other indoor allergens was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. Specific bronchial challenge testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. Both patients had positive skin test reactions to pharaoh ant extract and high levels of specific IgE antibodies to pharaoh ant. The ELISA inhibition test results demonstrated significant inhibition by pharaoh ant; however, P. chinensis, cockroach, and house dust mite showed no inhibition of the IgE binding to pharaoh ant. Two important IgE-binding components, 9.4 and 34 kDa, were identified by using immunoblot analysis. Pharaoh ant bronchial challenge test results showed typical early asthmatic reactions in 1 patient and dual asthmatic reactions in the other patient. Ants can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction regardless of sting in sensitized patients. Ants should be taken into consideration as a cause of respiratory allergy in patients living in homes with visual evidence of infestation.

  2. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  4. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  5. WASP-47 and the Origin of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred; Bryan, Marta; Buchhave, Lars; Haywood, Raphaelle; Khain, Tali; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Mortier, Annelies; HARPS-N Consortium

    2018-01-01

    WASP-47 b is a transiting hot Jupiter in a system with two additional short-period transiting planets and a long-period outer Jovian companion. WASP-47 b is the only known hot Jupiter with such close-in companions and therefore may hold clues to the origins of hot Jupiter systems. We report on precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47 to measure planet masses and determine their orbits to high precision. Using these improved masses and orbital elements, we perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the inclination of the outer planet, which we find likely orbits near the same plane as the inner transiting system. A similar dynamical analysis for five other hot Jupiter systems with long-period companions around cool host stars (Teff Jupiters. These constraints disfavor hot Jupiter models involving strong dynamical interactions like Kozai-Lidov migration.

  6. Severe Irukandji-like jellyfish stings in Thai waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John

    2009-09-01

    Over recent years, there have been more widely-reported sightings of chirodropids and carybdeids in Thailand. There has also been an increased awareness and documentation of fatal and severe non-fatal jellyfish stings occurring in Thai waters. Although the victims are usually swimming or wading in shallow water, divers are also at risk. Despite generally wearing some protective coverings while diving in the tropics, parts of a diver's body often remain exposed and divers can and do sustain severe and/or life-threatening jellyfish stings. In December 2007 and January 2008, two serious cases of envenomation in divers in Thailand were reported to Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP). Both of these victims displayed some typical symptoms of an irukandji-like syndrome. Similar to Australia, appropriate measures need to be taken by the Thai authorities to warn locals and tourists alike of the possible presence of dangerous jellyfish, and suitable prevention and management strategies need to be established and implemented to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  7. A STING-activating nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Wang, Hua; Wang, Zhaohui; Cai, Haocheng; Lu, Zhigang; Li, Yang; Du, Mingjian; Huang, Gang; Wang, Chensu; Chen, Xiang; Porembka, Matthew R.; Lea, Jayanthi; Frankel, Arthur E.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Chen, Zhijian J.; Gao, Jinming

    2017-07-01

    The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes. This effect is dependent on stimulator of interferon genes (STING), but not the Toll-like receptor or the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) pathway. The nanovaccine led to potent tumour growth inhibition in melanoma, colon cancer and human papilloma virus-E6/E7 tumour models. The combination of the PC7A nanovaccine and an anti-PD-1 antibody showed great synergy, with 100% survival over 60 days in a TC-1 tumour model. Rechallenging of these tumour-free animals with TC-1 cells led to complete inhibition of tumour growth, suggesting the generation of long-term antitumour memory. The STING-activating nanovaccine offers a simple, safe and robust strategy in boosting anti-tumour immunity for cancer immunotherapy.

  8. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775. Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775 which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity.

  9. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I; Crow, Yanick J; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2'3' cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2'3'-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus.

  10. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J.; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I.; Crow, Yanick J.; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2′3′ cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2′3′-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus. PMID:25401470

  11. Recurrent Loss of STING Signaling in Melanoma Correlates with Susceptibility to Viral Oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tianli; Konno, Hiroyasu; Barber, Glen N

    2016-11-15

    The innate immunoregulator STING stimulates cytokine production in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA, which can arise following DNA damage. Extrinsic STING signaling is also needed for antigen-presenting cells to stimulate antitumor T-cell immunity. Here, we show that STING signaling is recurrently suppressed in melanoma cells, where this event may enable immune escape after DNA damage. Mechanistically, STING signaling was suppressed most frequently by epigenetic silencing of either STING or the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, which generates STING-activating cyclic dinucleotides after binding cytosolic DNA species. Loss of STING function rendered melanoma cells unable to produce type I IFN and other immune cytokines after exposure to cytosolic DNA species. Consequently, such cells were highly susceptible to infection with DNA viruses including HSV1, a variant of which is being developed presently as a therapeutic oncolytic virus [talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC)]. Our findings provide insight into the basis for susceptibility to viral oncolysis by agents such as HSV1. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6747-59. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. The epidemiology of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah province, Iran, during 2008 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatony, Alireza; Abdi, Alireza; Fatahpour, Tahereh; Towhidi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are an acute health problem in tropical regions. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for establishing preventive interventions, thus prompting the present study to determine the scorpion-sting incidence in tropical areas of Kermanshah province during 2008 and 2009. In a retrospective study, all records related to scorpion sting patients from the health centers of tropical areas of Kermanshah were studied by a census and checklist. Data were analyzed by the software SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests. The incidence of scorpion stings was 334.37/100,000 inhabitants in 2008 and 339.07/100000 in 2009. Mean and standard deviation of age were 30.55 ± 16.99. Scorpion stings were more common in rural areas (59.6 %) and occurred more often in summer (52.9 %). Nearly 48 % of bites were to patients' hands and 47.5 % of patients were injured between midnight and 6 a.m. While 92.9 % of patients had mild symptoms, scorpion antivenom was prescribed to 88.8 % of victims, 94.5 % of whom were discharged after outpatient treatment. The relationship between antivenom therapy and clinical symptoms was not significant. Due to the relatively high incidence of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah, it is recommended that the inhabitants be educated through the mass media about how to prevent the stings and apply preliminary treatment.

  13. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegolon, Luca; Heymann, William C.; Lange, John H.; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish (cnidarians) have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid) to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials) is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment. PMID:23434796

  14. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.

  15. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind climates. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations...... of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  16. Interventions for the symptoms and signs resulting from jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; McGee, Richard G; Isbister, Geoff; Webster, Angela C

    2013-12-09

    Jellyfish envenomations are common amongst temperate coastal regions and vary in severity depending on the species. Stings result in a variety of symptoms and signs, including pain, dermatological reactions and, in some species, Irukandji syndrome (including abdominal/back/chest pain, tachycardia, hypertension, sweating, piloerection, agitation and sometimes cardiac complications). Many treatments have been suggested for the symptoms and signs of jellyfish stings. However, it is unclear which interventions are most effective. To determine the benefits and harms associated with the use of any intervention, in both adults and children, for the treatment of jellyfish stings, as assessed from randomised trials. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2012 and again in October 2013: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL;The Cochrane Library, Issue 9, 2013); MEDLINE via Ovid SP (1948 to 22 October 2013); EMBASE via Ovid SP (1980 to 21 October 2013); and Web of Science (all databases; 1899 to 21 October 2013). We also searched reference lists from eligible studies and guidelines, conference proceedings and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and contacted content experts to identify trials. We included randomised controlled trials that compared any intervention(s) to active and/or non-active controls for the treatment of symptoms and signs of jellyfish sting envenomation. No language, publication date or publication status restrictions were applied. Two review authors independently conducted study selection and data extraction and assessed risk of bias using a standardised form. Disagreements were resolved by consensus with a third review author when necessary. We included seven trials with a total of 435 participants. Three trials focused on Physalia (Bluebottle) jellyfish, one trial on Carukia jellyfish and three on Carybdea alata (Hawaiian box) jellyfish. Two ongoing trials

  17. Orthopedic approach to foreign body stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Alemdar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although foreign body injuries are quite common, there are an insufficient number of publications on this matter. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with foreign body injuries, and to determine the treatment algorithm. Methods: A total of 97 patients were evaluated, including 53 men and 44 women. Ninety-one patients underwent surgery, and six patients were treated conservatively. Surgery was performed in the operating room in all cases. To ensure that the foreign body was removed, fluoroscopic control was completed during and after the procedure. Antibiotics were administered routinely to all patients, and the need for tetanus prophylaxis was evaluated in each patient. Results: The mean age of the patients was 16.5 (range: 2-58 years. Regarding the type of foreign body, there was injury due to: a needle in 65 patients, glass in 14, wood in 7, iron spit in 1, iron bar in 1, pieces of metal in 3, and other foreign bodies were found in 6 patients. There were 25 injuries of the upper extremity, and 72 of the lower extremity. The time of admission to the hospital after the injury ranged from 1 day to 3 years. Obvious signs of infection were detected in 10 patients. There were no complications after the follow-up of patients who were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Foreign body penetration is a severe injury that may cause significant problems when ignored. Treatment algorithms prepared according to the type of injury would guide the most appropriate approach to these injuries. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 443-448

  18. Insect sting-inflicted systemic reactions: attitudes of patients with insect venom allergy regarding after-sting behavior and proper administration of epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Confino-Cohen, R

    2000-12-01

    Patients with insect venom allergy are at higher risk for development of a recurrent systemic reaction after re-sting. This risk significantly decreases with venom immunotherapy. Patients with insect venom allergy should be able to distinguish a life-threatening systemic reaction from all other various reactions after an insect sting. Accidental epinephrine injection by EpiPen has been reported in the past. Therefore patients with venom allergy should also be well trained in self-administration of their epinephrine when needed. Our objective was to assess patients' attitudes regarding after-sting behavior and their capability to correctly self-administer the epinephrine autoinjector. All patients with venom allergy attending our allergy unit either before commencement of or during venom immunotherapy answered a questionnaire addressing various aspects of their intended after-sting behavior. Using an EpiPen trainer device, patients' performance of EpiPen self-administration was evaluated. Ninety-six patients participated in the study. Seventy-six of them were equipped with an EpiPen device. Less than 30% of these patients carried it at all times. After re-sting, 50 (54%) patients planned to wait for the development of other symptoms before taking any further action. Twenty-two percent of the patients said that after re-sting they would immediately administer their EpiPen. Proper EpiPen administration technique was demonstrated by 44% of the patients. Having not reached the maintenance dose correlated with a better compliance with carrying of the EpiPen. EpiPen instruction provided by an allergist correlated with a better EpiPen administration technique by the patients. Many patients with venom allergy hold wrong ideas about after-sting behavior. Compliance with carrying EpiPen at all times and the ability to correctly administer it are both poor in most patients. Thorough and probably repeated instruction, both written and oral, provided by knowledgeable physicians

  19. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Lars K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results The proteins were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating allergen-specific histamine release from human basophils. Conclusions All the three major wasp venom allergens were expressed on the yeast surface. A high-level expression, which was observed only for antigen 5, was needed for detection of IgE binding by FACS and for induction of histamine release. The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy as the cells can serve as good adjuvant and can be produced in large amounts at a low price.

  20. Investigation of the lethal and behavioral effects of commercial insecticides on the parasitoid wasp Copidosoma truncatellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo S; de Araújo, Vitor C R; Pereira, Renata R; Martins, Júlio C; Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Silva, Ricardo S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-01

    Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%. In contrast, cartap, deltamethrin, and methomyl caused 100% mortality, and acephate and spinosad caused 76% and 78% mortality, respectively. At least one of the detoxifying enzymes (monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase, and/or esterases) may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the selectivity of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb for the parasitoid based on the results for the insecticide plus synergist treatment. Changes in the behavioral patterns (walking time and resting time) of the parasitoid were found with exposure to acephate, flubendiamide, indoxacarb and methomyl, but behavioral avoidance was not observed. Our results indicate that the insecticides chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr are the most suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for the control of C. includens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The thermogenic center in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Volynchik, Stanislav; Barkay, Zahava; Bergman, David J

    2006-01-01

    In the social wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), a thermogenic center has been found in the dorsal part of the first thoracic segment. The temperature in this region of the prothorax is higher by 6-9 degrees C than that at the tip of the abdomen, and this in actively flying hornets outside the nest (workers, males or queens) as well as in hornets inside the nest that attend to the brood in the combs. On viewing the region from the outside, one discerns a canal or rather a fissure in the cuticle, which commences at the center of the dorsal surface of the prothorax and extends till the mesothorax. Thus the length of this canal or fissure is approximately 5-7 mm and it is seen to contain numerous thin hairs whose shape varies from that of the hairs alongside the structure. Beneath the cuticle in this region there are dorsoventral as well as longitudinal muscles in abundance, much the same as the musculature in the remaining thoracic segments (i.e. the meso- and metathorax), which activate the two pairs of wings. The canal-bearing segment is of course devoid of wings, and its dorsoventral muscles are attached to the cuticle, which in this region resembles a bowl harboring several layers of epithelium that boasts numerous butterfly-shaped tracheal branches. Additionally there are layers that display lymph-filled spaces and also perforated layers and depressions, and beneath all these is a lace-like layer that also coats the cuticle's hollows. Underneath the cuticle proper, there are numerous large mitochondria and tracheae, which occupy a considerable part of the cuticular epithelium surface. These abundant mitochondria are, most probably, the main element of heat production in the thermogenic center.

  2. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  3. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that occur on oak trees (Quercus spp.) and produce galls on a certain part of the host. In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in ...

  4. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  5. Validation of the Revised WAsP Park Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole Steen; Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Leon, J.P. Murcia

    The DTU Wind Energy wind-resource model WAsP contains a wind farm wake model Park (Park1). This Park model in has been revised, Park2, to improve prediction accuracy in large wind farms, based on sound physical and mathematical principles: consistent wake-modelling and perturbation theory for wak...

  6. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  7. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  8. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion stings in children in fez, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abourazzak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in Morocco, especially among children, who experience the most severe cases. Epidemiological and clinical findings on scorpion stings in Fez, Morocco, were evaluated in this investigation. Of 163 cases that required medical attention, 62.6% were male children. The mean age of patients was 4.8 ± 3.4 years. The mean time between stings and first medical attention was 3.36 ± 2.5 hours. Almost all cases occurred in the summer (94% and extremities represented the most frequent sting sites (86.5%. Local pain, hyperemia, scarification, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, tachycardia and tachypnea were the observed clinical symptoms. Regarding severity, 55.2% of patients belonged to class III, followed by class II (26.4% and class I (18.4%. None of our patients received antivenom; however, all of them were treated symptomatically depending on clinical manifestations.

  9. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  10. Protection of Pea Aphids Associated with Coinfecting Bacterial Symbionts Persists During Superparasitism by a Braconid Wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, K J; Clarke, H V; Mitchell, C; Cornwell, R M; Hubbard, S F; Karley, A J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts that associate facultatively with insect herbivores can influence insect fitness and trophic interactions. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can be protected from parasitism by the braconid wasp Aphidius ervi when harbouring particular symbiotic bacteria, with specific endosymbiont coinfections providing almost complete protection. However, studies often quantify aphid mummification with no control over parasitoid oviposition per aphid; thus, if mummy production fails or is low, the causes are often unclear. Here, we show that the high level of protection associated with the coinfecting endosymbionts Hamiltonella defensa and X-type is maintained even when pea aphids are superparasitised. This contrasts strongly with the protection provided by H. defensa alone, which has been shown by others to be overcome by superparasitism. By dissecting aphids exposed to two parasitoid attacks, we reveal that A. ervi deposits eggs equally freely in endosymbiont-infected and uninfected nymphs, and lack of mummification in endosymbiont-protected nymphs arises from failure of the wasp eggs to hatch or emerging larvae to develop.

