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Sample records for wasp manipulates neuronal

  1. A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey.

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    Ram Gal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile 'zombie', incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG. A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1 Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2 injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3 artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4 spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the

  2. A Wasp Manipulates Neuronal Activity in the Sub-Esophageal Ganglion to Decrease the Drive for Walking in Its Cockroach Prey

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    Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Background The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile ‘zombie’, incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG). A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. Methodology and Principal Findings We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1) Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2) injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3) artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4) spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. Conclusions and Significance We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the SEG, the

  3. Proximate mechanism of behavioral manipulation of an orb-weaver spider host by a parasitoid wasp

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    Gonzaga, Marcelo Oliveira; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2017-01-01

    Some ichneumonid wasps induce modifications in the web building behavior of their spider hosts to produce resistant “cocoon” webs. These structures hold and protect the wasp’s cocoon during pupa development. The mechanism responsible for host manipulation probably involves the inoculation of psychotropic chemicals by the parasitoid larva during a specific developmental period. Recent studies indicate that some spiders build cocoon webs similar to those normally built immediately before ecdysis, suggesting that this substance might be a molting hormone or a precursor chemical of this hormone. Here, we report that Cyclosa spider species exhibiting modified behavior presented higher 20-OH-ecdysone levels than parasitized spiders acting normally or unparasitized individuals. We suggest that the lack of control that spiders have when constructing modified webs can be triggered by anachronic activation of ecdysis. PMID:28158280

  4. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

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    Roser Pinyol

    Full Text Available Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  5. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

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    Emanuel, Stav; Libersat, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa). In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.

  6. Decrease of memory retention in a parasitic wasp: an effect of host manipulation by Wolbachia?

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    Kishani Farahani, Hossein; Ashouri, Ahmad; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Shapiro, Martin S; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; van Baaren, Joan

    2017-08-01

    Several factors, such as cold exposure, aging, the number of experiences and viral infection, have been shown to affect learning ability in different organisms. Wolbachia has been found worldwide as an arthropod parasite/mutualist symbiont in a wide range of species, including insects. Differing effects have been identified on physiology and behavior by Wolbachia. However, the effect of Wolbachia infection on the learning ability of their host had never previously been studied. The current study carried out to compare learning ability and memory duration in 2 strains of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: 1 uninfected and 1 infected by Wolbachia. Both strains were able to associate the novel odors with the reward of an oviposition into a host egg. However, the percentage of females that responded to the experimental design and displayed an ability to learn in these conditions was higher in the uninfected strain. Memory duration was longer in uninfected wasps (23.8 and 21.4 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively) than in infected wasps (18.9 and 16.2 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively). Memory retention increased in response to the number of conditioning sessions in both strains, but memory retention was always shorter in the infected wasps than in the uninfected ones. Wolbachia infection may select for reduced memory retention because shorter memory induces infected wasps to disperse in new environments and avoid competition with uninfected wasps by forgetting cues related to previously visited environments, thus increasing transmission of Wolbachia in new environments. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

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    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Octopamine-like immunoreactive neurons in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the parasitic wasps Nasonia vitripennis and N. giraulti.

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    Haverkamp, Alexander; Smid, Hans M

    2014-11-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator in the insect nervous system, influencing memory formation, sensory perception and motor control. In this study, we compare the distribution of octopamine-like immunoreactive neurons in two parasitic wasp species of the Nasonia genus, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. These two species were previously described as differing in their learning and memory formation, which raised the question as to whether morphological differences in octopaminergic neurons underpinned these variations. Immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to reveal and compare the somata and major projections of the octopaminergic neurons in these wasps. The brains of both species showed similar staining patterns, with six different neuron clusters being identified in the brain and five different clusters in the subesophageal ganglion. Of those clusters found in the subesophageal ganglion, three contained unpaired neurons, whereas the other three consisted in paired neurons. The overall pattern of octopaminergic neurons in both species was similar, with no differences in the numbers or projections of the ventral unpaired median (VUM) neurons, which are known to be involved in memory formation in insects. In one other cluster in the brain, located in-between the optic lobe and the antennal lobe, we detected more neurons in N. vitripennis compared with N. giraulti. Combining our results with findings made previously in other Hymenopteran species, we discuss possible functions and some of the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of the octopaminergic system in the insect brain.

  9. Tetracycline inducible gene manipulation in serotonergic neurons.

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    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT neuronal system has important and diverse physiological functions throughout development and adulthood. Its dysregulation during development or later in adulthood has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic animal models designed to study the contribution of serotonergic susceptibility genes to a pathological phenotype should ideally allow to study candidate gene overexpression or gene knockout selectively in serotonergic neurons at any desired time during life. For this purpose, conditional expression systems such as the tet-system are preferable. Here, we generated a transactivator (tTA mouse line (TPH2-tTA that allows temporal and spatial control of tetracycline (Ptet controlled transgene expression as well as gene deletion in 5-HT neurons. The tTA cDNA was inserted into a 196 kb PAC containing a genomic mouse Tph2 fragment (177 kb by homologous recombination in E. coli. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled transgene expression, TPH2-tTA mice were crossed to a Ptet-regulated lacZ reporter line (Ptet-nLacZ. In adult double-transgenic TPH2-tTA/Ptet-nLacZ mice, TPH2-tTA founder line L62-20 showed strong serotonergic β-galactosidase expression which could be completely suppressed with doxycycline (Dox. Furthermore, Ptet-regulated gene expression could be reversibly activated or inactivated when Dox was either withdrawn or added to the system. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled, Cre-mediated gene deletion, TPH2-tTA mice (L62-20 were crossed to double transgenic Ptet-Cre/R26R reporter mice to generate TPH2-tTA/Ptet-Cre/R26R mice. Without Dox, 5-HT specific recombination started at E12.5. With permanent Dox administration, Ptet-controlled Cre-mediated recombination was absent. Dox withdrawal either postnatally or during adulthood induced efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons of all raphe nuclei, respectively. In the enteric nervous system, recombination could not be detected. We

  10. Laser nano-surgery for neuronal manipulation (Conference Presentation)

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    Sarker, Hori Pada; Chudal, Lalit; Mahapatra, Vasu; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical manipulation has enabled study of bio-chemical and bio-mechanical properties of the cells. Laser nanosurgery by ultrafast laser beam with appropriate laser parameters provides spatially-targeted manipulation of neurons in a minimal invasiveness manner with high efficiency. We utilized femto-second laser nano-surgery for both axotomy and sub-axotomy of rat cortical neurons. Degeneration and regeneration after axotomy was studied with and without external growth-factor(s) and biochemical(s). Further, axonal injury was studied as a function of pulse energy, exposure and site of injury. The ability to study the response of neurons to localized injury opens up opportunities for screening potential molecules for repair and regeneration after nerve injury. Sub-axotomy enabled transient opening of axonal membrane for optical delivery of impermeable molecules to the axoplasm. Fast resealing of the axonal membrane after sub-axotomy without significant long-term damage to axon (monitored by its growth) was observed. We will present these experimental results along with theoretical simulation of injury due to laser nano-surgery and delivery via the transient pore. Targeted delivery of proteins such as antibodies, genes encoding reporter proteins, ion-channels and voltage indicators will allow visualization, activation and detection of the neuronal structure and function.

  11. Competitive outcome of multiple infections in a behavior-manipulating virus/wasp interaction.

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    Martinez, Julien; Fleury, Frédéric; Varaldi, Julien

    2015-12-01

    Infections by multiple parasites are common in nature and may impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. We investigated the existence of multiple infections involving the DNA virus LbFV and the Drosophila parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi. This vertically transmitted virus forces infected females to lay their eggs in already parasitized Drosophila larvae (a behavior called superparasitism), thus favoring its spread through horizontal transmission. Previous theoretical work indicated that the evolution of the level of the manipulation strongly depends on whether infected parasitoids can be re-infected or not. Here, we describe a strain of LbFV that differs from the reference strain by showing a deletion within the locus used for PCR detection. We used this polymorphism to test for the existence of multiple infections in this system. Viral strains did not differ on their vertical or horizontal transmission rates nor on the way they affect the parasitoid's phenotype, including their ability to manipulate behavior. Although already infected parasitoids were much less susceptible to new infection than uninfected ones, frequent coinfection was detected. However, following coinfection, competition between viral strains led to the rapid elimination of one strain or the other after a few generations of vertical transmission. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of the behavioral manipulation.

  12. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

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    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  13. Nestmate recognition in social wasps: manipulation of hydrocarbon profiles induces aggression in the European hornet

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    Ruther, Joachim; Sieben, Stefan; Schricker, Burkhard

    2002-03-01

    The influence of individual cuticular hydrocarbons on nestmate recognition in the European hornet, Vespa crabro L., was investigated. We observed the behavioural response of workers towards differently treated dead conspecifics in a bioassay. Dummies were extracted with dichloromethane and extracts were spiked with microgram amounts of synthetic hydrocarbons naturally occurring on the cuticle of V. crabro. These modified extracts were reapplied to extracted workers that were subsequently tested in the bioassay. Non-spiked nestmate dummies (negative control) and untreated non-nestmate dummies (positive control) were tested in control experiments. The addition of only heneicosane or a mixture of heneicosane, tricosane, and ( Z)-9-tricosene to the extracts led to a significant increase of agonistic behaviour in workers leaving the nest for foraging flights. Returning workers reacted much less aggressively than those leaving. This is one of the first behavioural proofs that manipulation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles can be perceived by a social insect species. The results support the hypothesis that colony-specific cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are involved in the phenomenon of nestmate recognition among social insects.

  14. Functional properties of parietal hand manipulation-related neurons and mirror neurons responding to vision of own hand action.

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    Maeda, Kazutaka; Ishida, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Katsumi; Inase, Masahiko; Murata, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Parietofrontal pathways play an important role in visually guided motor control. In this pathway, hand manipulation-related neurons in the inferior parietal lobule represent 3-D properties of an object and motor patterns to grasp it. Furthermore, mirror neurons show visual responses that are concerned with the actions of others and motor-related activity during execution of the same grasping action. Because both of these categories of neurons integrate visual and motor signals, these neurons may play a role in motor control based on visual feedback signals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these neurons in inferior parietal lobule including the anterior intraparietal area and PFG of macaques represent visual images of the monkey's own hand during a self-generated grasping action. We recorded 235 neurons related to hand manipulation tasks. Of these, 54 responded to video clips of the monkey's own hand action, the same as visual feedback during that action or clips of the experimenter's hand action in a lateral view. Of these 54 neurons, 25 responded to video clips of the monkey's own hand, even without an image of the target object. We designated these 25 neurons as "hand-type." Thirty-three of 54 neurons that were defined as mirror neurons showed visual responses to the experimenter's action and motor responses. Thirteen of these mirror neurons were classified as hand-type. These results suggest that activity of hand manipulation-related and mirror neurons in anterior intraparietal/PFG plays a fundamental role in monitoring one's own body state based on visual feedback.

  15. A New Tool for Local Manipulation of Neuronal Micro-Circuitry with Ions and Force

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    2017-02-07

    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 A New Tool for Local Manipulation of Neuronal Micro -Circuitry with Ions and Force. W911NF-15-2-0056 The Regents of...Neuronal Micro -Circuitry with Ions and Force". Sincerely, I ~ ?J Kenneth S. Kosik, M.D. Kosik- W911NF-15-2-0056- FINAL REPORT Major Technical

  16. Assigning Function to Adult-Born Neurons: A Theoretical Framework for Characterizing Neural Manipulation of Learning

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    Sarah eHersman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientists are concerned with neural processes or computations, but these may not be directly observable. In the field of learning, a behavioral procedure is observed to lead to performance outcomes, but differing inferences on underlying internal processes can lead to difficulties in interpreting conflicting results. An example of this challenge is how many functions have been attributed to adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Some of these functions were suggested by computational models of the properties of these neurons, while others were hypothesized after manipulations of adult-born neurons resulted in changes to behavioral metrics. This review seeks to provide a framework, based in learning theory classification of behavioral procedures, of the processes that may be underlying behavioral results after manipulating procedure and observing performance. We propose that this framework can serve to clarify experimental findings on adult-born neurons as well as other classes of neural manipulations and their effects on behavior.

  17. Manipulating neuronal activity with low frequency transcranial ultrasound

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    Moore, Michele Elizabeth

    Stimulation of the rodent cerebral cortex is used to investigate the underlying biological basis for the restorative effects of slow wave sleep. Neuronal activation by optogenetic and ultrasound stimulation elicits changes in action potentials across the cerebral cortex that are recorded as electroencephalograms. Optogenetic stimulation requires an invasive implantation procedure limiting its application in human studies. We sought to determine whether ultrasound stimulation could be as effective as optogenetic techniques currently used, in an effort to further understand the physiological and metabolic requirements of sleep. We successfully recorded electroencephalograms in response to transcranial ultrasound stimulation of the barrel cortex at 1 and 7 Hz frequencies, comparing them to those recorded in response to optogenetic stimuli applied at the same frequencies. Our results showed application of a 473 nm blue LED positioned 6 cm above the skull and ultrasound stimulation at an output voltage of 1000 mVpp produced electroencephalograms with physiological responses of similar amplitude. We concluded that there exists an intensity-proportionate response in the optogenetic stimulation, but not with ultrasound stimulation at the frequencies we surveyed. Activation of neuronal cells in response to optogenetic stimulation in a Thy1-ChR2 transgenic mouse line is specifically targeted to pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex. ChR2 responses to optogenetic stimulation are mediated by a focal activation of neuronal ion channels. We measured electrophysiological responses to ultrasound stimulation, comparing them to those recorded from optogenetic stimuli. Our results show striking similarities between ultrasound-induced responses and optogenetically-induced responses, which may indicate that transcranial ultrasound stimulation is also mediated by ion channel dependent processes in cerebral cortical neurons. The biophysical substrates for electrical excitability of

  18. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

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    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  19. The age of enlightenment: evolving opportunities in brain research through optical manipulation of neuronal activity.

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    Jerome, Jason; Heck, Detlef H

    2011-01-01

    Optical manipulation of neuronal activity has rapidly developed into the most powerful and widely used approach to study mechanisms related to neuronal connectivity over a range of scales. Since the early use of single site uncaging to map network connectivity, rapid technological development of light modulation techniques has added important new options, such as fast scanning photostimulation, massively parallel control of light stimuli, holographic uncaging, and two-photon stimulation techniques. Exciting new developments in optogenetics complement neurotransmitter uncaging techniques by providing cell-type specificity and in vivo usability, providing optical access to the neural substrates of behavior. Here we review the rapid evolution of methods for the optical manipulation of neuronal activity, emphasizing crucial recent developments.

  20. The age of enlightenment: evolving opportunities in brain research through optical manipulation of neuronal activity

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    Jason eJerome

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical manipulation of neuronal activity has rapidly developed into the most powerful and widely used approach to study mechanisms related to neuronal connectivity over a range of scales. Since the early use of single site uncaging to map network connectivity, rapid technological development of light modulation techniques has added important new options, such as fast scanning photostimulation, massively parallel control of light stimuli, holographic uncaging and 2-photon stimulation techniques. Exciting new developments in optogenetics complement neurotransmitter uncaging techniques by providing cell-type specificity and in vivo usability, providing optical access to the neural substrates of behavior. Here we review the rapid evolution of methods for the optical manipulation of neuronal activity, emphasizing crucial recent developments.

  1. A light- and calcium-gated transcription factor for imaging and manipulating activated neurons.

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    Wang, Wenjing; Wildes, Craig P; Pattarabanjird, Tanyaporn; Sanchez, Mateo I; Glober, Gordon F; Matthews, Gillian A; Tye, Kay M; Ting, Alice Y

    2017-09-01

    Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene. In cultured rat neurons, FLARE gives a light-to-dark signal ratio of 120 and a high- to low-calcium signal ratio of 10 after 10 min of stimulation. Opsin expression permitted functional manipulation of FLARE-marked neurons. In adult mice, FLARE also gave light- and motor-activity-dependent transcription in the cortex. Due to its modular design, minute-scale temporal resolution, and minimal dark-state leak, FLARE should be useful for the study of activity-dependent processes in neurons and other cells that signal with calcium.

  2. Effect of Spinal Manipulation Thrust Magnitude on Trunk Mechanical Thresholds of Lateral Thalamic Neurons

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    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM), as performed by manual therapists (eg, doctors of chiropractic and osteopathy) results in mechanical hypoalgesia in clinical settings. This hypoalgesic effect has previously been attributed to alterations in peripheral and/or central pain processing. The objective of this study was to determine whether thrust magnitude of a simulated HVLA-SM alters mechanical trunk response thresholds in wide dynamic range (WDR) and/or nociceptive specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Methods Extracellular recordings were carried out in the thalamus of 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. Lateral thalamic neurons having receptive fields which included the lumbar dorsal-lateral trunk were characterized as either WDR (n=22) or NS (n=25). Response thresholds to electronic von Frey (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli were determined in three directions (dorsal-ventral, 45°caudalward, and 45°cranialward) prior to and immediately following the dorsal-ventral delivery of a 100ms HVLA-SM at three thrust magnitudes (control, 55%, 85% body weight; (BW)). Results There was a significant difference in mechanical threshold between 85% BW manipulation and control thrust magnitudes in the dorsal-ventral direction in NS neurons (p=.01). No changes were found in WDR neurons at either HVLA-SM thrust magnitude. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate the effect of HVLA-SM thrust magnitude on WDR and NS lateral thalamic mechanical response threshold. Our data suggest that at the single lateral thalamic neuron level, there may be a minimal spinal manipulative thrust magnitude required to elicit an increase in trunk mechanical response thresholds. PMID:24928636

  3. Effect of spinal manipulation thrust magnitude on trunk mechanical activation thresholds of lateral thalamic neurons.

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    Reed, William R; Pickar, Joel G; Sozio, Randall S; Long, Cynthia R

    2014-06-01

    High-velocity low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM), as performed by doctors who use manual therapy (eg, doctors of chiropractic and osteopathy), results in mechanical hypoalgesia in clinical settings. This hypoalgesic effect has previously been attributed to alterations in peripheral and/or central pain processing. The objective of this study was to determine whether thrust magnitude of a simulated HVLA-SM alters mechanical trunk response thresholds in wide dynamic range (WDR) and/or nociceptive specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Extracellular recordings were carried out in the thalamus of 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. Lateral thalamic neurons having receptive fields, which included the lumbar dorsal-lateral trunk, were characterized as either WDR (n=22) or NS (n=25). Response thresholds to electronic von Frey (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli were determined in 3 directions (dorsal-ventral, 45° caudalward, and 45° cranialward) before and immediately after the dorsal-ventral delivery of a 100-millisecond HVLA-SM at 3 thrust magnitudes (control, 55%, 85% body weight). There was a significant difference in mechanical threshold between 85% body weight manipulation and control thrust magnitudes in the dorsal-ventral direction in NS neurons (P=.01). No changes were found in WDR neurons at either HVLA-SM thrust magnitude. This study is the first to investigate the effect of HVLA-SM thrust magnitude on WDR and NS lateral thalamic mechanical response threshold. Our data suggest that, at the single lateral thalamic neuron level, there may be a minimal spinal manipulative thrust magnitude required to elicit an increase in trunk mechanical response thresholds. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature manipulation of neuronal dynamics in a forebrain motor control nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2017-01-01

    Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the “breaking” of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally. We developed a technique where simultaneous electrophysiological recordings were performed during temperature manipulation of HVC. We recorded spontaneous activity and found three effects: widening of the spike shape, decrease of the firing rate and change in the interspike interval distribution. All these effects could be explained with a detailed conductance based model of all the neurons present in HVC. Temperature dependence of the ionic channel time constants explained the first effect, while the second was based in the changes of the maximal conductance using single synaptic excitatory inputs. The last phenomenon, only emerged after introducing a more realistic synaptic input to the inhibitory interneurons. Two timescales were present in the interspike distributions. The behavior of one timescale was reproduced with different input balances received form the excitatory neurons, whereas the other, which disappears with cooling, could not be found assuming poissonian synaptic inputs. Furthermore, the computational model shows that the bursting of the excitatory neurons arises naturally at normal brain temperature and that they have an intrinsic delay at low temperatures. The same effect occurs at single synapses, which may explain song stretching. These findings shed light on the temperature dependence of neuronal dynamics and present a comprehensive framework to study neuronal connectivity. This study, which is based on

  5. Facilitating Neuron-Specific Genetic Manipulations in Drosophila melanogaster Using a Split GAL4 Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Michael-John; Luan, Haojiang; Shropshire, William C; Sutcliffe, Ben; Cocanougher, Benjamin; Scott, Robert L; Frechter, Shahar; Zlatic, Marta; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; White, Benjamin H

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to map neural circuits have been galvanized by the development of genetic technologies that permit the manipulation of targeted sets of neurons in the brains of freely behaving animals. The success of these efforts relies on the experimenter's ability to target arbitrarily small subsets of neurons for manipulation, but such specificity of targeting cannot routinely be achieved using existing methods. In Drosophila melanogaster, a widely-used technique for refined cell type-specific manipulation is the Split GAL4 system, which augments the targeting specificity of the binary GAL4-UAS (Upstream Activating Sequence) system by making GAL4 transcriptional activity contingent upon two enhancers, rather than one. To permit more refined targeting, we introduce here the "Killer Zipper" (KZip(+)), a suppressor that makes Split GAL4 targeting contingent upon a third enhancer. KZip(+) acts by disrupting both the formation and activity of Split GAL4 heterodimers, and we show how this added layer of control can be used to selectively remove unwanted cells from a Split GAL4 expression pattern or to subtract neurons of interest from a pattern to determine their requirement in generating a given phenotype. To facilitate application of the KZip(+) technology, we have developed a versatile set of LexAop-KZip(+) fly lines that can be used directly with the large number of LexA driver lines with known expression patterns. KZip(+) significantly sharpens the precision of neuronal genetic control available in Drosophila and may be extended to other organisms where Split GAL4-like systems are used. Copyright © 2017 Dolan et al.

  6. Viral vector-based reversible neuronal inactivation and behavioral manipulation in the macaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Juliane Nielsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for the dissection of neural circuits. In principle, they can manipulate neurons at a level of specificity not otherwise achievable. While many studies have used viral vector-based approaches in the rodent brain, only a few have employed this technique in the non-human primate, despite the importance of this animal model for neuroscience research. Here, we report for the first time that a viral vector-based approach can be used to manipulate a monkey’s behavior in a task. For this purpose, we used the allatostatin receptor/allatostatin (AlstR/AL system, which has previously been shown to allow inactivation of neurons in vivo. The AlstR was expressed in neurons in monkey V1 by injection of an AAV1 vector. Two monkeys were trained in a detection task, in which they had to make a saccade to a faint peripheral target. Injection of AL caused a retinotopic deficit in the detection task in one monkey. Specifically, the monkey showed marked impairment for detection targets placed at the visual field location represented at the virus injection site, but not for targets shown elsewhere. We confirmed that these deficits indeed were due to the interaction of AlstR and AL by injecting saline, or AL at a V1 location without AlstR expression. Post-mortem histology confirmed AlstR expression in this monkey. We failed to replicate the behavioral results in a second monkey, as AL injection did not impair the second monkey’s performance in the detection task. However, post-mortem histology revealed a very low level of AlstR expression in this monkey. Our results demonstrate that viral vector-based approaches can produce effects strong enough to influence a monkey’s performance in a behavioral task, supporting the further development of this approach for studying how neuronal circuits control complex behaviors in non-human primates.

  7. Light at the end of the channel: Optical manipulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability with chemical photoswitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eMourot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that control the movement of ions across the cell membrane. They are the molecular machines that make neurons excitable by enabling the initiation and propagation of action potentials. Rapid signaling within and between neurons requires complex molecular processes that couple the sensing of membrane voltage or neurotransmitter release to the fast opening and closing of the ion channel gate. Dysfunction of an ion channel’s sensing or gating module can have disastrous pathological consequences. However, linking molecular changes to the modulation of neural circuits and ultimately to a physiological or pathological state is not a straightforward task. It requires precise and sophisticated methods of controlling the function of ion channels in their native environment. To address this issue we have developed new photochemical tools that enable the remote control of neuronal ion channels with light. Due to its optical nature, our approach permits the manipulation of the nervous system with high spatial, temporal and molecular precision that will help us understand the link between ion channel function and physiology. In addition, this strategy may also be used in the clinic for the direct treatment of some neuronal disorders.

  8. Inducing plasticity of astrocytic receptors by manipulation of neuronal firing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Alison X; Lauderdale, Kelli; Murphy, Thomas; Myers, Timothy L; Fiacco, Todd A

    2014-03-20

    Close to two decades of research has established that astrocytes in situ and in vivo express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be stimulated by neuronally-released transmitter. However, the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity in response to changes in neuronal activity has received little attention. Here we describe a model system that can be used to globally scale up or down astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in acute brain slices. Included are methods on how to prepare parasagittal hippocampal slices, construct chambers suitable for long-term slice incubation, bidirectionally manipulate neuronal action potential frequency, load astrocytes and astrocyte processes with fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator, and measure changes in astrocytic Gq GPCR activity by recording spontaneous and evoked astrocyte Ca(2+) events using confocal microscopy. In essence, a "calcium roadmap" is provided for how to measure plasticity of astrocytic Gq GPCRs. Applications of the technique for study of astrocytes are discussed. Having an understanding of how astrocytic receptor signaling is affected by changes in neuronal activity has important implications for both normal synaptic function as well as processes underlying neurological disorders and neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Kazuma, Kohei; Nihei, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized. PMID:27096870

  10. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Konno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs, in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized.

  11. Time course of information representation of macaque AIP neurons in hand manipulation task revealed by information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Ishida, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Takashi; Murata, Akira

    2010-12-01

    We used mutual information analysis of neuronal activity in the macaque anterior intraparietal area (AIP) to examine information processing during a hand manipulation task. The task was to reach-to-grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object after presentation of a go signal. Mutual information was calculated between the spike counts of individual neurons in 50-ms-wide time bins and six unique shape classifications or 15 one-versus-one classifications of these shapes. The spatiotemporal distribution of mutual information was visualized as a two-dimensional image ("information map") to better observe global profiles of information representation. In addition, a nonnegative matrix factorization technique was applied for extracting its structure. Our major finding was that the time course of mutual information differed significantly according to different classes of task-related neurons. This strongly suggests that different classes of neurons were engaged in different information processing stages in executing the hand manipulation task. On the other hand, our analysis revealed the heterogeneous nature of information representation of AIP neurons. For example, "information latency" (or information onset) varied among individual neurons even in the same neuron class and the same shape classification. Further, some neurons changed "information preference" (i.e., shape classification with the largest amount of information) across different task periods. These suggest that neurons encode different information in the different task periods. Taking the present result together with previous findings, we used a Gantt chart to propose a hypothetical scheme of the dynamic interactions between different types of AIP neurons.

  12. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  13. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  14. A genetic manipulation of motor neuron excitability does not alter locomotor output in Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    McKiernan, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity, like that producing locomotion, is generated by networks of neurons. At the last output level of these networks are the motor neurons, which send signals to the muscles, causing them to contract. Current research in motor control is focused on finding out how motor neurons contribute to shaping the timing of motor behaviors. Are motor neurons just passive relayers of the signals they receive? Or, do motor neurons shape the signals before passing them on to the muscles, thereby...

  15. WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b & WASP-142b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Wagg, T; West, R G

    2016-01-01

    We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with [Fe/H] = +0.26. Warm Jupiters tend to have smaller radii than hot Jupiters, and WASP-130b is in line with this trend (1.23 Mjup; 0.89 Rjup). WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 Mjup; 1.22 Rjup). Its large scale height coupled with the V = 10.1 brightness of its host star make the planet a good target for atmospheric characterisation. WASP-132b is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, being in a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. It has a low mass and a modest radius (0.41 Mjup; 0.87 Rjup). The V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.22 star shows a possible rotational modulation at 33 d. WASP-139b is the lowest-mass planet yet found by WASP, at 0.12 Mjup and 0.80 Rjup. It is a "super-Neptune" akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b. It orbits a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.20, K0 star. The star appears to be anomalously...

  16. Effect of spinal manipulation thrust duration on trunk mechanical activation thresholds of nociceptive-specific lateral thalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William R; Sozio, Randall; Pickar, Joel G; Onifer, Stephen M

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine if high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) thrust duration alters mechanical trunk activation thresholds of nociceptive-specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Extracellular recordings were obtained from 18 NS neurons located in 2 lateral thalamic nuclei (ventrolateral [n = 12] and posterior [n = 6]) in normal anesthetized Wistar rats. Response thresholds to electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli applied in 3 lumbar directions (dorsal-ventral, 45° caudal, and 45° cranial) were determined before and immediately after the delivery of 3 HVLA-SM thrust durations (time control 0, 100, and 400 milliseconds). Mean changes in mechanical trunk activation thresholds were compared using a mixed model analysis of variance. High-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation duration did not significantly alter NS lateral thalamic neurons' mechanical trunk responses to any of the 3 directions tested with the anesthesiometer. This study is the first to examine the effect of HVLA-SM thrust duration on NS lateral thalamic mechanical response thresholds. High-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation thrust duration did not affect mechanical trunk thresholds. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vowel and consonant confusions from spectrally manipulated stimuli designed to simulate poor cochlear implant electrode-neuron interfacesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNino, Mishaela; Wright, Richard A.; Winn, Matthew B.; Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal interfaces between cochlear implant (CI) electrodes and auditory neurons result in a loss or distortion of spectral information in specific frequency regions, which likely decreases CI users' speech identification performance. This study exploited speech acoustics to model regions of distorted CI frequency transmission to determine the perceptual consequences of suboptimal electrode-neuron interfaces. Normal hearing adults identified naturally spoken vowels and consonants after spectral information was manipulated through a noiseband vocoder: either (1) low-, middle-, or high-frequency regions of information were removed by zeroing the corresponding channel outputs, or (2) the same regions were distorted by splitting filter outputs to neighboring filters. These conditions simulated the detrimental effects of suboptimal CI electrode-neuron interfaces on spectral transmission. Vowel and consonant confusion patterns were analyzed with sequential information transmission, perceptual distance, and perceptual vowel space analyses. Results indicated that both types of spectral manipulation were equally destructive. Loss or distortion of frequency information produced similar effects on phoneme identification performance and confusion patterns. Consonant error patterns were consistently based on place of articulation. Vowel confusions showed that perceptions gravitated away from the degraded frequency region in a predictable manner, indicating that vowels can probe frequency-specific regions of spectral degradations. PMID:28039993

  18. WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b and WASP-142b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2017-03-01

    We describe seven exoplanets transiting stars of brightness V = 10.1-12.4. WASP-130b is a 'warm Jupiter' having an orbital period of 11.6 d around a metal-rich G6 star. Its mass and radius (1.23 ± 0.04 MJup and 0.89 ± 0.03 RJup) support the trend that warm Jupiters have smaller radii than hot Jupiters. WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 MJup and 1.22 RJup). Its large scaleheight and bright (V = 10.1) host star make it a good target for atmospheric characterization. WASP-132b (0.41 MJup and 0.87 RJup) is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, having a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. WASP-139b is a 'super-Neptune' akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b, being the lowest mass planet yet found by WASP (0.12 MJup and 0.80 RJup). The metal-rich K0 host star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-MJup planet in an eccentric (e = 0.047 ± 0.004) 2.2-d orbit. The planet's radius is large (1.4 RJup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit (b = 0.93). The 10.4-d rotation period of the K0 host star suggests a young age, and the time-scale for tidal circularization is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. WASP-141b (2.7 MJup, 1.2 RJup and P = 3.3 d) and WASP-142b (0.84 MJup, 1.53 RJup and P = 2.1 d) are typical hot Jupiters orbiting metal-rich F stars. We show that the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge does not depend on the metallicity of the host star.

  19. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs for use in wild-type animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich S Gompf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV, or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-mCherry-AAV to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA, or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV to the rat locus coeruleus (LC. High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93% colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with 1 a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting, and 2 a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection. IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted. Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from promoter

  20. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs in wild-type animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Heinrich S; Budygin, Evgeny A; Fuller, Patrick M; Bass, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV), or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV) restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-EYFP-AAV) to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA), or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV) to  the  rat  locus  coeruleus  (LC). High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93%) colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with: (1) a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting); and (2) a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection). IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted). Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from

  1. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  2. Optogenetic manipulation of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) Neurons that project to the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Jessica Walsh, Dipesh Chaudhury, Allyson Friedman, Barbara Juarez, Stacy Ku, Mary Kay Lobo & Ming-Hu Han ### Abstract Optogenetics has evolved to be a critical technique used to manipulate the firing activity of specific subsets of neurons. Through the use of specific firing parameters, it has become possible to control the behavior of freely moving animals. Here we have established a system to control projection pathway-specific neurons from a particular brain region thr...

  3. Three WASP-South Transiting Exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b, and WASP-89b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to southern telescopes. It is a 0.95MJup planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 {R}{Jup} in a 2 day orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 {M}{Jup} with a radius of 1.0 {R}{Jup}. It is in a 5 day orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 MJup planet in a 3 day orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 days, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet’s orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots.

  4. Three WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b & WASP-89b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; West, R G

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to Southern telescopes. It is a 0.95 M_Jup planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 R_Jup in a 2-d orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 M_Jup with a radius of 1.0 R_Jup. It is in a 5-d orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 M_Jup planet in a 3-d orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 d, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet's orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots.

  5. Biomechanics of substrate boring by fig wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Gundiah, Namrata

    2014-06-01

    Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates.

  6. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Burgdorf, M; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Galianni, P; Gerner, T; Giannini, E; Gu, S -H; Hundertmark, M; Jorgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Mancini, L; Rabus, M; Ricci, D; Schaefer, S; Skottfelt, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dodds, P; Elyiv, A; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Jaimes, R Figuera; Hardis, S; Harpsoe, K; Jessen-Hansen, J; Kains, N; Kjeldsen, H; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Popovas, A; Proft, S; Rahvar, S; Sahu, K; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Schoenebeck, F; Snodgrass, C; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Tsapras, Y; Vilela, C

    2014-01-01

    We present time-series photometric observations of thirteen transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves were obtained using the telescope-defocussing method and have scatters of 0.5 to 1.2 mmag relative to their best-fitting geometric models. We used these data to measure the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of the systems to high precision, finding that our improved measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. High-resolution Lucky Imaging observations of all three targets show no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate our photometry. We confirm the eclipsing nature of the star closest to WASP-24 and present the detection of a detached eclipsing binary within 4.25 arcmin of WASP-26.

  7. Phase-dependent activity of neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus with saccharin intake in a cue-guided lever-manipulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuhei; Kato, Risako; Fujita, Satoshi; Shimada, Jun; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (rTRN) receive somatosensory and motor information and regulate neural activities of the thalamic nuclei. Previous studies showed that when activity in visual TRN neurons is suppressed prior to the visual stimuli in a visual detection task, the performance of the task improves. However, little is known about such changes in the rTRN preceding certain events. In the present study, we performed unit recordings in the rTRN in alert rats during a cue-guided lever-manipulation task in which saccharin was provided as a reward. Changes in neural activity during saccharin intake were observed in 56% (51 of 91) of the recorded neurons; the firing rates increased in 21 neurons and decreased in 23 neurons. Seven neurons both increased and decreased their firing rates during saccharin intake. Changes in firing rates during the reward-waiting stage between task termination and saccharin intake were also observed in 73% (37 of 51) of the neurons that responded to saccharin intake. Increased activity during saccharin intake did not correlate with increased activity during lever-manipulation or activity during the reward-waiting stage. However, decreased activity during saccharin intake was correlated with activity during the reward-waiting stage. These results suggest that rTRN neurons have phase-dependent changes in their activity and regulate the thalamic activities. Furthermore, the decreased activity of rTRN neurons before reward may contribute to refine somatosensory and motor information processing in the thalamic nuclei depending on the status of mind such as expectation and attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective resource allocation may promote a sex ratio in pollinator fig wasps more beneficial for the host tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Tian; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Wen, Xiao-Lan; Jandér, K Charlotte

    2016-10-12

    Mutualisms play a key role in most ecosystems, yet the mechanisms that prevent overexploitation of the mutualistic relationship are still poorly understood. In the mutualism between fig trees and their pollinating wasps both partners depend on each other. Fig trees benefit from female wasps that disperse their pollen, whereas wasps frequently benefit from a higher ratio of male offspring. Here we use manipulative field experiments to address whether host trees (Ficus racemosa) can influence the offspring sex ratio of the pollinator wasp. We controlled wasp matings; virgin wasps can lay only male eggs. We found that virgin foundress wasps had fewer offspring than mated foundresses. This was not caused by virgin wasps having a shorter lifespan, or laying fewer eggs. Instead, male wasp larvae were more likely to die during development. Additionally, male eggs were deposited in flowers of equal style length to those of female eggs, yet emerged from galls with shorter pedicels than those of female wasps. We suggest that male larvae are either allocated less resources by the tree, or are less able to attract resources, during development. If the tree orchestrates this difference it would promote a more female-biased wasp brood, thus increasing the tree's fitness.

  9. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Kuhlman

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  10. Starspots on WASP-85

    CERN Document Server

    Močnik, T; Anderson, D R; Hellier, C; Brown, D J A

    2015-01-01

    By analysing K2 short-cadence observations we detect starspots on WASP-85A, the host star of the hot Jupiter WASP-85Ab. The star shows a rotational modulation with a period of 13.6 $\\pm$ 0.1 d. The absence of repeated occultations of the same spots suggests that the planet's orbit is not aligned with the star's rotational axis ($\\lambda>10^{\\circ}$). There are no significant transit-timing variations and thus no evidence of any additional planet in the system. Given the pronounced rotational modulation we are only able to place an upper limit of 100 parts per million for any phase-curve modulations and the secondary eclipse.

  11. Meeting in Turkey: WASP Transport Modeling and WASP Ecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...

  12. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Hirata, Makiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-42 and WASP-49 photometry and velocities (Lendl+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2012-07-01

    We present photometric time-series obtained by the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and FTS telescopes obtained during transits of WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b. We also present radial-velocity measurements of WASP-42 obtained with HARPS and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements of WASP-42 and WASP-49. (2 data files).

  14. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. VIII. WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Andersen, M I; Novati, S Calchi; Ciceri, S; Colque, J P; D'Ago, G; Dominik, M; Evans, D; Gu, S -H; Herrera-Cruces, A; Hinse, T C; Jorgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Peixinho, N; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Skottfelt, J; Tronsgaard, R; Unda-Sanzana, E; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Elyiv, A; Jaimes, R Figuera; Haugbolle, T; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Snodgrass, C; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Vilela, C; von Essen, C; Wang, Y

    2015-01-01

    We present 13 high-precision and four additional light curves of four bright southern-hemisphere transiting planetary systems: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55. In the cases of WASP-42 and WASP-55, these are the first follow-up observations since their discovery papers. We present refined measurements of the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of all four systems. No indications of transit timing variations were seen. All four planets have radii inflated above those expected from theoretical models of gas-giant planets; WASP-55b is the most discrepant with a mass of 0.63 Mjup and a radius of 1.34 Rjup. WASP-41 shows brightness anomalies during transit due to the planet occulting spots on the stellar surface. Two anomalies observed 3.1 d apart are very likely due to the same spot. We measure its change in position and determine a rotation period for the host star of 18.6 +/- 1.5 d, in good agreement with a published measurement from spot-induced brightness modulation, and a sky-projected orbital o...

  15. WASp identity theft by a bacterial effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Goode, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    EspF(U), a protein secreted by pathogenic enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), activates N-WASp/WASp to induce actin pedestal formation in host cells. Two recent papers in Nature show that EspF(U) exploits a WASp activation strategy so extreme that it may effectively sequester WASp, blinding it to both autoinhibition and cellular regulation.

  16. Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect Measurements for WASP-16, WASP-25 and WASP-31

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D J A; Anderson, D R; Enoch, B; Hellier, C; Maxted, P F L; Miller, G R M; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Simpson, E; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Gillon, M; Hebrard, G

    2012-01-01

    We present new measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for three WASP planetary systems, WASP-16, WASP-25 and WASP-31, from a combined analysis of their complete sets of photometric and spectroscopic data. We find a low amplitude RM effect for WASP-16 (Teff = 5700 \\pm 150K), suggesting that the star is a slow rotator and thus of an advanced age, and obtain a projected alignment angle of lambda = -4.2 degrees +11.0 -13.9. For WASP-25 (Teff = 5750\\pm100K) we detect a projected spin-orbit angle of lambda = 14.6 degrees \\pm6.7. WASP-31 (Teff = 6300\\pm100K) is found to be well-aligned, with a projected spin-orbit angle of lambda = 2.8degrees \\pm3.1. A circular orbit is consistent with the data for all three systems, in agreement with their respective discovery papers. We consider the results for these systems in the context of the ensemble of RM measurements made to date. We find that whilst WASP-16 fits the hypothesis of Winn et al. (2010) that 'cool' stars (Teff < 6250K) are preferentially aligned...

  17. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif;

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmølledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complexterrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  18. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  19. Laser Nano-Neurosurgery from gentle manipulation to nano-incision of neuronal cells and scaffolds: an advanced neurotechnology tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eSoloperto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current optical approaches are progressing far beyond the scope of monitoring the structure and function of living matter, and they are becoming widely recognized as extremely precise, minimally-invasive, contact-free handling tools. Laser manipulation of living tissues, single cells or even single-molecules is becoming a well-established methodology, thus founding the onset of new experimental paradigms and research fields. Indeed, a tightly focused pulsed laser source permits complex tasks such as developing engineered bioscaffolds, applying calibrated forces, transfecting, stimulating or even ablating single cells with subcellular precision, and operating intracellular surgical protocols at the level of single organelles. In the present review, we report the state of the art of laser manipulation in neuroscience, to inspire future applications of light-assisted tools in nano-neurosurgery.

  20. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b and WASP-133 b

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Wagg, T; West, R G

    2016-01-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3M$_{\\rm Jup}$ to 1.2M$_{\\rm Jup}$ and with radii from 1R$_{\\rm Jup}$ to 1.5R$_{\\rm Jup}$. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 M$_{\\rm Jup}$ , 0.95R$_{\\rm Jup}$), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other o...

  1. Ear manipulations reveal a critical period for survival and dendritic development at the single-cell level in Mauthner neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; DeCook, Rhonda; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Second-order sensory neurons are dependent on afferents from the sense organs during a critical period in development for their survival and differentiation. Past research has mostly focused on whole populations of neurons, hampering progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying these critical phases. To move toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of afferent-dependent neuronal development, we developed a new model to study the effects of ear removal on a single identifiable cell in the hindbrain of a frog, the Mauthner cell. Ear extirpation at various stages of Xenopus laevis development defines a critical period of progressively-reduced dependency of Mauthner cell survival/differentiation on the ear afferents. Furthermore, ear removal results in a progressively decreased reduction in the number of dendritic branches. Conversely, addition of an ear results in an increase in the number of dendritic branches. These results suggest that the duration of innervation and the number of inner ear afferents play a quantitative role in Mauthner cell survival/differentiation, including dendritic development.

  2. Multi-band characterization of the hot Jupiters: WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, M.; Almeida, L. A.; von Essen, C.; Jablonski, F.; Pereira, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We have carried out a campaign to characterize the hot Jupiters WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b using multiband photometry collected at the Observatório do Pico Dos Dias in Brazil. We have determined the planetary physical properties and new transit ephemerides for these systems. The new orbital parameters and physical properties of WASP-5b and WASP-44b are consistent with previous estimates. In the case of WASP-46b, there is some quota of disagreement between previous results. We provide a new determination of the radius of this planet and help clarify the previous differences. We also studied the transit time variations including our new measurements. No clear variation from a linear trend was found for the systems WASP-5b and WASP-44b. In the case of WASP-46b, we found evidence of deviations indicating the presence of a companion but statistical analysis of the existing times points to a signal due to the sampling rather than a new planet. Finally, we studied the fractional radius variation as a function of wavelength for these systems. The broad-band spectrums of WASP-5b and WASP-44b are mostly flat. In the case of WASP-46b we found a trend, but further measurements are necessary to confirm this finding.

  3. Transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-95b to WASP-101b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1 to 5.7 d, masses of 0.5 to 2.8 Mjup, and radii of 1.1 to 1.4 Rjup. The orbits of all the planets are compatible with zero eccentricity. WASP-99b shows the shallowest transit yet found by WASP-South, at 0.4%. The host stars are of spectral type F2 to G8. Five have metallicities of [Fe/H] from -0.03 to +0.23, while WASP-98 has a metallicity of -0.60, exceptionally low for a star with a transiting exoplanet. Five of the host stars are brighter than V = 10.8, which significantly extends the number of bright transiting systems available for follow-up studies. WASP-95 shows a possible rotational modulation at a period of 20.7 d. We discuss the completeness of WASP survey techniques by comparing to the HAT project.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-68b, WASP-73b, WASP-88b transits (Delrez+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Van Grootel, V.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric and RV time-series obtained for the three hot Jupiters WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (9 data files).

  5. Transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-95b to WASP-101b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1-5.7 d, masses of 0.5-2.8 MJup and radii of 1.1-1.4 RJup. The orbits of all the planets are compatible with zero eccentricity. WASP-99b produces the shallowest transit yet found by WASP-South, at 0.4 per cent. The host stars are of spectral type F2-G8. Five have metallicities of [Fe/H] from -0.03 to +0.23, while WASP-98 has a metallicity of -0.60, exceptionally low for a star with a transiting exoplanet. Five of the host stars are brighter than V = 10.8, which significantly extends the number of bright transiting systems available for follow-up studies. WASP-95 shows a possible rotational modulation at a period of 20.7 d. We discuss the completeness of WASP survey techniques by comparing to the HATnet project.

  6. Association of a new Wolbachia strain with, and its effects on, Leptopilina victoriae, a virulent wasp parasitic to Drosophila spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Onemola, Bodunde; Govind, Shubha

    2012-08-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are ubiquitous intracellular bacteria of arthropods. Often considered reproductive parasites, they can benefit certain host species. We describe a new Wolbachia strain from Leptopilina victoriae, a Drosophila wasp. The strain is closely related to Wolbachia from Culex sp. Located to the posterior poles of oocytes, it manipulates its host's reproduction by inducing a male development type of cytoplasmic incompatibility. We also report its diverse effects on the wasp's life history traits.

  7. Seizure control through genetic and pharmacological manipulation of Pumilio in Drosophila: a key component of neuronal homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsiang Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a significant disorder for which approximately one-third of patients do not respond to drug treatments. Next-generation drugs, which interact with novel targets, are required to provide a better clinical outcome for these individuals. To identify potential novel targets for antiepileptic drug (AED design, we used RNA sequencing to identify changes in gene transcription in two seizure models of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The first model compared gene transcription between wild type (WT and bangsenseless1 (parabss, a gain-of-function mutant in the sole fly voltage-gated sodium channel (paralytic. The second model compared WT with WT fed the proconvulsant picrotoxin (PTX. We identified 743 genes (FDR≤1% with significant altered expression levels that are common to both seizure models. Of these, 339 are consistently upregulated and 397 downregulated. We identify pumilio (pum to be downregulated in both seizure models. Pum is a known homeostatic regulator of action potential firing in both flies and mammals, achieving control of neuronal firing through binding to, and regulating translation of, the mRNA transcripts of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav. We show that maintaining expression of pum in the CNS of parabss flies is potently anticonvulsive, whereas its reduction through RNAi-mediated knockdown is proconvulsive. Using a cell-based luciferase reporter screen, we screened a repurposed chemical library and identified 12 compounds sufficient to increase activity of pum. Of these compounds, we focus on avobenzone, which significantly rescues seizure behaviour in parabss flies. The mode of action of avobenzone includes potentiation of pum expression and mirrors the ability of this homeostatic regulator to reduce the persistent voltage-gated Na+ current (INaP in an identified neuron. This study reports a novel approach to suppress seizure and highlights the mechanisms of neuronal homeostasis as potential targets for next

  8. Seizure control through genetic and pharmacological manipulation of Pumilio in Drosophila: a key component of neuronal homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Giachello, Carlo N. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a significant disorder for which approximately one-third of patients do not respond to drug treatments. Next-generation drugs, which interact with novel targets, are required to provide a better clinical outcome for these individuals. To identify potential novel targets for antiepileptic drug (AED) design, we used RNA sequencing to identify changes in gene transcription in two seizure models of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The first model compared gene transcription between wild type (WT) and bangsenseless1 (parabss), a gain-of-function mutant in the sole fly voltage-gated sodium channel (paralytic). The second model compared WT with WT fed the proconvulsant picrotoxin (PTX). We identified 743 genes (FDR≤1%) with significant altered expression levels that are common to both seizure models. Of these, 339 are consistently upregulated and 397 downregulated. We identify pumilio (pum) to be downregulated in both seizure models. Pum is a known homeostatic regulator of action potential firing in both flies and mammals, achieving control of neuronal firing through binding to, and regulating translation of, the mRNA transcripts of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav). We show that maintaining expression of pum in the CNS of parabss flies is potently anticonvulsive, whereas its reduction through RNAi-mediated knockdown is proconvulsive. Using a cell-based luciferase reporter screen, we screened a repurposed chemical library and identified 12 compounds sufficient to increase activity of pum. Of these compounds, we focus on avobenzone, which significantly rescues seizure behaviour in parabss flies. The mode of action of avobenzone includes potentiation of pum expression and mirrors the ability of this homeostatic regulator to reduce the persistent voltage-gated Na+ current (INaP) in an identified neuron. This study reports a novel approach to suppress seizure and highlights the mechanisms of neuronal homeostasis as potential targets for next

  9. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b, and WASP-133 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3 MJup to 1.2 MJup and with radii from 1 RJup to 1.5 RJup. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 MJup,0.95 RJup), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 A has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other old G-type stars, particularly other planet host stars. These planetary systems are good targets for follow-up observations with ground-based and space-based facilities to study their atmospheric and dynamical properties. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55

  10. WASP-113b and WASP-114b, two inflated hot Jupiters with contrasting densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Hébrard, G.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Anderson, D. R.; Boumis, P.; Delrez, L.; Hay, K. L.; Lam, K. W. F.; Llama, J.; Lendl, M.; McCormac, J.; Skiff, B.; Smalley, B.; Turner, O.; Vanhuysse, M.; Armstrong, D. J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Liakos, A.; Meaburn, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Spake, J.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; Watson, C. A.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present the discovery and characterisation of the exoplanets WASP-113b and WASP-114b by the WASP surveys, SOPHIE and CORALIE. Methods: The planetary nature of the systems was established by performing follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations. The follow-up data were combined with the WASP-photometry and analysed with an MCMC code to obtain system parameters. Results: The host stars WASP-113 and WASP-114 are very similar. They are both early G-type stars with an effective temperature of ~5900 K, [Fe/H] ~ 0.12, and log g~ 4.1 dex. However, WASP-113 is older than WASP-114. Although the planetary companions have similar radii, WASP-114b is almost four times heavier than WASP-113b. WASP-113b has a mass of 0.48 MJup and an orbital period of ~4.5 days; WASP-114b has a mass of 1.77 MJup and an orbital period of ~1.5 days. Both planets have inflated radii, in particular WASP-113 with a radius anomaly of ℜ = 0.35. The high scale height of WASP-113b (~950 km) makes it a good target for follow-up atmospheric observations.

  11. Modifications to the current WAsP engine for Online WAsP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Troen, Ib; Bechmann, Andreas

    This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine".......This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine"....

  12. Ichneumon wasp back in favour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Ramakers, P.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Aphidius matricariae wasp of the Ichneumon family was widely used to get rid of plant lice in greenhouse agriculture up to fifteen years ago. Since then, it has given way to its American cousin, Aphidius colemani. A comparative study by the Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture group has led to

  13. WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b: four new transiting close-in giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Hebrard, G; Brown, D J A; Diaz, R F; Faedi, F; Smalley, B; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bouchy, F; Doyle, A P; Enoch, B; Chew, Y Gomez Maqueo; Hebrard, E M; Hellier, C; Lendl, M; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Moutou, C; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Skillen, I; Southworth, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; Vanhuysse, M; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of four new transiting hot jupiters, detected mainly from SuperWASP-North and SOPHIE observations. These new planets, WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b, have orbital periods ranging from 1.7 to 7.9 days, masses between 0.46 and 0.94 M_Jup, and radii between 0.73 and 1.49 R_Jup. Their G1 to K5 dwarf host stars have V magnitudes in the range 11.7-13.0. The depths of the transits are between 0.6 and 2.7%, depending on the target. With their large radii, WASP-52b and 58b are new cases of low-density, inflated planets, whereas WASP-59b is likely to have a large, dense core. WASP-60 shows shallow transits. In the case of WASP-52 we also detected the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly via time-resolved spectroscopy of a transit. We measured the sky-projected obliquity lambda = 24 (+17/-9) degrees, indicating that WASP-52b orbits in the same direction as its host star is rotating and that this prograde orbit is slightly misaligned with the stellar equator. These four new planetary systems i...

  14. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  15. Three irradiated and bloated hot Jupiters:. WASP-76b, WASP-82b, and WASP-90b

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. G.; Hellier, C.; Almenara, J.-M.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Deleuil, M.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hébrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on three new transiting hot Jupiter planets, discovered from the WASP surveys, which we combine with radial velocities from OHP/SOPHIE and Euler/CORALIE and photometry from Euler and TRAPPIST. The planets WASP-76b, WASP-82b, and WASP-90b are all inflated, with radii of 1.7-1.8 RJup. All three orbit hot stars, of type F5-F7, with orbits of 1.8-3.9 d, and all three stars have evolved, post-main-sequence radii (1.7-2.2 R⊙). Thus the three planets fit a known trend of hot Jupiters that receive high levels of irradiation being highly inflated. We caution, though, about the presence of a selection effect, in that non-inflated planets around ~2 R⊙ post-MS stars can often produce transits too shallow to be detected by the ground-based surveys that have found the majority of transiting hot Jupiters. Tables of the photometry and radial velocity are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A126

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-104b and WASP-106b photometry (Smith+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier, Cameron A.; Delrez, L.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hebrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Louden, T. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Montagnier, G.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rostron, J. W.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    The stars WASP-104 and WASP-106 were observed by SuperWASP-N from 2008 to 2011, and by WASP-South from 2009 to 2010. This differential survey photometry has been de-reddened and normalised. Further photometry was obtained using the TRAPPIST, Euler, Liverpool and Isaac Newton telescopes in 2013 and 2014. All these data are plotted in Figures 1 and 2. (1 data file).

  17. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  18. Spin-orbit alignments for Three Transiting Hot Jupiters: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, & WASP-66b

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, B C; Wright, D J; Bayliss, D

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the sky-projected spin-orbit alignments for three transiting Hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky projected spin-orbit angles of $\\lambda = 3^{\\circ}\\pm33^{\\circ}$, $\\lambda = -8^{\\circ}\\pm11^{\\circ}$, and $\\lambda = -4^{\\circ}\\pm22^{\\circ}$ for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star's spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star's Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ($T_{eff}=6450\\pm120$ K and $T_{eff}=6600\\pm150$ K, respectively) mid-F stars making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high obliquity orbits. Moderate spin-or...

  19. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multiband photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.

    2016-01-01

    -46 b was observed with the NTT obtaining a precision of 0.30 mmag with a cadence of roughly 3 min. We also obtained five new spectra of WASP-45 with the FEROS spectrograph. We improved by a factor of 4 the measurement of the radius of the planet WASP-45 b, and found that WASP-46 b is slightly less...

  20. Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W.; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-ping; Yu, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few...

  1. WASP-54b, WASP-56b and WASP-57b: Three new sub-Jupiter mass planets from SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Faedi, F; Barros, S C C; Brown, D; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gomez Maqueo; Hebrard, G; Lendl, M; Liebig, C; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Alsubai, K A; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D J; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Bouchy, F; Busuttil, R; Fossati, L; Fumel, A; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Queloz, D; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Watson, C

    2012-01-01

    We present three newly discovered sub-Jupiter mass planets from the SuperWASP survey: WASP-54b is a heavily bloated planet of mass 0.636$^{+0.025}_{-0.024}$ \\mj and radius 1.653$^{+0.090}_{-0.083}$ \\rj. It orbits a F9 star, evolving off the main sequence, every 3.69 days. Our MCMC fit of the system yields a slightly eccentric orbit ($e=0.067^{+0.033}_{-0.025}$) for WASP-54b. We investigated further the veracity of our detection of the eccentric orbit for WASP-54b, and we find that it could be real. However, given the brightness of WASP-54 V=10.42 magnitudes, we encourage observations of a secondary eclipse to draw robust conclusions on both the orbital eccentricity and the thermal structure of the planet. WASP-56b and WASP-57b have masses of 0.571$^{+0.034}_{-0.035}$ \\mj and $0.672^{+0.049}_{-0.046}$ \\mj, respectively; and radii of $1.092^{+0.035}_{-0.033}$ \\rj for WASP-56b and $0.916^{+0.017}_{-0.014}$ \\rj for WASP-57b. They orbit main sequence stars of spectral type G6 every 4.67 and 2.84 days, respectively...

  2. Seed and Wasp Production in the Mutualism of Figs and Fig Wasps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jin-yan; Zhao Nan-xian; Chen Yi-zhu; Jia Xiao-cheng; Deng Yuan; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Figs (Moracea: Ficus) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chlocloids: Agaonideae) depend on each other to complete their reproduction. Monoecious fig species and their pollinating wasps are in conflict over the use of fig ovaries which can either produce one seed or one wasp. From observation on Ficus virens Ait., we showed that female flowers with outer layer of ovaries (near to the wall of syconium) had no significant difference from that with inner and interval layer of ovaries (near to the syconium cavity), in which most seeds and wasps were produced. This meant that fig tree provided the same potential resource for seed and wasps production. Observation indicated that there was usually only one foundress in syconium at female flower phase and no competition pollinators. Measurement of the style length of female flowers and the ovipositor of pollinators indicated that most ovaries could be reached by pollinator's ovipositor. However, at the male flower phase, production of seeds was significantly more than that of wasps including non-pollinating wasps but there was no significant difference between seed and pollinating wasp production when without non-pollinating wasps produced. This result indicated that non-pollinating wasps competed ovaries not with seeds but with pollinating wasps for ovipositing. Bagged experiment showed that the sampling fig species was not self-sterile which was important for figs and wasps to survive bad season. Seed production in self-pollinated figs was not significantly different from total wasps including non-pollinating ones. This might be related with the weaker competition among wasps since bagged figs were not easy to reach by wasps from outside.

  3. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Bohman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection (EAD studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation.

  4. WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b: Four new transiting close-in giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, G.; Collier Cameron, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Díaz, R. F.; Faedi, F.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Bouchy, F.; Doyle, A. P.; Enoch, B.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hébrard, É. M.; Hellier, C.; Lendl, M.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J.; Moutou, C.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Skillen, I.; Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Vanhuysse, M.; Watson, C. A.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of four new transiting hot Jupiters, detected mainly from SuperWASP-North and SOPHIE observations. These new planets, WASP-52b, WASP-58b, WASP-59b, and WASP-60b, have orbital periods ranging from 1.7 to 7.9 days, masses between 0.46 and 0.94 MJup, and radii between 0.73 and 1.49 RJup. Their G1 to K5 dwarf host stars have V magnitudes in the range 11.7-13.0. The depths of the transits are between 0.6 and 2.7%, depending on the target. With their large radii, WASP-52b and WASP-58b are new cases of low-density, inflated planets, whereas WASP-59b is likely to have a large, dense core. WASP-60 shows shallow transits. In the case of WASP-52 we also detected the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly via time-resolved spectroscopy of a transit. We measured the sky-projected obliquity λ = 24° +17-9, indicating that WASP-52b orbits in the same direction as its host star isrotating and that this prograde orbit is slightly misaligned with the stellar equator. These four new planetary systems increase our statistics on hot Jupiters and provide new targets for follow-up studies. Radial velocities (Table 4) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A134

  5. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Field, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Biological market theory is potentially useful for understanding helping behaviour in animal societies. It predicts that competition for trading partners will affect the value of commodities exchanged. It has gained empirical support in cooperative breeders, where subordinates help dominant breeders in exchange for group membership, but so far without considering one crucial aspect: outside options. We find support for a biological market in paper wasps, Polistes dominula. We first show that females have a choice of cooperative partners. Second, by manipulating entire subpopulations in the field, we increase the supply of outside options for subordinates, freeing up suitable nesting spots and providing additional nesting partners. We predicted that by intensifying competition for help, our manipulation would force dominants to accept a lower price for group membership. As expected, subordinates reduce their foraging effort following our treatments. We conclude that to accurately predict the amount of help provided, social units cannot be viewed in isolation: the surrounding market must also be considered. PMID:28117836

  6. Sensory arsenal on the stinger of the parasitoid jewel wasp and its possible role in identifying cockroach brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive 'zombie'. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp's stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach's head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4-5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%-2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey.

  7. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  8. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  9. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...

  10. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  11. Transiting planets from WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST. WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b, and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Van Grootel, V.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-03-01

    Using the WASP transit survey, we report the discovery of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. The planet WASP-68 bhas a mass of 0.95 ± 0.03 MJup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 RJup, and orbits a V = 10.7 G0-type star (1.24 ± 0.03 M⊙ 1.69-0.06+0.11 R⊙, Teff = 5911 ± 60 K) with a period of 5.084298 ± 0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. The planet WASP-73 bis significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 MJup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 RJup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V = 10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M⊙, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R⊙, Teff = 6036 ± 120 K) every 4.08722 ± 0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (~2.3 × 109 erg s-1 cm-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 ρJup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. The planet WASP-88 bis a 0.56 ± 0.08 MJuphot Jupiter orbiting a V = 11.4 F6-type star (1.45 ± 0.05 M⊙, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R⊙, Teff = 6431 ± 130 K) with a period of 4.954000 ± 0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 RJup, it joins the handful of planets with super-inflated radii. The ranges of ages we determine through stellar evolution modeling are 4.5-7.0 Gyr for WASP-68, 2.8-5.7 Gyr for WASP-73 and 1.8-4.3 Gyr for WASP-88. The star WASP-73 appears to be significantly evolved, close to or already in the subgiant phase. The stars WASP-68 and WASP-88 are less evolved, although in an advanced stage of core H-burning. Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe photometric time-series used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A143

  12. WAsP engineering DK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Astrup, P.; Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hauge Madsen, P.; Heathfield, D.