  11. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  12. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  13. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  14. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius) improves model fit to predict potential for further spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Marelize; Kriticos, Darren J; Veldtman, Ruan

    2017-01-01

    The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.

  15. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius improves model fit to predict potential for further spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize de Villiers

    Full Text Available The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.

  17. Suppression of STING signaling through epigenetic silencing and missense mutation impedes DNA damage mediated cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hiroyasu; Yamauchi, Shota; Berglund, Anders; Putney, Ryan M; Mulé, James J; Barber, Glen N

    2018-01-25

    The production of cytokines in response to DNA-damage events may be an important host defense response to help prevent the escape of pre-cancerous cells. The innate immune pathways involved in these events are known to be regulated by cellular molecules such as stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which controls type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to the presence of microbial DNA or cytosolic DNA that has escaped from the nucleus. STING signaling has been shown to be defective in a variety of cancers, such as colon cancer and melanoma, actions that may enable damaged cells to escape the immunosurveillance system. Here, we report through examination of databases that STING signaling may be commonly suppressed in a greater variety of tumors due to loss-of-function mutation or epigenetic silencing of the STING/cGAS promoter regions. In comparison, RNA activated innate immune pathways controlled by RIG-I/MDA5 were significantly less affected. Examination of reported missense STING variants confirmed that many exhibited a loss-of-function phenotype and could not activate cytokine production following exposure to cytosolic DNA or DNA-damage events. Our data imply that the STING signaling pathway may be recurrently suppressed by a number of mechanisms in a considerable variety of malignant disease and be a requirement for cellular transformation.

  18. Direct Activation of STING in the Tumor Microenvironment Leads to Potent and Systemic Tumor Regression and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Corrales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous tumor-initiated T cell priming is dependent on IFN-β production by tumor-resident dendritic cells. On the basis of recent observations indicating that IFN-β expression was dependent upon activation of the host STING pathway, we hypothesized that direct engagement of STING through intratumoral (IT administration of specific agonists would result in effective anti-tumor therapy. After proof-of-principle studies using the mouse STING agonist DMXAA showed a potent therapeutic effect, we generated synthetic cyclic dinucleotide (CDN derivatives that activated all human STING alleles as well as murine STING. IT injection of STING agonists induced profound regression of established tumors in mice and generated substantial systemic immune responses capable of rejecting distant metastases and providing long-lived immunologic memory. Synthetic CDNs have high translational potential as a cancer therapeutic.

  19. Direct Activation of STING in the Tumor Microenvironment Leads to Potent and Systemic Tumor Regression and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Leticia; Glickman, Laura Hix; McWhirter, Sarah M; Kanne, David B; Sivick, Kelsey E; Katibah, George E; Woo, Seng-Ryong; Lemmens, Edward; Banda, Tamara; Leong, Justin J; Metchette, Ken; Dubensky, Thomas W; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-05-19

    Spontaneous tumor-initiated T cell priming is dependent on IFN-β production by tumor-resident dendritic cells. On the basis of recent observations indicating that IFN-β expression was dependent upon activation of the host STING pathway, we hypothesized that direct engagement of STING through intratumoral (IT) administration of specific agonists would result in effective anti-tumor therapy. After proof-of-principle studies using the mouse STING agonist DMXAA showed a potent therapeutic effect, we generated synthetic cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) derivatives that activated all human STING alleles as well as murine STING. IT injection of STING agonists induced profound regression of established tumors in mice and generated substantial systemic immune responses capable of rejecting distant metastases and providing long-lived immunologic memory. Synthetic CDNs have high translational potential as a cancer therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Host-plant species conservatism and ecology of a parasitoid fig wasp genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McLeish

    Full Text Available Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.

  1. Detection of sodium in the atmosphere of WASP-69b

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    Casasayas-Barris, N.; Palle, E.; Nowak, G.; Yan, F.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to characterize exoplanets' atmospheres. From the ground, these observations are very challenging due to the terrestrial atmosphere and its intrinsic variations, but high-spectral-resolution observations overcome this difficulty by resolving the spectral lines and taking advantage of the different Doppler velocities of the Earth, the host star, and the exoplanet. Aims: We analyze the transmission spectrum around the Na I doublet at 589 nm of the extrasolar planet WASP-69b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a K-type star with a period of 3.868 days, and compare the analysis to that of the well-known hot Jupiter HD 189733b. We also present the analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for WASP-69b. Methods: We observed two transits of WASP-69b with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS-North) spectrograph (R = 115 000) at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We perform a telluric contamination subtraction based on the comparison between the observed spectra and a telluric water model. Then, the common steps of the differential spectroscopy are followed to extract the transmission spectrum. The method is tested with archival transit data of the extensively studied exoplanet HD 189733b, obtained with the HARPS-South spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope, and then applied to WASP-69b data. Results: For HD 189733b, we spectrally resolve the Na I doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.72 ± 0.05% (D2) and 0.51 ± 0.05% (D1), and full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 0.64 ± 0.04 Å (D2) and 0.60 ± 0.06 Å (D1), in agreement with previously published results. For WASP-69b only the contrast of the D2 line can be measured (5.8 ± 0.3%). This corresponds to a detection at the 5σ-level of excess absorption of 0.5 ± 0.1% in a passband of 1.5 Å. A net blueshift of 0.04 Å is measured for HD 189733b and no shift is obtained for WASP-69b. By measuring the RM effect, we get an angular

  2. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  3. Laterally Transferred Gene Recruited as a Venom in Parasitoid Wasps

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    Martinson, Ellen O.; Werren, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps use venom to manipulate the immunity and metabolism of their host insects in a variety of ways to provide resources for their offspring. Yet, how genes are recruited and evolve to perform venom functions remain open questions. A recently recognized source of eukaryotic genome innovation is lateral gene transfer (LGT). Glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19) chitinases are widespread in bacteria, microsporidia, and plants where they are used in nutrient acquisition or defense, but have previously not been known in metazoans. In this study, a GH19 chitinase LGT is described from the unicellular microsporidia/Rozella clade into parasitoid wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, where it has become recruited as a venom protein. The GH19 chitinase is present in 15 species of chalcidoid wasps representing four families, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it was laterally transferred near or before the origin of Chalcidoidea (∼95 Ma). The GH19 chitinase gene is highly expressed in the venom gland of at least seven species, indicating a role in the complex host manipulations performed by parasitoid wasp venom. RNAi knockdown in the model parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis reveals that—following envenomation—the GH19 chitinase induces fly hosts to upregulate genes involved in an immune response to fungi. A second, independent LGT of GH19 chitinase from microsporidia into mosquitoes was also found, also supported by phylogenetic reconstructions. Besides these two LGT events, GH19 chitinase is not found in any other sequenced animal genome, or in any fungi outside the microsporidia/Rozella clade. PMID:26715630

  4. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

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    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  5. Early memory in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

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    Schurmann, Daria; Kugel, Dominic; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-04-01

    We studied early memory in Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitoid of fly pupae and emerging model organism for ecological questions in the context of learning. After associative training consisting of one drilling experience in a host in the presence of cinnamon, females showed a preference to cinnamon for at least 24 h. To study sensitisation, wasps were trained by one drilling in a host without cinnamon. These wasps were not attracted to cinnamon immediately afterwards. Obviously, sensitisation is not involved in early memory. Wasps that were anaesthetised by CO2 directly after associative training did not react to cinnamon 30-45 min later, but after 1 and 24 h. CO2 treatment≥5 min after training did not erase the reaction to cinnamon. This indicates the existence of four early memory phases. (a) One phase<5 min after training, in which CO2 has to be applied to become effective. (b) One subsequent phase which is resistant to CO2. (c) One phase<1 h in which memory can be erased by CO2 treatment directly after training. (d) One phase 1-24 h not affected by CO2 treatment. Together with earlier data this enables us to establish a complete memory structure for N. vitripennis.

  6. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Barker, Adrian J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, allée du 6 Août 19C, B-4000 Lige (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b ( M{sub p} = 10.3 M{sub J}, a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q ′, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer ) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope ) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q ′ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q ′ ≥ 1 × 10{sup 6}, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  7. Write a scientific paper (WASP) - a career-critical skill.

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    Grech, Victor; Cuschieri, Sarah

    2018-01-17

    The ability to write a scientific paper (WASP) is becoming progressively more critical because the "publish or perish" mantra is increasingly valid in today's world where success is judged by number of publications and quality of publications based on journals which publish the researcher's work. These metrics are used to gauge applicants in often cut-throat competitions for jobs and/or career advancement. However, the science and art of paper-writing comprise a vast panoply of different skills, from writing a proposal, to ethics and data protection applications, to data collection and analysis, to writing and dealing with editors and authors, and so on. Over the next few issues, Early Human Development will embark on a series of Best Practice Guidelines that will outline and explain the various requisite WASP skills while providing practical guidelines for paper writing. The purpose is to impart the authors' collective experience to trainees in this crucial aspect of career progress. This first set of WASP papers will mainly focus on statistical analysis using Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Guillain-Barré syndrome after a jellyfish sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devere, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    This is the case of a jellyfish sting associated with the rare development of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The patient, a 66-year-old woman, was stung by a jellyfish on the right thigh while swimming in the Atlantic Ocean, off Charleston, SC. Ten days later, she developed low back and right thigh pain followed by progressive numbness and weakness in all extremities. These symptoms reached their peak in 30 days and slowly began to improve. Initial neurologic examination showed areflexia, weakness, absent vibration and position sense, and hyperesthesia to pin and light touch in the mid to distal region of all four extremities. Serial electromyography and nerve conductions were consistent with an improving predominantly demyelinating polyneuropathy. Spinal fluid analysis showed no cells, elevated protein (108), gammaglobulin 6 (normal less than 5.4), and immunoglobulin G 8.2 (normal less than 6). The only treatment was gabapentin for neuropathy pain. The patient made an excellent recovery in less than 1 year with minimal residual numbness in both thumbs, index fingers, and middle toes.

  9. Dielectrophoretic characterization and isolation of jellyfish stinging capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinwook; Capelin, Daniel; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Lotan, Tamar; Yossifon, Gilad

    2017-08-01

    Jellyfish stinging capsules known as nematocysts are explosive, natural-injection systems with high potential as a natural drug-delivery system. These organelles consist of a capsule containing a highly folded thin needle-like tubule and a matrix highly concentrated with charged constituents that enable the tubule to fire and penetrate a target. For the purpose of using these nematocysts as drug delivery system it is first required to purify subpopulations from heterogeneous population of capsules and to investigate each subpopulation's distinct function and characteristics. Here, the nematocysts' dielectric properties were experimentally investigated using dielectrophoretic and electrorotational spectra with best fits derived from theoretical models. The dielectric characterization adds to our understanding of the nematocysts' structure and function and is necessary for the dielectrophoretic isolation and manipulation of populations. As expected, the effect of monovalent and divalent exchange cations resulted in higher inner conductivity for the NaCl treated capsules; this result stands in agreement with their relative higher osmotic pressure. In addition, an efficient dielectrophoretic isolation of different nematocyst subpopulations was demonstrated, paving the way to an understanding of nematocysts' functional diversity and the development of an efficient drug delivery platform. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Tal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  11. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

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    Jan Matysiak

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln, L-glutamic acid (Glu, L-methionine (Met and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  12. Modelling the scorpion stings using surveillance data in El Bayadh Province, Algeria

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    Schehrazad Selmane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine some epidemiological features of scorpion envenomations, analyse and interpret the recorded data, find any relationship between the incidence of scorpion stings and climatic factors, and finally develop a statistical model to estimate the variability among future cases in El Bayadh Province, Algeria. Methods: To assess the effects of climate variability on the scorpion envenomations, we applied the count data regression models to the monthly recorded scorpion stings in El Bayadh Province from 2001 to 2012. Results: The epidemiological analysis of data revealed that scorpion stings occured mainly in rural areas, round the clock, all year long with the highest seasonal incidence in summer, and the lowest in winter, all ages with male predominance. The ends of upper and lower limbs were the most affected parts of the human body. The majority of cases (95.7% were classified as mild envenomations and systemic toxicity was observed in 4.3% of cases. The use of count data regression models showed that the negative binomial regression was appropriate to forecast cases and the fitted data agreed considerably with the actual data. Moreover, the model had predicted the monthly scorpion sting cases for the year of 2013, with satisfactory accuracy. Conclusions: This study shows an optimism for forecasting scorpion stings by modelling and calibration with surveillance data and climate information. This knowledge could help to contain any unusual situation and assist health decision-makers to strengthen the prevention and control measures and to be in a state of readiness.

  13. Kounis syndrome: a stinging case of ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

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    Scherbak, Dmitriy; Lazkani, Mohamad; Sparacino, Nick; Loli, Akil

    2015-04-01

    Kounis syndrome is not a rare but an infrequently diagnosed non-thrombogenic cause of angina or myocardial infarction triggered by the release of inflammatory mediators following an allergic or anaphylactic reaction. This so-called "allergic angina" is seen in the setting of anaphylactic reactions and is believed to be due to mast cell release causing coronary vasospasm. The treatment of such cases is often with epinephrine, which has also been described in the literature as another rare cause of coronary vasospasm. We present a case of Kounis syndrome seen in a 46 year-old male who suffered two bee stings while landscaping in his yard. He developed an anaphylactic reaction and was promptly treated with IM epinephrine injection by paramedics at arrival and developed marked ST elevations on EKG in the inferior leads with reciprocal ST depressions in the anterior leads. His troponin peaked at 13 ng/mL and tryptase level was 15 ng/mL (normal <10 ng/mL). Coronary catheterisation showed non-diseased coronary arteries and a normal ejection fraction without evidence of vasospasm. He was afterwards treated with an epinephrine drip for distributive shock. Interestingly this syndrome was not provoked when re-challenged with this therapy, suggestive of an allergic reaction rather than epinephrine as the aetiology of his presumed vasospasm. This patient's ST segment elevation and troponin elevation was due to Kounis syndrome. Awareness that anaphylactic reactions can lead to Kounis syndrome can lead to prompt appropriate treatment for this life threatening condition. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ancient Origin of cGAS-STING Reveals Mechanism of Universal 2',3' cGAMP Signaling.

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    Kranzusch, Philip J; Wilson, Stephen C; Lee, Amy S Y; Berger, James M; Doudna, Jennifer A; Vance, Russell E

    2015-09-17

    In humans, the cGAS-STING immunity pathway signals in response to cytosolic DNA via 2',3' cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) second messenger containing mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Prokaryotes also produce CDNs, but these are exclusively 3' linked, and thus the evolutionary origins of human 2',3' cGAMP signaling are unknown. Here we illuminate the ancient origins of human cGAMP signaling by discovery of a functional cGAS-STING pathway in Nematostella vectensis, an anemone species >500 million years diverged from humans. Anemone cGAS appears to produce a 3',3' CDN that anemone STING recognizes through nucleobase-specific contacts not observed in human STING. Nevertheless, anemone STING binds mixed-linkage 2',3' cGAMP indistinguishably from human STING, trapping a unique structural conformation not induced by 3',3' CDNs. These results reveal that human mixed-linkage cGAMP achieves universal signaling by exploiting a deeply conserved STING conformational intermediate, providing critical insight for therapeutic targeting of the STING pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  16. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Jennifer L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. Results We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. Conclusion The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating

  17. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric A; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2008-08-20

    Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating that typify Vespula wasps. This stands in contrast to some

  18. cGAS-STING and Cancer: Dichotomous Roles in Tumor Immunity and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kevin W; Marshall, Erin A; Bell, John C; Lam, Wan L

    2018-01-01

    cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) sensing has emerged as a key regulator of innate immune responses to both exogenous and endogenous DNA. Recent studies reveal critical roles for this pathway in natural antitumor immunity across cancer types as well as in immune checkpoint blockade therapy. However, it is also clear that some tumors evade cGAS-STING-mediated immune responses, and immunomodulatory therapeutics are currently being explored to target this pathway. Finally, we also discuss recent observations that cGAS-STING-mediated inflammation may promote tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis in certain malignancies and how this may complicate the utility of this pathway in therapeutic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. cGAS/STING Pathway in Cancer: Jekyll and Hyde Story of Cancer Immune Response

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    Debojit Bose

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis. This review highlights our current understanding of cGAS/STING pathway in cancer, its therapeutic targeting and potential alternate approaches to target this pathway. Optimal therapeutic targeting and artificial tunability of this pathway still demand in depth understanding of cGAS/STING pathway regulation and homeostasis.

  20. Scorpion sting: a public health problem in El Kelaa des Sraghna (Morocco

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    R. El Oufir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and specifically at identifying the epidemiological features of patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. It included 11,907 patients from El Kelaa des Sraghna Province, Morocco, who were evaluated over five years (2001-2005. Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night. The average incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 inhabitants; patients <15 years accounted for 34%, and the envenomation rate was 12%. Average lethality rate was 0.7%. Our work evaluated the efficacy of the adopted strategy based on indicators of follow-up, morbidity and lethality due to scorpion sting and envenomation.

  1. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  3. Demonstration of long-term memory in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurmann, D.; Sommer, C.; Schinko, A.P.B.; Greschista, M.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of fly pupae. Female wasps were trained in one of five different training procedures in the presence of hosts and the odour

  4. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  5. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical ...

  6. Smartphone Operated Signal Transduction by Ion Nanogating (STING) Amplifier for Nanopore Sensors: Design and Analytical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Kahnemouyi, Sina; Fan, Hsinwen; Mak, Wai Han; Lohith, Akshar; Seger, Adam; Teodorescu, Mircea; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-03-25

    In this report, we demonstrated a handheld wireless voltage-clamp amplifier for current measurement of nanopore sensors. This amplifier interfaces a sensing probe and connects wirelessly with a computer or smartphone for the required stimulus input, data processing and storage. To test the proposed Signal Transduction by Ion Nanogating (STING) wireless amplifier, in the current study the system was tested with a nano-pH sensor to measure pH of standard buffer solutions and the performance was compared against the commercial voltage-clamp amplifier. To our best knowledge, STING amplifier is the first miniaturized wireless voltage-clamp platform operated with a customized smart-phone application (app).

  7. The exotic wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae: first record and damage on the Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius drupes, in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Ferreira-Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper records the first report of Megastigmus transvaalensis Hussey (Hymenoptera: Torymidae in Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae drupes in Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This wasp is an invasive species and was found damaging S. terebinthifolius drupes in urban areas (35.0±15.8%, natural forests (21.5±10.2% and restoration areas (15.8±8.4%. The bio-ecology and damage caused by M. transvaalensis in the S. terebinthifolius drupes warrants further study focused upon the management of this phytophagous wasp. Megastigmus transvaalensis has a potential to be disseminated throughout Brazil and is posing a threat to the natural regeneration of S. terebinthifolius in the native forests and restoration areas and ecological regions of this country.

  8. Moving your sons to safety: galls containing male fig wasps expand into the centre of figs, away from enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae. They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae. Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences.

  9. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-13

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Revised WAsP Park Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole Steen; Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Leon, J.P. Murcia

    The DTU Wind Energy wind-resource model WAsP contains a wind farm wake model Park (Park1). This Park model in has been revised, Park2, to improve prediction accuracy in large wind farms, based on sound physical and mathematical principles: consistent wake-modelling and perturbation theory for wake......-wake-interaction. Park2 has been validated and calibrated using a number of off-shore and on-shore wind farms. The calibration has resulted in recommended values for the wakeexpansion coefficients of the Park2 model....

  11. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sting_RDB: a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S R M; Almeida, G V; Souza, K R R; Rodrigues, D N; Kuser-Falcão, P R; Yamagishi, M E B; Santos, E H; Vieira, F D; Jardine, J G; Neshich, G

    2007-10-05

    An effective strategy for managing protein databases is to provide mechanisms to transform raw data into consistent, accurate and reliable information. Such mechanisms will greatly reduce operational inefficiencies and improve one's ability to better handle scientific objectives and interpret the research results. To achieve this challenging goal for the STING project, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining. In this article, we highlight the main features of Sting_RDB and show how a user can explore it for efficient and biologically relevant queries. Considering its importance for molecular biologists, effort has been made to advance Sting_RDB toward data quality assessment. To the best of our knowledge, Sting_RDB is one of the most comprehensive data repositories for protein analysis, now also capable of providing its users with a data quality indicator. This paper differs from our previous study in many aspects. First, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database with mechanisms for efficient and relevant queries using SQL. Sting_rdb evolved from the earlier, text (flat file)-based database, in which data consistency and integrity was not guaranteed. Second, we provide support for data warehousing and mining. Third, the data quality indicator was introduced. Finally and probably most importantly, complex queries that could not be posed on a text-based database, are now easily implemented. Further details are accessible at the Sting_RDB demo web page: http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br/StingRDB.

  13. THE CLINICAL AND INVESTIGATIONAL PROFILE OF SCORPION STING AT THE TIME OF ADMISSION AT MGM HOSPITAL, WARANGAL, TELANGANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Ajmera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scorpion sting envenomation are real threats in children of tropical and subtropical zones of world including India. It may be life threatening in children, if left untreated. The annual number of scorpion stings exceeds 1.2 million with 2.3 billion population at risk. The incidence of scorpion sting is very high in some parts of India; Warangal is one among them. METHODS & MATERIALS This is an Observational Cross-Sectional Study of 115 cases of scorpion sting, admitted to MGM Hospital Warangal, under Kakatiya Medical College from 1st Jan 2014 to December 2014 were included in the study. RESULTS In this present study, incidence of scorpion sting was 2.45 %. More than half cases were seen in 1-6 years of age. 63% of scorpion stings are in summer and late winter. 85% of cases were from rural areas. 84% of scorpion stings were indoor, may be due to poor housing condition. Most common symptom was pain, followed by sweating, paraesthesia, vomiting. Most common physical signs noted were cold extremities followed by hypotension, priapism hypertension, tachycardia, and bradycardia. Most common complication observed was peripheral circulatory failure followed by myocarditis, pulmonary oedema, congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION One child developed hemiplegia, severity of symptoms, signs, complications and outcome did not depend on the age, sex, site of sting, interval between sting and admission. Presence of, vomiting, tachypnoea, shortness of breath, ECG abnormalities, priapism, creps in the lungs, prolonged CRT, had more chances of progressing to complications like myocarditis, pulmonary oedema. The serum levels of sodium, potassium, blood glucose, total leucocyte count did not have any effect on complications and outcome of the children. Two deaths occurred due to massive pulmonary oedema and myocarditis. Case Fatality rate was 1.7%.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  16. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by activation of the cGAS-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Hao, Ruidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Xing; Wu, Shaoshuai; Guo, Shuting; Wang, Yuan; Tien, Po; Guo, Deyin

    2016-12-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyses synthesis of the second messenger cGAMP, which activates the downstream signalling adaptor protein STING, leading to the expression of type I interferons. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus, and the cGAS-STING pathway may inhibit HBV RNA synthesis and viral assembly in cell culture, but the exact roles of the cGAS pathway in the restriction of HBV replication in infection systems remain to be elucidated. In this study, replication of HBV was significantly inhibited both in cell culture and in vivo in a mouse model when the cGAS-STING pathway was activated by dsDNA or cGAMP. In contrast, the presence of enzymatically inactive cGAS mutant did not influence HBV replication. Moreover, knockdown of cGAS in human peripheral blood monocytes led to a higher level of intracellular HBV DNA. Collectively, our data indicate that the cGAS-STING pathway plays a role in the surveillance of HBV infection and may be exploited for development of novel anti-HBV strategies.

  17. Antagonism of the STING Pathway via Activation of the AIM2 Inflammasome by Intracellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Leticia; Woo, Seng-Ryong; Williams, Jason B; McWhirter, Sarah M; Dubensky, Thomas W; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that innate immune sensing of cytosolic DNA in dendritic cells via the host STING pathway is a major mechanism leading to spontaneous T cell responses against tumors. However, the impact of the other major pathway triggered by intracellular DNA, the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome, on the functional output from the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway is poorly understood. We found that dendritic cells and macrophages deficient in AIM2, apoptosis-associated specklike protein, or caspase-1 produced markedly higher IFN-β in response to DNA. Biochemical analyses showed enhanced generation of cyclic GMP-AMP, STING aggregation, and TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation in inflammasome-deficient cells. Induction of pyroptosis by the AIM2 inflammasome was a major component of this effect, and inhibition of caspase-1 reduced cell death, augmenting phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1/IFN regulatory factor 3 and production of IFN-β. Our data suggest that in vitro activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine macrophages and dendritic cells leads to reduced activation of the STING pathway, in part through promoting caspase-1-dependent cell death. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Molecular Pathways: Targeting the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) in the Immunotherapy of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel immunotherapy approaches are transforming the treatment of cancer, yet many patients remain refractory to these agents. One hypothesis is that immunotherapy fails because of a tumor microenvironment that fails to support recruitment of immune cells including CD8+ T cells. Therefore, new approaches designed to initiate a de novo anti-tumor immune response from within the tumor microenvironment are being pursued. Recent evidence has indicated that spontaneous activation of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway within tumor-resident dendritic cells leads to type I interferon (IFN) production and adaptive immune responses against tumors. This pathway is activated in the presence of cytosolic DNA, that is detected by the sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and generates cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates STING. As a therapeutic approach, intratumoral injection of STING agonists has demonstrated profound therapeutic effects in multiple mouse tumor models, including melanoma, colon, breast, prostate, and fibrosarcoma. Better characterization of the STING pathway in human tumor recognition, and the development of new pharmacologic approaches to engage this pathway within the tumor microenvironment in patients, are important areas for clinical translation. PMID:26373573

  19. Expression and function of C5a receptor in a fatal anaphylaxis after honey bee sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töro, Klára; Borka, Katalin; Kardos, Magdolna; Kristóf, István; Sótonyi, Péter

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms leading to death from anaphylaxis after insect sting involve antigen cross-linkage of antibody molecules that activate immunoglobulin receptors on inflammatory cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathomorphology and the expression of C5aR in fatal anaphylaxis in a patient after a fatal insect sting. A 38-year-old women was stung by a honeybee. C5R1 expression was detected in many dilated capillaries in the lungs. Pulmonary epithelial cells did not bind the monoclonal antibody for C5R1; however, intensive cytoplasmic staining was detected in endothelial cells. The findings of this case provide evidence for an active role of complement in fatal anaphylaxis elicited by bee venom. C5aR detection could be useful in the identification of sudden death cases because of unwitnessed fatal insect sting cases. Authors can recommend this immunohistochemical analysis on all sudden unexpected deaths outdoors where a possible bee sting might occur. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. A randomized crossover study of bee sting therapy for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, T; Heersema, DJ; Mostert, JP; Heerings, M; Admiraal-Behloul, F; Talebian, A; van Buchem, MA; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Bee sting therapy is increasingly used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the belief that it can stabilize or ameliorate the disease. However, there are no clinical studies to justify its use. Methods: In a randomized, crossover study, we assigned 26 patients with

  1. Animal bites and stings reported by United States poison control centers, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ricky L

    2008-01-01

    There is not a single data source for information on the extent of nonfatal injuries inflicted by animals. Although individuals bitten or stung by animals may not visit a health care provider, they may call poison control centers (PCCs) for information. These centers are one source of information on the frequency of occurrence of injuries from animals. The American Association of Poison Control Centers compiles an annual report of exposure calls to various agents, including chemicals, medications, animal bites and stings, plants, and use of antivenoms from their network of PCCs. An estimate of the severity of exposure for each call is also determined. This review examines summary data on different species of animal bites and stings reported by PCCs from 2001 to 2005. From 2001 to 2005 there were 472 760 reports of animal bites and stings, an average of 94,552 per year. There was a trend noted for increasing use of antivenom over this period. Twenty-seven deaths were recorded, most from snakebites. Poison control centers are a source of information for health care workers on management of animal bites and stings. The database maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers is another source of information on the magnitude and public health impact of injuries from animals.

  2. The discoveries of WASP-91b, WASP-105b and WASP-107b: Two warm Jupiters and a planet in the transition region between ice giants and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 MJup, 1.03 RJup) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm Jupiter (1.8 MJup, 0.96 RJup) in a 7.9-day orbit around a metal-rich K2 star. WASP-107b is a warm super-Neptune/sub-Saturn (0.12 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in a 5.7-day orbit around a solar-metallicity K6 star. Considering that giant planets seem to be more common around stars of higher metallicity and stars of higher mass, it is notable that the hosts are all metal-rich, late-type stars. With orbital separations that place both WASP-105b and WASP-107b in the weak-tide regime, measurements of the alignment between the planets' orbital axes and their stars' spin axes may help us to understand the inward migration of short-period, giant planets. The mass of WASP-107b (2.2 MNep, 0.40 MSat) places it in the transition region between the ice giants and gas giants of the Solar System. Its radius of 0.94 RJup suggests that it is a low-mass gas giant with a H/He-dominated composition. The planet thus sets a lower limit of 2.2 MNep on the planetary mass above which large gaseous envelopes can be accreted and retained by proto-planets on their way to becoming gas giants. We may discover whether WASP-107b more closely resembles an ice giant or a gas giant by measuring its atmospheric metallicity via transmission spectroscopy, for which WASP-107b is a very good target. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South photometric survey instrument, the 0.6-m TRAPPIST robotic imager, and the EulerCam camera and the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope.The photometric time-series and radial-velocity data used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110

  3. Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate

  4. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  5. Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  6. HST PanCET Program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Mandell, A. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stevenson, K. B.; Lewis, N. K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sing, D. K.; Evans, T. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marley, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kataria, T. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballester, G. E. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E Univ. Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barstow, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ben-Jaffel, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D. [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Buchhave, L. A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); García Muñoz, A., E-mail: hannah.wakeford@nasa.gov [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H{sub 2}O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13 σ . Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmission features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature–pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.

  7. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  8. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Schneider

    Full Text Available We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences 'hitchhiking' on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps.

  9. Complementary Sex Determination in the Parasitic Wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general. PMID:25789748

  10. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  11. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  12. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  13. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  14. [Mortality from snake bites, wild and domestic animal bites and arthropod stings in the savannah zone of eastern Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2002-08-01

    From 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4,228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were brought on by snakebites, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged 1 year or more, 0.9% (26/2,880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of the total number of deaths by accident. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1,280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspididae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%).

  15. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  16. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bilo, M. B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J. N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Roigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G. J; Rueff, F

    2016-01-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management...

  17. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  18. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  19. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid disrupt sexual communication and host finding in a parasitoid wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Lars; Pokorny, Tamara; Hofferberth, John; Ruther, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all. Courtship behaviour of treated couples was also impeded resulting in a reduction of mating rates by up to 80%. Moreover, treated females were no longer able to locate hosts by using olfactory cues. Olfaction is crucial for the reproductive success of parasitoid wasps. Hence, sublethal doses of neonicotinoids might compromise the function of parasitoid wasps as natural enemies with potentially dire consequences for ecosystem services.

  20. 2009 Progress Report on Surveys of Bees and Some Wasps of Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes an updated list of bee and wasp species collected as part of study at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Report includes map of survey...

  1. New Double-Mode and Other RR Lyrae Stars from WASP Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wils, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    42 RRab, 46 RRc and 7 previously unidentified double-mode RR Lyrae stars were found in the publicly available data of the WASP archive. The Galactic double-mode RR Lyrae stars appear to show a bimodal period distribution.