    2000-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmoelledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complex terrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. The basic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load calculations. The most important change is the inclusion of a complex model for the roughness length on water bodies. This is particularly important for the estimation of extreme winds in the vicinity of sea shores. A second addition is the calculation of spatial derivatives of the mean flow to be used for the modeling of turbulence. The turbulence structure on hills is modeled by perturbing the flat, homogeneous terrain turbulence using Rapid Distortion Theory. A simple model for the adjustment of turbulence to roughness changes is also applied. Second order turbulence statistics such as turbulence intensities, spectra and cross-spectra can be estimated at user-chosen positions in the terrain. A program for simulation of turbulence with the calculated statistics has been developed. However, it has not yet been integrated into the windows interface. Climatological series of wind speed have been analyzed to establish the extreme wind climate over Denmark. The extreme wind climate contains directional information and is used for estimating the extreme winds at an arbitrary position in complex terrain. A net of high precision pressure sensors covering Denmark has been established in order to obtain a climatology of the geostrophic wind. A tentative conclusion from only one year of data is that, statistically , the geostrophic wind decreases when going from west toward east

  13. An SK3 channel/nWASP/Abi-1 complex is involved in early neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liebau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs. Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins.

  14. High Precision Photometry from EulerCam and TRAPPIST: The Case of WASP-42, WASP-49 and WASP-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, Monika; Gillon, Michaël; Queloz, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Transiting extrasolar planets provide unmatched insights into the structure and composition of close-in planets. When a planet transits its host star, its radius is known, which together with radial velocity measurements, allows accessing the planetary density. We present results obtained using the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes that aim at reaching very high accuracy on the parameters derived from transit lightcurves. Here, we show the case of the recently discovered WASP-42b and WASP-49b and new observations of WASP-50b.

  15. Fitness reduction for uncooperative fig wasps through reduced offspring size: a third component of host sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K C; Dafoe, A; Herre, E A

    2016-09-01

    Mutually beneficial interactions between two species-mutualisms-are ancient, diverse, and of fundamental ecological importance. Nonetheless, factors that prevent one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the cost are still poorly understood. Fig trees and their unique pollinators, fig wasps, present a powerful model system for studying mutualism stability. Both partners depend completely on each other for reproduction, cooperation levels can be manipulated, and the resulting field-based fitness quantified. Previous work has shown that fig trees can impose two types of host sanctions that reduce the fitness of wasps that do not pollinate: (1) fig abortion, which kills all developing larvae, and (2) reduced number of wasp offspring in figs that are not aborted. Here we demonstrate a third component of host sanctions. Through manipulative field experiments, we show that for four of five studied species, offspring of pollen-free foundresses are only 50-90% the size of offspring of pollinating foundresses. We further show that in all four studied species, smaller wasps are less likely to reach and enter a flowering fig to become foundresses themselves. Therefore, the experimentally determined size reduction of offspring is estimated to cause an additional reduction of up to 80% in fitness for a pollen-free foundress. We determine that the size reduction of pollen-free offspring acts on the level of the entire fig fruit rather than on individual flowers. These results show that estimates of the fitness effect of host sanctions on uncooperative symbionts should consider not only offspring quantity but also offspring quality. We discuss implications beyond the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism.

  16. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  17. Three irradiated and bloated hot Jupiters: WASP-76b, WASP-82b & WASP-90b

    CERN Document Server

    West, R G; Anderson, D R; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Deleuil, M; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hebrard, G; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    We report three new transiting hot-Jupiter planets discovered from the WASP surveys combined with radial velocities from OHP/SOPHIE and Euler/CORALIE and photometry from Euler and TRAPPIST. All three planets are inflated, with radii 1.7-1.8 Rjup. All orbit hot stars, F5-F7, and all three stars have evolved, post-MS radii (1.7-2.2 Rsun). Thus the three planets, with orbits of 1.8-3.9 d, are among the most irradiated planets known. This reinforces the correlation between inflated planets and stellar irradiation.

  18. A parasitoid wasp induces overwintering behaviour in its spider host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Korenko

    Full Text Available Parasites and parasitoids control behaviors of their hosts. However, the origin of the behavior evoked by the parasitic organism has been rarely identified. It is also not known whether the manipulation is universal or host-specific. Polysphinctine wasps, koinobiont ectoparasitoids of several spider species that manipulate host web-spinning activity for their own protection during pupation, provide an ideal system to reveal the origin of the evoked behavior. Larva of Zatypota percontatoria performed species-specific manipulation of theridiid spiders, Neottiura bimaculata and Theridion varians, shortly before pupation. Parasitized N. bimaculata produced a dense web, whereas parasitized T. varians built a cupola-like structure. The larva pupated inside of either the dense web or the cupola-like structure. We discovered that unparasitized N. bimaculata produce an analogous dense web around their eggsacs and for themselves during winter, while T. varians construct an analogous 'cupola' only for overwintering. We induced analogous manipulation in unparasitized hosts by altering ambient conditions. We discovered that the behavior evoked by larvae in two hosts was functionally similar. The larva evoked protective behaviors that occur in unparasitized hosts only during specific life-history periods.

  19. Matricide and queen sex allocation in a yellowjacket wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J.

    2016-08-01

    In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide—the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing. However, matricide may be costly to workers if it reduces the production of valuable new queens and workers. Here, I test a theoretical prediction regarding the timing of matricide in a wasp, Dolichovespula arenaria, recently shown to have facultative matricide based on intra-colony relatedness. Using analyses of collected, mature colonies and a surgical manipulation preventing queens from laying female eggs, I show that workers do not preferentially kill queens who are only producing male eggs. Instead, workers sometimes kill queens laying valuable females, suggesting a high cost of matricide. Although matricide is common and typically occurs only in low-paternity colonies, it seems that workers sometimes pay substantial costs in this expression of conflict over male parentage.

  20. Wolbachia Infection in a Natural Parasitoid Wasp Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplouy, Anne; Couchoux, Christelle; Hanski, Ilkka; van Nouhuys, Saskya

    2015-01-01

    The maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is well known for spreading and persisting in insect populations through manipulation of the fitness of its host. Here, we identify three new Wolbachia pipientis strains, wHho, wHho2 and wHho3, infecting Hyposoter horticola, a specialist wasp parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. The wHho strain (ST435) infects about 50% of the individuals in the Åland islands in Finland, with a different infection rate in the two mitochondrial (COI) haplotypes of the wasp. The vertical transmission rate of Wolbachia is imperfect, and lower in the haplotype with lower infection rate, suggesting a fitness trade-off. We found no association of the wHho infection with fecundity, longevity or dispersal ability of the parasitoid host. However, preliminary results convey spatial associations between Wolbachia infection, host mitochondrial haplotype and parasitism of H. horticola by its hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus cf. stigmaticus. We discuss the possibility that Wolbachia infection protects H. horticola against hyperparasitism.

  1. WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: three new transiting close-in giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hébrard, G.; Skillen, I.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bouchy, F.; Busuttil, R.; Delorme, P.; Delrez, L.; Demangeon, O.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Gonzàlez, E.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Jarvis, J. F.; Jehin, E.; Joshi, Y. C.; Kolb, U.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Mortier, A.; Pallé, E.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Vanhuysse, M.; West, R. G.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric light curves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 d, which has Rp = 1.461 ± 0.077RJ and Mp = 0.805 ± 0.068MJ. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 d and has Rp = 1.597 ± 0.077RJ and Mp = 1.47 ± 0.029MJ. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where Rp = 1.440 ± 0.036RJ and Mp = 0.514 ± 0.020MJ and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 d. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07, respectively) ideal for further characterization work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered.

  2. WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: Three new transiting close-in giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, K L; Doyle, A P; Hébrard, G; Skillen, I; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Bouchy, F; Busuttil, R; Delorme, P; Delrez, L; Demangeon, O; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Gonzàlez, E; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jarvis, J F; Jehin, E; Joshi, Y C; Kolb, U; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Mortier, A; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Simpson, E K; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; Vanhuysse, M; West, R G; Wilson, P A

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric lightcurves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 days, which has $R_p = 1.461 \\pm 0.077 R_{\\rm J}$ and $M_p = 0.805 \\pm 0.068 M_{\\rm J}$. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 days and has $R_p = 1.597 \\pm 0.077 R_{\\rm J}$ and $M_p = 1.47 \\pm 0.029 M_{\\rm J}$. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where $R_p = 1.440 \\pm 0.036 R_{\\rm J}$ and $M_p = 0.513 \\pm 0.041 M_{\\rm J}$ and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 days. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07 respectively) ideal for further characterisation work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. WASP-93b is expected to be tidally migrating outwards, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jup...

  3. Seven transiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b and WASP-67b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3-12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range of 3.9-4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4 to 2.3 MJup and the radii from 1.1 to 1.4 RJup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (ρ = 0.13-1.07ρJup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investigate the distribution of their orbital periods and the 3-4 d 'pile-up'.

  4. Seven transiting hot-Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b & WASP-67b

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2012-01-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3 to 12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range 3.9--4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4--2.3 Mjup and the radii from 1.1--1.4 Mjup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (rho = 0.13--1.07 rho_jup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investigate the distribution of their orbital periods and the 3--4-d "pile-up".

  5. Transiting planets from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Delrez, L; Anderson, D R; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V=10.7 G0-type star (1.24+-0.03 M_sun, 1.69-0.06+0.11 R_sun, T_eff=5911+-60 K) with a period of 5.084298+-0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. WASP-73 b is significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 M_Jup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 R_Jup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V=10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M_sun, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R_sun, T_eff=6036+-120 K) every 4.08722+-0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (2.3 10^9 erg s^-1 cm^-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 \\rho_Jup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. WASP-88 b is a 0.56+-0.08 M_Jup planet orbiting a V=11.4 F6-type star (1.45+-0.05 M_sun, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R_sun, T_eff=6431+-130 K) with a period of 4.954000+-0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 R_Jup, it joins t...

  6. Evolutionary Ecology: Wasp Mother's Little Helpers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose.......The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose....

  7. Discovery of WASP-113b and WASP-114b, two inflated hot-Jupiters with contrasting densities

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, S C C; Hébrard, G; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Anderson, D R; Boumis, P; Delrez, L; Hay, K L; Lam, K W F; Llama, J; Lendl, M; McCormac, J; Skiff, B; Smalley, B; Turner, O; Vanhuysse, M; Armstrong, D J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Cameron, A Collier; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Liakos, A; Meaburn, J; Osborn, H P; Pepe, F; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Rey, J; Spake, J; Ségransan, D; Triaud, A H M; Udry, S; Walker, S R; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery and characterisation of the exoplanets WASP-113b and WASP-114b by the WASP survey, {\\it SOPHIE} and {\\it CORALIE}. The planetary nature of the systems was established by performing follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations. The follow-up data were combined with the WASP-photometry and analysed with an MCMC code to obtain system parameters. The host stars WASP-113 and WASP-114 are very similar. They are both early G-type stars with an effective temperature of $\\sim 5900\\,$K, [Fe/H]$\\sim 0.12$ and $T_{\\rm eff}$ $\\sim 4.1$dex. However, WASP-113 is older than WASP-114. Although the planetary companions have similar radii, WASP-114b is almost 4 times heavier than WASP-113b. WASP-113b has a mass of $0.48\\,$ $\\mathrm{M}_{\\rm Jup}$ and an orbital period of $\\sim 4.5\\,$days; WASP-114b has a mass of $1.77\\,$ $\\mathrm{M}_{\\rm Jup}$ and an orbital period of $\\sim 1.5\\,$days. Both planets have inflated radii, in particular WASP-113 with a radius anomaly of $\\Re=0.35$. The high scale hei...

  8. Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those with Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167081.html Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those With Allergies Facing expected season-long ... News) -- A shortage of honeybee, wasp and hornet venom extract has allergists concerned. The extract treats people ...

  9. WASP-44b, WASP-45b and WASP-46b: three short-period, transiting extrasolar planets

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Ségransan, D; Todd, I; Udry, S

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of three extrasolar planets that transit their moderately bright (Vmag = 12-13) host stars. WASP-44b is a 0.89-MJup planet in a 2.42-day orbit around a G8V star. WASP-45b is a 1.03-MJup planet which passes in front of the limb of its K2V host star every 3.13 days. Weak Ca H+K emission seen in the spectra of WASP-45 suggests the star is chromospherically active. WASP-46b is a 2.10-MJup planet in a 1.43-day orbit around a G6V star. Rotational modulation of the light curves of WASP-46 and weak Ca H+K emission in its spectra show the star to be photospherically and chromospherically active. We imposed circular orbits in our analyses as the radial velocity data are consistent with (near-)circular orbits, as could be expected from both empirical and tidal-theory perspectives for such short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We discuss the impact of fitting for eccentric orbits for these type of planets when not supported by the data. The derived planetary and stellar radii depend on the fitted ec...

  10. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP78 and WASP79 RV and photometric data (Smalley+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    File rv.dat contains the Radial velocity and line bisector span measurements of WASP-78 and WASP-79 obtained using the CORALIE spectrograph. Files phot.dat contains the transit photometry of WASP-78 obtained using the Trappist Telescope through a blue-blocking filter on 2011 November 8, 2011 December 15 and 2012 January 8, respectively, and the z' band transit photometry of WASP-79 obtained using the Trappist Telescope on 2011 September 26. (2 data files).

  12. Hot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47

    CERN Document Server

    Neveu-VanMalle, M; Anderson, D R; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Díaz, R F; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lister, T; Pepe, F; Rojo, P; Ségransan, D; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.29 $\\pm$ 0.02 and orbiting in 421 $\\pm$ 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 $\\pm$ 0.22 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.13 $\\pm$ 0.10 and orbiting in 572 $\\pm$ 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems including a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long period planet located at only $\\sim$1 AU from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect due the second planet, we use the emission in the H$\\alpha$ line and find this indicator well suited to detect the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host ...

  13. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of WASP-18b

    CERN Document Server

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Hardy, Ryan A; Stevenson, Kevin B; Campo, Christopher J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C; Britt, Christopher B T; Cubillos, Patricio; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Maxted, Pierre F L; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J; Pollacco, Don; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) project. The \\textit{Spitzer}\\ Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using \\textit{Spitzer}'s Infrared Array Camera (IR\\ AC) in the 3.6-{\\micron} and 5.8-{\\micron} bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5-{\\micron} and 8.0-{\\micron} bands on 2008 Dece\\ mber 24. We report eclipse depths of \\math{0.31\\pm{0.02}, 0.38\\pm{0.03}, 0.41\\pm{0.02}, 0.43\\pm{0.03}\\%}, and brightness temperatu\\ res of 2920 \\pm {90}, 3150 \\pm {130}, 3040 \\pm {130} and 2960 \\pm {130} K, respectively. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets ye\\ t discovered - as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile features a thermal inversion. The observation\\ s also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day-side to the night side of the \\ planet.

  14. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  15. The first WASP public data release

    CERN Document Server

    Butters, O W; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Joshi, Y; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Todd, I; Wheatley, P J; Wilson, D M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015655

    2010-01-01

    The WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) project is an exoplanet transit survey that has been automatically taking wide field images since 2004. Two instruments, one in La Palma and the other in South Africa, continually monitor the night sky, building up light curves of millions of unique objects. These light curves are used to search for the characteristics of exoplanetary transits. This first public data release (DR1) of the WASP archive makes available all the light curve data and images from 2004 up to 2008 in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. A web interface (www.wasp.le.ac.uk/public/) to the data allows easy access over the Internet. The data set contains 3 631 972 raw images and 17 970 937 light curves. In total the light curves have 119 930 299 362 data points available between them.

  16. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth;

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind data. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations....... The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b (Anderson+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier, Cameron A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Skillen, I.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2015-04-01

    Three tables of data on the three planet host stars are provided: table2.dat is the WASP survey photometry; table3.dat is the radial velocities from CORALIE and HARPS; and table4.dat is the high-SNR photometry taken with EulerCam, TRAPPIST and RISE. (3 data files).

  18. Discovery of WASP-65b and WASP-75b: Two Hot Jupiters Without Highly Inflated Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Pollacco, D; Brown, D J A; Doyle, A P; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Lendl, M; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Busuttil, R; Liebig, C; Anderson, D R; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Burwitz, V; Delrez, L; Enoch, B; Fumel, A; Haswell, C A; Hébrard, G; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Norton, A J; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rodríguez, J; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Stassun, K G; Udry, S; Watson, C A

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-65b (M_pl = 1.55 +/- 0.16 M_J; R_pl = 1.11 +/- 0.06 R_J), and WASP-75b (M_pl = 1.07 +/- 0.05 M_J; R_pl = 1.27 +/- 0.05 R_J). They orbit their host star every 2.311, and 2.484 days, respectively. The planet host WASP-65 is a G6 star (T_eff = 5600 K, [Fe/H] = -0.07 +/- 0.07, age > 8 Gyr); WASP-75 is an F9 star (T_eff = 6100 K, [Fe/H] = 0.07 +/- 0.09, age of 3 Gyr). The mean density of WASP-65b is similar to that of Jupiter (rho_pl = 1.13 +/- 0.08 rho_J), and in fact, WASP-65b is one of the densest planets with a mass between 0.1 and 2.0 M_J, a mass range in which a large fraction of the known planets have been found to be inflated with respect to theoretical planet models. WASP-65b is one of only a handful of planets with masses of around 1.5 M_J, a mass regime surprisingly underrepresented among the currently known hot Jupiters. The radius of Jupiter-mass WASP-75b is slightly inflated (< 10%) as compared to theoretical planet models with no core, ...

  19. Hot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 ± 0.20 MJup and eccentricity 0.29 ± 0.02, and it orbits in 421 ± 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 ± 0.22 MJup and eccentricity 0.13 ± 0.10, and it orbits in 572 ± 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems that include a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long-period planet located at only ~1 au from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect induced by the second planet, we used the emission in the Hα line and find this indicator well suited to detecting the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for understanding planetary migration. Using data collected at ESO's La Silla Observatory, Chile: HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 087.C-0649 & 089.C-0151), the Swiss Euler Telescope, TRAPPIST, the 1.54-m Danish telescope (Prog CN2013A-159), and at the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South.Photometric lightcurve and RV tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A93

  20. From Dense Hot Jupiter to Low Density Neptune: The Discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b and WASP-138b

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, K W F; Brown, D J A; Anderson, D R; Delrez, L; Gillon, M; Hébrard, G; Lendl, M; Mancini, L; Southworth, J; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M; Turner, O D; Hay, K L; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bonomo, A S; Bouchy, F; Boumis, P; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Hellier, C; Henning, T; Jehin, E; King, G; Kirk, J; Louden, T; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J J; Osborn, H P; Palle, E; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Prieto-Arranz, J; Queloz, D; Rey, J; Ségransan, D; Udry, S; Walker, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18Mj and radius 1.35Rj. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (V = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days.WASP-127b is a low density planet which has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500+/-400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 Mj and 1.38 Rj, and 1.22 Mj and 1.09 Rj, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 Msun and a radius of 2.21 Rsun. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constraint the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 1...

  1. WASP-86b and WASP-102b: super-dense versus bloated planets

    CERN Document Server

    Faedi, F; Pollacco, D; Brown, D J A; Hébrard, G; Smalley, B; Lam, K W F; Veras, D; Anderson, D; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Goad, M R; Lendl, M; Mancini, L; McCormac, J; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Prieto-Arranz, J; Scholz, A; Street, R; Triaud, A H M; West, R; Wheatley, P J; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Boumis, P; Cameron, A Collier; Haswell, C A; Hay, K L; Hellier, C; Kolb, U; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Osborn, H P; Palle, E; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Udry, S; Wilson, P A

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two transiting planetary systems: a super dense, sub-Jupiter mass planet WASP-86b (\\mpl\\ = 0.82 $\\pm$ 0.06 \\mj, \\rpl\\ = 0.63 $\\pm$ 0.01 \\rj), and a bloated, Saturn-like planet WASP-102b (\\mpl\\ = 0.62 $\\pm$ 0.04 \\mj, \\rpl\\=1.27 $\\pm$ 0.03 \\rj). They orbit their host star every $\\sim$5.03, and $\\sim$2.71 days, respectively. The planet hosting WASP-86 is a F7 star (\\teff\\ = 6330$\\pm$110 K, \\feh\\ = $+$0.23 $\\pm$ 0.14 dex, and age $\\sim$0.8--1~Gyr), WASP-102 is a G0 star (\\teff\\ = 5940$\\pm$140 K, \\feh\\ = $-$0.09$\\pm$ 0.19 dex, and age $\\sim$1~Gyr). These two systems highlight the diversity of planetary radii over similar masses for giant planets with masses between Saturn and Jupiter. WASP-102b shows a larger than model-predicted radius, indicating that the planet is receiving a strong incident flux which contributes to the inflation of its radius. On the other hand, with a density of $\\rho_{pl}$ = 3.24$\\pm$~0.3~$\\rho_{jup}$, WASP-86b is the densest gas giant planet among planets with ma...

  2. WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b: two new transiting Saturns

    CERN Document Server

    Lendl, M; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting planets from the WASP survey. WASP-42 b is a 0.500 +- 0.035 M_J planet orbiting a K1 star at a separation of 0.0548 +- 0.0017 AU with a period of 4.9816872 +- 0.0000073 days. The radius of WASP-42 is 1.080 +- 0.057 R_J while its equilibrium temperature is T_eq = 995 +- 34 K. We detect some evidence of a small but non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.060 +- 0.013. WASP-49 b is a 0.378 +- 0.027 M_J planet around an old G6 star. It has a period of 2.7817387 +- 5.6 x 10-6 days and a separation of 0.0379 +- 0.0011 AU. This planet is slightly bloated, having a radius of 1.115 +- 0.056 R_J and an equilibrium temperature of T_eq = 1369 +- 42 K. Both planets have been followed up intensively in photometry, in total we have obtained 5 full and one partial transit light curves of WASP-42 and 4 full and one partial light curves of WASP-49 using the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and Faulkes South telescopes.

  3. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  4. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.;

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  5. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  6. Underwater manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  7. WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b: two new transiting sub-Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting planets from the WASP survey. WASP-42 b is a 0.500 ± 0.035 MJ planet orbiting a K1 star at a separation of 0.0548 ± 0.0017 AU with a period of 4.9816872 ± 7.3 × 10-6 days. The radius of WASP-42 b is 1.080 ± 0.057 RJ while its equilibrium temperature is Teq = 995 ± 34 K. We detect some evidence for a small but non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.060 ± 0.013. WASP-49 b is a 0.378 ± 0.027 MJ planet around an old G6 star. It has a period of 2.7817387 ± 5.6 × 10-6 days and a separation of 0.0379 ± 0.0011 AU. This planet is slightly bloated, having a radius of 1.115 ± 0.047 RJ and an equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1369 ± 39 K. Both planets have been followed up photometrically, and in total we have obtained 5 full and one partial transit light curves of WASP-42 and 4 full and one partial light curves of WASP-49 using the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and Faulkes South telescopes. Based on photometric observations made with WASP-South, EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope, the Belgian TRAPPIST telescope, the Faulkes South Telescope and spectroscopic observations obtained with CORALIE on the Euler-Swiss telescope and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. ID: 087.C-0649).The photometric time series and radial velocity data in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A72

  8. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  9. N-wasp is required for structural integrity of the blood-testis barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis, the blood-testis barrier (BTB segregates the adluminal (apical and basal compartments in the seminiferous epithelium, thereby creating a privileged adluminal environment that allows post-meiotic spermatid development to proceed without interference of the host immune system. A key feature of the BTB is its continuous remodeling within the Sertoli cells, the major somatic component of the seminiferous epithelium. This remodeling is necessary to allow the transport of germ cells towards the seminiferous tubule interior, while maintaining intact barrier properties. Here we demonstrate that the actin nucleation promoting factor Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP provides an essential function necessary for BTB restructuring, and for maintaining spermatogenesis. Our data suggests that the N-WASP-Arp2/3 actin polymerization machinery generates branched-actin arrays at an advanced stage of BTB remodeling. These arrays are proposed to mediate the restructuring process through endocytic recycling of BTB components. Disruption of N-WASP in Sertoli cells results in major structural abnormalities to the BTB, including mis-localization of critical junctional and cytoskeletal elements, and leads to disruption of barrier function. These impairments result in a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, underscoring the critical involvement of the somatic compartment of the seminiferous tubules in germ cell maturation.

  10. [Risk of bee or wasp stings in various vacation destinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, V

    2014-09-01

    The risk for tourists who are allergic to bee or wasp venom to be stung in various holiday destinations is mainly influenced by the structure of the regional bee or wasp community affected by zoogeographical and ecological factors. Information is presented for important destinations of German holiday-makers concerning distribution of honey bees (Apinae, Apis) and social wasps (Polistinae, Vespinae) as well as places and season of danger.

  11. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  12. Deletion of WASp and N-WASp in B cells cripples the germinal center response and results in production of IgM autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Torres, Magda-Liz; Petersen, Sven H; Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Volpi, Stefano; Grasset, Emilie K; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Walter, Jolan E; Snapper, Scott B; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2015-08-01

    Humoral immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is associated with failure to respond to common pathogens and high frequency of autoimmunity. Here we addressed the question how deficiency in WASp and the homologous protein N-WASp skews the immune response towards autoreactivity. Mice devoid of WASp or both WASp and N-WASp in B cells formed germinal center to increased load of apoptotic cells as a source of autoantigens. However, the germinal centers showed abolished polarity and B cells retained longer and proliferated less in the germinal centers. While WASp-deficient mice had high titers of autoreactive IgG, B cells devoid of both WASp and N-WASp produced mainly IgM autoantibodies with broad reactivity to autoantigens. Moreover, B cells lacking both WASp and N-WASp induced somatic hypermutation at reduced frequency. Despite this, IgG1-expressing B cells devoid of WASp and N-WASp acquired a specific high affinity mutation, implying an increased BCR signaling threshold for selection in germinal centers. Our data provides evidence for that N-WASp expression alone drives WASp-deficient B cells towards autoimmunity.

  13. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Douglas W

    2009-11-12

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs') that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules) and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules). Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination) in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the game' to ensure

  14. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP41 and WASP47 photometric and RV data (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Diaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Segransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2015-10-01

    Photometric time-series obtained during transits of the hot Jupiter WASP-47b, and RV time-series obtained on WASP-41 and WASP-47. The photometric time-series were obtained using the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South, the TRAPPIST telescope and the 1.54-m Danish telescope. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE and the ESO/HARPS spectrographs. (7 data files).

  16. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and N-WASP are critical for peripheral B-cell development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carin; Baptista, Marisa; Moran, Christopher J.; Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Eston, Michelle A.; Alt, Frederick W.; Terhorst, Cox; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2012-01-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is a key cytoskeletal regulator of hematopoietic cells. Although WASP-knockout (WKO) mice have aberrant B-cell cytoskeletal responses, B-cell development is relatively normal. We hypothesized that N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed homolog of WASP, may serve some redundant functions with WASP in B cells. In the present study, we generated mice lacking WASP and N-WASP in B cells (conditional double knockout [cDKO] B cells) and show that cDKO mice had decreased numbers of follicular and marginal zone B cells in the spleen. Receptor-induced activation of cDKO B cells led to normal proliferation but a marked reduction of spreading compared with wild-type and WKO B cells. Whereas WKO B cells showed decreased migration in vitro and homing in vivo compared with wild-type cells, cDKO B cells showed an even more pronounced decrease in the migratory response in vivo. After injection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)–Ficoll, cDKO B cells had reduced antigen uptake in the splenic marginal zone. Despite high basal serum IgM, cDKO mice mounted a reduced immune response to the T cell–independent antigen TNP-Ficoll and to the T cell–dependent antigen TNP–keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Our results reveal that the combined activity of WASP and N-WASP is required for peripheral B-cell development and function. PMID:22411869

  17. Fragmentation Effects on Diversity of Wasp Community and Its Impact on Fig/Fig Wasp Interaction in Ficus racemosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Wu WANG; Cheng-Yun YANG; Gui-Fang ZHAO; Jun-Xing YANG

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation usually results in alteration of species composition or biological communities. However, little is known about the effect of habitat fragmentation on the fig/fig wasp system.In this study, we compared the structure of a fig wasp community and the interaction between figs and fig wasps of Ficus racemosa L. in a primary forest, a locally fragmented forest and a highly fragmented forest.Our results show that, in the highly fragmented forest, the proportion of pollinator wasps is lower and the proportion of non-pollinator wasps is higher compared with the primary forest and locally fragmented forest. The proportion of fruits without pollinator wasps in mature fruits is also greatly increased in the highly fragmented forest. The proportion of galls in all female flowers increases in the highly fragmented forest, whereas the proportion of viable seeds does not change considerably. The disruption of groups of fig trees results in a decrease in pollinator wasps and even might result in the extinction of pollinator wasps in some extreme cases, which may transform the reciprocal interaction between figs and fig wasps into a parasite/host system. Such an effect may lead to the local extinction of this keystone plant resource of rain forests in the process of evolution, and thereby, may change the structure and function of the tropical rain forest.

  18. The rate of N-WASP exchange limits the extent of ARP2/3-complex-dependent actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisswange, Ina; Newsome, Timothy P; Schleich, Sibylle; Way, Michael

    2009-03-05

    Understanding cell motility will require detailed knowledge not only of the localization of signalling networks regulating actin polymerization, but also of their dynamics. Unfortunately, many signalling networks are not amenable to such analysis, as they are frequently transient and dispersed. By contrast, the signalling pathways used by pathogens undergoing actin-based motility are highly localized and operate in a constitutive fashion. Taking advantage of this, we have analysed the dynamics of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), WASP-interacting protein (WIP), GRB2 and NCK, which are required to stimulate actin-related protein (ARP)2/3-complex-dependent actin-based motility of vaccinia virus, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Here we show that all four proteins are rapidly exchanging, albeit at different rates, and that the turnover of N-WASP depends on its ability to stimulate ARP2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization. Conversely, disruption of the interaction of N-WASP with GRB2 and/or the barbed ends of actin filaments increases its exchange rate and results in a faster rate of virus movement. We suggest that the exchange rate of N-WASP controls the rate of ARP2/3-complex-dependent actin-based motility by regulating the extent of actin polymerization by antagonizing filament capping.

  19. Involvement of the opioid system in the hypokinetic state induced in cockroaches by a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic

    2011-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.

  20. WASP-35b, WASP-48b and WASP-51b: Two new planets and an independent discovery of HAT-P-30b

    CERN Document Server

    Enoch, B; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Hébrard, G; Lister, T A; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Bouchy, F; Bento, J; Butters, O; Fossati, L; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Jehen, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Segransan, D; Simpson, E; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of WASP-35b, a planet transiting a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -0.15) star in the Southern hemisphere, WASP-48b, an inflated planet which may have spun-up its slightly evolved host star of 1.75 R_sun in the Northern hemisphere, and the independent discovery of HAT-P-30b / WASP-51b, a new planet in the Northern hemisphere. Using WASP, RISE, FTS and TRAPPIST photometry, with CORALIE, SOPHIE and NOT spectroscopy, we determine that WASP-35b has a mass of 0.72 +/- 0.06 M_J and radius of 1.32 +/- 0.03 R_J, and orbits with a period of 3.16 days, WASP-48b has a mass of 0.98 +/- 0.09 M_J, radius of 1.67 +/- 0.08 R_J and orbits in 2.14 days, while WASP-51b, with an orbital period of 2.81 days, is found to have a mass of 0.76 +/- 0.05 M_J and radius of 1.42 +/- 0.04 R_J, agreeing with values of 0.71 +/- 0.03 M_J and 1.34 +/- 0.07 R_J reported for HAT-P-30b.

  1. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke J. F. A. Van Vugt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated to the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In

  2. Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. Auko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae. New associations of host and parasitoids involving potter wasps: Toxophora leucon and Pleurochrysis sp. were found parasitizing Cyphomenes anisitsii, Chrysis sp. (gr. intricans was found parasitizing Minixi suffusum, Plega beardi was found parasitizing Montezumia pelagica sepulchralis and Macrosiagon sp. was found parasitizing Pachodynerus nasidens.

  3. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to fe

  4. Palp-faction: an African milkweed dismembers its wasp pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-06-01

    Interactions between pollinators and nectar-producing flowers are usually assumed to be mutualistic, but the exploitative basis of these relationships can lead to antagonistic interactions. Flowers of the African milkweed, Pachycarpus appendiculatus E. Mey, produce concentrated nectar that is consumed primarily by the large spider-hunting wasp Hemipepsis dedjas Guerin (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Pollinaria of this milkweed become attached to the palps of these wasps during nectar feeding. Broken wasp palps were found between guide rails, attached to corpuscula that were trapped behind the guide rails, and attached to pollinia that were inserted into the stigmatic chambers of the flowers. Approximately 85% of wasps captured on flowers of P. appendiculatus were missing one or more palps, whereas only 9% of wasps captured on flowers of another asclepiad species were missing any palps. It thus seems that wasps face a high risk of losing their palps when foraging on these flowers. The interaction may thus be antagonistic for the wasps if the cost of losing their sensory palps (not yet established) is greater than the benefits of the nectar reward. The plants, however, gain clear benefit from the interaction, as verified by the removal and insertion of pollinia in flowers exposed solely to visits by pompilid wasps.

  5. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multi-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciceri, S; Southworth, J; Lendl, M; Tregloan-Reed, J; Brahm, R; Chen, G; D'Ago, G; Dominik, M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Galianni, P; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Jørgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Rabus, M; Bonomo, A S; Bott, K; Henning, Th; Jordan, A; Sozzetti, A; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bajek, D; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Gu, S-H; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Penny, M; Popovas, A; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Surdej, J; Vilela, C; Wang, X-B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the physical characteristics of a large number of exoplanets are useful to strongly constrain theoretical models of planet formation and evolution, which lead to the large variety of exoplanets and planetary-system configurations that have been observed. We present a study of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46, both composed of a main-sequence star and a close-in hot Jupiter, based on 29 new high-quality light curves of transits events. In particular, one transit of WASP-45 b and four of WASP-46 b were simultaneously observed in four optical filters, while one transit of WASP-46 b was observed with the NTT obtaining precision of 0.30 mmag with a cadence of roughly three minutes. We also obtained five new spectra of WASP-45 with the FEROS spectrograph. We improved by a factor of four the measurement of the radius of the planet WASP-45 b, and found that WASP-46 b is slightly less massive and smaller than previously reported. Both planets now have a more accurate measurement of th...

  6. A Window on Exoplanet Dynamical Histories: Rossiter-McLaughlin Observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b

    CERN Document Server

    Brothwell, R D; Hebrard, G; Triaud, A H M J; Cegla, H M; Santerne, A; Hebrard, E; Anderson, D R; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Chew, Y Gomez Maqueo; Cameron, A Collier; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Bochinski, J; Burwitz, V; Busuttil, R; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Kolb, U; Lendl, M; Liebig, C; Maxted, P F L; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Norton, A J; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rodriguez, J; Segransan, D; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Stassun, K G; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis ($\\lambda$). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of $\\lambda={8^{\\circ}}^{+13}_{-12}$ and $\\lambda={-2^{\\circ}}^{+17}_{-19}$, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}<6250$K and therefore these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was carried out on archival SuperWASP data for both systems. A statistically significant stellar rotation period detection (above 99.9\\% confidence) was identified for the WASP-32 system with $P_{\\mathrm{rot}}=11.6 \\pm 1.0 $ days. This rotation period is in agreement with the predicted stellar rotation period calculated from the stellar radius, $R_{\\star}$, and $v \\sin i$ if a stellar inclin...

  7. ABSORBING GAS AROUND THE WASP-12 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Floeer, L. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Ayres, T. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Haswell, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kochukhov, O., E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: lfloeer@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@colorado.edu, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: david.bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: oleg.kochukhov@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index ( log R{sup '}{sub HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets.

  8. Parasitic wasp females are attracted to blends of host-induced plant volatiles: do qualitative and quantitative differences in the blend matter? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/y3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Uefune

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Naïve Cotesia vestalis wasps, parasitoids of diamondback moth (DBM larvae, are attracted to a synthetic blend (Blend A of host-induced plant volatiles composed of sabinene, n-heptanal, α-pinene, and (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, in a ratio of 1.8:1.3:2.0:3.0. We studied whether qualitative (adding (R-limonene: Blend B or quantitative changes (changing ratios: Blend C to Blend A affected the olfactory response of C. vestalis in the background of intact komatsuna plant volatiles. Naïve wasps showed equal preference to Blends A and B and Blends A and C in two-choice tests. Wasps with oviposition experience in the presence of Blend B preferred Blend B over Blend A, while wasps that had oviposited without a volatile blend showed no preference between the two. Likewise, wasps that had starvation experience in the presence of Blend B preferred Blend A over Blend B, while wasps that had starved without a volatile blend showed no preference between the two. Wasps that had oviposition experience either with or without Blend A showed equal preferences between Blends C and A. However, wasps that had starvation experience in the presence of Blend A preferred Blend C over Blend A, while those that starved without a volatile blend showed equal preferences between the two. By manipulating quality and quantity of the synthetic attractants, we showed to what extent C. vestalis could discriminate/learn slight differences between blends that were all, in principle, attractive.

  9. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  10. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  11. About WASP and its Impact on American Culture and Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2015-01-01

    The acronym WASP in the United States refers to a descendent of the Caucasian Protestant Christians from England who began immigrating to the Americas in the seventeenth century. This was one the first foreign-born ethnic groups to gain a secure foothold in U.S. territory, displacing the Native American populations. In the late-eighteenth century WASPs became the dominant ethnicity in the United States, with their values shaping the institutions of the new and rapidly growing nation. Whether WASP cultural values are still the most dominant values in the United States is a subject of debate for a lot of scholars who are doing research on American history.

  12. Finding Planets Orbiting Bright Stars with SuperWASP-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O.; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. L. F.; Hellier, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decade the Wide Angle Search for Planets(WASP) project has been at the forefront of the ground-based hunt for transiting planets. In that time, WASP has found many systems that push the boundaries of our understanding of planet formation and evolution. In recent years both the North and South installations have changed their observing strategies with the aim of discovering rarer objects to further fill gaps in our knowledge and test current theory. Here we look at the performance and potential of the new WASP-South instrument, which we modified to target brighter stars. We also present some new discoveries from this brighter, southern campaign.

  13. Planets Transiting Bright Stars with WASP-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decade the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) project has been at the forefront of the ground-based hunt for transiting planets. In that time, WASP has found many systems that push the boundaries of our understanding of planet formation and evolution. In recent years both the North and South installations have changed their observing strategies with the aim of discovering rarer objects to further fill gaps in our knowledge and test current theory. Here we look at the performance and potential of the new WASP-South instrument, which we modified to target brighter stars. We also present some new discoveries from this brighter, southern campaign.

  14. Chemical communication: butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Huigens, Martinus E; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2005-02-17

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to female Pieris brassicae butterflies during mating, to render them less attractive to conspecific males. When the tiny wasp detects the odour of a mated female butterfly, it rides on her (Fig. 1) to her egg-laying sites and then parasitizes the freshly laid eggs. If this fascinating strategy is widespread in nature, it could severely constrain the evolution of sexual communication between hosts.

  15. Unsuccessful attacks dominate a drone-preying wasp's hunting performance near stingless bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedam, D; Slaa, E J; Biesmeijer, J C; Nogueira-Neto, P

    2009-01-01

    Bee males (drones) of stingless bees tend to congregate near entrances of conspecific nests, where they wait for virgin queens that initiate their nuptial flight. We observed that the Neotropical solitary wasp Trachypus boharti (Hymenoptera, Cabronidae) specifically preys on males of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae); these wasps captured up to 50 males per day near the entrance of a single hive. Over 90% of the wasp attacks were unsuccessful; such erroneous attacks often involved conspecific wasps and worker bees. After the capture of non-male prey, wasps almost immediately released these individuals unharmed and continued hunting. A simple behavioral experiment showed that at short distances wasps were not specifically attracted to S. postica males nor were they repelled by workers of the same species. Likely, short-range prey detection near the bees' nest is achieved mainly by vision whereas close-range prey recognition is based principally on chemical and/or mechanical cues. We argue that the dependence on the wasp's visual perception during attack and the crowded and dynamic hunting conditions caused wasps to make many preying attempts that failed. Two wasp-density-related factors, wasp-prey distance and wasp-wasp encounters, may account for the fact that the highest male capture and unsuccessful wasp bee encounter rates occurred at intermediate wasp numbers.

  16. Hubble/WFC3 Spectroscopy of the Transiting Exoplanets WASP-19b and WASP-17b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, A.; Haynes, K.; Sinukoff, E.; Deming, D.; Wlikins, A.; Madhusudhan, N.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Gilliland, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of transiting exoplanets that target extremes in parameter space offer the best chance to disentangle the structure and composition of the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. WASP-19b is one of the hottest exoplanets discovered to date, while WASP-17b has a much lower equilibrium temperature but has one of the largest atmospheric radii of known transiting planets. We discuss results from HST/WFC3 grism 1.1-1.7 micron spectroscopy of these planets during transit. We compare our integrated-light transit depths to previous IR transit photometry, and derive the 1.4-micron water absorption spectrum. We discuss implications for the atmospheric composition and structure of these hot Jupiters, and outline future observations that will further expand on these results.

  17. Improving WAsP predictions in (too) complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Bowen, A.J.; Antoniou, I.

    2006-01-01

    (ΔRIX) are confirmed and the consequences of applying WAsP outside its operating envelope are quantified. A loglinear relation between WAsP prediction errors and the performance indicator ΔRIX is found to describe the field measurements and modelling results well. The largest coefficient...... of determination is obtained with a calculation radius of about 3.5 km and a critical slope of about 0.40-0.45 used in the RIX calculations. A simple procedure is further proposed to improve wind speed and power production predictions in terrain outside the operational envelope of the WAsP flow model. Results from...... the case study in northern Portugal, employing five meteorological stations with ruggedness indices between 10 and 33%, indicate an average improvement of WAsP power production predictions of 69%. Cross-predictions between sites with ΔRIX values larger than 5% are improved by more than 90% on average...

  18. Neurobiology: venom of wasps and initiation of movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R

    2008-06-24

    The ability to initiate movements can be impaired in some brain injuries even though motor actions proceed normally once they are begun. The effects of venom that wasps use in preying upon cockroaches could provide insights into this problem.

  19. From dense hot Jupiter to low-density Neptune: The discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b, and WASP-138b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18±0.02 MJ and radius 1.37±0.04 RJ. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (Vmag = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days. WASP-127b is a low-density planet that has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500 ± 400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.38 ± 0.16 RJ, and 1.22 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.09 ± 0.05 RJ, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 ± 0.07 M⊙ and a radius of 2.21 ± 0.22 R⊙. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constrain the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 10 M⊕. The discovery of these new planets helps in exploring the diverse compositional range of short-period planets, and will aid our understanding of the physical characteristics of both gas giants and low-density planets. Radial velocity and photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A3

  20. Component-resolved diagnosis of wasp (yellow jacket) venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebo, D G; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Leysen, J; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S

    2013-02-01

    Wasp venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with serious consequences of diagnostic error. To assess whether component-resolved diagnosis, using non-glycosylated recombinant allergen components from yellow jacket can add to the diagnosis of wasp venom allergy. In total, 148 patients with a wasp (yellow jacket) allergy were included, 91 with unequivocal tests, 26 with double positivity of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) to both venoms, 21 with discrepant sIgE and skin test results and finally 10 having their diagnosis only confirmed by basophil activation test (negative sIgE and skin test results). Specific IgE to recombinant species-specific allergen components Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 from yellow jacket, Api m 1 from honeybee and Ves v 5 complemented wasp venom were tested by ImmunoCAP. Overall, combined use of sIgE to rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 allowed correct diagnosis in 139 of the 148 patients (94%) and rApi m 1 was demonstrable in only one patient. Supplementing the traditional yellow jacket allergosorbent with rVes v 5 allowed to correctly diagnose wasp allergy in patients sensitized to Ves v 5 but demonstrating a negative sIgE to wasp venom. Component-resolved diagnoses with the wasp-specific recombinant allergen components Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 is a reliable method to diagnose yellow jacket allergy and can help to take out the sting of difficult cases. However, as the number of patients with doubt after conventional tests is small, larger collaborative studies are needed to draw more definitive conclusions. Whether the rVes v 5 supplemented yellow jacket allergosorbent constitutes an asset in the diagnostic management of wasp venom allergy remains to be further established. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  2. The Role of WASp in Podosome Formation and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevrey, Jean-Claude; Dovas, Athanassios; Abou-Kheir, Wassim;

    Abstract Podosomes are ventral adhesion structures found mainly in cells of the monocytic lineage. Even though their function remains obscure, it has been proposed that they play roles in cell migration and, through their ability to degrade matrix, ECM remodelling and invasion. Monocyte-derived c......Abstract Podosomes are ventral adhesion structures found mainly in cells of the monocytic lineage. Even though their function remains obscure, it has been proposed that they play roles in cell migration and, through their ability to degrade matrix, ECM remodelling and invasion. Monocyte...... in decreased podosome formation and matrix degradation that could be rescued by re-expression of WT WASp. To assess the signal pathways required for WASp activation during podosome formation the ability of mutated versions of WASp to rescue WASp deficiency was also determined. Similar to re-introduction...... of wild-type WASp, mutation of Y291, a major phosphorylation site on WASp, to either inhibit (Y291F) or mimic (Y291E) phosphorylation, resulted in functional podosomes. By contrast, the H246D mutation, which inhibits Cdc42 binding could not rescue the shRNA effect. Taken altogether, these data demonstrate...

  3. Conservation of Queen Pheromones Across Two Species of Vespine Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Cintia A; Millar, Jocelyn G; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Social insects are known for their reproductive division of labor between queens and workers, whereby queens lay the majority of the colony's eggs, and workers engage mostly in non-reproductive tasks. Queens produce pheromones that signal their presence and fertility to workers, which in turn generally remain sterile. Recently, it has been discovered that specific queen-characteristic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as queen pheromones across multiple lineages of social insects. In the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, several long-chain linear alkanes and 3-methylalkanes were shown to act as queen signals. Here, we describe similar bioassays with a related species of highly eusocial vespine wasp, the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula saxonica. We show that a blend of queen-characteristic hydrocarbons that are structurally related to those of the common wasp inhibit worker reproduction, suggesting conservation of queen pheromones across social wasps. Overall, our results highlight the central importance of CHCs in chemical communication among social insects in general, and as conserved queen pheromones in these social wasps in particular.

  4. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-08-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain's evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals.

  5. Ks band secondary eclipses of WASP-19b and WASP-43b with the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, G; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Salter, G; Tinney, C G; Bailey, J

    2014-01-01

    We report new Ks band secondary eclipse observations for the hot-Jupiters WASP-19b and WASP-43b. Using the IRIS2 infrared camera on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), we measured significant secondary eclipses for both planets, with depths of 0.287 -0.020/+0.020% and 0.181 -0.027/+0.027% for WASP-19b and WASP-43b respectively. We compare the observations to atmosphere models from the VSTAR line-by-line radiative transfer code, and examine the effect of C/O abundance, top layer haze, and metallicities on the observed spectra. We performed a series of signal injection and recovery exercises on the observed light curves to explore the detection thresholds of the AAT+IRIS2 facility. We find that the optimal photometric precision is achieved for targets brighter than Kmag = 9, for which eclipses as shallow as 0.05% are detectable at >5 sigma significance.

  6. Follow-up Observations of WASP-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Taylor; Boley, Aaron; Hughes, Anna; Hickson, Paul

    2017-06-01

    This ongoing work aims to provide follow-up observations of known transiting extrasolar planets using the 35-cm robotic telescope at The University of British Columbia's Southern Observatory (USO), located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The observations are part of a long-term effort to search for changes in transit signatures, such as transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs), which could indicate, for example, the presence of additional planets. To help characterize the USO for transit searches, we acquired I-band observations of WASP-36 spanning from 17 January 2017 to 27 February 2017. Three complete transits and one partial transit are included in the data. We present the analysis of these new observations and discuss potential future targets.

  7. Natural thermoelectric heat pump in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J

    2003-05-30

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 degrees C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 degrees C.

  8. Accidental Genetic Engineers: Horizontal Sequence Transfer from Parasitoid Wasps to Their Lepidopteran Hosts: e109446

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean E Schneider; James H Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .... Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host...

  9. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Sean E; Thomas, James H

    2014-01-01

    .... Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host...

  10. Transfer of a chromosomal Maverick to endogenous bracovirus in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, C; Periquet, G; Serbielle, C; Bézier, A; Louis, F; Drezen, J-M

    2011-04-01

    Bracoviruses are used by parasitoid wasps to allow development of their progeny within the body of lepidopteran hosts. In parasitoid wasps, the bracovirus exists as a provirus, integrated in a wasp chromosome. Viral replication occurs in wasp ovaries and leads to formation of particles containing dsDNA circles (segments) that are injected into the host body during wasp oviposition. We identified a large DNA transposon Maverick in a parasitoid wasp bracovirus. Closely related elements are present in parasitoid wasp genomes indicating that the element in CcBV corresponds to the insertion of an endogenous wasp Maverick in CcBV provirus. The presence of the Maverick in a bracovirus genome suggests the possibility of transposon transfers from parasitoids to lepidoptera via bracoviruses.

  11. Asymmetric or diffusive co-evolution generates meta-populations in fig-fig wasp mutualisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WANG RuiWu YANG Yan WIGGINS Natasha L

    2014-01-01

    ..." that provide greater benefit to the fig,and fig wasps appear to have diversified their evolutionary strategies in response to discriminative enforcement by figs and competition among different fig wasp species...

  12. Breaking Haller's rule: brain-body size isometry in a minute parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, Emma; Smid, Hans M; Chittka, Lars; Huigens, Martinus E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, Haller's rule holds that smaller individuals have larger brains relative to their body than larger-bodied individuals. Such brain-body size allometry is documented for all animals studied to date, ranging from small ants to the largest mammals. However, through experimental induction of natural variation in body size, and 3-D reconstruction of brain and body volume, we here show an isometric brain-body size relationship in adults of one of the smallest insect species on Earth, the parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens. The relative brain volume constitutes on average 8.2% of the total body volume. Brain-body size isometry may be typical for the smallest species with a rich behavioural and cognitive repertoire: a further increase in expensive brain tissue relative to body size would be too costly in terms of energy expenditure. This novel brain scaling strategy suggests a hitherto unknown flexibility in neuronal architecture and brain modularity.

  13. Lower limb ischemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following wasp Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyakanth T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wasp stings are commonly encountered in tropical countries. Various manifestations after wasp sting have been described. We report 66-years old healthy female developed lower limb ischemia, myocardial infarction, renal, liver and hematological involvement following multiple wasp stings. She was fully recovered after two weeks of treatment

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-71b light curve (Smith+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Bouchy, F.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hebrard, G.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Santerne, A.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. J. M.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2013-03-01

    The host star WASP-71 was observed by WASP-North from 2008 to 2010, and by WASP-South from 2008 to 2009. This differential survey photometry has been de-reddened and normalised. Further photometry was obtained using TRAPPIST in 2011. All these data are plotted in Figure 1. (1 data file).

  15. The Exo-Atmosphere of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of exo-atmospheres are essential for full characterization of an exoplanet's composition, temperature, and habitability. Given the state of our current technology, transiting hot Jupiters are the best candidates for both transmission and emission spectroscopy due to their large radii, extended atmospheres, and hot equilibrium temperatures. WASP-103b is a 1.5 Jupiter-radius gas giant at the edge of tidal disruption orbiting an F-star 470 pc away. Its very-hot temperature (2890 K), ultra-short period (0.92 day), and UV-quiet host star make WASP-103b a compelling target for exo-atmosphere observations. The presence of a nearby companion star complicates analyses of the WASP-103 system, and is likely physically associated with the host star and planet. We apply state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression to provide precise solutions to faint signals, with models that are flexible enough to accommodate extreme detector systematics and unknown noise sources. Through a combination of spaced-based emission spectra and multi-telescope ground-based transmission spectra and photometry, we show that WASP-103b has no obvious molecular absorption in the near-infrared, anomalously strong Rayleigh scattering, and the potential for a stratospheric thermal inversion. WASP-103b, along with other highly-irradiated hot Jupiters, will be a key planet for validating hypotheses about the existence and origin of thermal inversions, and developing analysis methods viable for exo-atmospheric studies of the future.

  16. Genetic strategies to investigate neuronal circuit properties using stem cell-derived neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella eGarcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is anatomically and functionally complex, and prone to diverse forms of injury and neuropathology. Scientists have long strived to develop cell replacement therapies to repair damaged and diseased nervous tissue. However, this goal has remained unrealized for various reasons, including nascent knowledge of neuronal development, the inability to track and manipulate transplanted cells within complex neuronal networks, and host graft rejection. Recent advances in embryonic stem cell (ESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology, alongside novel genetic strategies to mark and manipulate stem cell-derived neurons now provide unprecedented opportunities to investigate complex neuronal circuits in both healthy and diseased brains. Here, we review current technologies aimed at generating and manipulating neurons derived from ESCs and iPSCs towards investigation and manipulation of complex neuronal circuits, ultimately leading to the design and development of novel cell-based therapeutic approaches.

  17. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind climates. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations...... of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  18. Interpersonal Communicational Manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan VLĂDUŢESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation is a form of persuasive influence. According to the criterion of the influence type, persuasion is interpersonal, group or collectively-social. By derivation and according to the criterion of the target, in our opinion, manipulations may be of three types: interpersonal manipulations (when the target is one individual, group manipulations (when the target is a group and social-collective manipulations (when the target represents a large community. We consider as interpersonal communicational manipulations: foot in the door, door in the face, and law-balling. Classification-JEL: A23

  19. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  20. Online training in WAsP for wind energy professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Badger, Jake; Berg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    are: 1. To teach participants to use the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) 2. To provide participants with enough theory about wind power meteorology to avoid the major pitfalls related to wind resource assessment. WAsP is the wind power industry-standard PC-software for wind resource......An online course in wind energy resource assessment has been developed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course builds upon a successful physical course, which the Department of Wind Energy at DTU has offered to the wind energy industry for more than 20 years. The course objectives...

  1. WASP-104b and WASP-106b: two transiting hot Jupiters in 1.75-day and 9.3-day orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A M S; Armstrong, D J; Barros, S C C; Bonomo, A S; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hébrard, G; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Louden, T M; Maxted, P F L; Montagnier, G; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Osborn, H; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Rostron, J W; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; Walker, S R; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d, whereas WASP-106b has the fourth-longest orbital period of any planet discovered by means of transits observed from the ground, orbiting every 9.29 d. Each planet is more massive than Jupiter (WASP-104b has a mass of $1.27 \\pm 0.05~\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, while WASP-106b has a mass of $1.93 \\pm 0.08~\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$). Both planets are just slightly larger than Jupiter, with radii of $1.14 \\pm 0.04$ and $1.09 \\pm 0.04~\\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ for WASP-104 and WASP-106 respectively. No significant orbital eccentricity is detected in either system, and while this is not surprising in the case of the short-period WASP-104b, it is interesting in the case of WASP-106b, because many otherwise similar planets are known to have eccentric orbits.

  2. WASP-78b and WASP-79b: Two highly-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Collier-Cameron, A; Doyle, A P; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Udry, S; West, R G

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-78b and WASP-79b, two highly-bloated Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type host stars. WASP-78b orbits its V=12.0 host star (TYC 5889-271-1) every 2.175 days and WASP-79b orbits its V=10.1 host star (CD-30 1812) every 3.662 days. A simultaneous fit to WASP and TRAPPIST transit photometry and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements yields planetary masses of 0.89 +/- 0.08 M_Jup and 0.90 +/- 0.08 M_Jup, and radii of 1.70 +/- 0.11 R_Jup and 2.09 +/- 0.14 R_Jup, for WASP-78b and WASP-79b, respectively. The planetary equilibrium temperature of T_P = 2350 +/- 80 K for WASP-78b makes it one of the hottest of the currently known exoplanets. The radius of WASP-79b suggests that it is potentially the largest known exoplanet.

  3. Master-Slave Manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, R.C.

    1949-03-07

    A device for manipulating a pair of tongs behind a shielding barrier has been built and tested. It is called a Master-Slave Manipulator because the slave tongs move in exact correspondence with a master handle. The "slave hands" follow the master hands in complete synchronism. This is the first completely master-slave manipulator known to exist and has proved that this type of manipulation is very successful when the unit is prooperly engineered and built.

  4. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Jennifer L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. Results We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. Conclusion The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating

  5. Currency Manipulation versus Current Account Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Junning Cai

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a country’s currency peg can become currency manipulation representing protracted government intervention in the foreign exchange market that gives it unfair competitive advantage in international trade yet prevents effective balance of payments in its trade partners. Regarding this widespread fallacy, this paper explains why currency peg is not currency manipulation even when it keeps a country’s currency undervalued. We clarify that 1) government is inherently a major player...

  6. Progress in nonprehensile manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, M.T.

    1999-11-01

    This paper reviews my recent research in robotic manipulation and speculates on potentially fruitful directions for future work. My recent work is focused on nonprehensile manipulation: manipulating objects without grasping them. In particular, the paper surveys work on a single joint robot that orients parts on a conveyor belt; a robot that uses dynamics to snatch, roll, or throw objects; hitting things to position them; manipulating things whose shapes are not completely known; and integration of manipulation with locomotion. In the future, a broad view of robotics will allow us to focus on fundamental principles and at the same time address a variety of new applications.

  7. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  8. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods: Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Brian M; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G; Krick, Jessica E; Tucker, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 $\\mu$m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the {\\sl Spitzer Space Telescope}. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. Fo...

  9. Use of a parasitic wasp as a biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is still in need of high-throughput inspection systems that can rapidly screen and accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component ...

  10. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  11. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  12. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to severe wasp envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Abdulla, Shanavas; Anwarsha, Rifzana Fathima; Kumar, Bhavya S

    2015-01-01

    Wasp sting is not an uncommon incident. Around 56% to 94% of the population is stung at least once in their lifetime by a member of the order Hymenoptera which includes wasps, bees, and ants. The response to a wasp sting may vary from mild local reaction to severe systemic and anaphylactic reactions. The clinical picture and mortality rate tend to be more severe in adults compared to children. We present a 32-year-old agricultural worker who was bitten by multiple wasps while on a coconut tree. In spite of the heavy load of venom due to the multiple bites, the patient did not develop anaphylaxis. However, a delayed reaction did occur within 48 h in the form of severe multi-organ dysfunction. There was significant improvement by around 2 weeks; but it took another 6 months for the serum creatinine to normalize. This case highlights the occupational risk of Hymenoptera envenomation, the life-threatening complications that may follow and which may even be delayed as was the case with this patient, and the value of emergency care and intensive management which can result in a favorable clinical outcome.

  13. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  14. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  15. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Hellier, Coel; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Lendl, M; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9--13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  16. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  17. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed. PMID:25970681

  18. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nugnes

    Full Text Available The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  19. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  20. Successful elimination of non-neural cells and unachievable elimination of glial cells by means of commonly used cell culture manipulations during differentiation of GFAP and SOX2 positive neural progenitors (NHA to neuronal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krynska Barbara

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although extensive research has been performed to control differentiation of neural stem cells – still, the response of those cells to diverse cell culture conditions often appears to be random and difficult to predict. To this end, we strived to obtain stabilized protocol of NHA cells differentiation – allowing for an increase in percentage yield of neuronal cells. Results Uncommitted GFAP and SOX2 positive neural progenitors – so-called, Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA were differentiated in different environmental conditions to: only neural cells consisted of neuronal [MAP2+, GFAP-] and glial [GFAP+, MAP2-] population, non-neural cells [CD44+, VIMENTIN+, FIBRONECTIN+, MAP2-, GFAP-, S100β-, SOX2-], or mixture of neural and non-neural cells. In spite of successfully increasing the percentage yield of glial and neuronal vs. non-neural cells by means of environmental changes, we were not able to increase significantly the percentage of neuronal (GABA-ergic and catecholaminergic over glial cells under several different cell culture testing conditions. Supplementing serum-free medium with several growth factors (SHH, bFGF, GDNF did not radically change the ratio between neuronal and glial cells – i.e., 1,1:1 in medium without growth factors and 1,4:1 in medium with GDNF, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that biotechnologists attempting to enrich in vitro neural cell cultures in one type of cells – such as that required for transplantology purposes, should consider the strong limiting influence of intrinsic factors upon extracellular factors commonly tested in cell culture conditions.

  1. Giant optical manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2010-09-10

    We demonstrate a new principle of optical trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong thermal forces while suppressing their stochastic nature with optical vortex beams. Our approach expands optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particles, including the optical transport and pinpoint positioning of ∼100  μm objects over a meter-scale distance with ±10  μm accuracy.

  2. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  3. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  4. Bird predation on nest of a social wasp in Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Henriques, Raimundo Paulo; Torre Palma, Alexandre Ramlo

    2015-01-01

    Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIvarez del Toro 1950, Skutch 1959, Windsor 1976). Many of the observations are recorded in tropical forest on nests of Polybia and Metapolybia. In this note we present the first observations on the predation by the curIcrestedjay (Cyanocorax cristatellus) upon the nest of a social wasp (Apoica pallens) in cerrados of Central Brazil. Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIva...

  5. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome due to massive wasp stings:an autopsy case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; TANG Yi; LIU Fang; SHI Yu-ying; CAO Yu; XU Huan; FU Ping

    2012-01-01

    We reported a case of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following about 300 wasp stings.The diagnosis was based on autopsy findings of acute pulmonary edema,acute kidney injury,hepatic and cardiac dysfunction,and cerebral edema.MODS is a life-threatening complication,and should be considered a possibility after multiple wasp stings.Our autopsy helped to establish the cause of unexpected death due to wasp stings and to elucidate a possible mechanism of MODS.