  2. Different habitats, different habitats? Response to foraging information in the parasitic wasp Venturia canescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, A.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Hoffmeister, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The parasitic wasp, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), has two reproductive modes, namely, thelytoky or arrhenotoky, and occurs in habitats with highly variable or relatively stable host abundances, respectively. Since information processing is costly, we expected that

  3. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  4. Activities of Venom Proteins and Peptides with Possible Therapeutic Applications from Bees and WASPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiujuan; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Charlene C W; Chan, Gabriel H H; Sze, Stephen C W; Zhang, Kalin Y; Naude, Ryno; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-01-01

    The variety of proteins and peptides isolated from honey bee venom and wasp venom includes melittin, adiapin, apamine, bradykinin, cardiopep, mast cell degranulating peptide, mastoparan, phospholipase A2 and secapin. Some of the activities they demonstrate may find therapeutic applications.

  5. Altered Host Plant Volatiles Are Proxies for Sex Pheromones in the Gall Wasp Antistrophus rufus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Tooker; Wilfried A. Koenig; Lawrence M. Hanks

    2002-01-01

    ...: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L...

  6. The long-term population dynamics of common wasps in their native and invaded range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J; Haywood, John; Archer, Michael E; Shortall, Chris R

    2017-03-01

    Populations of introduced species are often thought to perform differently, or experience different population dynamics, in their introduced range compared to their native habitat. Differences between habitats in climate, competition or natural enemies may result in populations with varying density dependence and population dynamics. We examined the long-term population dynamics of the invasive common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, in its native range in England and its invaded range in New Zealand. We used 39 years of wasp density data from four sites in England, and 23 years of data from six sites in New Zealand. Wasp population time series was examined using partial rate correlation functions. Gompertz population models and multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models were fitted, incorporating climatic variation. Gompertz models successfully explained 59-66% of the variation in wasp abundance between years. Density dependence in wasp populations appeared to act similarly in both the native and invaded range, with wasp abundance in the previous year as the most important variable in predicting intrinsic rate of increase (r). No evidence of cyclic population dynamics was observed. Both the Gompertz and MARSS models highlighted the role of weather conditions in each country as significant predictors of annual wasp abundance. The temporal evolution of wasp populations at all sites was best modelled jointly using a single latent dynamic factor for local trends, with the inclusion of a latent spring weather covariate. That same parsimonious multivariate model structure was optimal in both the native and invaded range. Density dependence is overwhelmingly important in predicting wasp densities and 'wasp years' in both the native and invaded range. Spring weather conditions in both countries have a major influence, probably through their impact on wasp colony initiation and early development. The population dynamics in the native range and invaded range show no

  7. Periodic eclipses of the young star PDS 110 discovered with WASP and KELT photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, H. P.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Kennedy, G. M.; Mamajek, E. E.; Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C.; Armstrong, D. J.; Shappee, B. J.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Anderson, D. R.; Beatty, T. G.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Hellier, C.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; James, D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Kuhn, R. B.; Lund, M. B.; Pepper, J.; Pollacco, D. L.; Prieto, J. L.; Siverd, R. J.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; West, R. G.

    2017-10-01

    We report the discovery of eclipses by circumstellar disc material associated with the young star PDS 110 in the Ori OB1a association using the SuperWASP and Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope surveys. PDS 110 (HD 290380, IRAS 05209-0107) is a rare Fe/Ge-type star, an ∼10 Myr-old accreting intermediate-mass star showing strong infrared excess (LIR/Lbol ≃ 0.25). Two extremely similar eclipses with a depth of 30 per cent and duration ∼25 d were observed in 2008 November and 2011 January. We interpret the eclipses as caused by the same structure with an orbital period of 808 ± 2 d. Shearing over a single orbit rules out diffuse dust clumps as the cause, favouring the hypothesis of a companion at ∼2 au. The characteristics of the eclipses are consistent with transits by an unseen low-mass (1.8-70 MJup) planet or brown dwarf with a circumsecondary disc of diameter ∼0.3 au. The next eclipse event is predicted to take place in 2017 September and could be monitored by amateur and professional observatories across the world.

  8. Multiple horizontal transfers of bacteriophage WO and host Wolbachia in fig wasps in a closed community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasps. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23 and 39.1% (9/23, respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a special clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  9. Mortal combat and competition for oviposition sites in female pollinating fig wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Derek W.; K. Charlotte Jandér; Anayra G. Lamas; Pereira,Rodrigo A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive contests between animals are common but rarely result in death because the benefits of winning a fight rarely exceed the cost of losing. Lethal combat can evolve, however, when the contested resource translates to much of the future reproductive success of each combatant. Female agaonid fig wasps pollinate and lay their eggs in the flowers within the enclosed inflorescences ("figs") of fig trees (Ficus spp.). Wasps rarely leave the first fig entered so the reproductive success of e...

  10. Human Cytomegalovirus IE2 86 kDa Protein Induces STING Degradation and Inhibits cGAMP-Mediated IFN-β Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stimulator of interferon genes (STING is a critical signaling molecule in the innate immune response against DNA viruses by either directly sensing intracellular DNA or functioning as an adaptor molecule to activate the type I interferon (IFN signaling pathway. We determined the functional interaction between STING and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. A cDNA library containing 133 HCMV ORFs was screened to identify viral genes that inhibit STING-induced IFN-β promoter activation. Among the screened ORFs, UL122, which encodes the immediate-early 2 86 kDa (IE86 protein, strongly abolished STING-induced IFN-β promoter activation. Interestingly, IE86 protein facilitated the proteasome-dependent degradation of STING and inhibited 2′3′-cGAMP-mediated induction of IFNB1 and CXCL10. Taken together, this study demonstrates the existence of a post-translational regulation of STING by HCMV IE86 protein.

  11. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We...... evaluated conservation of 27 trinucleotide loci that were derived from 2 species of Polistes wasps in cross-species applications on 27 species chosen from the major lineages of the Vespidae, which diverged as much as 144 million years ago. We further investigated cross-species polymorphism levels for 18...... of the loci. There was a clear relationship between cladistic distance and both conservation of the priming sites and heterozygosity. However the loci derived from P. bellicosus were much more widely conserved and polymorphic than were those derived from P. annularis. The disparity in cross-species utility...

  12. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-01-12

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  14. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rasmussen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist to the 225 genera and 1169 reported species-group taxa of aculeate wasps of Peru is presented. The list is based on a literature survey and examination of Peruvian entomological collections and include locality references for each taxon. Bibliographic references for the identification of families, genera, and species are provided when available. The occurrence data are published in addition as a downloadable file (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.2.ds, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.3.ds, and 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.4.ds and were uploaded onto GBIF infrastructure simultaneously with the publication process. The following new combinations are proposed: Ancistroceroides cirrifer (Zavattari, 1912, Ancistrocerus epicus (Zavattari, 1912, and Stenodynerus corallineipes (Zavattari, 1912.

  15. The WASP and NGTS ground-based transit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    I will review the current status of ground-based exoplanet transit surveys, using the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) and the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) as specific examples. I will describe the methods employed by these surveys and show how planets from Neptune to Jupiter-size are detected and confirmed around bright stars. I will also give an overview of the remarkably wide range of exoplanet characterization that is made possible with large-telescope follow up of these bright transiting systems. This characterization includes bulk composition and spin-orbit alignment, as well as atmospheric properties such as thermal structure, composition and dynamics. Finally, I will outline how ground-based photometric studies of transiting planets will evolve with the advent of new space-based surveys such as TESS and PLATO.

  16. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Field, Jeremy

    2017-01-24

    Biological market theory is potentially useful for understanding helping behaviour in animal societies. It predicts that competition for trading partners will affect the value of commodities exchanged. It has gained empirical support in cooperative breeders, where subordinates help dominant breeders in exchange for group membership, but so far without considering one crucial aspect: outside options. We find support for a biological market in paper wasps, Polistes dominula. We first show that females have a choice of cooperative partners. Second, by manipulating entire subpopulations in the field, we increase the supply of outside options for subordinates, freeing up suitable nesting spots and providing additional nesting partners. We predicted that by intensifying competition for help, our manipulation would force dominants to accept a lower price for group membership. As expected, subordinates reduce their foraging effort following our treatments. We conclude that to accurately predict the amount of help provided, social units cannot be viewed in isolation: the surrounding market must also be considered.

  17. Constraints on a second planet in the WASP-3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Deka, B.; Adamów, M.; Górecka, M. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Wolszczan, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Seeliger, M. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Schillergässchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Winn, J. N.; McKnight, L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía 3, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Ohlert, J. [Michael Adrian Observatorium, Astronomie Stiftung Trebur, D-65468 Trebur (Germany); Dimitrov, D. [Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Latham, D. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Holman, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The RV data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.

  18. [Spatial distribution of fig wasps in syconia of two monoecious Ficus sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Ji; Li, Guo-Chang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In addition to pollinator fig wasps, there are several non-pollinating fig wasps associated with monoecious Ficus sp. In order to understand how pollinator fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps are distributed across the same syconium, the spatial distribution of fig wasps associated with Ficus altissima and F. benjamina were compared using the pedicle lengths of galls containing each species. The results indicate that in Ficus altissima, the average pedicel length of galls containing Eupristina sp. is longer than that containing E. altissima. Average pedicel length of galls containing Sycobia sp., Micranisa ralianga and Sycoscapter sp. two did not show significant difference. The range of pedicel lengths of galls containing Sycobia sp., M. ralianga or Sycoscapter sp. two is narrower than that of galls containing E. altissima, indicating these non-pollinating fig wasps and pollinator have partially separated spatial niches. In F. benjamina, E. koningsbergeri was distributed in galls from the outer layer to inner layer, while most Walkerella sp. were found in outer layer galls, indicating E. koningsbergeri and Walkerella sp. have partially separated spatial niches.

  19. Parasitic mites as part-time bodyguards of a host wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kimiko; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2008-10-07

    Some bees and wasps that host mites have peculiar pocket-like structures called acarinaria. These have long been considered as morphological adaptations to securely transfer beneficial mites into nests, and thus are thought to be the product of a mutualistic relationship. However, there has been little compelling evidence to support this hypothesis. We demonstrated that the parasitic mite Ensliniella parasitica, which uses acarinaria, increases the reproductive success of its host wasp Allodynerus delphinalis by protecting it from parasitoid wasps. Every time the parasitoid Melittobia acasta accessed a prepupal or pupal wasp host cell, adult mites attacked it, continuously clinging to it and possibly piercing the intersegmental membrane of the parasitoid with their chelicerae. Subsequent mortality of the parasitoid depended on the number of attacking mites: an average of six mites led to a 70% chance of mortality, and 10 mites led to a 100% chance of mortality. In this way, parent mites protect the food source (juvenile wasps) for themselves and ultimately for their offspring. We propose that wasps evolved acarinaria to maintain this protective guarding behaviour.

  20. Negative fitness consequences and transmission dynamics of a heritable fungal symbiont of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M; Hunter, Martha S

    2009-05-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations.

  1. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P < 0.05). In contrast, wasps that had been trained only once chose both feeders equally. Thus, memory retrieval could be observed 1 h after wasps had collected food on 4 consecutive occasions, but not after only 1. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that V. germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Wasp-waist interactions in the North Sea ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    Full Text Available In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes.We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus, suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill.Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that "wasp-waist" interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades.

  3. Wasp-waist interactions in the North Sea ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that "wasp-waist" interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades.

  4. Promising Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy: TLRs, RLRs, and STING-Mediated Innate Immune Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qu, Shuai; Chen, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Ming

    2017-02-14

    Malignant cancers employ diverse and intricate immune evasion strategies, which lead to inadequately effective responses of many clinical cancer therapies. However, emerging data suggest that activation of the tolerant innate immune system in cancer patients is able, at least partially, to counteract tumor-induced immunosuppression, which indicates triggering of the innate immune response as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy may result in improved therapeutic outcomes for cancer patients. The promising innate immune targets include Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like Receptors (RLRs), and Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). This review discusses the antitumor properties of TLRs, RLRs, and STING-mediated innate immune pathways, as well as the promising innate immune targets for potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  5. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14×11×9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  6. Stalk-eyed wasps--review of a largely unnoticed group of morphologically bizarre chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae: Axima) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Pape, Thomas; Krogmann, Lars

    2014-09-25

    Axima Walker is a small genus of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) exclusive to the Western Hemisphere. Some species are distinctive in having stalked eyes and Axima sidi, sp. n. is described as the third stalk-eyed species based on a single female from Colombia. A key to facilitate species identification of stalk-eyed Axima is included. The only species of Axima for which host biology is known is a primary parasitoid of dwarf carpenter bees of the genus Ceratina Latreille (Apidae: Xylocopinae). A hypothesis about the possible function of stalked eyes in Axima as devices to assist the escape of adult wasps from hosts enclosed in the soft pith of plant stems is proposed.

  7. Scorpion sting in the right ear of a young adult: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of 36 year old artisan with history of feeling of insect in his right ear of 30 minutes duration. He slept outside at the balcony of his house because of heat and at around 1.00 am, he suddenly woke up by the feeling of insect and stings in his right ear. He had made attempts to remove the insect with the ...

  8. Severe Dermatonecrotic Toxin and Wound Complications Associated With Box Jellyfish Stings 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaikruea, Lakkana; Siriariyaporn, Potjaman

    2015-01-01

    The Toxic Jellyfish Network and its surveillance system were set up in 2008 and in 2009, respectively. Case investigations detected 3 cases with severe cutaneous injuries described in this article. There were 57 probable cases of box jellyfish stings between 2008 and 2013. Three of these injuries resulted in dermal necrosis, and 2 were associated with severe wound complications. A Thai man aged 21 years sustained wounds on his left knee and thigh. He received oral antibiotics and daily wet dressings; he did not receive steroids. He subsequently developed blisters, swelling of the lower left leg, neuritis, and severe itching in the later stages. Nevertheless, his wounds did not become infected and there was no keloid scarring. An American woman aged 25 years sustained stings on her right hand and arm. She received antibiotic ointment and a tape that was placed directly on the wound without any gauze or padding underneath. She developed a wound infection 2 weeks postinjury. Surgical debridement was required twice to remove necrotic tissue; keloid scars persisted on evaluation at 4 months. An American woman aged 33 years received stings on her left upper thigh. Initial treatment was provided by local residents, who crushed morning glory leaves to extract the juice and then applied the juice (mixed with water) to her wounds. She received intravenous steroids, oral antihistamines, oral analgesics, and antibiotic cream at the hospital. Despite this aggressive treatment, the wounds became gangrenous and surgical debridement was required to remove necrotic tissue. Clinicians need to be knowledgeable regarding the potentially serious wounds that can develop following jellyfish stings. Additional research is needed to identify best management approaches.

  9. Modelling the scorpion stings using surveillance data in El Bayadh Province, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Schehrazad Selmane; Leila Benferhat; Mohamed L’Hadj; Huaiping Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine some epidemiological features of scorpion envenomations, analyse and interpret the recorded data, find any relationship between the incidence of scorpion stings and climatic factors, and finally develop a statistical model to estimate the variability among future cases in El Bayadh Province, Algeria. Methods: To assess the effects of climate variability on the scorpion envenomations, we applied the count data regression models to the monthly recorded scorp...

  10. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  11. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  12. Scorpion stings in one province of Morocco: epidemiological, clinical and prognosis aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soulaymani Bencheikh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and, specifically, at identifying the epidemiological features of the patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. The investigation included 4089 patients from a province of Morocco which were evaluated over three years (2001, 2002 and 2003. Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night (between 6:00 p.m. and 12:00 p.m.. The average incidence was 2.8‰, the average age of the patients was 26.7±18.2 years, and the envenomation rate was 6.7%. Mortality rate was 0.05‰, and average lethality rate was 0.7%. Analysis of variance showed that young age, symptoms at admission, and long time elapsed between sting and admission were correlated with poor outcome. Comparison among data of the three years revealed an increasing number of reported cases and decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  13. Hormonal pleiotropy helps maintain queen signal honesty in a highly eusocial wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Akemi Oi, Cintia; van Zweden, Jelle S; Nascimento, Fabio; Sullivan Brent, Colin; Wenseleers, Tom

    2017-05-10

    In insect societies, both queens and workers produce chemicals that reliably signal caste membership and reproductive status. The mechanisms that help to maintain the honesty of such queen and fertility signals, however, remain poorly studied. Here we test if queen signal honesty could be based on the shared endocrine control of queen fertility and the production of specific signals. In support of this "hormonal pleiotropy" hypothesis, we find that in the common wasp, application of methoprene (a juveline hormone analogue) caused workers to acquire a queen-like cuticular hydrocarbon profile, resulting in the overproduction of known queen pheromones as well as some compounds typically linked to worker fertility. By contrast, administration of precocene-I (a JH inhibitor) had a tendency to have the opposite effect. Furthermore, a clear gonadotropic effect of JH in queens was suggested by the fact that circulating levels of JH were ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher in queens than those in workers and virgin, non-egg-laying queens, even if methoprene or precocene treatment did not affect the ovary development of workers. Overall, these results suggest that queen signal honesty in this system is maintained by queen fertility and queen signal production being under shared endocrine control.

  14. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  15. Optimal resource allocation to survival and reproduction in parasitic wasps foraging in fragmented habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wajnberg

    Full Text Available Expansion and intensification of human land use represents the major cause of habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation can have dramatic consequences on species richness and trophic interactions within food webs. Although the associated ecological consequences have been studied by several authors, the evolutionary effects on interacting species have received little research attention. Using a genetic algorithm, we quantified how habitat fragmentation and environmental variability affect the optimal reproductive strategies of parasitic wasps foraging for hosts. As observed in real animal species, the model is based on the existence of a negative trade-off between survival and reproduction resulting from competitive allocation of resources to either somatic maintenance or egg production. We also asked to what degree plasticity along this trade-off would be optimal, when plasticity is costly. We found that habitat fragmentation can indeed have strong effects on the reproductive strategies adopted by parasitoids. With increasing habitat fragmentation animals should invest in greater longevity with lower fecundity; yet, especially in unpredictable environments, some level of phenotypic plasticity should be selected for. Other consequences in terms of learning ability of foraging animals were also observed. The evolutionary consequences of these results are discussed.

  16. Does early learning drive ecological divergence during speciation processes in parasitoid wasps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Kerstin; Krimmer, Elena; Brose, Sören; Gantert, Cornelia; Buschlüter, Ines; König, Christian; Klopfstein, Seraina; Wendt, Ingo; Baur, Hannes; Krogmann, Lars; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Central to the concept of ecological speciation is the evolution of ecotypes, i.e. groups of individuals occupying different ecological niches. However, the mechanisms behind the first step of separation, the switch of individuals into new niches, are unclear. One long-standing hypothesis, which was proposed for insects but never tested, is that early learning causes new ecological preferences, leading to a switch into a new niche within one generation. Here, we show that a host switch occurred within a parasitoid wasp, which is associated with the ability for early learning and the splitting into separate lineages during speciation. Lariophagus distinguendus consists of two genetically distinct lineages, most likely representing different species. One attacks drugstore beetle larvae (Stegobium paniceum (L.)), which were probably the ancestral host of both lineages. The drugstore beetle lineage has an innate host preference that cannot be altered by experience. In contrast, the second lineage is found on Sitophilus weevils as hosts and changes its preference by early learning. We conclude that a host switch has occurred in the ancestor of the second lineage, which must have been enabled by early learning. Because early learning is widespread in insects, it might have facilitated ecological divergence and associated speciation in this hyperdiverse group. PMID:25621331

  17. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; M'Rabet, Charaf; Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.

  18. VCA nanobodies target N-WASp to reduce invadopodium formation and functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hebbrecht

    Full Text Available Invasive cancer cells develop small actin-based protrusions called invadopodia, which perform a primordial role in metastasis and extracellular matrix remodelling. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp is a scaffold protein which can directly bind to actin monomers and Arp2/3 and is a crucial player in the formation of an invadopodium precursor. Expression modulation has pointed to an important role for N-WASp in invadopodium formation but the role of its C-terminal VCA domain in this process remains unknown. In this study, we generated alpaca nanobodies against the N-WASp VCA domain and investigated if these nanobodies affect invadopodium formation. By using this approach, we were able to study functions of a selected functional/structural N-WASp protein domain in living cells, without requiring overexpression, dominant negative mutants or siRNAs which target the gene, and hence the entire protein. When expressed as intrabodies, the VCA nanobodies significantly reduced invadopodium formation in both MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HNSCC61 head and neck squamous cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of distinct VCA Nbs (VCA Nb7 and VCA Nb14 in PC-3 prostate cancer cells resulted in reduced overall matrix degradation without affecting MMP9 secretion/activation or MT1-MMP localisation at invadopodial membranes. From these results, we conclude that we have generated nanobodies targeting N-WASp which reduce invadopodium formation and functioning, most likely via regulation of N-WASp-Arp2/3 complex interaction, indicating that this region of N-WASp plays an important role in these processes.

  19. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  20. Epidemiology of Pediatric Bite/Sting Injuries. One-Year Study of a Pediatric Emergency Department in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.

  1. Binding-Pocket and Lid-Region Substitutions Render Human STING Sensitive to the Species-Specific Drug DMXAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The drug DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid showed therapeutic promise against solid tumors in mouse models but subsequently failed in human clinical trials. DMXAA was later discovered to activate mouse, but not human, STING, an adaptor protein in the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP-mediated signaling pathway, inducing type I interferon expression. To facilitate the development of compounds that target human STING, we combined structural, biophysical, and cellular assays to study mouse and human chimeric proteins and their interaction with DMXAA. We identified a single substitution (G230I that enables a DMXAA-induced conformational transition of hSTING from an inactive “open” to an active “closed” state. We also identified a substitution within the binding pocket (Q266I that cooperates with G230I and the previously identified S162A binding-pocket point substitution, rendering hSTING highly sensitive to DMXAA. These findings should facilitate the reciprocal engineering of DMXAA analogs that bind and stimulate wild-type hSTING and their exploitation for vaccine-adjuvant and anticancer drug development.

  2. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  3. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  4. Flower-Visiting Social Wasps and Plants Interaction: Network Pattern and Environmental Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Aparecido Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis as a tool for ecological interactions studies has been widely used since last decade. However, there are few studies on the factors that shape network patterns in communities. In this sense, we compared the topological properties of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants in two distinct phytophysiognomies in a Brazilian savanna (Riparian Forest and Rocky Grassland. Results showed that the landscapes differed in species richness and composition, and also the interaction networks between wasps and plants had different patterns. The network was more complex in the Riparian Forest, with a larger number of species and individuals and a greater amount of connections between them. The network specialization degree was more generalist in the Riparian Forest than in the Rocky Grassland. This result was corroborated by means of the nestedness index. In both networks was found asymmetry, with a large number of wasps per plant species. In general aspects, most wasps had low niche amplitude, visiting from one to three plant species. Our results suggest that differences in structural complexity of the environment directly influence the structure of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants.

  5. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  6. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp. were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs. The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  7. LACK OF REPRODUCIBILITY OF A SINGLE NEGATIVE STING CHALLENGE RESPONSE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ANAPHYLACTIC RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED YELLOW JACKET HYPERSENSITIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANKEN, HH; DUBOIS, AEJ; MINKEMA, HJ; VANDERHEIDE, S; DEMONCHY, JGR

    To investigate the reproducibility of a single negative response to sting challenge with a living insect, we rechallenged a group of 61 patients who showed no clinical response to a first sting challenge. All patients had previously had symptoms suggestive of anaphylaxis after a yellow jacket field

  8. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wavelet-enabled progressive data Access and Storage Protocol (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, J.; Frank, L.; Lesperance, T.; Norton, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current practices for storing numerical simulation outputs hail from an era when the disparity between compute and I/O performance was not as great as it is today. The memory contents for every sample, computed at every grid point location, are simply saved at some prescribed temporal frequency. Though straightforward, this approach fails to take advantage of the coherency in neighboring grid points that invariably exists in numerical solutions to mathematical models. Exploiting such coherence is essential to digital multimedia; DVD-Video, digital cameras, streaming movies and audio are all possible today because of transform-based compression schemes that make substantial reductions in data possible by taking advantage of the strong correlation between adjacent samples in both space and time. Such methods can also be exploited to enable progressive data refinement in a manner akin to that used in ubiquitous digital mapping applications: views from far away are shown in coarsened detail to provide context, and can be progressively refined as the user zooms in on a localized region of interest. The NSF funded WASP project aims to provide a common, NetCDF-compatible software framework for supporting wavelet-based, multi-scale, progressive data, enabling interactive exploration of large data sets for the geoscience communities. This presentation will provide an overview of this work in progress to develop community cyber-infrastructure for the efficient analysis of very large data sets.

  10. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  11. CED-10-WASP-Arp2/3 signaling axis regulates apoptotic cell corpse engulfment in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dou; Chai, Yongping; Zhu, Zhiwen; Li, Wenjing; Ou, Guangshuo; Li, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have identified signaling cascades that activate CED-10/Rac1 GTPase and promote actin cytoskeletal rearrangement during apoptotic cell engulfment. However, the molecular connection between CED-10 activation and actin reorganization remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that CED-10 binds to the Arp2/3 nucleation promoting factor WASP; CED-10 recruits WASP and Arp2/3 to apoptotic cell corpses in the phagocytes. The loss of WASP and Arp2/3 impaired cell corpse engulfment. Furthermore, we uncover that a WASP-activating factor SEM-5/GRB2 functions in the phagocytes to promote cell corpse clearance. Together, our results suggest CED-10 reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton by recruiting the WASP-Arp2/3 actin nucleation factors during apoptotic cell engulfment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Floral resource partitioning by social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in an area of caatinga in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Cândida M L; Santos, Gilberto M de M

    2007-01-01

    Wasps and bees are important components of flower visitor guilds in the Neotropical region. The abundance of social wasps and bees, collected during flower visits, was used to calculate niche breadth and niche overlap indices, in order to characterize the utilization of the floral resources by those insects. Samples were taken monthly, for 13 months (156h), by two collectors which captured the specimens on flowers using entomological nets, while walking along a way in an area of caatinga at Itatim, State of Bahia, Brazil. Wasps and bees heavily visited a few sources of floral resources, but the most visited plants by each group were different, and few plant species were important for both groups, resulting in low niche overlap between bees and wasps. The niche overlap among wasp species was generally higher than among bee species. The general overlap, which takes into consideration all species together was low (< 30%).

  13. Sensing of HSV-1 by the cGAS-STING pathway in microglia orchestrates antiviral defence in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line S; Lopušná, Katarína; Winther, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV-induced t......Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV......-induced type I IFN expression in CNS cells and these cytokines are induced in a cGAS-STING-dependent manner. Consistently, mice defective in cGAS or STING are highly susceptible to acute HSE. Although STING is redundant for cell-autonomous antiviral resistance in astrocytes and neurons, viral replication...

  14. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  15. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara; Lammer, Helmut; Fossati, Luca; Eggl, Siegfried; Schawarz, Richard; Boudyada, Mohammed; Erkaev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source in the WASP-12 and HD189733b systems to explain part of the phenomena observed in ultraviolet (UV) light curves during planetary transits. In the proposed scenario, material originates from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on orbits near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky Trojans and to form shallow lava oceans on them. At the orbital distance of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are ≈ 2.2 × 1027 s-1 and ≈ 2.2 × 1026 s-1, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the observed lack of emission in MgII h&k and CaII H&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. The early ingress of HD 189733b observed in the far-UV (FUV) CII doublet couldn't be explained by this mechanism due to absence of carbon within elements outgassed by molten lava. We investigate the long-term stability region of WASP-12b and HD 189733b in case of planar and inclined motion of these satellites and show that unlike the classical exomoons orbiting the planet, Io-sized Trojans can be stable for the whole systems life time.

  17. Does size matter? - Thermoregulation of 'heavyweight' and 'lightweight' wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-09-15

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  18. STING activation of tumor endothelial cells initiates spontaneous and therapeutic antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Olivier; De Gassart, Aude; Coso, Sanja; Gestermann, Nicolas; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Flatz, Lukas; Gaide, Olivier; Michielin, Olivier; Hwu, Patrick; Petrova, Tatiana V; Martinon, Fabio; Modlin, Robert L; Speiser, Daniel E; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Spontaneous CD8 T-cell responses occur in growing tumors but are usually poorly effective. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive these responses is of major interest as they could be exploited to generate a more efficacious antitumor immunity. As such, stimulator of IFN genes (STING), an adaptor molecule involved in cytosolic DNA sensing, is required for the induction of antitumor CD8 T responses in mouse models of cancer. Here, we find that enforced activation of STING by intratumoral injection of cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP (cGAMP), potently enhanced antitumor CD8 T responses leading to growth control of injected and contralateral tumors in mouse models of melanoma and colon cancer. The ability of cGAMP to trigger antitumor immunity was further enhanced by the blockade of both PD1 and CTLA4. The STING-dependent antitumor immunity, either induced spontaneously in growing tumors or induced by intratumoral cGAMP injection was dependent on type I IFNs produced in the tumor microenvironment. In response to cGAMP injection, both in the mouse melanoma model and an ex vivo model of cultured human melanoma explants, the principal source of type I IFN was not dendritic cells, but instead endothelial cells. Similarly, endothelial cells but not dendritic cells were found to be the principal source of spontaneously induced type I IFNs in growing tumors. These data identify an unexpected role of the tumor vasculature in the initiation of CD8 T-cell antitumor immunity and demonstrate that tumor endothelial cells can be targeted for immunotherapy of melanoma.

  19. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Yixiang Xu; Elizabeth Ramirez; Michael Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  20. An introduction to parasitic wasps of Drosophila and the antiparasite immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Chiyedza; Paddibhatla, Indira; Rajwani, Roma; Govind, Shubha

    2012-05-07

    Most known parasitoid wasp species attack the larval or pupal stages of Drosophila. While Trichopria drosophilae infect the pupal stages of the host (Fig. 1A-C), females of the genus Leptopilina (Fig. 1D, 1F, 1G) and Ganaspis (Fig. 1E) attack the larval stages. We use these parasites to study the molecular basis of a biological arms race. Parasitic wasps have tremendous value as biocontrol agents. Most of them carry virulence and other factors that modify host physiology and immunity. Analysis of Drosophila wasps is providing insights into how species-specific interactions shape the genetic structures of natural communities. These studies also serve as a model for understanding the hosts' immune physiology and how coordinated immune reactions are thwarted by this class of parasites. The larval/pupal cuticle serves as the first line of defense. The wasp ovipositor is a sharp needle-like structure that efficiently delivers eggs into the host hemocoel. Oviposition is followed by a wound healing reaction at the cuticle (Fig. 1C, arrowheads). Some wasps can insert two or more eggs into the same host, although the development of only one egg succeeds. Supernumerary eggs or developing larvae are eliminated by a process that is not yet understood. These wasps are therefore referred to as solitary parasitoids. Depending on the fly strain and the wasp species, the wasp egg has one of two fates. It is either encapsulated, so that its development is blocked (host emerges; Fig. 2 left); or the wasp egg hatches, develops, molts, and grows into an adult (wasp emerges; Fig. 2 right). L. heterotoma is one of the best-studied species of Drosophila parasitic wasps. It is a "generalist," which means that it can utilize most Drosophila species as hosts. L. heterotoma and L. victoriae are sister species and they produce virus-like particles that actively interfere with the encapsulation response. Unlike L. heterotoma, L. boulardi is a specialist parasite and the range of Drosophila

  1. A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales infesting a primitive wasp in Myanmar amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2016-12-01

    A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    OpenAIRE

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span o...