  6. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Joanne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for ca 90 million years. They have radiated together, but do not show strict cospeciation. In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps speciate. Results We studied variation in 71 fig-pollinating wasps from across the large geographic range of Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. All wasps sampled belong to one morphological species (Pleistodontes imperialis, but we found four deep mtDNA clades that differed from each other by 9–17% nucleotides. As these genetic distances exceed those normally found within species and overlap those (10–26% found between morphologically distinct Pleistodontes species, they strongly suggest cryptic fig wasp species. mtDNA clade diversity declines from all four present in Northern Queensland to just one in Sydney, near the southern range limit. However, at most sites multiple clades coexist and can be found in the same tree or even the same fig fruit and there is no evidence for parallel sub-division of the host fig species. Both mtDNA data and sequences from two nuclear genes support the monophyly of the "P. imperialis complex" relative to other Pleistodontes species, suggesting that fig wasp divergence has occurred without any host plant shift. Wasps in clade 3 were infected by a single strain (W1 of Wolbachia bacteria, while those in other clades carried a double infection (W2+W3 of two other strains. Conclusion Our study indicates that cryptic fig-pollinating wasp species have developed on a single host plant species, without the involvement of host plant shifts, or parallel host plant divergence. Despite extensive evidence for coevolution between figs and fig wasps, wasp speciation may not always be linked strongly with fig speciation.

  7. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean McCann

    Full Text Available Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1 video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2 analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3 inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests. Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  8. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  9. In praise of manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that de

  10. In praise of manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  11. Actuability of Underactuated Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    of a manipulator with passive joints in operational space. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 9(1), February 1993. [6] !irohiko Arai and...Susumu Tachi Position control of a manipulator with passive joints using dynamic coupling. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 7(4), August

  12. Cell manipulation in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.

  13. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  14. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, S E; Shuker, D M; Pen, I; Duncan, A B; Choudhary, A; Batchelor, C M; West, S A

    2004-01-01

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This prediction arises because in haplodiploids, inbreeding (sib-mating) causes a mother to be relatively more related to her daughters than her sons. Here we formally model this prediction for when multiple females lay eggs in a patch, and test it with the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Our results show that females do not adjust their sex ratio behaviour dependent upon whether they mate with a sibling or nonrelative, in response to either direct genetic or a range of indirect environmental cues. This suggests that females of N. vitripennis cannot discriminate between kin and nonkin. The implications of our results for the understanding of sex ratio and social evolution are discussed.

  15. TTVs analysis in Southern Stars: the case of WASP-28

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, Romina; Melita, Mario; Gómez, Mercedes; Mauas, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We present 4 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-28b observed between August 2011 and October 2013. Employing another 11 transits available in the literature we compute new ephemeris and redetermine the physical parameters of the star and the exoplanet. Considering 3 yrs of observations, we find no periodic TTVs or long-term variations of the inclination of the orbit, i, or the depth of the transit, k, that could be attributable to the presence of another planetary mass-body in the system. We also study the relations between i and k with different factors that characterize the light-curves. The fits suggest a possible weak correlation between k with the red noise factor, \\b{eta}, and the photometric noise rate, PNR, and a weak anticorrelation between i and PNR, although more points are needed to confirm these trends. Finally, the kinematic study suggests that WASP-28 is a thin disk star.

  16. Light-neuron interactions: key to understanding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Mary Ann; Daria, Vincent R.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, advances in light-based technology have driven an ongoing optical revolution in neuroscience. Synergistic technologies in laser microscopy, molecular biology, organic and synthetic chemistry, genetic engineering and materials science have allowed light to overcome the limitations of and to replace many conventional tools used by physiologists to record from and to manipulate single cells or whole cellular networks. Here we review the different optical techniques for stimulating neurons, influencing neuronal growth, manipulating neuronal structures and neurosurgery.

  17. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  18. SuperWASP Wide Angle Search for Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Street, R A; Fitzsimmons, A; Keenan, F P; Horne, K; Kane, S; Cameron, A C; Lister, T A; Haswell, C; Norton, A J; Jones, B W; Skillen, I; Hodgkin, S T; Wheatley, P; West, R; Brett, D; Horne, Keith

    2002-01-01

    SuperWASP is a fully robotic, ultra-wide angle survey for planetary transits. Currently under construction, it will consist of 5 cameras, each monitoring a 9.5 x 9.5 deg field of view. The Torus mount and enclosure will be fully automated and linked to a built-in weather station. We aim to begin observations at the beginning of 2003.

  19. WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn, consisting of more than 14000 individual observations, is analyzed for photometric elements using the modeling code of Đurašević (1992. The spectroscopic parameters are adopted from the recent radial velocity work by Pribulla et al. (2009. The results of the study include new times of minimum light, an improved ephemeris, and the updated physical and orbital parameters of the system.

  20. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  1. Studying the Atmospheres of the Most Intriguing WASP Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.

    2013-09-01

    Among the over 300 transiting planets confirmed to date, approximately 130 have been found by groundbased wide angle transit surveys such asWASP. While these surveys are not sensitive enough to detect lowmass planets, they excel at picking out rare hot- Jupiters orbiting reasonably bright stars (V mag = 9 - 11) across the sky. These planets occupy a favorable region in parameter space, as they show frequent and deep transits. Due to the proximity to their host stars these gas giants possess hot extended atmospheres making them ideal targets for the study of their atmospheres via transmission and occultation spectrophotometry. During occultation, the flux emerging from the planetary dayside is eliminated. By comparing the flux in- and out-of occultation, the planet-to-star brightness ratio can be measured. Observations in different passbands yield a measure of the planetary spectral energy distribution and thereby allow to determine the atmospheric temperature structure, heat redistribution efficiency, albedo, and to place constraints on the atmospheric composition. From the spectro-photometric observation of transits, we can measure wavelength dependencies in the effective planetary radius that are sensitive to signatures of chemical elements in the planetary atmosphere. We present results of ongoing observing campaigns employing these methods to study the atmospheres of hot Jupiters discovered by the WASP survey. In particular we show results for the very short-period planet WASP-19b based on data from the 1m-class Euler-Swiss and TRAPPIST telescopes, as well as a transmission spectrum of the low-density hot Saturn WASP-49b obtained from FORS2 at the VLT/UT1.

  2. Two Upper Limits on the Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect, with Differing Implications: WASP-1 has a High Obliquity and WASP-2 is Indeterminate

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Narita, Norio; Sato, Bun'ei; Hirano, Teruyuki; Enya, Keigo; Fischer, Debra

    2011-01-01

    We present precise radial-velocity measurements of WASP-1 and WASP-2 throughout transits of their giant planets. Our goal was to detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, the anomalous radial velocity observed during eclipses of rotating stars, which can be used to study the obliquities of planet-hosting stars. For WASP-1 a weak signal of a prograde orbit was detected with ~2sigma confidence, and for WASP-2 no signal was detected. The resulting upper bounds on the RM amplitude have different implications for these two systems, because of the contrasting transit geometries and the stellar types. Because WASP-1 is an F7V star, and such stars are typically rapid rotators, the most probable reason for the suppression of the RM effect is that the star is viewed nearly pole-on. This implies the WASP-1 star has a high obliquity with respect to the edge-on planetary orbit. Because WASP-2 is a K1V star, and is expected to be a slow rotator, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the stellar obliquity. Our data and ou...

  3. Doppler Monitoring of the WASP-47 Multiplanet System

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Fei; Arriagada, Pamela; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Johnson, John Asher; Shectman, Stephen A; Teske, Johanna K; Thompson, Ian B; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We present precise Doppler observations of WASP-47, a transiting planetary system featuring a hot Jupiter with both inner and outer planetary companions. This system has an unusual architecture and also provides a rare opportunity to measure planet masses in two different ways: the Doppler method, and the analysis of transit-timing variations (TTV). Based on the new Doppler data, obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay 6.5m telescope, the mass of the hot Jupiter is $370 \\pm 29~M_{\\oplus}$. This is consistent with the previous Doppler determination as well as the TTV determination. For the inner planet WASP-47e, the Doppler data lead to a mass of $12.2\\pm 3.7~ M_{\\oplus}$, in agreement with the TTV-based upper limit of $<$22~$M_{\\oplus}$ ($95\\%$ confidence). For the outer planet WASP-47d, the Doppler mass constraint of $10.4\\pm 8.4~M_{\\oplus}$ is consistent with the TTV-based measurement of $15.2^{+6.7}_{-7.6}~ M_{\\oplus}$.

  4. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Delrez, Laetitia; Barker, Adrian J.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b (M p = 10.3M J , a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q‧, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q‧ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q‧ ≥ 1 × 106, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  5. Mechanisms of ovipositor insertion and steering of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Uroš; van de Straat, Bram; Gussekloo, Sander W S; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2017-09-12

    Drilling into solid substrates with slender beam-like structures is a mechanical challenge, but is regularly done by female parasitic wasps. The wasp inserts her ovipositor into solid substrates to deposit eggs in hosts, and even seems capable of steering the ovipositor while drilling. The ovipositor generally consists of three longitudinally connected valves that can slide along each other. Alternative valve movements have been hypothesized to be involved in ovipositor damage avoidance and steering during drilling. However, none of the hypotheses have been tested in vivo. We used 3D and 2D motion analysis to quantify the probing behavior of the fruit-fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Braconidae) at the levels of the ovipositor and its individual valves. We show that the wasps can steer and curve their ovipositors in any direction relative to their body axis. In a soft substrate, the ovipositors can be inserted without reciprocal motion of the valves. In a stiff substrate, such motions were always observed. This is in agreement with the damage avoidance hypothesis of insertion, as they presumably limit the overall net pushing force. Steering can be achieved by varying the asymmetry of the distal part of the ovipositor by protracting one valve set with respect to the other. Tip asymmetry is enhanced by curving of ventral elements in the absence of an opposing force, possibly due to pretension. Our findings deepen the knowledge of the functioning and evolution of the ovipositor in hymenopterans and may help to improve man-made steerable probes.

  6. WASP-78b and WASP-79b: two highly-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, , C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-78b and WASP-79b, two highly-bloated Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type host stars. WASP-78b orbits its V = 12.0 host star (TYC 5889-271-1) every 2.175 days and WASP-79b orbits its V = 10.1 host star (CD-30 1812) every 3.662 days. Planetary parameters have been determined using a simultaneous fit to WASP and TRAPPIST transit photometry and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements. For WASP-78b a planetary mass of 0.89 ± 0.08 MJup and a radius of 1.70 ± 0.11 RJup is found. The planetary equilibrium temperature of TP = 2350 ± 80 K for WASP-78b makes it one of the hottest of the currently known exoplanets. WASP-79b its found to have a planetary mass of 0.90 ± 0.08 MJup, but with a somewhat uncertain radius due to lack of sufficient TRAPPIST photometry. The planetary radius is at least 1.70 ± 0.11 RJup, but could be as large as 2.09 ± 0.14 RJup, which would make WASP-79b the largest known exoplanet. Photometric data is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/547/A61Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Foraging behavior related to habitat characteristics in the invasive wasp Vespula germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAOLA D'ADAMO; MARIANA LOZADA

    2007-01-01

    the feeding site until depleting the resource. In the present study we analyzed how environmental cues affect wasps' behavior when re-locating a protein food source. We studied this behavior in two different natural habitats: closed and open habitats.As closed habitats have more references to orient wasps to the feeding site than open habitats,we hypothesized that they would return to the foraging site more frequently in closed habitats than in open ones. We tested this hypothesis by studying wasp behavior in three different natural habitat conditions: (i) closed habitats, (ii) open habitats, and (iii) open habitats artificially modified by adding five sticks with flagging. Experiments consisted of training individual wasps to feed from a certain array, and at the testing phase we removed food and displaced the array by 60 cm. Therefore, we recorded wasps' choices when returning to the training area, by counting both the wasps' first approaches and the number of visits to the original feeding site and the displaced array. Wasps' behavior while re-locating a protein food source was different if foraging at open or closed habitats. Wasps more frequently revisited a previous feeding location when foraging in closed habitats than when foraging in open ones. Furthermore, wasps more frequently visited the displaced array than the original feeding site in all three treatments. Nevertheless, when wasps were trained in closed habitats,they returned to the original feeding site more frequently than if trained in open ones.Interestingly, when five sticks with flagging were added in open habitats, wasps responded similarly as in closed habitats without these references. The results show that foraging behavior in V. germanica seems to be different in closed and open habitats, probably associated with the existence of references that guide foragers when re-locating undepleted resources.

  8. Critical roles of the WASP N-terminal domain and Btk in LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Sakuma

    Full Text Available While Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP plays critical roles in TCR signaling as an adaptor molecule, how it transduces innate immune signals remains to be elucidated. To investigate the roles of WASP in innate immune cells, we established bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM cell lines from WASP15 transgenic (Tg mice overexpressing the WASP N-terminal region (exons 1-5. Upon LPS stimulation, WASP15 Tg BMDM cell lines produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40 than the wild-type BMDM cell line. In addition, the production of nitric oxide by WASP15 Tg BMDM cells in response to LPS and IFN-γ was significantly impaired. Furthermore, we uncovered that the WASP N-terminal domain associates with the Src homology (SH 3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk. Overexpression of the WASP N-terminal domain diminishes the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous WASP in WASP15 Tg BMDM cells, possibly by interfering with the specific binding between endogenous WASP and Btk during LPS signaling. These observations strongly suggest that the interaction between WASP N-terminal domain and Btk plays important roles in the LPS signaling cascade in innate immunity.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-94AB photometry and radial velocities (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Charbonnel, C.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    Photometric time-series obtained for the hot Jupiter WASP-94A b, and RV time-series obtained for the two hot Jupiters WASP-94A b and WASP-94B b. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (5 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP 127, 136 and 138 RV and light curves (Lam+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hebrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Photometric time-series obtained for the WASP-127, WASP-136, and WASP-138, and RV time-series obtained for the three systems. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (6 data files).

  11. Sound visualization and manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-01-01

    Unique in addressing two different problems - sound visualization and manipulation - in a unified way Advances in signal processing technology are enabling ever more accurate visualization of existing sound fields and precisely defined sound field production. The idea of explaining both the problem of sound visualization and the problem of the manipulation of sound within one book supports this inter-related area of study.  With rapid development of array technologies, it is possible to do much in terms of visualization and manipulation, among other technologies involved with the spatial dis

  12. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  13. Three sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b & WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V~10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.06 R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.868-d period around an active mid-K dwarf. We estimate a stellar age of 1 Gyr from both gyrochronological and age-activity relations, though an alternative gyrochronological relation suggests an age of 3 Gyr. ROSAT detected X-rays at a distance of 60$\\pm$27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ~10$^{12}$ g s$^{-1}$. This is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously-large Lyman-{\\alpha} absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.16R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially-resolved G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec ($\\geq$800 AU). We exploit the binar...

  14. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906), Ba

  15. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical...

  16. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  17. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  18. Demonstration of long-term memory in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurmann, D.; Sommer, C.; Schinko, A.P.B.; Greschista, M.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of fly pupae. Female wasps were trained in one of five different training procedures in the presence of hosts and the odour cinnam

  19. Asymmetric or diffusive co-evolution generates meta-populations in fig-fig wasp mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, RuiWu; Yang, Yan; Wiggins, Natasha L

    2014-06-01

    Co-evolutionary theory assumes co-adapted characteristics are a positive response to counter those of another species, whereby co-evolved species reach an evolutionarily stable interaction through bilateral adaptation. However, evidence from the fig-fig wasp mutualistic system implies very different co-evolutionary selection mechanisms, due to the inherent conflict among interacted partners. Fig plants appear to have discriminatively enforced fig wasps to evolve "adaptation characteristics" that provide greater benefit to the fig, and fig wasps appear to have diversified their evolutionary strategies in response to discriminative enforcement by figs and competition among different fig wasp species. In what appears to be an asymmetric interaction, the prosperity of cooperative pollinating wasps should inevitably lead to population increases of parasitic individuals, thus resulting in localized extinctions of pollinating wasps. In response, the sanctioning of parasitic wasps by the fig should lead to a reduction in the parasitic wasp population. The meta-populations created by such asymmetric interactions may result in each population of coevolved species chaotically oscillated, temporally or evolutionarily.

  20. Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree–fig wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K. Charlotte; Herre, Edward Allen

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that mutualisms should be vulnerable to invasion by cheaters, yet mutualistic interactions are both ancient and diverse. What prevents one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the costs? Using field experiments and observations, we examined factors affecting mutualism stability in six fig tree–fig wasp species pairs. We experimentally compared the fitness of wasps that did or did not perform their most basic mutualistic service, pollination. We found host sanctions that reduced the fitness of non-pollinating wasps in all derived, actively pollinated fig species (where wasps expend time and energy pollinating), but not in the basal, passively pollinated fig species (where wasps do not). We further screened natural populations of pollinators for wasp individuals that did not carry pollen (‘cheaters’). Pollen-free wasps occurred only in actively pollinating wasp species, and their prevalence was negatively correlated with the sanction strength of their host species. Combined with previous studies, our findings suggest that (i) mutualisms can show coevolutionary dynamics analogous to those of ‘arms races’ in overtly antagonistic interactions; (ii) sanctions are critical for long-term mutualism stability when providing benefits to a host is costly, and (iii) there are general principles that help maintain cooperation both within and among species. PMID:20071379

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  2. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K.; Radloff, S. E.; Li, J. J.; Hepburn, H. R.; Yang, M. X.; Zhang, L. J.; Neumann, P.

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  3. Manipulation by physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriax, J

    1970-03-01

    Divergent opinions exist on whether or not physiotherapists should manipulate. The controversy can be simply resolved by pointing out that the past policy of withholding such tuition from physiotherapists has in no way diminished the public demand for manipulation; it has merely forced potential patients to the bonesetter. Even those doctors who resent the idea of physiotherapists manipulating must surely prefer its performance by trained personnel working under doctors' guidance to indiscriminate recourse to all sorts of largely untrained laymen without doctors' prior approval. Come what may, the patients are going to be manipulated; at least let this then be sought from trained physiotherapists who give treatment ethically to patients sent to them by doctors.

  4. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested.

  5. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  6. Clermont Ferrand uterine manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Joseph; Wattiez, Arnaud

    2010-10-01

    Laparoscopy was considered marginal to surgical specialties before 1990. Rare innovations in instruments were done. With the realization of the first laparoscopic hysterectomy, this surgical route gained wide acceptance during the 1990s. Technical advances were made by instrument companies offering a wide variety of instruments to surgeons and by surgeons themselves to cope with problems during laparoscopic procedures. Manipulators are among the first instruments that surgeons suggested to ameliorate laparoscopic performance. Instruments that have multiple functions (i.e., grasping, cutting, coagulating) are more and more appreciated because surgeons can avoid changing instruments during surgery. Manipulators offer multifunctional assistance during gynecologic surgical procedures. They are useful for exposure purposes and also for reproductive surgery (and hysterectomy). This article explains the benefits and help that a manipulator can provide, especially in total laparoscopic hysterectomy. In the latter intervention, the manipulator will help to expose the pelvis by moving the uterus in any direction, to identify structures and find anatomical landmarks such as the vaginal fornices for culdotomy, and to avoid complications by pulling the ureter away from the operative field. Also, it is useful to avoid carbon dioxide leakage at the vaginal opening and to retrieve the surgical specimen. Each step is shown in a photograph with the specific hand movements corresponding to the manipulator's handling. We think that the use of manipulators during laparoscopic surgery is very useful and helps to reduce operative time.

  7. A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants from resources and drop them from a height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J

    2011-10-23

    This study reports a novel form of interference behaviour between the invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris and the New Zealand native ant Prolasius advenus. By videotaping interactions at bait stations, we found that wasps commonly remove ant competitors from food resources by picking up the workers in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them unharmed some distance from the food. Both the frequency and the efficiency of the wasp behaviour significantly increased with the abundance of ant competitors. Ant removals were the most common interference events initiated by wasps when ants were numerous, while intraspecific conflicts among wasps were prominent when few ants were present. The 'ant-dropping' behaviour emphasizes how asymmetry in body sizes between competitors can lead to a pronounced form of interference, related to asymmetric locomotion modes.

  8. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  9. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  10. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells.

  11. TTVs analysis of Southern Stars: the case of WASP-4

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, R; Schwartz, M; Cúneo, V; Martínez, C; Gómez, M; Buccino, A P; Mauas, P J D

    2013-01-01

    We present 6 new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform an homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transit's central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in $i$ or $R_{P}/R_{\\star}$. The $O-C$ mid-transit times do not show signs of TTVs greater than 54 seconds.

  12. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR...... measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  13. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  14. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  15. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  16. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  17. When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herniou, Elisabeth A; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-19

    The Polydnaviridae (PDV), including the Bracovirus (BV) and Ichnovirus genera, originated from the integration of unrelated viruses in the genomes of two parasitoid wasp lineages, in a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Functionally active PDVs represent the most compelling evolutionary success among endogenous viral elements (EVEs). BV evolved from the domestication by braconid wasps of a nudivirus 100 Ma. The nudivirus genome has become an EVE involved in BV particle production but is not encapsidated. Instead, BV genomes have co-opted virulence genes, used by the wasps to control the immunity and development of their hosts. Gene transfers and duplications have shaped BV genomes, now encoding hundreds of genes. Phylogenomic studies suggest that BVs contribute largely to wasp diversification and adaptation to their hosts. A genome evolution model explains how multidirectional wasp adaptation to different host species could have fostered PDV genome extension. Integrative studies linking ecological data on the wasp to genomic analyses should provide new insights into the adaptive role of particular BV genes. Forthcoming genomic advances should also indicate if the associations between endoparasitoid wasps and symbiotic viruses evolved because of their particularly intimate interactions with their hosts, or if similar domesticated EVEs could be uncovered in other parasites.

  18. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  19. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  20. The discoveries of WASP-91b, WASP-105b and WASP-107b: Two warm Jupiters and a planet in the transition region between ice giants and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 MJup, 1.03 RJup) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm Jupiter (1.8 MJup, 0.96 RJup) in a 7.9-day orbit around a metal-rich K2 star. WASP-107b is a warm super-Neptune/sub-Saturn (0.12 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in a 5.7-day orbit around a solar-metallicity K6 star. Considering that giant planets seem to be more common around stars of higher metallicity and stars of higher mass, it is notable that the hosts are all metal-rich, late-type stars. With orbital separations that place both WASP-105b and WASP-107b in the weak-tide regime, measurements of the alignment between the planets' orbital axes and their stars' spin axes may help us to understand the inward migration of short-period, giant planets. The mass of WASP-107b (2.2 MNep, 0.40 MSat) places it in the transition region between the ice giants and gas giants of the Solar System. Its radius of 0.94 RJup suggests that it is a low-mass gas giant with a H/He-dominated composition. The planet thus sets a lower limit of 2.2 MNep on the planetary mass above which large gaseous envelopes can be accreted and retained by proto-planets on their way to becoming gas giants. We may discover whether WASP-107b more closely resembles an ice giant or a gas giant by measuring its atmospheric metallicity via transmission spectroscopy, for which WASP-107b is a very good target. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South photometric survey instrument, the 0.6-m TRAPPIST robotic imager, and the EulerCam camera and the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope.The photometric time-series and radial-velocity data used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110

  1. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  2. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  3. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  4. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  5. Microrobots to Manipulate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    At DTU Fotonik we developed and harnessed the new and emerging research area of so-called Light Robotics including the 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time laser-manipulated in a 3D-volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potentia...

  6. The Apparently Decaying Orbit of WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kishore C.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Yu, Liang; Deming, Drake; Dai, Fei

    2017-07-01

    We present new transit and occultation times for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. The data are compatible with a constant period derivative: \\dot{P}=-29+/- 3 ms yr-1 and P/\\dot{P}=3.2 {Myr}. However, it is difficult to tell whether we have observed orbital decay or a portion of a 14-year apsidal precession cycle. If interpreted as decay, the star’s tidal quality parameter {Q}\\star is about 2× {10}5. If interpreted as precession, the planet’s Love number is 0.44 ± 0.10. Orbital decay appears to be the more parsimonious model: it is favored by {{Δ }}{χ }2=5.5 despite having two fewer free parameters than the precession model. The decay model implies that WASP-12 was discovered within the final ˜0.2% of its existence, which is an unlikely coincidence but harmonizes with independent evidence that the planet is nearing disruption. Precession does not invoke any temporal coincidence, but it does require some mechanism to maintain an eccentricity of ≈ 0.002 in the face of rapid tidal circularization. To distinguish unequivocally between decay and precession will probably require a few more years of monitoring. Particularly helpful will be occultation timing in 2019 and thereafter.

  7. A lower mass for the exoplanet WASP-21b

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, S C C; Gibson, N P; Howarth, I D; Keenan, F P; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Steele, I A; .,

    2011-01-01

    We present high precision transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-21b, obtained with the RISE instrument mounted on 2.0m Liverpool Telescope. A transit model is fitted, coupled with an MCMC routine to derive accurate system parameters. The two new high precision transits allow to estimate the stellar density directly from the light curve. Our analysis suggests that WASP-21 is evolving off the main sequence which led to a previous overestimation of the stellar density. Using isochrone interpolation, we find a stellar mass of 0.86 \\pm 0.04 Msun which is significantly lower than previously reported (1.01 \\pm 0.03 Msun). Consequently, we find a lower planetary mass of $0.27 \\pm 0.01 Mjup$. A lower inclination (87.4 \\pm 0.3 degrees) is also found for the system than previously reported, resulting in a slightly larger stellar (R_* =1.10 \\pm 0.03 Rsun) and planetary radius (R_p = 1.14 \\pm 0.04 Rjup). The planet radius suggests a hydrogen/helium composition with no core which strengthens the correlation between pl...

  8. Secondary Eclipse Observations and Orbital Analysis of WASP-32b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 MJ a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 RJ and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 μm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 μm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 μm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  9. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered in 2010 by Maxted et al, this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 Rj, an equilibrium temperature of 1560 ± 50 K, and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 µm and 4.5 µm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 µm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 µm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 µm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  10. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Carabajal Paladino

    Full Text Available We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD. Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  11. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  12. WASP-14 b: Transit Timing analysis of 19 light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Raetz, St; Seeliger, M; Marka, C; Fernandez, M; Güver, T; Gögüs, E; Nowak, G; Vanko, M; Berndt, A; Eisenbeiss, T; Mugrauer, M; Trepl, L; Gelszinnis, J

    2015-01-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of "Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative" (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light-curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years ...

  13. Observations of the WASP-2 System by the APOSTLE Program

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Andrew C; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F; Rose, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of ~2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced chi^2 values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 seconds and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g. continuous observations from space-based...

  14. Ruling out the orbital decay of the WASP-43b

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Sergio; Dragomir, Diana; Murgas, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    We present 15 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-43b in the $i'$,$g'$, and $R$ filters with the 1.0-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network and the IAC80 telescope. We combine our 15 new light curves with 52 others from literature, to analyze homogeneously all the available transit light curves of this exoplanet. By extending the time span of the monitoring of the transits to more than $5~yr$, and by analyzing the individual mid-times of 72 transits, we study the proposed shortening of the orbital period of WASP-43b. We estimate that the times of transit are well-matched by our updated ephemeris equation, using a constant orbital period. We estimate an orbital period change rate no larger than $\\dot{P}=-0.02 \\pm 6.6~ms~yr^{-1}$, which is fully consistent with a constant period. Based on the timing analysis, we discard stellar tidal dissipation factors $Q_{*}<10^{5}$. In addition, with the modelling of the transits we update the system parameters: $a/Rs=4.867(23)...

  15. Long-term variability of T Tauri stars using WASP

    CERN Document Server

    Rigon, Laura; Anderson, David; West, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a reference study of the long-term optical variability of young stars using data from the WASP project. Our primary sample is a group of well-studied classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), mostly in Taurus-Auriga. WASP lightcurves cover timescales up to 7 years and typically contain 10000-30000 datapoints. We quantify the variability as function of timescale using the time-dependent standard deviation 'pooled sigma'. We find that the overwhelming majority of CTTS has low-level variability with sigma0.3mag) is 21% in our sample and 21% in an unbiased control sample. An even smaller fraction (13% in our sample, 6% in the control) show evidence for an increase in variability amplitude as a function of timescale from weeks to months or years. The presence of long-term variability correlates with the spectral slope at 3-5mu, which is an indicator of inner disk geometry, and with the U-B band slope, which is an accretion diagnostics. This shows that the long-term variations in CTTS are predominantly driven by p...

  16. Probing the extreme planetary atmosphere of WASP-12b

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, Mark; Tinetti, Giovanna; Hollis, Morgan; Tessenyi, Marcell; Line, Michael; Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka; Showman, Adam; Yurchenko, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We report near-infrared measurements of the terminator region transmission spectrum and dayside emission spectrum of the exoplanet WASP-12b obtained using the HST WFC3 instrument. The disk-average dayside brightness temperature averages about 2900 K, peaking to 3200 K around 1.46 {\\mu}m. Both the dayside and terminator region spectra can be explained in terms of opacity due to the metal hydrides CrH and TiH together with a dayside temperature inversion with a deep tropopause. Although our measurements do not constrain the C/O ratio, the combination of TiH and high temperatures could imply the atmosphere of WASP-12b may be significantly metal poor. The dayside flux distribution reconstructed from the ingress light-curve shape shows indications of a hotspot. If located along the equatorial plane, the possible hot spot is near the sub-stellar point, indicating the radiative time scale may be shorter than the advection time scale. We also find the near-infrared primary eclipse light curve is consistent with small...

  17. An unusual case of sustained ventricular tachycardia following a wasp bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT is a life-threatening condition which requires immediate intervention. We report a case of unusual etiology of sustained VT in a 42-year-old male after a wasp bite in the absence of anaphylaxis. The patient was treated with amiodarone and improved within 48 h. Thus, wasp stings can lead to serious tachyarrhythmias which can be life-threatening. Emergency care physicians should be aware of such arrhythmias in the setting of wasp bites which can be fatal.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-103b radial velocities and light curves (Gillon+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    The host star WASP-103 (1SWASPJ163715.59+071100.0 = 2MASS16371556+0711000; V=12.1, K=10.8) was observed by the southern station of the WASP survey during the 2010, 2011, and 2012 observing seasons, covering the intervals 2010 May 15 to Aug. 16, 2011 Mar. 26 to Aug. 20, and 2012 Mar. 25 to Jun. 28. Files wasp.dat, trappist.dat, euler.dat contain the photometric time-series presented in the paper. File rv.dat contains the radial velocity time-series presented in the paper. (4 data files).

  19. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SuperWASP short period eclipsing binaries (Norton+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, A. J.; Payne, S. G.; Evans, T.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Butters, O. W.; Collier, Cameron A.; Christian, D. J.; Enoch, B.; Faedi, F.; Haswell, C. A.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Horne, K. D.; Kane, S. R.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Parley, N.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Skillen, I.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Street, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    The catalog contains the list of 53 candidate short period eclipsing binaries. The SuperWASP ID encodes the J2000 position of the star as 1SWASP Jhhmmss.ss+/-ddmmss.s. In the table we list the RA and Dec of each object extracted from the SuperWASP ID. We also list the orbital period in days, the peak magnitude of the object in the SuperWASP V-band, along with the depths (in magnitudes) of the primary and secondary minima. (1 data file).

  1. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization.