  3. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic beta cell delamination and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell...... constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis....

  4. Plant secretions prevent wasp parasitism in nests of wool-carder bees, with implications for the diversification of nesting materials in Megachilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEltz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees make use of plant substrates in more ways than any other group of insects, which is probably linked to their diversification and ecological success. The highly diverse Megachilidae use a wide range of plant-derived brood cell-building materials, including plant leaves, mortar made from plant tissue, resin, plant hairs (‘plant wool’, and plant trichome secretions. While certain plant-derived materials are believed to protect nests against microbial decay, this has not been tested, and the factors driving diversification of nesting materials are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the protective effects of plant-derived extrafloral trichome secretions which female European wool-carder bees, Anthidium manicatum, smear on their brood cells. By breeding bees in cages with differential resource supply we generated brood cells with or without trichome secretions. Brood cells with trichome secretions were less attractive to parasitic wasps (Monodontomerus obscurus in Y-maze olfactometer tests. Also, when exposed at sites where A. manicatum occurs in natural populations, brood cells smeared with trichome secretions were less affected by wasp (Melittobia acasta parasitism than those without trichome secretions. On the other hand, trichome secretions did not prevent the growth of mold on brood cells, and larval mortality due to microbial decay was almost non-existent even when brood cells were exposed to rainfall. We conclude that the use of plant trichome secretion for brood cell construction has more likely evolved to create enemy-free space in response to chalcidoid wasp parasitism. Parasitoids are likely an underestimated cause of the diversification of cell construction materials and adaptive radiation in megachilid bees.

  5. Consumption of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin) causes direct effects on adult parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Babendreier, D.; Wackers, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    Honeydew is a common sugar-rich excretion of aphids and other phloem-feeding insects and represents the primary sugar in many agricultural systems. When honeydew-producing insects feed on genetically modified plants, the honeydew can contain amounts of the transgene product. Here we address whether

  6. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  7. Second-site mutation in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein gene causes somatic mosaicism in two WAS siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo; Konno, Akihiro; Schurman, Shepherd H.; Garabedian, Elizabeth K.; Anderson, Stacie M.; Kirby, Martha; Nelson, David L.; Candotti, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    Revertant mosaicism due to true back mutations or second-site mutations has been identified in several inherited disorders. The occurrence of revertants is considered rare, and the underlying genetic mechanisms remain mostly unknown. Here we describe somatic mosaicism in two brothers affected with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). The original mutation causing disease in this family is a single base insertion (1305insG) in the WAS protein (WASP) gene, which results in frameshift and abrogates protein expression. Both patients, however, showed expression of WASP in a fraction of their T cells that were demonstrated to carry a second-site mutation causing the deletion of 19 nucleotides from nucleotide 1299 to 1316. This deletion abrogated the effects of the original mutation and restored the WASP reading frame. In vitro expression studies indicated that mutant protein encoded by the second-site mutation was expressed and functional, since it was able to bind to cellular partners and mediate T cell receptor/CD3 downregulation. These observations were consistent with evidence of in vivo selective advantage of WASP-expressing lymphocytes. Molecular analysis revealed that the sequence surrounding the deletion contained two 4-bp direct repeats and that a hairpin structure could be formed by five GC pairs within the deleted fragment. These findings strongly suggest that slipped mispairing was the cause of this second-site mutation and that selective accumulation of WASP-expressing T lymphocytes led to revertant mosaicism in these patients. PMID:12727931

  8. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids activate the cGAS-STING axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankan, Arun K; Schmidt, Tobias; Chauhan, Dhruv; Goldeck, Marion; Höning, Klara; Gaidt, Moritz; Kubarenko, Andrew V; Andreeva, Liudmila; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-17

    Intracellular recognition of non-self and also self-nucleic acids can result in the initiation of potent pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Most recently, cGAS was shown to be critical for the recognition of cytoplasmic dsDNA. Binding of dsDNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP(2'-5'), which then binds to the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein STING. This initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the induction of an antiviral immune response. While most studies on intracellular nucleic acids have focused on dsRNA or dsDNA, it has remained unexplored whether cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are also sensed by the innate immune system. Studying synthetic RNA:DNA hybrids, we indeed observed a strong type I interferon response upon cytosolic delivery of this class of molecule. Studies in THP-1 knockout cells revealed that the recognition of RNA:DNA hybrids is completely attributable to the cGAS-STING pathway. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that recombinant cGAS produced cGAMP upon RNA:DNA hybrid recognition. Altogether, our results introduce RNA:DNA hybrids as a novel class of intracellular PAMP molecules and describe an alternative cGAS ligand next to dsDNA. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  10. Case report of jelly fish stinging in Bay of Bengal: A report from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Main Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Jelly fish or jellies are the members of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata, consisting of a gelatinous umbrella-shaped bell and trailing tentacles. Sting contains toxic peptide, pbospholipase A and histamine-liberating factor. Jelly fish stinging in Bangladesh is rare. Yet, from a management point of view, this epizoonozis might gain importance given the ever-growing popularity of seaside fishering and tourism. We are presenting a case of jelly fish contact illness in Cox's Bazar Medical College. Case Report: A 30 year old male patient was stung by a jellyfish while tishering in the Bay of Bengal near Teknaf of Cox's Bazar District on 3rd June' 2013. A couple of minutes later urticaria were formed in the contact area accompanied by a bmniug and sore sensation. Within few minutes be developed severe abdominal pain, bodyache and parestbaesia. Immediate decontmninalion was done by patient himself with sea water though ideally it should be with 5% acetic acid. Routine laboratory investigations show no abnormality except non-significant ST elevation in ECG. The patient was managed conservatively with antihistamine, corticosteroids and antibiotics and recovered completely within four days.

  11. Historical perspective and human consequences of Africanized bee stings in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R S; Almeida, R A M B; Barraviera, S R C S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.

  12. Defence strategies against a parasitoid wasp in Drosophila: fight or flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; de Roode, Jacobus C; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-04-23

    Hosts may defend themselves against parasitism through a wide variety of defence mechanisms, but due to finite resources, investment in one defence mechanism may trade-off with investment in another mechanism. We studied resistance strategies against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in two Drosophila species. We found that D. melanogaster had significantly lower physiological resistance against L. boulardi than D. simulans, and hypothesized that D. melanogaster might instead invest more heavily in other forms of defence, such as behavioural defence. We found that when given a choice between clean oviposition sites and sites infested with wasps, both D. melanogaster and D. simulans detected and avoided infested sites, which presumably limits later exposure of their offspring to infection. Unlike D. simulans, however, D. melanogaster laid significantly fewer eggs than controls in the forced presence of wasps. Our findings suggest that D. melanogaster relies more heavily on behavioural avoidance as defence against wasp parasitism than D. simulans, and that this may compensate for a lack of physiological defence.

  13. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  14. The effect of different dietary sugars and honey on longevity and fecundity in two hyperparasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Cloutier, J.; Visser, B.; Ellers, J.; Wackers, F.L.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    In nature adult insects, such as parasitic wasps or ‘parasitoids’ often depend on supplemental nutritional sources, such as sugars and other carbohydrates, to maximize their life-expectancy and reproductive potential. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant

  15. Development of microsatellite markers and estimation of inbreeding frequency in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, Jun; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using

  16. Analysis of Genetic Variation across the Encapsidated Genome of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus in Parasitoid Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelen R Burke

    Full Text Available Insect parasitoids must complete part of their life cycle within or on another insect, ultimately resulting in the death of the host insect. One group of parasitoid wasps, the 'microgastroid complex' (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, engage in an association with beneficial symbiotic viruses that are essential for successful parasitism of hosts. These viruses, known as Bracoviruses, persist in an integrated form in the wasp genome, and activate to replicate in wasp ovaries during development to ultimately be delivered into host insects during parasitism. The lethal nature of host-parasitoid interactions, combined with the involvement of viruses in mediating these interactions, has led to the hypothesis that Bracoviruses are engaged in an arms race with hosts, resulting in recurrent adaptation in viral (and host genes. Deep sequencing was employed to characterize sequence variation across the encapsidated Bracovirus genome within laboratory and field populations of the parasitoid wasp species Microplitis demolitor. Contrary to expectations, there was a paucity of evidence for positive directional selection among virulence genes, which generally exhibited signatures of purifying selection. These data suggest that the dynamics of host-parasite interactions may not result in recurrent rounds of adaptation, and that adaptation may be more variable in time than previously expected.

  17. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  18. Dynamic Interaction of Amphiphysin with N-WASP Regulates Actin Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Park, Sun-Joo; Itoh, Toshiki; Chaineau, Mathilde; Monaldi, Ilaria; Cremona, Ottavio; Benfenati, Fabio; De Camilli, Pietro; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Tramier, Marc; Galli, Thierry; Takei, Kohji

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphysin 1, an endocytic adaptor concentrated at synapses that couples clathrin-mediated endocytosis to dynamin-dependent fission, was also shown to have a regulatory role in actin dynamics. Here, we report that amphiphysin 1 interacts with N-WASP and stimulates N-WASP- and Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization. Both the Src homology 3 and the N-BAR domains are required for this stimulation. Acidic liposome-triggered, N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization is strongly impaired in brain cytosol of amphiphysin 1 knock-out mice. FRET-FLIM analysis of Sertoli cells, where endogenously expressed amphiphysin 1 co-localizes with N-WASP in peripheral ruffles, confirmed the association between the two proteins in vivo. This association undergoes regulation and is enhanced by stimulating phosphatidylserine receptors on the cell surface with phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes that trigger ruffle formation. These results indicate that actin regulation is a key function of amphiphysin 1 and that such function cooperates with the endocytic adaptor role and membrane shaping/curvature sensing properties of the protein during the endocytic reaction. PMID:19759398

  19. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  20. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  1. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - II. The transiting planetary system WASP-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present and analyse light curves of four transits of the Southern hemisphere extrasolar planetary system WASP-4, obtained with a telescope defocused so the radius of each point spread function was 17 arcsec (44 pixels). This approach minimizes both random and systematic errors, allowing us...

  2. Recognition of human face images by the free flying wasp Vespula vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabilities. In parallel, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been shown to be able to rely on configural learning for extensive visual learning, thus converging with primate visual processing. Therefore, the honeybee may be able to recognize human faces, and show sophisticated learning performance due to its foraging lifestyle involving visiting and memorizing many flowers. We investigated the visual capacities of the widespread invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris, which is unlikely to have any specialization for face processing. Freely flying individual wasps were trained in an appetitive-aversive differential conditioning procedure to discriminate between perceptually similar human face images from a standard face recognition test. The wasps could then recognize the target face from novel dissimilar or similar human faces, but showed a significant drop in performance when the stimuli were rotated by 180°, thus paralleling results acquired on a similar protocol with honeybees. This result confirms that a general visual system can likely solve complex recognition tasks, the first stage to evolve a visual expertise system to face recognition, even in the absence of neurobiological or behavioral specialization.

  3. Strong dispersal in a parasitoid wasp overwhelms habitat fragmentation and host population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchoux, C; Seppä, P; van Nouhuys, S

    2016-07-01

    The population dynamics of a parasite depend on species traits, host dynamics and the environment. Those dynamics are reflected in the genetic structure of the population. Habitat fragmentation has a greater impact on parasites than on their hosts because resource distribution is increasingly fragmented for species at higher trophic levels. This could lead to either more or less genetic structure than the host, depending on the relative dispersal rates of species. We examined the spatial genetic structure of the parasitoid wasp Hyposoter horticola, and how it was influenced by dispersal, host population dynamics and habitat fragmentation. The host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, lives as a metapopulation in a fragmented landscape in the Åland Islands, Finland. We collected wasps throughout the 50 by 70 km archipelago and determined the genetic diversity, spatial population structure and genetic differentiation using 14 neutral DNA microsatellite loci. We compared the genetic structure of the wasp with that of the host butterfly using published genetic data collected over the shared landscape. Using maternity assignment, we also identified full-siblings among the sampled parasitoids to estimate the dispersal range of individual females. We found that because the parasitoid is dispersive, it has low genetic structure, is not very sensitive to habitat fragmentation and has less spatial genetic structure than its butterfly host. The wasp is sensitive to regional rather than local host dynamics, and there is a geographic mosaic landscape for antagonistic co-evolution of host resistance and parasite virulence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  5. Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, John F; Koenig, Wilfried A; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2002-11-26

    We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within dead plant stems that occur in a matrix of dead vegetation. Allozyme studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopulations in the two plant species. In laboratory bioassays, males responded only to their natal plant species, antennating the stem surface. Males from S. laciniatum also responded to hexane extracts of S. laciniatum stems, and extracts contained much higher concentrations of monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and camphene) than did S. terebinthinaceum. Ratios of "+" and "-" enantiomers of alpha- and beta-pinene approximated 50:50 for nongalled S. laciniatum stems but strongly differed from 50:50 in galled stems, with "+" and "-" enantiomers strongly dominant in different plants. In bioassays, male wasps from S. laciniatum responded to a synthetic blend of the monoterpenes in enantiomeric ratios characteristic of galled stems. Male A. rufus rely entirely on olfaction to locate females within stems in a complex prairie habitat, and gall wasps themselves apparently influence the plant to modify ratios of monoterpene enantiomers. These plant volatiles serve as a signal for males, acting as a sex pheromone proxy for females concealed within plant tissues.

  6. WAsP for offshore sites in confined coastal waters - the influence of the sea fetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)

  7. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, D.; Buter, J.; Beek, van T.A.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  8. Sexual size and development time dimorphism in a parasitoid wasp: an exception to the rule?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Strand, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in adult size (SSD) and development time (SDTD) occur in many groups of organisms. In insects, some of the best examples occur in parasitoid wasps where most studies report that females are larger than males but take longer to develop. Sex-specific differences in the effects of

  9. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community (Stevenson et al. 2016)

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  10. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilò, M B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Rodrigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G J; Rueff, F

    2016-07-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest Group of Insect Venom Hypersensitivity. It is targeted at allergists, clinical immunologists, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians, general practitioners, emergency department doctors, and any other healthcare professional involved. The aim was to report the scientific evidence on self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings, to inform healthcare staff about appropriate patient self-management of sting reactions, to propose indications for the prescription of an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI), and to discuss other forms of medication. First-line treatment for Hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Prescription of AAIs is mandatory in the case of venom-allergic patients who suffer from mast cell diseases or with an elevated baseline serum tryptase level and in untreated patients with a history of a systemic reaction involving at least two different organ systems. AAI prescription should also be considered in other specific situations before, during, and after stopping venom immunotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, M. B.; Cichocka-Jarosz, E.; Pumphrey, R.; Oude-Elberink, J. N.; Lange, J.; Jakob, T.; Bonadonna, P.; Fernandez, J.; Kosnik, M.; Helbling, A.; Mosbech, H.; Gawlik, R.; Niedoszytko, M.; Patella, V.; Pravettoni, V.; Rodrigues-Alves, R.; Sturm, G. J.; Rueff, F.