  2. WASP-20b and WASP-28b: a hot Saturn and a hot Jupiter in near-aligned orbits around solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Lendl, M.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Brown, D. J. A.; Gillon, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of the planets WASP-20b and WASP-28b along with measurements of their sky-projected orbital obliquities. WASP-20b is an inflated, Saturn-mass planet (0.31 MJup; 1.46 RJup) in a 4.9-day, near-aligned (λ = 12.7 ± 4.2°) orbit around CD-24 102 (V = 10.7; F9). Due to the low density of the planet and the apparent brightness of the host star, WASP-20 is a good target for atmospheric characterisation via transmission spectroscopy. WASP-28b is an inflated, Jupiter-mass planet (0.91 MJup; 1.21 RJup) in a 3.4-day, near-aligned (λ = 8 ± 18°) orbit around a V = 12, F8 star. As intermediate-mass planets in short orbits around aged, cool stars (7+ 2-1 Gyr and 6000 ± 100 K for WASP-20; 5+ 3-2 Gyr and 6100 ± 150 K for WASP-28), their orbital alignment is consistent with the hypothesis that close-in giant planets are scattered into eccentric orbits with random alignments, which are then circularised and aligned with their stars' spins via tidal dissipation. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South (South Africa) and SuperWASP-North (La Palma) photometric survey instruments; the C2 and EulerCam cameras and the CORALIE spectrograph, all mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope (La Silla); the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-m telescope (La Silla) under programs 072.C-0488, 082.C-0608, 084.C-0185, and 085.C-0393; and LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope North (Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (Siding Spring).Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A61

  3. Ecology, Wolbachia infection frequency and mode of reproduction in the parasitoid wasp Tetrastichus coeruleus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumer, Barbara M; VAN Alphen, Jacques J M; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2010-04-01

    Whereas sexual reproduction may facilitate adaptation to complex environments with many biotic interactions, simplified environments are expected to favour asexual reproduction. In agreement with this, recent studies on invertebrates have shown a prevalence of asexual species in agricultural (simplified) but not in natural (complex) environments. We investigated whether the same correlation between reproductive mode and habitat can be found in different populations within one species. The parasitoid wasp Tetrastichus coeruleus forms an ideal model to test this question, since it occurs both in natural and agricultural environments. Further, we investigated whether Wolbachia infection caused parthenogenesis in female-biased populations. In contrast to the general pattern, in Dutch and French natural areas, we found Wolbachia-infected, highly female-biased populations that reproduce parthenogenetically. In contrast, populations on Dutch agricultural fields were not infected with Wolbachia, showed higher frequencies of males and reproduced sexually. However, we also found a female-only, Wolbachia-infected population on agricultural fields in north-eastern United States. All Wolbachia-infected populations were infected with the same Wolbachia strain. At this moment, we do not have a convincing explanation for this deviation from the general pattern of ecology and reproductive mode. It may be that asparagus agricultural fields differ from other crop fields in ways that favour sexual reproduction. Alternatively, Wolbachia may manipulate life history traits in its host, resulting in different fitness pay-offs in different habitats. The fixation of Wolbachia in the United States populations (where the species was introduced) may be due to founder effect and lack of uninfected, sexual source populations.

  4. Disturbance effects on community structure of Ficus tinctoria fig wasps in Xishuangbanna,China:Implications for the fig/fig wasp mutualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Juan Ma; Da-Rong Yang; Yan-Qiong Peng

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are important components of tropical forests,because their fruits are eaten by so many vertebrates,but they depend on pollinating fig wasps to produce mature fruits.Disturbance to habitat structure can have a major impact on insect diversity and composition,potentially reducing fruit yields.We investigated the impact of habitat disturbance on the fig wasp community associated with male figs of Ficus tinctoria in Xishuangbanna,China.The community comprised one pollinator species Liporrhopalum gibbosae and six non-pollinating wasp species:Sycoscapter sp.1,Philotrypesis ravii,Philotrypesis sp.1,Neosycophila omeomorpha,Sycophila sp.1,and Walkerella sp.1.More disturbed areas were characterized by higher temperatures,less shade,and more vehicle noise.The response of the fig wasp community was complex,with no simple relationship between intensity of disturbance and pollinator abundance.However,the sex ratios (proportion of male progeny) of pollinators increased significantly in more disturbed areas.We conclude that potential changes in fig wasp community composition brought about by disturbance,are unpredictable,with unclear consequences for tropical rainforest biodiversity.

  5. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Crottini, Angelica; Della Venezia, Lidia; Selfa, Jesús; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2013-06-28

    Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment.

  6. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  7. 2009 Progress Report on Surveys of Bees and Some Wasps of Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes an updated list of bee and wasp species collected as part of study at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Report includes map of survey...

  8. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  9. Development of hyperparasitoid wasp Lysibia nana (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in a multitrophic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Witjes, L.M.A.; Wagenaar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lysibia nana Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary hyperparasitoid that attacks newly cocooned prepupae and pupae of braconid wasps in the subfamily Microgastrinae. One of its preferred hosts is Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of white but

  10. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid disrupt sexual communication and host finding in a parasitoid wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Lars; Pokorny, Tamara; Hofferberth, John; Ruther, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all. Courtship behaviour of treated couples was also impeded resulting in a reduction of mating rates by up to 80%. Moreover, treated females were no longer able to locate hosts by using olfactory cues. Olfaction is crucial for the reproductive success of parasitoid wasps. Hence, sublethal doses of neonicotinoids might compromise the function of parasitoid wasps as natural enemies with potentially dire consequences for ecosystem services.

  11. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  12. Genetic manipulation in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1981-04-04

    The role of genetic manipulation in opening up new possibilities in biotechnology is discussed and the basic steps in a recombinant DNA experiment are summarized. Some current and future applications of this technology in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture are presented, including, conversion of wastes to SCP, chemicals and alcohols, plant improvement and the introduction of nitrogen fixation genes into plants as an alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers.

  13. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  14. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  15. Cuspidal and Noncuspidal Robot Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article synthezises the most important results on the kinematics of cuspidal manipulators i.e. nonredundant manipulators that can change posture without meeting a singularity. The characteristic surfaces, the uniqueness domains and the regions of feasible paths in the workspace are defined. Then, several sufficient geometric conditions for a manipulator to be noncuspidal are enumerated and a general necessary and sufficient condition for a manipulator to be cuspidal is provided. An explicit DH-parameter-based condition for an orthogonal manipulator to be cuspidal is derived. The full classification of 3R orthogonal manipulators is provided and all types of cuspidal and noncuspidal orthogonal manipulators are enumerated. Finally, some facts about cuspidal and noncuspidal 6R manipulators are reported.

  16. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne A. Madden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape sour (bunch rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes

  17. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Anne A; Boyden, Sean D; Soriano, Jonathan-Andrew N; Corey, Tyler B; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah; Starks, Philip T

    2017-01-01

    Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes. Social wasps are

  18. Native and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was recently reported in Italy and threatens European chestnut orchards and native forests. Of Chinese origin, this species has invaded Japan, Korea, the USA, Nepal and Europe and in each region it has been attacked by parasitoids exploiting oak gall wasps. Classical biological control using the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) successfully reduced infestation in Japan. Subsequent work in Japan and Korea showed...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-80 photometric and radial velocity data (Triaud+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The data is composed of one WASP photometric timeseries in a band similar to V+R, of two TRAPPIST photometric timeseries in the z band, and of one series from the EulerCam, in the Gunn r' filter. There is also one set of CORALIE radial velocities and one set of HARPS radial velocities. They give evidence of a planet orbiting and transiting WASP-80. (6 data files).

  20. Multiple horizontal transfers of bacteriophage WO and host Wolbachia in fig wasps in a closed community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasps. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23 and 39.1% (9/23, respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a special clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  1. Diversity and nest site selection of social wasps along Guianese forest edges: assessing the influence of arboreal ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbara, Bruno; Carpenter, J M; Céréghino, R; Leponce, M; Gibernau, M; Dejean, Alain

    2009-05-01

    We examined 424 nests belonging to 61 wasp species along 5 km of rainforest edges in French Guiana (ca. 15,235 plants monitored), and estimate that we recorded up to 73% of the local social wasp fauna. This baseline study was complemented by a long-term survey of the same area and the examination of isolated trees (permitting us to record two additional species, resulting in a total of 63 wasp species). Our results form a continuum from species avoiding nesting on any plant (6.5% of the wasp species) to species nesting on plants but avoiding those sheltering ant nests (82%), to, finally, wasps nesting in association with arboreal ants known to divert army ant raids (11.5%). Consequently, this study documents that most wasp species select plants possibly repulsive to arboreal ants, while associations with arboreal ants, although confirmed here, have been overrepresented in the literature.

  2. Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons for manipulation fire both when the animal manipulates an object in a specific way and when it sees another animal (or the experimenter) perform an action that is more or less similar. Such neurons were originally found in macaque monkeys, in the ventral premotor cortex, area F5 and later also in the inferior parietal lobule. Recent neuroimaging data indicate that the adult human brain is endowed with a "mirror neuron system," putatively containing mirror neurons and other neurons, for matching the observation and execution of actions. Mirror neurons may serve action recognition in monkeys as well as humans, whereas their putative role in imitation and language may be realized in human but not in monkey. This article shows the important role of computational models in providing sufficient and causal explanations for the observed phenomena involving mirror systems and the learning processes which form them, and underlines the need for additional circuitry to lift up the monkey mirror neuron circuit to sustain the posited cognitive functions attributed to the human mirror neuron system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A History of Manipulative Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in res...

  4. Negative fitness consequences and transmission dynamics of a heritable fungal symbiont of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M; Hunter, Martha S

    2009-05-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations.

  5. Social wasp intestines host the local phenotypic variability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapporto, Leonardo; Stefanini, Irene; Rivero, Damariz; Polsinelli, Mario; Capretti, Paolo; De Marchi, Paolo; Viola, Roberto; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been assessed in both wild and human-related environments. Social wasps have been shown to maintain and vector S. cerevisiae among different environments. The availability of strains isolated from wasp intestines represents a striking opportunity to assess whether the strains found in wasp intestines are characterized by peculiar traits. We analysed strains isolated from the intestines of social wasps and compared them with strains isolated from other sources, all collected in a restricted geographic area. We evaluated the production of volatile metabolites during grape must fermentation, the resistance to different stresses and the ability to exploit various carbon sources. Wasp strains, in addition to representing a wide range of S. cerevisiae genotypes, also represent large part of the phenotypes characterizing the sympatric set of yeast strains; their higher production of acetic acid and ethyl acetate could reflect improved ability to attract insects. Our findings suggest that the relationship between yeasts and wasps should be preserved, to safeguard not only the natural variance of this microorganism but also the interests of wine-makers, who could take advantage from the exploitation of their phenotypic variability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Functional Coordination of WAVE and WASP in C. elegans Neuroblast Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Chai, Yongping; Jiang, Yuxiang; Li, Wenjing; Hu, Huifang; Li, Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Huang, Shanjin; Ou, Guangshuo

    2016-10-24

    Directional cell migration is critical for metazoan development. We define two molecular pathways that activate the Arp2/3 complex during neuroblast migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. The transmembrane protein MIG-13/Lrp12 is linked to the Arp2/3 nucleation-promoting factors WAVE or WASP through direct interactions with ABL-1 or SEM-5/Grb2, respectively. WAVE mutations partially impaired F-actin organization and decelerated cell migration, and WASP mutations did not inhibit cell migration but enhanced migration defects in WAVE-deficient cells. Purified SEM-5 and MIG-2 synergistically stimulated the F-actin branching activity of WASP-Arp2/3 in vitro. In GFP knockin animals, WAVE and WASP were largely organized into separate clusters at the leading edge, and the amount of WASP was less than WAVE but could be elevated by WAVE mutations. Our results indicate that the MIG-13-WAVE pathway provides the major force for directional cell motility, whereas MIG-13-WASP partially compensates for its loss, underscoring their coordinated activities in facilitating robust cell migration.

  7. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  8. Constraints on a second planet in the WASP-3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Deka, B.; Adamów, M.; Górecka, M. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Wolszczan, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Seeliger, M. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Schillergässchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Winn, J. N.; McKnight, L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía 3, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Ohlert, J. [Michael Adrian Observatorium, Astronomie Stiftung Trebur, D-65468 Trebur (Germany); Dimitrov, D. [Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Latham, D. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Holman, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The RV data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.

  9. Constraints on a second planet in the WASP-3 system

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, G; Wolszczan, A; Nowak, G; Neuhaeuser, R; Winn, J N; Deka, B; Adamów, M; Górecka, M; Fernandez, M; Aceituno, F J; Ohlert, J; Errmann, R; Seeliger, M; Dimitrov, D; Latham, D W; Esquerdo, G A; McKnight, L; Holman, M J; Jensen, E L N; Kramm, U; Pribulla, T; Raetz, St; Schmidt, T O B; Ginski, Ch; Mottola, S; Hellmich, S; Adam, Ch; Gilbert, H; Mugrauer, M; Saral, G; Popov, V; Raetz, M

    2013-01-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3 b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The radial-velocity data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.

  10. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rasmussen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist to the 225 genera and 1169 reported species-group taxa of aculeate wasps of Peru is presented. The list is based on a literature survey and examination of Peruvian entomological collections and include locality references for each taxon. Bibliographic references for the identification of families, genera, and species are provided when available. The occurrence data are published in addition as a downloadable file (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.2.ds, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.3.ds, and 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.4.ds and were uploaded onto GBIF infrastructure simultaneously with the publication process. The following new combinations are proposed: Ancistroceroides cirrifer (Zavattari, 1912, Ancistrocerus epicus (Zavattari, 1912, and Stenodynerus corallineipes (Zavattari, 1912.

  11. WASP-80b: a gas giant transiting a cool dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Cameron, A Collier; Doyle, A P; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Lovis, C; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220900

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet transiting the star WASP-80 (1SWASP J201240.26-020838.2; 2MASS J20124017-0208391; TYC 5165-481-1; BPM 80815; V=11.9, K=8.4). Our analysis shows this is a 0.55 +/- 0.04 Mjup, 0.95 +/- 0.03 Rjup gas giant on a circular 3.07 day orbit around a star with a spectral type between K7V and M0V. This system produces one of the largest transit depths so far reported, making it a worthwhile target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a large discrepancy between the v sin i inferred from stellar line broadening and the observed amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. This can be understood either by an orbital plane nearly perpendicular to the stellar spin or by an additional, unaccounted for source of broadening.

  12. Lambda Bootis stars in the SuperWASP survey

    CERN Document Server

    Paunzen, E; Walczak, P; Holdsworth, D L; Smalley, B; West, R G; Janik, J

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed around 170 000 individual photometric WASP measurements of 15 well established lambda Bootis stars to search for variability. The lambda Bootis stars are a small group of late-B to early-F, Pop. I, stars that show moderate to extreme (surface) underabundances (up to a factor 100) of most Fe-peak elements, but solar abundances of lighter elements (C, N, O and S). They are excellent laboratories for the study of fundamental astrophysical processes such as diffusion, meridional circulation, stellar winds, and accretion in the presence of pulsation. From the 15 targets, eight are variable and seven are apparently constant with upper limits between 0.8 and 3.0 mmag. We present a detailed time series analysis and a comparison with previously published results. From an asteroseismologic study we conclude that the found chemical peculiarities are most probably restricted to the surface.

  13. Short period eclipsing binary candidates identified using SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J; Evans, T; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Butters, O W; Cameron, A Collier; Christian, D J; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K D; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Street, R A

    2011-01-01

    We present light curves and periods of 53 candidates for short period eclipsing binary stars identified by SuperWASP. These include 48 newly identified objects with periods <2x10^4 seconds (~0.23d), as well as the shortest period binary known with main sequence components (GSC2314-0530 = 1SWASP J022050.85+332047.6) and four other previously known W UMa stars (although the previously reported periods for two of these four are shown to be incorrect). The period distribution of main sequence contact binaries shows a sharp cut-off at a lower limit of around 0.22d, but until now, very few systems were known close to this limit. These new candidates will therefore be important for understanding the evolution of low mass stars and to allow investigation of the cause of the period cut-off.

  14. SuperWASP observations of pulsating Am stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Fossati, L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Butters, O W; Cameron, A Collier; Christian, D J; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Southworth, J; Street, R A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L

    2011-01-01

    We have studied over 1600 Am stars at a photometric precision of 1 mmag with SuperWASP photometric data. Contrary to previous belief, we find that around 200 Am stars are pulsating delta Sct and gamma Dor stars, with low amplitudes that have been missed in previous, less extensive studies. While the amplitudes are generally low, the presence of pulsation in Am stars places a strong constraint on atmospheric convection, and may require the pulsation to be laminar. While some pulsating Am stars have been previously found to be delta Sct stars, the vast majority of Am stars known to pulsate are presented in this paper. They will form the basis of future statistical studies of pulsation in the presence of atomic diffusion.

  15. WASP-80b: a gas giant transiting a cool dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of a planet transiting the star WASP-80 (1SWASP J201240.26-020838.2; 2MASS J20124017-0208391; TYC 5165-481-1; BPM 80815; V = 11.9, K = 8.4). Our analysis shows this is a 0.55 ± 0.04 Mjup, 0.95 ± 0.03 Rjup gas giant on a circular 3.07 day orbit around a star with a spectral type between K7V and M0V. This system produces one of the largest transit depths so far reported, making it a worthwhile target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a large discrepancy between the vsini⋆ inferred from stellar line broadening and the observed amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. This can be understood either by an orbital plane nearly perpendicular to the stellar spin or by an additional, unaccounted for source of broadening. Using WASP-South photometric observations, from Sutherland (South Africa), confirmed with the 60 cm TRAPPIST robotic telescope, EulerCam, and the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope, and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 089.C-0151), all three located at La Silla Observatory, Chile.Radial velocity and photometric data are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A80

  16. WASP-ASSOCIATED FACTORS ACT IN INTERSPECIES COMPETITION DURING MULTIPARASITISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaraog, Peter M; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence or displacement of parasitoids in hosts during intrinsic competitive interactions between different parasitoid species (multiparasitism) may depend on their life history traits and behavior. Intense competition for possession of hosts may lead to the elimination of the inferior competitor through physical attack and/or physiological suppression. However, the mechanisms of physiological suppression during multiparasitism remain unclear. Previous work has shown that first instar larvae of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis possess well-developed mandibles that are used to kill competitors. Two gregarious endoparasitoids, Cotesia kariyai and C. rufricus, share host resources especially when the time gap of oviposition is short. Here, we investigated the physiological influence of wasp-regulatory factors of the three endoparasitoids, M. pulchricornis, C. kariyai, and C. ruficrus, in their common host Mythimna separata. We found that MpVLP alone (or with venom) deleteriously affected the development of the two gregarious species. Similarly, CkPDV plus venom had toxic effect on M. pulchricornis eggs and immature larvae, although they were not harmful to immature stages of C. ruficrus. Cotesia kariyai and C. ruficrus were able to coexist mainly through the expression of regulatory factors and both could successfully emerge from a multiparasitized host. The injection of CkPDV plus venom after oviposition in L5 host larvae facilitated C. ruficrus development and increased the rate of successful parasitism from 9% to 62%. This suggests that the two gregarious parasitoid wasps exhibit strong phylogenetic affinity, favoring their coexistence and success in multiparasitized hosts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mirror neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal...

  18. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  19. Flee or fight: ontogenetic changes in the behavior of cobweb spiders in encounters with spider-hunting wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Divya B; Weiss, Martha R

    2012-12-01

    An animal's body size plays a predominant role in shaping its interspecific interactions, and, in encounters between two predators, often determines which shall be predator and which shall be prey. Spiders are top predators of insects, yet can fall prey to mud-dauber wasps that provision their larval nests with paralyzed spiders. Here we examined predator-prey interactions between Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Sphecidae), a mud-dauber wasp, and Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch (Theridiidae), a cobweb spider. We examined whether a spider's size influences its response to an attacking wasp, and report a size-dependent change in spider behavior: small-sized spiders fled, whereas medium- and large-sized spiders fought in response to wasp attacks. From the wasps' perspective, we examined whether spider size influences a wasp's hunting behavior and capture success. We found that wasps commonly approached small spiders, but were much less likely to approach medium and large spiders. However, wasp capture success did not vary with spider size. We also report a strategy used by Chalybion wasps toward cobweb spiders that is consistent with an interpretation of aggressive mimicry.

  20. The research progress in Wolbachia bacteria in the parasitic wasps%寄生蜂体内共生菌Wolbachia研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑平; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia is a kind of cytoplasmically inherited bacteria and widely found in reproductive tissues of arthropods. Wolbachia have evolved various mechanisms on manipulating reproduction of their hosts, including induction of cytoplasmic incompatipility (CI), parthenogenesis inducing (PI), genetic male feminization and male killing. Wolbachia species distribution and differentiation, transmission ways in or between host parasitoids and their impact in the biological characteristics of infested parasitoids were summarized, meanwhile the effect of temperature on the performances of parasitic wasps through Wolbachia bacteria was expounded. The potential capacities of parasitoids in insect pest natural control enhanced by genetically manipulating Wolbachia bacteria in parasitic wasps were discussed also.%Wolbachia是广泛分布在节肢动物生殖组织中的细胞质遗传细菌,在寄生蜂中可以通过诱导胞质不亲和、孤雌生殖、雄性雌性化和杀雄等多种方式调节寄主的生殖.本文在综述了寄生蜂体内共生菌Wolbachia的类群和分化、传播方式及其对寄主生物学特性的影响、温度通过对Wolbachia的作用而影响寄生蜂的表现等基础上,讨论了如何利用寄生蜂体内Wolbachia提高寄生蜂自然控制害虫的能力.

  1. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  2. Linear- rubbing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Linear-rubbing is a characteristic technique in the academic school of internal exercise massage in Shanghai. It was known as "flat pushing method" in the past times. The academic school of internal exercise Tuina finds, in the clinical practice of flat pushing, that if the internal exercise accumuhtes in the palm and one-way movement is replaced by two-way movement, the kinetic energy may be transformed into heat energy, bringing about a new unique manipulating technique, which is rather different from the usual flat pushing no longer and now called linear-rubbing therapy.

  3. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  4. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  5. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  6. Targeting neurons and photons for optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Adam M; Roska, Botond; Häusser, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Optogenetic approaches promise to revolutionize neuroscience by using light to manipulate neural activity in genetically or functionally defined neurons with millisecond precision. Harnessing the full potential of optogenetic tools, however, requires light to be targeted to the right neurons at the right time. Here we discuss some barriers and potential solutions to this problem. We review methods for targeting the expression of light-activatable molecules to specific cell types, under genetic, viral or activity-dependent control. Next we explore new ways to target light to individual neurons to allow their precise activation and inactivation. These techniques provide a precision in the temporal and spatial activation of neurons that was not achievable in previous experiments. In combination with simultaneous recording and imaging techniques, these strategies will allow us to mimic the natural activity patterns of neurons in vivo, enabling previously impossible 'dream experiments'.

  7. A hybrid bioorganic interface for neuronal photoactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Diego; Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Dal Maschio, Marco; Lanzarini, Erica; Benfenati, Fabio; Lanzani, Guglielmo

    2011-01-25

    A key issue in the realization of retinal prosthetic devices is reliable transduction of information carried by light into specific patterns of electrical activity in visual information processing networks. Soft organic materials can be used to couple artificial sensors with neuronal tissues. Here, we interface a network of primary neurons with an organic blend. We show that primary neurons can be successfully grown onto the polymer layer without affecting the optoelectronic properties of the active material or the biological functionality of neuronal network. Moreover, action potentials can be triggered in a temporally reliable and spatially selective manner with short pulses of visible light. Our results may lead to new neuronal communication and photo manipulation techniques, thus paving way to the development of artificial retinas and other neuroprosthetic interfaces based on organic photodetectors.

  8. Manipulation with molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D Barnes

    2002-09-01

    For many years now, researchers in materials and photonics have been keenly interested in the design and fabrication of structures that confine and manipulate electromagnetic fields on length scales comparable to optical wavelengths. The ultimate goal is an all-optical information processing and computation platform using photons in ways analogous to electrons in silicon devices on similar length scales. Specific focus areas such as wafer-scale integration, parallel processing, and frequency management (e.g. add-drop filters, on micron or sub-micron length scales are active areas of photonics research. While a great deal of progress has been made in the burgeoning field of microphotonics, we are still a long way off from realizing important goals such as the optical transistor and all-optical integrated circuits1.

  9. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  10. How to manipulate polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balăşescu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Every time you open a newspaper, listen to the radio, watch TV or browse the Internet, you will see some numbers and stats. All these numbers come from different sources like a national statistics office, an organization or an individual that has conducted research. These numbers can give a brief overview of the world surrounding us and are often used by people or organizations to strengthen their message. The way experts collect all the raw data to come up with all these clear-cut numbers is an important part of the process. In this respect, an experiment has been designed to see how a person can manipulate a poll to obtain the desired numbers and a lot of ways have been found.

  11. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  12. The manipulation of online newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    CONSTANTIN SCHIFIRNEŢ

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the manipulation on comments from generalist online newspapers. It is analysed the contexts of interactivity between online media and public. The forums media are an alternative to tendencies of manipulation exerted by media. At the same time, some comments create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. The tactics of commentators may include the use of logical fallacies and propaganda techniques.They promote a manipulation of opinions, atitudes and be...

  13. Inverse Dynamics of Flexible Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Stig; Hanssen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    High performance robot manipulators, in terms of cycle time and accuracy, require well designed control methods, based on accurate dynamic models. Robot manipulators are traditionally described by the flexible joint model or the flexible link model. These models only consider elasticity in the rotational direction. When these models are used for control or simulation, the accuracy can be limited due to the model simplifications, since a real manipulator has a distributed flexibility inall directi...

  14. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rohn, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  15. Non-manipulation quantitative designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrill, Phillip D

    2004-01-01

    The article describes non-manipulation quantitative designs of two types, correlational and causal comparative studies. Both of these designs are characterized by the absence of random assignment of research participants to conditions or groups and non-manipulation of the independent variable. Without random selection or manipulation of the independent variable, no attempt is made to draw causal inferences regarding relationships between independent and dependent variables. Nonetheless, non-manipulation studies play an important role in rehabilitation research, as described in this article. Examples from the contemporary rehabilitation literature are included. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  16. Actin-binding protein regulation by microRNAs as a novel microbial strategy to modulate phagocytosis by host cells: the case of N-Wasp and miR-142-3p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo eBettencourt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is a successful intracellular pathogen that thrives in macrophages (Mφs. There is a need to better understand how Mtb hijacks cellular processes like phagolysosome biogenesis, a classical pathogenesis determinant. A central feature to this microbial strategy is the manipulation of actin in Mφs. Here, we examine the role of microRNAs (miRNAs as a potential mechanism in the regulation of actin-mediated events leading to phagocytosis in the context of mycobacteria infection. Given that non-virulent Mycobacterium smegmatis also controls actin filamentation to prolong its instracellular survival inside host cells, our approach was to perform a global transcriptomic approach to assess the modulation of miRNAs upon M. smegmatis infection of the murine Mφ cell line, J774A.1. This approach yielded miR-142-3p as a top candidate to be involved in the regulation of actin dynamics required in phagocytosis. We unequivocally demonstrate miR-142-3p targets N-Wasp, an actin-binding protein required during microbial challenge. A gain-of-function approach for miR-142-3p revealed a down-regulation of N-Wasp expression accompanied by a decrease of mycobacteria intake, while a loss-of-function approach yielded the reciprocal increase of the phagocytosis process. Equally important, we show Mtb induces the early expression of miR-142-3p and down-regulates N-Wasp protein levels in both the murine J774A.1 cell line and primary human Mφs. As proof of principle, the partial siRNA-mediated knock down of N-Wasp resulted in a decrease of Mtb intake by human Mφs, reflected in lower levels of colony-forming units counts over time. We therefore propose the modulation of miRNAs as a novel strategy in mycobacterial infection to control factors involved in actin filamentation and other early events of phagolysosome biogenesis, such as the case presented here for miR-142-3p influencing N-Wasp activity during the phagocytosis process.

  17. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  18. Initiation of absconding-swarm emigration in the social wasp Polybia occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Peter J; Jeanne, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    When a colony of the swarm-founding social wasp Polybia occidentals loses its nest to severe weather or predation, the adult population evacuates and temporarily clusters on nearby foliage. Most of the adults remain inactive in the cluster, while foragers bring in nectar and scout wasps search the surrounding area for a new nesting site. After several hours, the scouts stimulate the rest of the swarm to leave the cluster and follow their pheromone trail to the chosen site. How scouts communicate to their swarm-mates that a site has been chosen and how they induce the swarm to depart are unknown. Video records of six Costa Rican swarms were used to quantitatively document changes in the frequencies of social behaviors leading to swarm departure. This was accomplished by going backward through the video record and following the behavior of individuals prior to their departure. Analysis of the behavior of scouts and inactive wasps indicated an increase in the frequency with which scouts bump into inactive wasps prior to swarm departure, as well as a shift in the behavior of inactive wasps from primarily receiving bumps to bumping others before departure. Thus, bumping is propagated by recently activated individuals before they take off. These observations suggest that not only is bumping an activation stimulus that causes swarm members to depart for the new nest site, but it is contagious, leading to its amplification throughout the swarm.

  19. Near-uv and optical observations of the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K. A.; Zellem, R.; Biddle, L. I.; Amaya, H.; Watson, Z.; Griffith, C.; Small, L.; Hume, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present simultaneous near-UV (U-band) and optical (B-band) photometric observations of the primary transit of the highly irradiated, hot-Jupiter WASP-1b on the Kuiper 61" telescope. We use our results to search for timing transit variations, which would indicate additional planets, and provide new constraints on WASP-1b's physical parameters. Assuming the opacity at these two photometric bands is dominated by Rayleigh scattering by molecular hydrogen, we can place strong upper limits on its radius. Such constraints can limit the degeneracy between an exoplanet's physical radius and atmospheric composition in radiative transfer retrievals. Additionally its host star is chromospherically active and WASP-1b orbits within in the co-rotation radius of the star making it likely that WASP-1b has a bowshock. Therefore, we will search for a planetary magnetic field as indicated by an early ingress in the near-UV light curve compared to the optical due to the bowshock itself. Such measurements would confirm the observational methodology of detecting magnetic fields around transiting exoplanets, place an upper limit on WASP-1b's magnetic field strength, and confirm previous theoretical estimations of hot Jupiter magnetic fields.

  20. WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Dovas, Athanassios; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Sidani, Mazen; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Desmarais, Vera; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan; Backer, Jonathan M; Alberts, Art; Condeelis, John

    2008-03-24

    We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity.

  1. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  2. Facial patterns in a tropical social wasp correlate with colony membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchi, David; Turillazzi, Stefano; Chittka, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Social insects excel in discriminating nestmates from intruders, typically relying on colony odours. Remarkably, some wasp species achieve such discrimination using visual information. However, while it is universally accepted that odours mediate a group level recognition, the ability to recognise colony members visually has been considered possible only via individual recognition by which wasps discriminate `friends' and `foes'. Using geometric morphometric analysis, which is a technique based on a rigorous statistical theory of shape allowing quantitative multivariate analyses on structure shapes, we first quantified facial marking variation of Liostenogaster flavolineata wasps. We then compared this facial variation with that of chemical profiles (generated by cuticular hydrocarbons) within and between colonies. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis applied to sets of variables containing pure shape information showed that despite appreciable intra-colony variation, the faces of females belonging to the same colony resemble one another more than those of outsiders. This colony-specific variation in facial patterns was on a par with that observed for odours. While the occurrence of face discrimination at the colony level remains to be tested by behavioural experiments, overall our results suggest that, in this species, wasp faces display adequate information that might be potentially perceived and used by wasps for colony level recognition.

  3. The secondary eclipses of WASP-19b as seen by the ASTEP 400 telescope from Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, L; Agabi, A; Alapini, A; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Schmider, F -X; Crouzet, N; Fortney, J; Pont, F; Barbieri, M; Daban, J -B; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y; Gouvret, C; Bresson, Y; Roussel, A; Bonhomme, S; Robini, A; Dugué, M; Bondoux, E; Péron, S; Petit, P -Y; Szulágyi, J; Fruth, T; Erikson, A; Rauer, H; Fressin, F; Valbousquet, F; Blanc, P -E; van Suu, A Le; Aigrain, S

    2013-01-01

    The ASTEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting ExoPlanets) program was originally aimed at probing the quality of the Dome C, Antarctica for the discovery and characterization of exoplanets by photometry. In the first year of operation of the 40 cm ASTEP 400 telescope (austral winter 2010), we targeted the known transiting planet WASP-19b in order to try to detect its secondary transits in the visible. This is made possible by the excellent sub-millimagnitude precision of the binned data. The WASP-19 system was observed during 24 nights in May 2010. The photometric variability level due to starspots is about 1.8% (peak-to-peak), in line with the SuperWASP data from 2007 (1.4%) and larger than in 2008 (0.07%). We find a rotation period of WASP-19 of 10.7 +/- 0.5 days, in agreement with the SuperWASP determination of 10.5 +/- 0.2 days. Theoretical models show that this can only be explained if tidal dissipation in the star is weak, i.e. the tidal dissipation factor Q'star > 3.10^7. Separately, we find evidence for...

  4. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  5. Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Sarah; Sann, Manuela; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigate...

  6. Shaping Neuronal Network Activity by Presynaptic Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayal Lavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal microcircuits generate oscillatory activity, which has been linked to basic functions such as sleep, learning and sensorimotor gating. Although synaptic release processes are well known for their ability to shape the interaction between neurons in microcircuits, most computational models do not simulate the synaptic transmission process directly and hence cannot explain how changes in synaptic parameters alter neuronal network activity. In this paper, we present a novel neuronal network model that incorporates presynaptic release mechanisms, such as vesicle pool dynamics and calcium-dependent release probability, to model the spontaneous activity of neuronal networks. The model, which is based on modified leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, generates spontaneous network activity patterns, which are similar to experimental data and robust under changes in the model's primary gain parameters such as excitatory postsynaptic potential and connectivity ratio. Furthermore, it reliably recreates experimental findings and provides mechanistic explanations for data obtained from microelectrode array recordings, such as network burst termination and the effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. The model demonstrates how elevated asynchronous release, but not spontaneous release, synchronizes neuronal network activity and reveals that asynchronous release enhances utilization of the recycling vesicle pool to induce the network effect. The model further predicts a positive correlation between vesicle priming at the single-neuron level and burst frequency at the network level; this prediction is supported by experimental findings. Thus, the model is utilized to reveal how synaptic release processes at the neuronal level govern activity patterns and synchronization at the network level.

  7. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates

  8. Measurements of Transit Timing Variations for WASP-5b

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Akihiko; Tristram, Paul J; Sumi, Takahiro; Abe, Fumio; Itow, Yoshitaka; Sullivan, Denis J; Bond, Ian A; Hirano, Teruyuki; Tamura, Motohide; Bennett, David P; Furusawa, Kei; Hayashi, Fumiya; Hearnshaw, John B; Hosaka, Shun; Kamiya, Koki; Kobara, Shuhei; Korpela, Aarno; Kilmartin, Pam M; Lin, Wei; Ling, Cho Hong; Makita, Shota; Masuda, Kimiaki; Matsubara, Yutaka; Miyake, Noriyuki; Muraki, Yasushi; Nagaya, Maiko; Nishimoto, Kenta; Ohnishi, Kouji; Omori, Kengo; Perrott, Yvette; Rattenbury, Nicholas; Saito, Toshiharu; Skuljan, Ljiljana; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sweatman, Winston L; Wada, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    We have observed 7 new transits of the 'hot Jupiter' WASP-5b using a 61 cm telescope located in New Zealand, in order to search for transit timing variations (TTVs) which can be induced by additional bodies existing in the system. When combined with other available photometric and radial velocity (RV) data, we find that its transit timings do not match a linear ephemeris; the best fit \\chi^2 values of 32.2 with 9 degrees of freedom indicates that a marginal TTV signal has been observed at a confidence level of 99.982 %, or 3.7 \\sigma. The standard deviation of the TTVs is as large as 70 s, and if this is real, it cannot be explained by other effects than that due to an additional body or bodies. We put the upper limit on the RV amplitude due to the possible secondary body as 21 m s^{-1}, which corresponds to its mass of 22-70 M_{Earth} over the period ratio from 0.2 to 5.0. From the TTVs data, using the numerical simulations, we place more stringent limits down to 2 M_{Earth} near 1:2 and 2:1 MMRs at the 3 \\s...

  9. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby-Kent, J A; Serenelli, A M; Turner, O D; Evans, D F; Anderson, D R; Hellier, C; West, R G

    2016-01-01

    AI Phe is a double-lined, detached binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from WASP, and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium a...

  10. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  11. Transits and starspots in the WASP-6 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Burgdorf, M; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Finet, F; Jørgensen, U G; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Proft, S; Ricci, D; Snodgrass, C; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Dodds, P; Gerner, T; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Sahu, K; Scarpetta, G; Schäfer\\, S; Schönebeck, F; Skottfelt, J; Surdej, J

    2015-01-01

    We present updates to \\textsc{prism}, a photometric transit-starspot model, and \\textsc{gemc}, a hybrid optimisation code combining MCMC and a genetic algorithm. We then present high-precision photometry of four transits in the WASP-6 planetary system, two of which contain a starspot anomaly. All four transits were modelled using \\textsc{prism} and \\textsc{gemc}, and the physical properties of the system calculated. We find the mass and radius of the host star to be $0.836\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ and $0.864\\pm0.024\\,{\\rm R}_\\odot$, respectively. For the planet we find a mass of $0.485\\pm 0.027\\,{\\rm M}_{\\rm Jup}$, a radius of $1.230\\pm0.035\\,{\\rm R}_{\\rm Jup}$ and a density of $0.244\\pm0.014\\,\\rho_{\\rm Jup}$. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. In the likely hypothesis that the two spot anomalies are caused by the same starspot or starspot complex, we measure the stars rotation period and velocity to be $23.80 \\pm 0.15$\\,d and $1.78 \\pm 0.20$\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$, respectively, at a co-l...

  12. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Photometric Study of the Hot Exoplanet WASP-19b

    CERN Document Server

    Lendl, M; Queloz, D; Alonso, R; Fumel, A; Jehin, E; Naef, D

    2012-01-01

    Context: When the planet transits its host star, it is possible to measure the planetary radius and (with radial velocity data) the planet mass. For the study of planetary atmospheres, it is essential to obtain transit and occultation measurements at multiple wavelengths. Aims: We aim to characterize the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-19b by deriving accurate and precise planetary parameters from a dedicated observing campaign of transits and occultations. Methods: We have obtained a total of 14 transit lightcurves in the r'-Gunn, IC, z'-Gunn and I+z' filters and 10 occultation lightcurves in z'-Gunn using EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and TRAPPIST. We have also obtained one lightcurve through the narrow-band NB1190 filter of HAWK-I on the VLT measuring an occultation at 1.19 micron. We have performed a global MCMC analysis of all new data together with some archive data in order to refine the planetary parameters and measure the occultation depths in z'-band and at 1.19 micron. Results: We measure a pla...

  14. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Hardy, Ryan A; Cubillos, Patricio E; Hardin, Matthew; Nymeyer, Sarah; Anderson, David R; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M S; Cameron, Andrew Collier

    2013-01-01

    WASP-43b (Hellier et al.; Gillon et al.) is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis a = 0.01526 +/- 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (K7V, Tstar = 4520 +/- 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1440 +/- 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. This has resulted in strong signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) observations and deep eclipses in both Warm Spitzer channels (3.6 and 4.5 microns). The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.346 +/- 0.013% and 1684 +/- 24 K at 3.6 microns and 0.382 +/- 0.015% and 1485 +/- 24 K at 4.5 microns. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347459 +/- 2.1x10-7 days) compared to Gillon et al. and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e = 0.007+0.013-0.004). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths with two previously reported ground-based ...

  15. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, N B; Croll, B; Shekhtman, L M; Burrows, A; Deming, D; Greene, T; Hora, J L

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously-measured day-side spectral energy distribution, is indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micron, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micron, but our parameter uncertainties -estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo- keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micron, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's...

  16. WASP-135b: a highly irradiated, inflated hot Jupiter orbiting a G5V star

    CERN Document Server

    Spake, Jessica J; Doyle, Amanda P; Hébrard, Guillaume; McCormac, James; Armstrong, David J; Pollacco, Don; Chew, Yilen Gómez Maqueo; Anderson, David R; Barros, Susana C C; Bouchy, François; Boumis, Panayotis; Bruno, Giovanni; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Courcol, Bastien; Davies, Guy R; Faedi, Francesca; Hellier, Coel; Kirk, James; Lam, Kristine W F; Liakos, Alexios; Louden, Tom; Maxted, Pierre F L; Osborn, Hugh P; Palle, Enric; Arranz, Jorge Prieto; Udry, Stéphane; Walker, Simon R; West, Richard G; Wheatley, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new transiting planet from the WASP survey. WASP-135b is a hot Jupiter with a radius of 1.30 pm 0.09 Rjup, a mass of 1.90 pm 0.08 Mjup and an orbital period of 1.401 days. Its host is a Sun-like star, with a G5 spectral type and a mass and radius of 0.98 pm 0.06 Msun and 0.96 pm 0.05 Rsun respectively. The proximity of the planet to its host means that WASP-135b receives high levels of insolation, which may be the cause of its inflated radius. Additionally, we find weak evidence of a transfer of angular momentum from the planet to its star.

  17. First record of parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.

  18. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, Katja M; Smid, Hans M

    2014-06-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). A single conditioning trial, in which a female wasp associates an odour with the reward of finding a host, results in the formation of transcription-dependent long-term memory in N. vitripennis, whereas N. giraulti requires spaced training to do so. Memory formation does not depend on the type of reward: oviposition, which was hypothesized to be a 'larger' reward results in similar memory retention as host feeding in both Nasonia species. There are several genetic and genomic tools available for Nasonia species to identify genetic mechanisms that underlie the observed variation in the number of trials required to form long-term memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A NEARLY POLAR ORBIT FOR THE EXTRASOLAR HOT JUPITER WASP-79b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Schmidt, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A., E-mail: b.addison@unsw.edu.au [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the measurement of a spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b, a recently discovered, bloated hot Jupiter from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) survey. Data were obtained using the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle and its simultaneous calibration system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have used the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect to determine the sky-projected spin-orbit angle to be {lambda}= -106{sup +19}{sub -13} {sup o}. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet-the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. WASP-79 is consistent with other stars that have T{sub eff} > 6250 K and host hot Jupiters in spin-orbit misalignment.

  20. Populations of trap-nesting wasps near a major source of fluoride emissions in western Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Fleming, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Trap-nesting wasps were collected from eight sites at distances of from 1.2-33.0 km from an aluminum reduction plant in western Tennessee. The sites had similar topographies, soils, and vegetation, but differed in their exposure to fluoride, which was emitted in large quantities from the plant. It was postulated that if fluoride emissions had greatly changed the insect community then relative densities of their predators would have varied accordingly. However, the degree of fluoride pollution was unrelated to the relative densities of the wasps and to the number of cells provisioned with prey. Monobia quadridens, Trypargilum clavatum, and T. lactitarse were found to have two complete generations in western Tennessee. Trypargilum collinum rubrocinctum has at least two generations, and Euodynerus megaera probably has three generations. Six other wasp species and a megachilid bee were also collected.

  1. Increasing parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y

    1998-04-01

    During the past two decades, parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on lactating dairy cattle has occurred in Israel during August to October annually, affecting up to 65% of cows in certain herds. The nibbled and exposed tissues of teats and sometimes udders become infested by bacteria, especially Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Actinomyces pyogenes, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis. Normally, German wasps are primarily insect predators, but the urbanization around many dairy farms has reduced open space and associated standard food sources, i.e. insects, plants and carcasses. This has resulted in P. germanica nesting more often on dairy farms. In some instances, when high densities of P. germanica correspond with scarcity of prey, a segment of the wasp population preys primarily on the older and heavier cows with weak defensive behaviour. The teat feeding colonies of P. germanica may have an advantage, in that they are less dependent on fluctuations in the number of prey insects.

  2. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  3. Molecular approaches to identify cryptic species and polymorphic species within a complex community of fig wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Cryptic and polymorphic species can complicate traditional taxonomic research and both of these concerns are common in fig wasp communities. Species identification is very difficult, despite great effort and the ecological importance of fig wasps. Herein, we try to identify all chalcidoid wasp species hosted by one species of fig, using both morphological and molecular methods. We compare the efficiency of four different DNA regions and find that ITS2 is highly effective for species identification, while mitochondrial COI and Cytb regions appear less reliable, possibly due to the interference signals from either nuclear copies of mtDNA, i.e. NUMTs, or the effects of Wolbachia infections. The analyses suggest that combining multiple markers is the best choice for inferring species identifications as any one marker may be unsuitable in a given case.

  4. Elementary School Teachers' Manipulative Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Florez, Lida J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 503 inservice elementary teachers, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' background characteristics, teachers' beliefs about manipulatives, and the frequency with which teachers use manipulatives as part of their mathematics instruction. Findings from the study show that teachers' grade level and beliefs about…

  5. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  6. Thermoelectrical manipulation of nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadigrobov, A. M.; Andersson, S.; Radić, D.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.; Korenivski, V.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the interplay between the thermodynamic properties and spin-dependent transport in a mesoscopic device based on a magnetic multilayer (F/f/F), in which two strongly ferromagnetic layers (F) are exchange-coupled through a weakly ferromagnetic spacer (f) with the Curie temperature in the vicinity of room temperature. We show theoretically that the Joule heating produced by the spin-dependent current allows a spin-thermoelectronic control of the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic (f/N) transition in the spacer and, thereby, of the relative orientation of the outer F-layers in the device (spin-thermoelectric manipulation of nanomagnets). Supporting experimental evidence of such thermally-controlled switching from parallel to antiparallel magnetization orientations in F/f(N)/F sandwiches is presented. Furthermore, we show theoretically that local Joule heating due to a high concentration of current in a magnetic point contact or a nanopillar can be used to reversibly drive the weakly ferromagnetic spacer through its Curie point and thereby exchange couple and decouple the two strongly ferromagnetic F-layers. For the devices designed to have an antiparallel ground state above the Curie point of the spacer, the associated spin-thermionic parallel to antiparallel switching causes magnetoresistance oscillations whose frequency can be controlled by proper biasing from essentially dc to GHz. We discuss in detail an experimental realization of a device that can operate as a thermomagnetoresistive switch or oscillator.

  7. Genetic Manipulations in Dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that nourish on keratinized materials for their survival. They infect stratum corneum, nails, and hair of human and animals, accounting the largest portion of fungi causing superficial mycoses. Huge populations are suffering from dermatophytoses, though the biology of these fungi is largely unknown yet. Reasons are partially attributed to the poor amenability of dermatophytes to genetic manipulation. However, advancements in this field over the last decade made it possible to conduct genetic studies to satisfying extents. These included genetic transformation methods, indispensable molecular tools, i.e., dominant selectable markers, inducible promoter, and marker recycling system, along with improving homologous recombination frequency and gene silencing. Furthermore, annotated genome sequences of several dermatophytic species have recently been available, ensuring an optimal recruitment of the molecular tools to expand our knowledge on these fungi. In conclusion, the establishment of basic molecular tools and the availability of genomic data will open a new era that might change our understanding on the biology and pathogenicity of this fungal group.

  8. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue. Keywords: Manipulation, Discourse, Cognitive, Power Abuse, Persuasion, Social representation, J.R.R. Tolkien

  9. HST Hot-Jupiter Transmission Spectral Survey: Clear Skies for Cool Saturn WASP-39b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A.; Sing, David K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam S.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μm, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H2-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  10. Geographic variation in the status signals of Polistes dominulus paper wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Tibbetts

    Full Text Available Understanding intraspecific geographic variation in animal signals poses a challenging evolutionary problem. Studies addressing geographic variation typically focus on signals used in mate-choice, however, geographic variation in intrasexual signals involved in competition is also known to occur. In Polistes dominulus paper wasps, females have black facial spots that signal dominance: individuals wasps with more complex 'broken' facial patterns are better fighters and are avoided by rivals. Recent work suggests there is dramatic geographic variation in these visual signals of quality, though this variation has not been explicitly described or quantified. Here, we analyze variation in P. dominulus signals across six populations and explore how environmental conditions may account for this variation. Overall, we found substantial variation in facial pattern brokenness across populations and castes. Workers have less broken facial patterns than gynes and queens, which have similar facial patterns. Strepsipteran parasitism, body size and temperature are all correlated with the facial pattern variation, suggesting that developmental plasticity likely plays a key role in this variation. First, the extent of parasitism varies across populations and parasitized individuals have lower facial pattern brokenness than unparasitized individuals. Second, there is substantial variation in body size across populations and a weak but significant relationship between facial pattern brokenness and body size. Wasps from populations with smaller body size (e.g. Italy tend to have less broken facial patterns than wasps from populations with larger body size (e.g. New York, USA. Third, there is an apparent association between facial patterns and climate, with wasp from cooler locations tending to have higher facial pattern brokenness than wasps from warmer locations. Additional experimental work testing the causes and consequences of facial pattern variation will be

  11. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancek, Séverine; Bézier, Annie; Gayral, Philippe; Paillusson, Corentin; Kaiser, Laure; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Barbe, Valérie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome local host resistance.

  12. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Jancek

    Full Text Available The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome

  13. New occurrence of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus microcarpa in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farache, Fernando H A; O, Vanessa T do; Pereira, Rodrigo A S

    2009-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa is an Asian fig tree that is ornamentally cultivated. The specific pollinator, Eupristina verticillata Waterston, and the non-pollinators Walkerella microcarpae Boucek and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi, have been reported associated to F. microcarpa in Brazil. In here we report for the first time the occurrence of Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes and Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen et al in F. microcarpa in Brazil. Our results suggest that P. taiwanensis and O. ishii represent a recent influx of these wasps into Brazil. Considering that approximately 20 fig wasp species are associated with F. microcarpa in its native area, novel occurrences can be reported in the future in Brazil.

  14. WAsP prediction errors due to site orography[Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, A.J.; Mortensen, N.G.

    2004-12-01

    The influence of rugged terrain on the prediction accuracy of the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is investigated using a case study of field measurements taken in rugged terrain. The parameters that could cause substantial errors in a prediction are identified and discussed. In particular, the effects from extreme orography are investigated. A suitable performance indicator is developed which predicts the sign and approximate magnitude of such errors due to orography. This procedure allows the user to assess the consequences of using WAsP outside its operating envelope and could provide a means of correction for rugged terrain effects. (au)

  15. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  16. Omnidirectional Analysis of Spatial Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space manipulators are mainly used in the spatial loading task. According to problems of the spatial loading diversity, the testing loading installing position, and the utilization ratio of a test platform, the space manipulator is asked to evaluate the position and attitude of itself. This paper proposes the Point Omnidirectional Coefficient (POC with unit attitude sphere/circle to describe attitude of the end-effector, which evaluates any points in the attainable space of the manipulators, in combination with the manipulation’s position message, and get relationships between its position and attitude of all points in the attainable space. It represents the mapping between sphere surface and plane for mission attitude constraints and the method for calculating volume of points space including attainable space, Omnidirectional space, and mission attitude space. Furthermore, the Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient based on mission or not is proposed for evaluating manipulator performance. Through analysis and simulation about 3D and 2D manipulators, the results show that the above theoretical approach is feasible and the relationships about link lengths, joints angles, attainable space, and Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient are drawn for guiding design.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics of Controlled Synchronizations of Manipulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkai Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics of the manipulator system which is controlled to achieve the synchronization motions is investigated in the paper. Firstly, the control strategies and modeling approaches of the manipulator system are given, in which the synchronization goal is defined by both synchronization errors and its derivatives. The synchronization controllers applied on the manipulator system include neuron synchronization controller, improved OPCL synchronization controller, and MRAC-PD synchronization controller. Then, an improved adaptive synchronized control strategy is proposed in order to estimate online the unknown structure parameters and state variables of the manipulator system and to realize the needed synchronous compensation. Furthermore, a robust adaptive synchronization controller is also researched to guarantee the dynamic stability of the system. Finally, the stability of motion synchronizations of the manipulator system possessing nonlinear component is discussed, together with the effect of control parameters and joint friction and others. Some typical motions such as motion bifurcations and the loss of synchronization of it are obtained and illustrated as periodic, multiperiodic, and/or chaotic motion patterns.

  18. A photometric study of the hot exoplanet WASP-19b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.; Alonso, R.; Fumel, A.; Jehin, E.; Naef, D.

    2013-04-01

    Context. The sample of hot Jupiters that have been studied in great detail is still growing. In particular, when the planet transits its host star, it is possible to measure the planetary radius and the planet mass (with radial velocity data). For the study of planetary atmospheres, it is essential to obtain transit and occultation measurements at multiple wavelengths. Aims: We aim to characterize the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-19b by deriving accurate and precise planetary parameters from a dedicated observing campaign of transits and occultations. Methods: We have obtained a total of 14 transit lightcurves in the r'-Gunn, I-Cousins, z'-Gunn, and I + z' filters and 10 occultation lightcurves in z'-Gunn using EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and TRAPPIST. We also obtained one lightcurve through the narrow-band NB1190 filter of HAWK-I on the VLT measuring an occultation at 1.19 μm. We performed a global MCMC analysis of all new data, together with some archive data in order to refine the planetary parameters and to measure the occultation depths in z'-band and at 1.19 μm. Results: We measure a planetary radius of Rp = 1.376 ± 0.046 RJ, a planetary mass of Mp = 1.165 ± 0.068 MJ, and find a very low eccentricity of e = 0.0077-0.0032+0.0068, compatible with a circular orbit. We have detected the z'-band occultation at 3σ significance and measure it to be δFocc,z' = 352 ± 116 ppm, more than a factor of 2 smaller than previously published. The occultation at 1.19 μm is only marginally constrained at δFocc,NB1190 = 1711-726+745 ppm. Conclusions: We show that the detection of occultations in the visible range is within reach, even for 1 m class telescopes if a considerable number of individual events are observed. Our results suggest an oxygen-dominated atmosphere of WASP-19b, making the planet an interesting test case for oxygen-rich planets without temperature inversion. Based on photometric observations made with HAWK-I on the ESO VLT/UT4 (Prog. ID 084.C

  19. Neurons Containing Orexin or Melanin Concentrating Hormone Reciprocally Regulate Wake and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda Rani eKonadhode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable amount of data on arousal neurons whereas there is a paucity of knowledge regarding neurons that make us fall asleep. Indeed, current network models of sleep-wake regulation list many arousal neuronal populations compared to only one sleep group located in the preoptic area. There are neurons outside the preoptic area that are active during sleep, but they have never been selectively manipulated. Indeed, none of the sleep-active neurons have been selectively stimulated. To close this knowledge gap we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH. The MCH neurons are located in the posterior hypothalamus intermingled with the orexin arousal neurons. Our data indicated that optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons in wildtype mice (J Neuroscience, 2013 robustly increased both non-REM and REM sleep. MCH neuron stimulation increased sleep during the animal’s normal active period, which is compelling evidence that stimulation of MCH neurons has a powerful effect in counteracting the strong arousal signal from all of the arousal neurons. The MCH neurons represent the only group of sleep-active neurons that when selectively stimulated induce sleep. From a translational perspective this is potentially useful in sleep disorders, such as insomnia, where sleep needs to be triggered against a strong arousal drive. Our studies indicate that the MCH neurons belong within an overall model of sleep-wake regulation.

  20. Manipulator control by exact linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruetz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.

  1. Glucocorticoids potentiate ischemic injury to neurons: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, R M; Pulsinelli, W A

    1985-09-27

    Sustained exposure to glucocorticoids, the adrenocortical stress hormones, is toxic to neurons, and such toxicity appears to play a role in neuron loss during aging. Previous work has shown that glucocorticoids compromise the capacity of neurons to survive a variety of metabolic insults. This report extends those observations by showing that ischemic injury to neurons in rat brain is also potentiated by exposure to high physiological titers of glucocorticoids and is attenuated by adrenalectomy. The synergy between ischemic and glucocorticoid brain injury was seen even when glucocorticoid levels were manipulated after the ischemic insult. Pharmacological interventions that diminish the adrenocortical stress response may improve neurological outcome from stroke or cardiac arrest.

  2. Rossiter-McLaughlin models and their effect on estimates of stellar rotation, illustrated using six WASP systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hébrard, G.; Hellier, C.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.

    2016-09-01

    We present new measurements of the projected spin-orbit angle λ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses of previously measured systems using new data (WASP-71, and -79). We use three different models based on two different techniques: radial velocity measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, and Doppler tomography. Our comparison of the different models reveals that they produce projected stellar rotation velocities (vsin Is) measurements often in disagreement with each other and with estimates obtained from spectral line broadening. The Boué model for the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect consistently underestimates the value of vsin Is compared to the Hirano model. Although vsin Is differed, the effect on λ was small for our sample, with all three methods producing values in agreement with each other. Using Doppler tomography, we find that WASP-61 b (λ =4.0°+17.1-18.4), WASP-71 b (λ =-1.9°+7.1-7.5), and WASP-78 b (λ = -6.4° ± 5.9) are aligned. WASP-62 b (λ =19.4°+5.1-4.9) is found to be slightly misaligned, while WASP-79 b (λ =-95.2°+0.9-1.0) is confirmed to be strongly misaligned and has a retrograde orbit. We explore a range of possibilities for the orbit of WASP-76 b, finding that the orbit is likely to be strongly misaligned in the positive λ direction.

  3. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information

    CERN Document Server

    Conitzer, Vincent; Xia, Lirong

    2011-01-01

    We consider manipulation problems when the manipulator only has partial information about the votes of the nonmanipulators. Such partial information is described by an information set, which is the set of profiles of the nonmanipulators that are indistinguishable to the manipulator. Given such an information set, a dominating manipulation is a non-truthful vote that the manipulator can cast which makes the winner at least as preferable (and sometimes more preferable) as the winner when the manipulator votes truthfully. When the manipulator has full information, computing whether or not there exists a dominating manipulation is in P for many common voting rules (by known results). We show that when the manipulator has no information, there is no dominating manipulation for many common voting rules. When the manipulator's information is represented by partial orders and only a small portion of the preferences are unknown, computing a dominating manipulation is NP-hard for many common voting rules. Our results t...

  4. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...... Manipulation (AIMM)....

  5. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  6. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-30 and J1219-39 light & velocity curves (Triaud+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Hebb, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Cargile, P.; Collier, Cameron A.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2012-10-01

    For WASP-30: the data is composed of two TRAPPIST photometric timeseries, one set of CORALIE radial velocities and one set of HARPS radial velocities (remaining photometry in Anderson et al. 2011, Cat. J/ApJ/726/L19). For J1219-39, the data consist of one set of CORALIE radial velocities and four photometric timeseries originating from the WASP-South instrument. They give evidence of an eclipsing brown dwarf orbiting WASP-30, and of a low mass star eclipsing J1219-39. (9 data files).

  8. WASP-17b - possibly the first moving away from parent star exoplanet. International campaign on its observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokov, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    We present detected moving away from the parent star WASP-17b exoplanet and organized international campaign on its observations. The difference between the predicted moment of a mid of transit and the observed (O-C) reached ∼55 minutes. In the period from 2011 to 2015 yy. there was a non-linear increasing of the (O-C) data, which may point on an increasing of the orbital period of WASP-17b. Difference between duration of the transit obtained at 2011 year and 2015 year is ∼15 minutes. This fact also point on moving away from the star WASP- 17b exoplanet.

  9. Phenotypically plastic traits regulate caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M S; Milton, I; Strand, M R

    2010-12-01

    Polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are parasitoids that have evolved a clonal form of embryogenesis and a caste system where some progeny become reproducing wasps whereas others develop into a sterile soldier caste. Theory based on the biology of Copidosoma floridanum predicts that the primary role of soldier larvae is to mediate conflict over sex ratio, which also favours female-biased soldier production. Other data, however, suggest that female-biased soldier production reflects a developmental constraint. Here, we assessed whether female-biased soldier function by polyembryonic wasps reflects sex-specific adaptation or constraint by conducting comparative studies with Copidosoma bakeri, a species that produces clutch sizes similar to C. floridanum yet rarely produces broods associated with sex ratio conflict. Our results indicate that the oviposition behaviour of adults, development of progeny and function of soldier larvae differ greatly between C. bakeri and C. floridanum. These findings indicate that caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are regulated by phenotypically plastic traits. Our results further suggest that the primary function of the soldier caste in some species is defence of host resources from competitors whereas in others it is the resolution of sex ratio conflict.

  10. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present 17 transit light curves of the ultra-short period planetary system WASP-103, a strong candidate for the detection of tidally-induced orbital decay. We use these to establish a high-precision reference epoch for transit timing studies. The time of the reference transit midpoint is now m...