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest

  12. Age-dependent sting recurrence and outcome in immunotherapy-treated children with anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzke, A I; Eng, P A

    2013-08-01

    Data on outcome of insect venom immunotherapy in children are rare. We investigated the rate of sting recurrence and outcome of Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis in children of different age groups treated with immunotherapy. Data from children consecutively referred for anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom were collected using a standardized questionnaire. During mean follow-up of 7.7 years after commencement of immunotherapy, 45 of 83 children (56%) were re-stung 108 times by the insect they were allergic to. This corresponds to a rate of 0.23 stings per child and year of follow-up. The younger the subject, the higher was the prevalence of re-stings, with rates of 0.41 in children honey bee venom and 5.9% in the Vespula venom allergic group (P = ns). Younger boys with anaphylaxis to honey bee venom predominated in our cohort (P = 0.019). A majority of children with anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom (56%) in our cohort were re-stung, equally by honey bees or Vespula species. Younger children were more likely to be re-stung, but less likely to have a systemic reaction. Venom immunotherapy induces long-term protection in most children: 84.4% of subjects with anaphylaxis to honey bee and 94.1% of those to Vespula venom were completely protected at re-stings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies.Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these communities, however, remain poorly understood. An emerging theme in community ecology is the need to consider the effects of host traits, shaped by both natural selection and phylogenetic history, on associated communities of natural enemies. Here we examine the impact of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness on 48 ecologically closed and species-rich communities of parasitoids attacking gall-inducing wasps on oaks. Gallwasps induce the development of spectacular and structurally complex galls whose species- and generation-specific morphologies are the extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes. All the associated natural enemies attack their concealed hosts through gall tissues, and several structural gall traits have been shown to enhance defence against parasitoid attack. Here we explore the significance of these and other host traits in predicting variation in parasitoid community structure across gallwasp species. In particular, we test the "Enemy Hypothesis," which predicts that galls with similar morphology will exclude similar sets of parasitoids and therefore have similar parasitoid communities. Having controlled for phylogenetic patterning in host traits and communities, we found significant correlations between parasitoid community structure and several gall structural traits (toughness, hairiness, stickiness, supporting the Enemy Hypothesis. Parasitoid community structure was also consistently predicted by components of the hosts' spatiotemporal niche, particularly host oak taxonomy and gall location (e.g., leaf versus bud versus seed. The combined explanatory power of structural and

  14. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  15. Parasitoid wasp venom SERCA regulates Drosophila calcium levels and inhibits cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Nathan T; Goecks, Jeremy; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Mobley, James A; Bowersock, Gregory J; Taylor, James; Schlenke, Todd A

    2013-06-04

    Because parasite virulence factors target host immune responses, identification and functional characterization of these factors can provide insight into poorly understood host immune mechanisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model system for understanding humoral innate immunity, but Drosophila cellular innate immune responses remain incompletely characterized. Fruit flies are regularly infected by parasitoid wasps in nature and, following infection, flies mount a cellular immune response culminating in the cellular encapsulation of the wasp egg. The mechanistic basis of this response is largely unknown, but wasps use a mixture of virulence proteins derived from the venom gland to suppress cellular encapsulation. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying wasp virulence and fly cellular immunity, we used a joint transcriptomic/proteomic approach to identify venom genes from Ganaspis sp.1 (G1), a previously uncharacterized Drosophila parasitoid species, and found that G1 venom contains a highly abundant sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump. Accordingly, we found that fly immune cells termed plasmatocytes normally undergo a cytoplasmic calcium burst following infection, and that this calcium burst is required for activation of the cellular immune response. We further found that the plasmatocyte calcium burst is suppressed by G1 venom in a SERCA-dependent manner, leading to the failure of plasmatocytes to become activated and migrate toward G1 eggs. Finally, by genetically manipulating plasmatocyte calcium levels, we were able to alter fly immune success against G1 and other parasitoid species. Our characterization of parasitoid wasp venom proteins led us to identify plasmatocyte cytoplasmic calcium bursts as an important aspect of fly cellular immunity.

  16. Decrease of memory retention in a parasitic wasp: an effect of host manipulation by Wolbachia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishani Farahani, Hossein; Ashouri, Ahmad; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Shapiro, Martin S; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; van Baaren, Joan

    2017-08-01

    Several factors, such as cold exposure, aging, the number of experiences and viral infection, have been shown to affect learning ability in different organisms. Wolbachia has been found worldwide as an arthropod parasite/mutualist symbiont in a wide range of species, including insects. Differing effects have been identified on physiology and behavior by Wolbachia. However, the effect of Wolbachia infection on the learning ability of their host had never previously been studied. The current study carried out to compare learning ability and memory duration in 2 strains of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: 1 uninfected and 1 infected by Wolbachia. Both strains were able to associate the novel odors with the reward of an oviposition into a host egg. However, the percentage of females that responded to the experimental design and displayed an ability to learn in these conditions was higher in the uninfected strain. Memory duration was longer in uninfected wasps (23.8 and 21.4 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively) than in infected wasps (18.9 and 16.2 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively). Memory retention increased in response to the number of conditioning sessions in both strains, but memory retention was always shorter in the infected wasps than in the uninfected ones. Wolbachia infection may select for reduced memory retention because shorter memory induces infected wasps to disperse in new environments and avoid competition with uninfected wasps by forgetting cues related to previously visited environments, thus increasing transmission of Wolbachia in new environments. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. The correlation between anti phospholipase A 2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim: The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods: Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE, venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE, and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE (phospholipase A 2 sIgE were analyzed. Results: Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A 2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions : In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A 2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels.

  18. A comparative study on the functional response of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected forms of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrokhi, S.; Ashouri, A.; Shirazi, J.; Allahyari, H.; Huigens, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are haplo-diploid egg parasitoids that are frequently used as biological control agents against lepidopteran pests. These wasps display two reproductive modes, including arrhenotoky (bisexuality) and thelytoky (unisexuality). Thelytokous forms

  19. Structure, chemical composition and putative function of the postpharyngeal gland of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herzner, Gudrun; Ruther, Joachim; Goller, Stephan; Schulz, Stefan; Goettler, Wolfgang; Strohm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    .... The latter alternative would be supported if a PPG was found in more basal taxa. Therefore, we examined a species at the base of the Apoidea, the solitary ampulicid wasp Ampulex compressa, for the existence of a PPG...

  20. 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film or topical corticosteroid (mometasone furoate) for protection against radiation dermatitis: A clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Su-Zun; Nien, Hsin-Hua; Wu, Ching-Jung; Lui, Louis Tak; Su, Jui-Fen; Lang, Chin-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the prevention of radiation dermatitis is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3M Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film and topical corticosteroids on irradiated skin...

  1. Common Causes of Anaphylaxis in Children: The First Report of Anaphylaxis Registry in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Barzegar, Saeideh; Rosita, Akramian; Pourpak, Zahra; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Shokouhi, Raheleh; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Cheraghi, Taher; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Iraj; Fazlollahi, Mohammadreza; Mirsaeedghazi, Bahram; Nabavi, Mohammad; Movahedi, Masoud; Gharagozlo, Mohammad; Farahmand, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis is an acute, systemic, and potentially fatal allergic reaction. Many things can cause anaphylaxis potentially but some agents are more common like some foods (milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nut, shellfish, and fish), insect stings, medications, latex, and food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The goal of this study is to show the common causes of anaphylaxis among the children with anaphylaxis history who were referred to the Immunology, Asthma and Allergy R...

  2. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  3. Thermoregulation of individual paper wasps ( Polistes dominula) plays an important role in nest defence and dominance battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höcherl, Nicole; Tautz, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Paper wasps, like Polistes dominula, are considered as primitively eusocial. Hence, they are often used as model species for studies about the evolution of eusociality and dominance hierarchies. However, our knowledge about basic physiological processes in these wasps remains limited. In particular, the thermoregulation of individual wasps in their natural habitat has not yet been investigated in detail. We conducted a comprehensive field study to test their ability to respond to external hazards with elevated thorax temperatures. We presented artificial threats by applying smoke or carbon dioxide simulating fire and predator attacks, respectively, and monitored the thorax temperature of wasps on the nest using infrared thermography. We found that P. dominula workers recognized smoke and CO2 and reacted almost instantaneously and simultaneously with an increase of their thorax temperature. The maximal thorax temperature was reached about 65 s after the application of both stressors, but subsequently, the wasps showed a different behaviour pattern. No rise of the thorax temperature was detectable after an air blast was applied or in wasps resting on the nest. These observations provide evidence that P. dominula is able to heat up its thorax and that thermoregulation is employed in escape and defence reactions. Additionally, we investigated the thorax temperatures of queens during dominance battles. We found that the thorax temperature of the dominant queens rose up to 5 °C compared to that of subordinate queens that attacked the former, suggesting that the dominant queen defends herself as well as her nest.

  4. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  5. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease inhibits the type I interferon signaling pathway through interaction with the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xingxing; Zheng, Yang; Yang, Yudong; Xing, Yaling; Chen, Zhongbin

    2014-05-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) develops an antagonistic mechanism by which to evade the antiviral activities of interferon (IFN). Previous studies suggested that SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibits activation of the IRF3 pathway, which would normally elicit a robust IFN response, but the mechanism(s) used by SARS PLpro to inhibit activation of the IRF3 pathway is not fully known. In this study, we uncovered a novel mechanism that may explain how SARS PLpro efficiently inhibits activation of the IRF3 pathway. We found that expression of the membrane-anchored PLpro domain (PLpro-TM) from SARS-CoV inhibits STING/TBK1/IKKε-mediated activation of type I IFNs and disrupts the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3, which are activated by STING and TBK1. Meanwhile, we showed that PLpro-TM physically interacts with TRAF3, TBK1, IKKε, STING, and IRF3, the key components that assemble the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex for activation of IFN expression. However, the interaction between the components in STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex is disrupted by PLpro-TM. Furthermore, SARS PLpro-TM reduces the levels of ubiquitinated forms of RIG-I, STING, TRAF3, TBK1, and IRF3 in the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex. These results collectively point to a new mechanism used by SARS-CoV through which PLpro negatively regulates IRF3 activation by interaction with STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex, yielding a SARS-CoV countermeasure against host innate immunity.

  6. Induction of PLSCR1 in a STING/IRF3-dependent manner upon vector transfection in ovarian epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik M Kodigepalli

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are the primary sensors of the innate immune system that recognize pathogenic nucleic acids including double-stranded plasmid DNA (dsDNA. TLR signaling activates multiple pathways including IRF3 which is involved in transcriptional induction of inflammatory cytokines (i.e. interferons (IFNs. Phospholipid scramblase 1, PLSCR1, is a highly inducible IFN-regulated gene mediating anti-viral properties of IFNs. Herein, we report a novel finding that dsDNA transfection in T80 immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line leads to a marked increase in PLSCR1 mRNA and protein. We also noted a comparable response in primary mammary epithelial cells (HMECs. Similar to IFN-2α treated cells, de novo synthesized PLSCR1 was localized predominantly to the plasma membrane. dsDNA transfection, in T80 and HMEC cells, led to activation of MAPK and IRF3. Although inhibition of MAPK (using U0126 did not modulate PLSCR1 mRNA and protein, IRF3 knockdown (using siRNA significantly ablated the PLSCR1 induction. In prior studies, the activation of IRF3 was shown to be mediated by cGAS-STING pathway. To investigate the contribution of STING to PLSCR1 induction, we utilized siRNA to reduce STING expression and observed that PLSCR1 protein was markedly reduced. In contrast to normal T80/HMECs, the phosphorylation of IRF3 as well as induction of STING and PLSCR1 were absent in ovarian cancer cells (serous, clear cell, and endometrioid suggesting that the STING/IRF3 pathway may be dysregulated in these cancer cells. However, we also noted induction of different TLR and IFN mRNAs between the T80 and HEY (serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines upon dsDNA transfection. Collectively, these results indicate that the STING/IRF3 pathway, activated following dsDNA transfection, contributes to upregulation of PLSCR1 in ovarian epithelial cells.

  7. Induction of PLSCR1 in a STING/IRF3-Dependent Manner upon Vector Transfection in Ovarian Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodigepalli, Karthik M.; Nanjundan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the primary sensors of the innate immune system that recognize pathogenic nucleic acids including double-stranded plasmid DNA (dsDNA). TLR signaling activates multiple pathways including IRF3 which is involved in transcriptional induction of inflammatory cytokines (i.e. interferons (IFNs)). Phospholipid scramblase 1, PLSCR1, is a highly inducible IFN-regulated gene mediating anti-viral properties of IFNs. Herein, we report a novel finding that dsDNA transfection in T80 immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line leads to a marked increase in PLSCR1 mRNA and protein. We also noted a comparable response in primary mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Similar to IFN-2α treated cells, de novo synthesized PLSCR1 was localized predominantly to the plasma membrane. dsDNA transfection, in T80 and HMEC cells, led to activation of MAPK and IRF3. Although inhibition of MAPK (using U0126) did not modulate PLSCR1 mRNA and protein, IRF3 knockdown (using siRNA) significantly ablated the PLSCR1 induction. In prior studies, the activation of IRF3 was shown to be mediated by cGAS-STING pathway. To investigate the contribution of STING to PLSCR1 induction, we utilized siRNA to reduce STING expression and observed that PLSCR1 protein was markedly reduced. In contrast to normal T80/HMECs, the phosphorylation of IRF3 as well as induction of STING and PLSCR1 were absent in ovarian cancer cells (serous, clear cell, and endometrioid) suggesting that the STING/IRF3 pathway may be dysregulated in these cancer cells. However, we also noted induction of different TLR and IFN mRNAs between the T80 and HEY (serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma) cell lines upon dsDNA transfection. Collectively, these results indicate that the STING/IRF3 pathway, activated following dsDNA transfection, contributes to upregulation of PLSCR1 in ovarian epithelial cells. PMID:25658875

  8. Sumoylation Promotes the Stability of the DNA Sensor cGAS and the Adaptor STING to Regulate the Kinetics of Response to DNA Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Qing; Xie, Xue-Qin; Liao, Chen-Yang; Lin, Heng; Liu, Tian-Tian; Yin, Lei; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-09-20

    During viral infection, sensing of cytosolic DNA by the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) activates the adaptor protein STING and triggers an antiviral response. Little is known about the mechanisms that determine the kinetics of activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway, ensuring effective but controlled innate antiviral responses. Here we found that the ubiquitin ligase Trim38 targets cGas for sumoylation in uninfected cells and during the early phase of viral infection. Sumoylation of cGas prevented its polyubiquitination and degradation. Trim38 also sumoylated Sting during the early phase of viral infection, promoting both Sting activation and protein stability. In the late phase of infection, cGas and Sting were desumoylated by Senp2 and subsequently degraded via proteasomal and chaperone-mediated autophagy pathways, respectively. Our findings reveal an essential role for Trim38 in the innate immune response to DNA virus and provide insight into the mechanisms that ensure optimal activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic effects of the venom of the wasp Polybia paulista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Márcia M; Santos, Lucilene D; Palma, Mario S; Marin-Morales, Maria A

    2013-09-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are constituted by a complex mixture of chemically or pharmacologically bioactive agents, such as phospholipases, hyaluronidases and mastoparans. Venoms can also contain substances that are able to inhibit and/or diminish the genotoxic or mutagenic action of other compounds that are capable of promoting damages in the genetic material. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the effect of the venom of Polybia paulista, a neotropical wasp, by assays with HepG2 cells maintained in culture. The cytotoxic potential of the wasp venom, assessed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT assay), was tested for the concentrations of 10 μg/mL, 5 μg/mL and 1 μg/mL. As these concentrations were not cytotoxic, they were used to evaluate the genotoxic (comet assay) and mutagenic potential (micronucleus test) of the venom. In this study, it was verified that these concentrations induced damages in the DNA of the exposed cells, and it was necessary to test lower concentrations until it was found those that were not considered genotoxic and mutagenic. The concentrations of 1 ng/mL, 100 pg/mL and 10 pg/mL, which did not induce genotoxicity and mutagenicity, were used in four different treatments (post-treatment, pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment with and without incubation), in order to evaluate if these concentrations were able to inhibit or decrease the genotoxic and mutagenic action of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). None of the concentrations was able to inhibit and/or decrease the MMS activity. The genotoxic and mutagenic activity of the venom of P. paulista could be caused by the action of phospholipase, mastoparan and hyaluronidase, which are able to disrupt the cell membrane and thereby interact with the genetic material of the cells or even facilitate the entrance of other compounds of the venom that can act on the DNA. Another possible explanation for the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the venom can be the presence of substances able

  10. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  11. Spiroplasma bacteria enhance survival of Drosophila hydei attacked by the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternally-transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are ubiquitous. While many of these associations are obligate and mutually beneficial, many are facultative, and the mechanism(s by which these microbes persist in their host lineages remain elusive. Inherited microbes with imperfect transmission are expected to be lost from their host lineages if no other mechanisms increase their persistence (i.e., host reproductive manipulation and/or fitness benefits to host. Indeed numerous facultative heritable endosymbionts are reproductive manipulators. Nevertheless, many do not manipulate reproduction, so they are expected to confer fitness benefits to their hosts, as has been shown in several studies that report defense against natural enemies, tolerance to environmental stress, and increased fecundity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined whether larval to adult survival of Drosophila hydei against attack by a common parasitoid wasp (Leptopilina heterotoma, differed between uninfected flies and flies that were artificially infected with Spiroplasma, a heritable endosymbiont of Drosophila hydei that does not appear to manipulate host reproduction. Survival was significantly greater for Spiroplasma-infected flies, and the effect of Spiroplasma infection was most evident during the host's pupal stage. We examined whether or not increased survival of Spiroplasma-infected flies was due to reduced oviposition by the wasp (i.e., pre-oviposition mechanism. The number of wasp eggs per fly larva did not differ significantly between Spiroplasma-free and Spiroplasma-infected fly larvae, suggesting that differential fly survival is due to a post-oviposition mechanism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Spiroplasma confers protection to D. hydei against wasp parasitism. This is to our knowledge the first report of a potential defensive mutualism in the genus Spiroplasma. Whether it explains the

  12. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  13. Revisiting the Energy Budget of WASP-43b: Enhanced Day–Night Heat Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Dylan; Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-11-01

    The large day–night temperature contrast of WASP-43b has so far eluded explanation. We revisit the energy budget of this planet by considering the impact of reflected light on dayside measurements and the physicality of implied nightside temperatures. Previous analyses of the infrared eclipses of WASP-43b have assumed reflected light from the planet is negligible and can be ignored. We develop a phenomenological eclipse model including reflected light, thermal emission, and water absorption, and we use it to fit published Hubble and Spitzer eclipse data. We infer a near-infrared geometric albedo of 24% ± 1% and a cooler dayside temperature of 1483 ± 10 K. Additionally, we perform light curve inversion on the three published orbital phase curves of WASP-43b and find that each suggests unphysical, negative flux on the nightside. By requiring non-negative brightnesses at all longitudes, we correct the unphysical parts of the maps and obtain a much hotter nightside effective temperature of 1076 ± 11 K. The cooler dayside and hotter nightside suggest a heat recirculation efficiency of 51% for WASP-43b, essentially the same as for HD 209458b, another hot Jupiter with nearly the same temperature. Our analysis therefore reaffirms the trend that planets with lower irradiation temperatures have more efficient day–night heat transport. Moreover, we note that (1) reflected light may be significant for many near-IR eclipse measurements of hot Jupiters, and (2) phase curves should be fit with physically possible longitudinal brightness profiles—it is insufficient to only require that the disk-integrated light curve be non-negative.

  14. No actual conflict over colony inheritance despite high potential conflict in the social wasp Polistes dominulus

    OpenAIRE

    Monnin, Thibaud; Cini, Alessandro; Lecat, Vincent; Fédérici, Pierre; Doums, Claudie

    2009-01-01

    Social insect societies are outstanding examples of cooperation and conflict. Individuals work together, yet seek to increase their inclusive fitness at each others' expense. One such conflict is over colony inheritance, when a queen inherits the colony following the death of the previous queen. Colony inheritance is common in the social wasp Polistes dominulus, and it can have dramatic fitness consequences. The subordinate inheriting the colony is often unrelated to the initial foundress (al...

  15. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

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    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  16. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  17. Comparative analysis of constraints and caste differences in brain investment among social paper wasps

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie; Molina, Yamile

    2011-01-01

    We compared species mean data on the size of functionally distinct brain regions to test the relative rates at which investment in higher-order cognitive processing (mushroom body calyces) versus peripheral sensory processing (optic and antennal lobes) increased with increasing brain size. Subjects were eusocial paper wasps from queen and worker castes of 10 species from different genera. Relative investment in central processing tissue increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripher...

  18. Additional heritable virus in the parasitic wasp Leptopilina boulardi: prevalence, transmission and phenotypic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julien; Lepetit, David; Ravallec, Marc; Fleury, Frédéric; Varaldi, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Parasitoid wasps can be found in association with heritable viruses. Although some viruses have been shown to profoundly affect the biology and evolution of parasitoid wasps, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of parasitoid-associated viruses remains largely unexplored. We previously discovered a behaviour-manipulating DNA virus in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi. In this species, which lays its eggs inside Drosophila larvae, Leptopilina boulardi filamentous virus (LbFV) forces the females to lay their eggs in already parasitized Drosophila larvae. This behavioural manipulation increases the chances for the horizontal transmission of the virus. Here, we describe in the same parasitoid species another virus, which we propose to call Leptopilina boulardi toti-like virus (LbTV). This double-stranded RNA virus is highly prevalent in insect laboratory lines as well as in parasitoids caught in the field. In some cases, LbTV was found in coinfection with LbFV, but did not affect the behaviour of the wasp. Instead we found that the presence of LbTV correlates with an increase in the number of offspring, mostly due to increased survival of parasitoid larvae. LbTV is vertically transmitted mostly through the maternal lineage even if frequent paternal transmission also occurs. Unlike LbFV, LbTV is not horizontally transmitted. Its genome encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) showing similarities with RdRps of Totiviridae. These results underline the high incidence and diversity of inherited viruses in parasitoids as well as their potential impact on the phenotype of their hosts.

  19. Nature's Swiss Army knives: ovipositor structure mirrors ecology in a multitrophic fig wasp community.

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    Mahua Ghara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resource partitioning is facilitated by adaptations along niche dimensions that range from morphology to behaviour. The exploitation of hidden resources may require specially adapted morphological or sensory tools for resource location and utilisation. Differences in tool diversity and complexity can determine not only how many species can utilize these hidden resources but also how they do so. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sclerotisation, gross morphology and ultrastructure of the ovipositors of a seven-member community of parasitic wasps comprising of gallers and parasitoids developing within the globular syconia (closed inflorescences of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae was investigated. These wasps also differ in their parasitism mode (external versus internal oviposition and their timing of oviposition into the expanding syconium during its development. The number and diversity of sensilla, as well as ovipositor teeth, increased from internally ovipositing to externally ovipositing species and from gallers to parasitoids. The extent of sclerotisation of the ovipositor tip matched the force required to penetrate the syconium at the time of oviposition of each species. The internally ovipositing pollinator had only one type of sensillum and a single notch on the ovipositor tip. Externally ovipositing species had multiple sensilla types and teeth on their ovipositors. Chemosensilla were most concentrated at ovipositor tips while mechanoreceptors were more widely distributed, facilitating the precise location of hidden hosts in these wasps which lack larval host-seeking behaviour. Ovipositor traits of one parasitoid differed from those of its syntopic galler congeners and clustered with those of parasitoids within a different wasp subfamily. Thus ovipositor tools can show lability based on adaptive necessity, and are not constrained by phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ovipositor structure mirrored the increasingly complex

  20. Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus

    OpenAIRE

    Tooker, John F.; Koenig, Wilfried A.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within de...

  1. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  2. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A. P.; Sérsic, A. N.; Marino, S.; Simões, A. O.; Cocucci, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Methods Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. Key Results The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Conclusions Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators

  3. WASP and SCAR are evolutionarily conserved in actin-filled pseudopod-based motility

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Lord, Samuel J.; Mullins, R Dyche

    2017-01-01

    Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call ??-motility.? Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE?activators of branched a...

  4. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY CLINICAL COURSE AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION We know that habitat of scorpion is warm, and dry region. They inhibit commonly under logs, debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, and Coconut and banana plantations. (1 Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is famous for paddy, banana and coconut which are good habitat for scorpion. It is a retrospective study in which all the date of scorpion sting cases admitted in Konaseema institute of medical science and general hospital the only referral hospital in Konaseema region in last 3 years that is from Oct 2012 to Nov 2015 was collected. Mesobuthus tamulus is common in Andhra Pradesh. With the combined use of SAV and prazosin mortality has been reduced. But the awareness about the scorpion to the parent and its habitat will prevent the sting.

  5. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  6. Diapause and Cold Hardiness of the Almond Wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Two Independent Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohamadi, Fatemeh; Khajehali, Jahangir; Izadi, Hamzeh

    2016-08-01

    The almond wasp, Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a key pest of almond, is a univoltine pest diapausing as last instar larvae inside the damaged fruits for almost nine months in a year. In this study, changes in the amount of total simple sugars, lipid, protein, glycogen, trehalose, glucose, supercooling points (SCPs), and cold hardiness of the diapausing larvae were measured from October to March for first year diapause-destined and in August and September for second year diapause-destined larvae. Changes in glycogen content were reversely proportional to changes in total simple sugars and low molecular weight carbohydrates. These changes reflect the interconversion of glycogen to sugar alcohol in order to increase the insect cold tolerance. We found that cold hardiness and diapause of the last instar larvae of the almond wasp have evolved separately. Cold hardiness was highly associated with physiological changes (accumulation of cryoprotectants), but no physiological changes occurred in early diapause of first year diapause-destined and second year diapause-destined larvae. The almond wasp larvae were found to be a freeze-avoidant insect, as no larva survived after SCP determination and crystallization of its body fluids. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-02-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis.

  8. TRAP-NESTING BEES AND WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, ACULEATA IN A SEMIDECIDUAL SEASONAL FOREST FRAGMENT, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    PRISCILA S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trap-nesting bee and wasp inventories are common in Brazil but many phytophysiognomies are still poorly studied. The main objective of this study is to survey trap-nesting bees and wasps in a Semidecidual Seasonal Forest fragment. Also, we test the differences on nesting between interior and edge transects. A sum of 1,500 trap nests was made with bamboo cane internodes and two consecutive years were monitored. In the first year 46 nests were occupied by Pachodynerus grandis (19 nests, Pachodynerus guadulpensis (19, Centris analis (two, and Centris tarsata, Megachile fiebrigi, Megachile guaranitica, Megachile susurrans, Trypoxylon sp and Zethus smithii with one nest each. No statistical differences were found between interior and edge transects for richness and occupation rate, but the species composition was different. In the second year 39 nests were occupied by four species, three previously recorded, C. analis (seven nests, P. guadulpensis and P. grandis (six nests each, plus Monobia angulosa with 15 nests. Parasitoids from four families and one cleptoparasite were recorded and the mortality rate was higher in bees than in wasps. These findings reinforce the notion that trap nests assemblages from different studies are not directly comparable for richness and composition.

  9. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

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    Stav Emanuel

    Full Text Available The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa. In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.

  10. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

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    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  11. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

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    Devanshu Agrawal

    Full Text Available Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  12. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: ebechter@nd.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather, E-mail: khaynes0112@gmail.com [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  14. High Bee and Wasp Diversity in a Heterogeneous Tropical Farming System Compared to Protected Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

  15. The Optical Transmission Spectrum of the Inflated Hot Jupiter WASP-94Ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Osip, David; McDonald, Michael; Triaud, Amaury; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Delrez, Laetitia; Queloz, Didier; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exoplaneteers study the color of sunset on other planets, by measuring the wavelength-dependence of the fraction of starlight transmitted through the planets' atmospheres during transit. These transmission spectroscopy observations can reveal the molecular composition and aerosol distribution along the planet's day-night terminator. Here, we present new observations of the transmission spectrum of WASP-94Ab, an inflated hot Jupiter in a 3.95 day orbit around a bright 6200K, V=10.1 dwarf star. The star is in a visual binary with a nearly identical star (6100K, V=10.5) located 15" away. We observed three transits of WASP-94Ab with the Magellan/LDSS3C multiobject spectrograph, taking advantage of the nearby companion to correct for temporal variations in Earth's telluric spectrum. Thanks to the Magellan Clay telescope's large 6.5m aperture and WASP-94Ab's low surface gravity, we achieve a spectrophotometric precision (in units of atmospheric scale heights) that rivals Hubble/STIS spectroscopy of the famous and much brighter hot Jupiter system HD209458b. We highlight the valuable role ground-based telescopes can play for exoplanetary characterization in the TESS era.

  16. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet Wasp-14B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, J. E.; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.; Ciardi, D.; Plavchan, P.; Wong, I.; Lowrance, P.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling the phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of approximately two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring-mode phase curve. Both data sets, as well as snapshot-style observations of a calibration star, are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot data set, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as the amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot Jupiter. We place a limit on the potential phase to phase variation of these parameters since our data are taken over many phases over the course of a year. We see no evidence for eclipse depth variations compared to other published WASP-14b eclipse depths over a 3.5 year baseline.

  17. The metabolic costs of fighting and host exploitation in a seed-drilling parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Romain P; Woods, H Arthur; Goubault, Marlène

    2017-11-01

    Oviposition sites may be challenging and energetically costly to access for females in the presence of competitors contesting that resource. Additionally, oviposition sites may be difficult to reach, and penetrating a hard substrate can raise energy costs. In the seed-drilling parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti, females actively fight with conspecific competitors over access to hosts. They are often observed laying eggs on already parasitized hosts (superparasitism) living inside cowpea seeds despite the resulting larval competition. Using flow-through respirometry, we quantified the metabolic costs of fighting and of drilling through the seed to access the host, to understand the wasp's fighting strategies and the occurrence of superparasitism. Agonistic interactions such as kicks or pushes generated very small instantaneous costs, but the females that won their contests had higher pre-contest metabolic rates, suggesting a potential long-term cost associated with dominance. We also found that drilling holes through the seed accounted for approximately 15% of a wasp's estimated daily energy budget, and that females can reduce these drilling costs by reusing existing holes. Because exploiting new seeds incurs both drilling costs and the risk of fights, it appears cost effective in some situations for females to avoid confrontations and lay eggs in existing holes, on already parasitized hosts. Our study helps explain the evolution of superparasitism in this system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Transdifferentiation and Proliferation in Two Distinct Hemocyte Lineages in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae after Wasp Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Anderl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses require the generation and recruitment of diverse blood cell types that recognize and kill pathogens. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, immune-inducible lamellocytes participate in recognizing and killing parasitoid wasp eggs. However, the sequence of events required for lamellocyte generation remains controversial. To study the cellular immune system, we developed a flow cytometry approach using in vivo reporters for lamellocytes as well as for plasmatocytes, the main hemocyte type in healthy larvae. We found that two different blood cell lineages, the plasmatocyte and lamellocyte lineages, contribute to the generation of lamellocytes in a demand-adapted hematopoietic process. Plasmatocytes transdifferentiate into lamellocyte-like cells in situ directly on the wasp egg. In parallel, a novel population of infection-induced cells, which we named lamelloblasts, appears in the circulation. Lamelloblasts proliferate vigorously and develop into the major class of circulating lamellocytes. Our data indicate that lamellocyte differentiation upon wasp parasitism is a plastic and dynamic process. Flow cytometry with in vivo hemocyte reporters can be used to study this phenomenon in detail.

  19. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  20. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.