  11. Invadopodia proteins, cortactin, N-WASP and WIP differentially promote local invasiveness in ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Bin Abdul; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Mohamed Om Alblazi, Kamila; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Ng, Kok Han

    2016-09-01

    Cell migration and invasion through interstitial tissues are dependent upon several specialized characteristics of the migratory cell notably generation of proteolytic membranous protrusions or invadopodia. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behaviour. Cortactin and MMT1-MMP are two invadopodia proteins implicated in its local invasiveness. Other invadopodia regulators, namely N-WASP, WIP and Src kinase remain unclarified. This study addresses their roles in ameloblastoma. Eighty-seven paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases (20 unicystic, 47 solid/multicystic, 3 desmoplastic and 17 recurrent) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for expression of cortactin, N-WASP, WIP, Src kinase and F-actin, and findings correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Invadopodia proteins (except Src kinase) and F-actin were widely detected in ameloblastoma (cortactin: n = 73/87, 83.9%; N-WASP: n = 59/87; 67.8%; WIP: n = 77/87; 88.5%; and F-actin: n = 87/87, 100%). Protein localization was mainly cytoplasmic and/or membranous, and occasionally nuclear for F-actin. Cortactin, which functions as an actin-scaffolding protein, demonstrated significantly higher expression levels within ameloblastoma tumoral epithelium than in stroma (P ameloblastoma is dependent upon the migratory potential of its tumour cells as defined by their distribution of cortactin, N-WASP and WIP in correlation with F-actin cytoskeletal dynamics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex pheromo

  13. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  14. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Eyheramendy, Susana [Departmento de Estadística, Facultad de Matemáticas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Désert, Jean-Michel [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bakos, Gáspár Á. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Maxted, Pierre F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  15. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  16. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  17. DNA methylation and sex allocation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, N.; Pannebakker, B.A.; Tauber, E.; Shuker, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of epigenetics in the control and evolution of behavior is being increasingly recognized. Here we test whether DNA methylation influences patterns of adaptive sex allocation in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate offspring sex broadly in line with local m

  18. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community (Stevenson et al. 2016)

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  19. WAsP for offshore sites in confined coastal waters - the influence of the sea fetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)

  20. Genetics of sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy; males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex determination in Nasonia is not governed by complementary alleles at one or more sex loci. As in most other insects, the sex-determining pathway consists of the basal switch doublesex

  1. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has uniq

  2. WASP-3b: a strongly-irradiated transiting gas-giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Pollacco, D; Cameron, A Collier; Loeillet, B; Stempels, H C; Bouchy, F; Gibson, N P; Hebb, L; Hébrard, G; Joshi, Y C; McDonald, I; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Street, R A; Udry, S; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Wheatley, P J; Aigrain, S; Benn, C R; Bruce, V A; Christian, D J; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Evans, A; Fitzsimmons, A; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Hickey, S; Hodgkin, S T; Horne, K; Hrudkova, M; Irwin, J; Kane, S R; Keenan, F P; Lister, T A; Maxted, P; Mayor, M; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Osborne, J P; Parley, N; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Ryans, R; Simpson, E

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-3b, the third transiting exoplanet to be discovered by the WASP and SOPHIE collaboration. WASP-3b transits its host star USNO-B1.0 1256-0285133 every 1.846834+-0.000002 days. Our high precision radial-velocity measurements present a variation with amplitude characteristic of a planetary-mass companion and in-phase with the light-curve. Adaptive optics imaging shows no evidence for nearby stellar companions, and line-bisector analysis excludes faint, unresolved binarity and stellar activity as the cause of the radial-velocity variations. We make a preliminary spectroscopic analysis of the host star finding it to have Teff = 6400+-100 K and log g = 4.25+-0.05 which suggests it is most likely an unevolved main sequence star of spectral type F7-8V. Our simultaneous modelling of the transit photometry and reflex motion of the host leads us to derive a mass of 1.76 +0.08 -0.14 M_J and radius 1.31 +0.07-0.14 R_J for WASP-3b. The proximity and relative temperature of the host star sugg...

  3. Antennal and cephalic organelles in the social wasp Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae): form and possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Ifaat; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Barkay, Zahava; Ishay, Jacob S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with hairs and organelles present on the head and antennae of the German wasp, Paravespula germanica, and their possible role in sensing the physical and chemical ambience, as well as in intercommunicating both while in flight outside or in the nest. Via scanning electron microscope photography, we detected on the frons plate of the wasp's head, hairs that were about 300 microm long and comprised the longest hairs on the body of the wasps. Additionally, the two antennae bore along their entire length photoreceptors, placoids, campaniforms, trichoids, and agmons. These organelles are located at high but variable density along the antennal segments. The paper provides the dimensions of each of the mentioned organelles, and discusses the possible functions of the organelles as well as of the hairs on the frons. Photographs taken via atomic force microscope reveal that the epicuticle of the antenna is of two typical shapes; one, bearing both longitudinal stripes as well as transverse bands that are about 1 mum in width, and a second granulated form. Conceivably, the wasp uses the various organelles mentioned to communicate with its mates that are some distance away, somewhat like the use of radar by humans.

  4. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P food on 4 consecutive occasions, but not after only 1. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that V. germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: Clear skies for cool Saturn WASP-39b

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Patrick D; Sing, David K; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael W; Fortney, Jonathan J; Burrows, Adam S; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P; Ballester, Gilda E; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    We present HST STIS optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool (approximately 1116 K) Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 micron, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear, H2- dominated atmosphere or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. (2016). WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in o...

  6. WASP-80b has a dayside within the T-dwarf range

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Ehrenreich, David; Herrero, Enrique; Lendl, Monika; Anderson, David R; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Delrez, Laetitia; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Hellier, Coel; Heng, Keving; Jehin, Emmanuel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Ribas, Ignasi; Smalley, Barry; Smith, Alexis M S; Udry, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    WASP-80b is a missing link in the study of exo-atmospheres. It falls between the warm Neptunes and the hot Jupiters and is amenable for characterisation, thanks to its host star's properties. We observed the planet through transit and during occultation with Warm Spitzer. Combining our mid-infrared transits with optical time series, we find that the planet presents a transmission spectrum indistinguishable from a horizontal line. In emission, WASP-80b is the intrinsically faintest planet whose dayside flux has been detected in both the 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m Spitzer channels. The depths of the occultations reveal that WASP-80b is as bright and as red as a T4 dwarf, but that its temperature is cooler. If planets go through the equivalent of an L-T transition, our results would imply this happens at cooler temperatures than for brown dwarfs. Placing WASP-80b's dayside into a colour-magnitude diagram, it falls exactly at the junction between a blackbody model and the T-dwarf sequence; we cannot discern which of thos...

  7. Fig wasps from Ficus dzumacensis, with notes on the genus Sycobiella Westwood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1964-01-01

    A sample of fig wasps from New Caledonia, sent to me by Mr. E. J. H. Corner, contained a species of Blastophaga Gravenhorst (Agaonidae) and a species of Sycobiella Westwood (Torymidae). The insects were reared from the receptacles of Ficus dzumacensis Guillaum. The Blastophaga is of interest because

  8. Relationship between Representatives of American Dream and Non-WASPs of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆妍

    2013-01-01

    American dream represents a wonderful wish of pursuit of better life, it attracts not only American, but also people all over the world to realize their dreams through hard-working. Focusing on people who have become representatives of American dream, we will find that most of them are Non-WASPS.

  9. Brighter-colored paper wasps (Polistes dominula have larger poison glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal-Cordero J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aposematism is a defense system against predators consisting of the toxicity warning using conspicuous coloration. If the toxin production and aposematic coloration is costly, only individuals in good physical condition could simultaneously produce abundant poison and striking coloration. In such cases, the aposematic coloration not only indicates that the animal is toxic, but also the toxicity level of individuals. The costs associated with the production of aposematic coloration would ensure that individuals honestly indicate their toxicity levels. In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between the brightness of warning coloration and toxicity level using as a model the paper wasp (Polistes dominula. Results We collected wasps from 30 different nests and photographed them to measure the brightness of warning coloration in the abdomen. We also measured the volume of the poison gland, as well as the length, and the width of the abdomen. The results show a positive relationship between brightness and poison-gland size, which remained positive even after controlling for the body size and abdomen width. Conclusion The results suggest that the coloration pattern of these wasps is a true sign of toxicity level: wasps with brighter colors are more poisonous (they have larger poison glands.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-117b photometry and radial velocities (Lendl+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R.

    2014-08-01

    We present photometric time-series obtained with EulerCam and TRAPPIST during one and four transits of WASP-117, respectively. We also present radial velocity data from CORALIE and HARPS used to characterize the planetary orbit. (4 data files).

  11. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  12. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids. PMID:27648768

  13. Orbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G.

    2017-01-01

    were detected in four transits over a period of 43 days. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same starspot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52b to be lambda = 3.8 \\pm 8.4 degree. We also determined the true orbital...

  14. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  15. Strong dispersal in a parasitoid wasp overwhelms habitat fragmentation and host population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchoux, C; Seppä, P; van Nouhuys, S

    2016-07-01

    The population dynamics of a parasite depend on species traits, host dynamics and the environment. Those dynamics are reflected in the genetic structure of the population. Habitat fragmentation has a greater impact on parasites than on their hosts because resource distribution is increasingly fragmented for species at higher trophic levels. This could lead to either more or less genetic structure than the host, depending on the relative dispersal rates of species. We examined the spatial genetic structure of the parasitoid wasp Hyposoter horticola, and how it was influenced by dispersal, host population dynamics and habitat fragmentation. The host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, lives as a metapopulation in a fragmented landscape in the Åland Islands, Finland. We collected wasps throughout the 50 by 70 km archipelago and determined the genetic diversity, spatial population structure and genetic differentiation using 14 neutral DNA microsatellite loci. We compared the genetic structure of the wasp with that of the host butterfly using published genetic data collected over the shared landscape. Using maternity assignment, we also identified full-siblings among the sampled parasitoids to estimate the dispersal range of individual females. We found that because the parasitoid is dispersive, it has low genetic structure, is not very sensitive to habitat fragmentation and has less spatial genetic structure than its butterfly host. The wasp is sensitive to regional rather than local host dynamics, and there is a geographic mosaic landscape for antagonistic co-evolution of host resistance and parasite virulence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  17. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  18. Simultaneous optogenetic manipulation and calcium imaging in freely moving C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick B Shipley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how an organism's nervous system transforms sensory input into behavioral outputs requires recording and manipulating its neural activity during unrestrained behavior. Here we present an instrument to simultaneously monitor and manipulate neural activity while observing behavior in a freely moving textit{Caenorhabditis elegans}. Neural activity is recorded optically from cells expressing a calcium indicator, GCaMP3. Neural activity is manipulated optically by illuminating targeted neurons expressing the optogenetic protein Channelrhodopsin. Real-time computer vision software tracks the animal's behavior and identifies the location of targeted neurons in the nematode as it crawls. Patterned illumination from a digital micromirror device is used to selectively illuminate subsets of neurons for either calcium imaging or optogenetic stimulation. Real-time computer vision software constantly updates the illumination pattern in response to the worm's movement and thereby allows for independent optical recording or activation of different neurons in the worm as it moves freely. We use the instrument to directly observe the relationship between sensory neuron activation, interneuron dynamics and locomotion in the worm's mechanosensory circuit. We record and compare calcium transients in the backward locomotion command interneurons AVA, in response to optical activation of the anterior mechanosensory neurons ALM, AVM or both.

  19. Simultaneous optogenetic manipulation and calcium imaging in freely moving C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Frederick B; Clark, Christopher M; Alkema, Mark J; Leifer, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how an organism's nervous system transforms sensory input into behavioral outputs requires recording and manipulating its neural activity during unrestrained behavior. Here we present an instrument to simultaneously monitor and manipulate neural activity while observing behavior in a freely moving animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Neural activity is recorded optically from cells expressing a calcium indicator, GCaMP3. Neural activity is manipulated optically by illuminating targeted neurons expressing the optogenetic protein Channelrhodopsin. Real-time computer vision software tracks the animal's behavior and identifies the location of targeted neurons in the nematode as it crawls. Patterned illumination from a DMD is used to selectively illuminate subsets of neurons for either calcium imaging or optogenetic stimulation. Real-time computer vision software constantly updates the illumination pattern in response to the worm's movement and thereby allows for independent optical recording or activation of different neurons in the worm as it moves freely. We use the instrument to directly observe the relationship between sensory neuron activation, interneuron dynamics and locomotion in the worm's mechanosensory circuit. We record and compare calcium transients in the backward locomotion command interneurons AVA, in response to optical activation of the anterior mechanosensory neurons ALM, AVM or both.

  20. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  1. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  2. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  3. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  4. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies.Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these communities, however, remain poorly understood. An emerging theme in community ecology is the need to consider the effects of host traits, shaped by both natural selection and phylogenetic history, on associated communities of natural enemies. Here we examine the impact of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness on 48 ecologically closed and species-rich communities of parasitoids attacking gall-inducing wasps on oaks. Gallwasps induce the development of spectacular and structurally complex galls whose species- and generation-specific morphologies are the extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes. All the associated natural enemies attack their concealed hosts through gall tissues, and several structural gall traits have been shown to enhance defence against parasitoid attack. Here we explore the significance of these and other host traits in predicting variation in parasitoid community structure across gallwasp species. In particular, we test the "Enemy Hypothesis," which predicts that galls with similar morphology will exclude similar sets of parasitoids and therefore have similar parasitoid communities. Having controlled for phylogenetic patterning in host traits and communities, we found significant correlations between parasitoid community structure and several gall structural traits (toughness, hairiness, stickiness, supporting the Enemy Hypothesis. Parasitoid community structure was also consistently predicted by components of the hosts' spatiotemporal niche, particularly host oak taxonomy and gall location (e.g., leaf versus bud versus seed. The combined explanatory power of structural and

  5. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Machalek, Pavel [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Croll, Bryce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hora, Joseph L., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  6. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  7. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  8. New records of potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Arunachal Pradesh, India: five genera and ten species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Six genera and eleven wasp species belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are reported from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, of which five genera and 10 species are new records for the state.

  9. Development and characterisation of microsatellite markers for Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi, the pollinator fig wasp of Ficus montana Blume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavodna, M.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Microsatellite markers for the pollinator fig wasp Liporrhopalum tentacularis were developed using genomic libraries enriched for di-, tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. A subset of 31 positive clones was sequenced and primers were designed. Eleven primer pairs produced polymorphic amplification prod

  10. Pulse labeling and long-term tracing of newborn neurons in the adult subgranular zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewen Cheng; Yang Li; Ying Huang; Xiaoyan Feng; Guoping Feng; Zhi-Qi Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past decades has demonstrated that adult brain produces neural progenitor cells which proliferate and differentiate to newborn neurons that integrate into the existing circuit.However, detailed differentiation processes and underlying mechanisms of newly generated neurons are largely unknown due to the limitation of available methods for labeling and manipulating neural progenitor cells and newborn neurons. In this study, we designed a tightly controlled,noninvasive system based on Cre/loxP recombination to achieve long-term tracing and genetic manipulation of adult neurons in vivo. In this system, tamoxifen-inducible recomumase,CreERT2,was driven by BAC-based promoter of doublecortin(DCX,a marker of newborn neurons).By crossing this Cre line with reporter mouse, we found that newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) could be selectively pulse-labeled by tamoxifeninduced expression of yellow fluorescent protein(YFP).YFP-positive neurons were identified by coimmunostaining with cell type-specific markers and characterized by electrophysiological recording.Furthermore,analysis of the migration of these neurons showed that the majority of these labeled neurons migrated to the inner part of granule cell layer.Moreover,spine growth of inner molecular layer of newborn granule neurons takes a dynamic pattern of invert U-shape,in contrast to the wedge-shaped change in the outer molecular layer.Our transgenic tool provides an efficient way to selectively label and manipulate newborn neuron in adult mouse DG.

  11. Synaptic Plasticity onto Dopamine Neurons Shapes Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Marco; Umanah, George Kwabena Essien; Ribeiro, Sissi Palma; Chen, Rong; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar Senthil; Yau, Hau-Jie; Eacker, Stephen; Dawson, Valina Lynn; Dawson, Ted Murray; Bonci, Antonello

    2017-01-18

    Fear learning is a fundamental behavioral process that requires dopamine (DA) release. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity occurs on DA neurons while an organism is engaged in aversive experiences. However, whether synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons is causally involved in aversion learning is unknown. Here, we show that a stress priming procedure enhances fear learning by engaging VTA synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we took advantage of the ability of the ATPase Thorase to regulate the internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in order to selectively manipulate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on DA neurons. Genetic ablation of Thorase in DAT(+) neurons produced increased AMPAR surface expression and function that lead to impaired induction of both long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Strikingly, animals lacking Thorase in DAT(+) neurons expressed greater associative learning in a fear conditioning paradigm. In conclusion, our data provide a novel, causal link between synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons and fear learning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. 96-well electroporation method for transfection of mammalian central neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchser, William J; Pardinas, Jose R; Shi, Yan; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2006-11-01

    Manipulating gene expression in primary neurons has been a goal for many scientists for over 20 years. Vertebrate central nervous system neurons are classically difficult to transfect. Most lipid reagents are inefficient and toxic to the cells, and time-consuming methods such as viral infections are often required to obtain better efficiencies. We have developed an efficient method for the transfection of cerebellar granule neurons and hippocampal neurons with standard plasmid vectors. Using 96-well electroporation plates, square-wave pulses can introduce 96 different plasmids into neurons in a single step. The procedure results in greater than 20% transfection efficiencies and requires only simple solutions of nominal cost. In addition to enabling the rapid optimization of experimental protocols with multiple parameters, this procedure enables the use of high content screening methods to characterize neuronal phenotypes.

  13. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  14. Advanced manipulation for autonomous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Killough, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development, mechanical configuration, and control system architecture of a lightweight, high performance, seven-degree-of-freedom manipulator at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). Current activities focusing on modeling and parameter identification will provide a well-characterized manipulator for analytical and experimental research in manipulator dynamics and controls, coordinated manipulation, and autonomous mobile robotics.

  15. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  16. Adaptive output stabilization of manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Barany, E. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the position regulation problem for rigid robots for the case in which only joint position measurements are available, and proposes two adaptive controllers as solutions to this problem. The first controller is developed by assuming that the structure of the vector of gravity torques is known, but that the inertial parameters for the manipulator and payload are unknown; it is shown that this scheme ensures semiglobal stability and convergence of the position error to zero. Alternatively, the second adaptive strategy is derived under the assumption that no information is available concerning the manipulator model, and in this case it is shown that the controller provides uniform boundedness of all signals and exponential convergence of the position error to a set which can be made arbitrarily small. Experimental results are presented for a Zebra Zero manipulator and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a simple and effective means of obtaining high performance position regulation.

  17. Manipulating complex light with metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2013-10-02

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for "engineering" space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing.

  18. Identification and Optogenetic Manipulation of Memory Engrams in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eRamirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the accumulation of our knowledge about how memories are formed, consolidated, retrieved, and updated, neuroscience is now reaching a point where discrete memories can be identified and manipulated at rapid timescales. Here, we start with historical studies that lead to the modern memory engram theory. Then, we will review recent advances in memory engram research that combine transgenic and optogenetic approaches to reveal the underlying neuronal substrates sufficient for activating mnemonic processes. We will focus on three concepts: isolating memory engrams at the level of single cells to tag them for subsequent manipulation; testing the sufficiency of these engrams for memory recall by artificially activating them; and finally, presenting new stimuli during the artificial activation of these engrams to induce an association between the two to form a false memory. We propose that hippocampal cells that show activity-dependent changes during learning construct a cellular basis for contextual memory engrams.

  19. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  20. Thermoregulation of individual paper wasps ( Polistes dominula) plays an important role in nest defence and dominance battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höcherl, Nicole; Tautz, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Paper wasps, like Polistes dominula, are considered as primitively eusocial. Hence, they are often used as model species for studies about the evolution of eusociality and dominance hierarchies. However, our knowledge about basic physiological processes in these wasps remains limited. In particular, the thermoregulation of individual wasps in their natural habitat has not yet been investigated in detail. We conducted a comprehensive field study to test their ability to respond to external hazards with elevated thorax temperatures. We presented artificial threats by applying smoke or carbon dioxide simulating fire and predator attacks, respectively, and monitored the thorax temperature of wasps on the nest using infrared thermography. We found that P. dominula workers recognized smoke and CO2 and reacted almost instantaneously and simultaneously with an increase of their thorax temperature. The maximal thorax temperature was reached about 65 s after the application of both stressors, but subsequently, the wasps showed a different behaviour pattern. No rise of the thorax temperature was detectable after an air blast was applied or in wasps resting on the nest. These observations provide evidence that P. dominula is able to heat up its thorax and that thermoregulation is employed in escape and defence reactions. Additionally, we investigated the thorax temperatures of queens during dominance battles. We found that the thorax temperature of the dominant queens rose up to 5 °C compared to that of subordinate queens that attacked the former, suggesting that the dominant queen defends herself as well as her nest.

  1. WASP-39b: a highly inflated Saturn-mass planet orbiting a late G-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Faedi, F; Anderson, D R; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Pollacco, D; Boisse, I; Hebrard, G; Lendl, M; Lister, T A; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Triaud, A H M J; Bento, J; Butters, O W; Enoch, B; Bouchy, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Keenan, F P; Miller, G R M; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of WASP-39b, a highly inflated transiting Saturn-mass planet orbiting a late G-type dwarf star with a period of 4.055259$\\pm0.000008$~d, Transit Epoch T$_{0}=2455342.9688\\pm0.0002$(HJD), of duration 0.1168$\\pm0.0008$~d. A combined analysis of the WASP photometry, high-precision follow up transit photometry and radial velocities yield a planetary mass of $\\mpl=0.28\\pm0.03$~\\mj\\ and a radius of $\\rpl=1.27\\pm0.04$~\\rj, resulting in a mean density of 0.14$\\pm0.02$~\\rhoj. The stellar parameters are mass $\\mstar = 0.93\\pm0.03\\msun$, radius $\\rstar = 0.895\\pm0.23\\rsun$, and age $9^{+3}_{-4}$~Gyr. Only WASP-17b and WASP-31b have lower densities than WASP-39b, although they are slightly more massive and highly irradiated planets. We measure, from our spectral analysis, the metallicity of WASP-39 to be [Fe/H]= $-0.12\\pm0.01$ dex, and we find the planet to have an equilibrium temperature of $1116^{+33}_{-32}$~K; both values strengthen the observed empirical correlation between these parameters a...

  2. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  3. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information.

  4. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  5. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  6. Activation of Pedunculopontine Glutamate Neurons Is Reinforcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Zell, Vivien; Wu, Johnathan; Punta, Cindy; Ramajayam, Nivedita; Shen, Xinyi; Faget, Lauren; Lilascharoen, Varoth; Lim, Byung Kook; Hnasko, Thomas S

    2017-01-04

    Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice. We used anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays to determine their patterns of connectivity and ascribe functional roles in reinforcement. We found that photoactivation of PPTg glutamate cell bodies could serve as a direct positive reinforcer on intracranial self-photostimulation assays. Further, PPTg glutamate neurons directly innervate VTA; photostimulation of this pathway preferentially excites VTA dopamine neurons and is sufficient to induce behavioral reinforcement. These results demonstrate that ascending PPTg glutamate projections can drive motivated behavior, and PPTg to VTA synapses may represent an important target relevant to drug addiction and other mental health disorders. Uncovering brain circuits underlying reward-seeking is an important step toward understanding the circuit bases of drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders. The dopaminergic system emanating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a key role in regulating reward-seeking behaviors. We used optogenetics to demonstrate that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus sends glutamatergic projections to VTA dopamine neurons, and that stimulation of this circuit promotes behavioral reinforcement. The findings support a critical role for pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus glutamate neurotransmission in modulating VTA dopamine neuron activity and

  7. Targeting single neuronal networks for gene expression and cell labeling in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshel, James H; Mori, Takuma; Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M

    2010-08-26

    To understand fine-scale structure and function of single mammalian neuronal networks, we developed and validated a strategy to genetically target and trace monosynaptic inputs to a single neuron in vitro and in vivo. The strategy independently targets a neuron and its presynaptic network for specific gene expression and fine-scale labeling, using single-cell electroporation of DNA to target infection and monosynaptic retrograde spread of a genetically modifiable rabies virus. The technique is highly reliable, with transsynaptic labeling occurring in every electroporated neuron infected by the virus. Targeting single neocortical neuronal networks in vivo, we found clusters of both spiny and aspiny neurons surrounding the electroporated neuron in each case, in addition to intricately labeled distal cortical and subcortical inputs. This technique, broadly applicable for probing and manipulating single neuronal networks with single-cell resolution in vivo, may help shed new light on fundamental mechanisms underlying circuit development and information processing by neuronal networks throughout the brain.

  8. [Neuronal network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmeier, M; Maresová, D

    2005-01-01

    Function of the central nervous system is based on mutual relations among the nerve cells. Description of nerve cells and their processes, including their contacts was enabled by improvement of optical features of the microscope and by the development of impregnation techniques. It is associated with the name of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), J. Ev. Purkyne (1787-1869), Camillo Golgi (1843-1926), and Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934). Principal units of the neuronal network are the synapses. The term synapse was introduced into neurophysiology by Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952). Majority of the interactions between nerve cells is mediated by neurotransmitters acting at the receptors of the postsynaptic membrane or at the autoreceptors of the presynaptic part of the synapse. Attachment of the vesicles to the presynaptic membrane and the release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft depend on the intracellular calcium concentration and on the presence of several proteins in the presynaptic element.

  9. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  10. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  11. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  12. How to manipulate the microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth; in

  13. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. How to manipulate the microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. This is a natural process that occurs already at birth; in

  15. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  16. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  17. DYMAFLEX: DYnamic Manipulation FLight EXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    Moosavian. Learning- based Modified Transpose Jacobian control of robotic manipulators. In Proc. IEEE Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics , pages...34Path planning for minimizing base reaction of space robot and its ground experimental study," in IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics

  18. Correcting mitochondrial fusion by manipulating mitofusin conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonietta; Kitsis, Richard N.; Fleischer, Julie A.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Kornfeld, Opher S.; Gong, Guohua; Biris, Nikolaos; Benz, Ann; Qvit, Nir; Donnelly, Sara K; Chen, Yun; Mennerick, Steven; Hodgson, Louis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Dorn, Gerald W

    2017-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, remodeling and exchanging contents during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations of mitofusin (Mfn) 2 interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition, Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is incompletely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive molecular conformation directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated by targeting these conformational transitions. Based on this model we engineered a cell-permeant minipeptide to destabilize fusion-constrained mitofusin and promote the fusion-permissive conformation, reversing mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured fibroblasts and neurons harboring CMT2A gene defects. The relationship between mitofusin conformational plasticity and mitochondrial dynamism uncovers a central mechanism regulating mitochondrial fusion whose manipulation can correct mitochondrial pathology triggered by defective or imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:27775718

  19. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  20. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  2. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon;

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social...... of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...

  3. Behavioral plasticity mediates asymmetric competition between invasive wasps and native ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J

    2012-03-01

    One of the most successful invasive species is the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. We recently reported how foragers of this species have adopted previously unknown interference behavior when competing for food with native ants. Picking their opponents up in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them some distance away from the disputed resource, wasps were shown to efficiently deal with a yet aggressive competitor and to modulate this behavior according to circumstances. Here we further discuss the nature and functioning of this unusual strategy. We first highlight the questions this interaction raises regarding the competitive advantages offered by asymmetries in body size and flight ability. Then, we argue that this study system illustrates the important role of behavioral plasticity in biological invasions; not only in the success of invaders but also in the ability of native species to coexist with these invaders.

  4. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  5. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  6. WASP-37b: a 1.7 MJ exoplanet transiting a metal-poor star

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, E K; Barros, S C C; Brown, D J A; Cameron, A Collier; Hebb, L; Pollacco, D; Smalley, B; Todd, I; Butters, O W; Hebrard, G; McCormac, J; Miller, G R M; Santerne, A; Street, R A; Skillen, I; Triaud, A H M J; Anderson, D R; Bento, J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Enoch, B; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K; Keenan, F P; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Moulds, V; Moutou, C; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Stempels, H C; Udry, S; Watson, C A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of WASP-37b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a mv = 12.7 G2-type dwarf, with a period of 3.577471 +/- 0.00001 d, transit epoch T0 = 2455338.6189 +/- 0.0006 (HJD), and a transit duration 0.1307 +/- 0.0019 d. The planetary companion has a mass Mp = 1.696(+0.123)(-0.128) MJ and radius Rp = 1.136(+0.060){-0.051} RJ, yielding a mean density of 1.169(+0.119)(-0.152) times that of Jupiter. From a spectral analysis and comparisons with stellar models, we find the host star has M* = 0.849(+0.067)(-0.040) Msun, R* = 0.977(+0.045)(-0.042) Rsun, Teff = 5800 +/- 150 K and [Fe/H] = -0.40 +/- 0.12. WASP-37 is therefore one of the lowest metallicity stars to host a transiting planet.

  7. Cellular immunity and pathogen strategies in combative interactions involving Drosophila hosts and their endoparasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Nappi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cellular innate immune responses protect invertebrates from attack by eukaryotic pathogens. In insects, assessments of the factor(s causing, or contributing to, pathogen mortality have long considered as toxic components certain molecules associated with enzyme-mediated melanogenesis. In Drosophila hosts, observations that have prompted additional or alternative considerations are those that document either the survival of certain endoparasitic wasps despite melanotic encapsulation, or the destruction of the parasite with no evidence of this type of host response. Investigations of the production of some reactive intermediates of oxygen and nitrogen during infection provide a basis for proposing that these molecules constitute important elements of the immune arsenal of Drosophila. Studies of the target specificity of virulence factors injected by female wasps during infection that suppress the host immune response will likely facilitate identification of the toxic host molecules, and contribute to a more detailed understanding of the cell-signaling pathways that regulate their synthesis.

  8. Orbital period changes and the higher-order multiplicity fraction amongst SuperWASP eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Payne, S G; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2015-01-01

    Orbital period changes of binary stars may be caused by the presence of a third massive body in the system. Here we have searched the archive of the Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) project for evidence of period variations in 13927 eclipsing binary candidates. Sinusoidal period changes, strongly suggestive of third bodies, were detected in 2% of cases; however, linear period changes were observed in a further 22% of systems. We argue on distributional grounds that the majority of these apparently linear changes are likely to reflect longer-term sinusoidal period variations caused by third bodies, and thus estimate a higher-order multiplicity fraction of 24% for SuperWASP binaries, in good agreement with other recent figures for the fraction of triple systems amongst binary stars in general.

  9. The shocking transit of WASP-12b: Modelling the observed early ingress in the near ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Llama, J; Jardine, M; Vidotto, A A; Helling, Ch; Fossati, L; Haswell, C A

    2011-01-01

    Near ultraviolet observations of WASP-12b have revealed an early ingress compared to the optical transit lightcurve. This has been interpreted as due to the presence of a magnetospheric bow shock which forms when the relative velocity of the planetary and stellar material is supersonic. We aim to reproduce this observed early ingress by modelling the stellar wind (or coronal plasma) in order to derive the speed and density of the material at the planetary orbital radius. From this we determine the orientation of the shock and the density of compressed plasma behind it. With this model for the density structure surrounding the planet we perform Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations of the near UV transits of WASP-12b with and without a bow shock. We find that we can reproduce the transit lightcurves with a wide range of plasma temperatures, shock geometries and optical depths. Our results support the hypothesis that a bow shock could explain the observed early ingress.

  10. WASP-26b: A 1-Jupiter-mass planet around an early-G-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L; Bento, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-26b, a moderately over-sized Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 11.3-magnitude early-G-type host star (1SWASP J001824.70-151602.3; TYC 5839-876-1) every 2.7566 days. A simultaneous fit to transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements yields a planetary mass of 1.02 +/- 0.03 M_Jup and radius of 1.32 +/- 0.08 R_Jup. The host star, WASP-26, has a mass of 1.12 +/- 0.03 M_sun and a radius of 1.34 +/- 0.06 R_sun and is in a visual double with a fainter K-type star. The two stars are at least a common-proper motion pair with a common distance of around 250 +/- 15 pc and an age of 6 +/- 2 Gy.

  11. High frequency A-type pulsators discovered using SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, Daniel L; Gillon, M; Clubb, K I; Southworth, J; Maxted, P F L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Jehin, E; Norton, A J; Pollacco, D; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known $\\delta$ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and in the low-frequency $\\delta$ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation.

  12. Insurance-based advantages for subordinate co-foundresses in a temperate paper wasp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeves, Gavin; Cant, Michael A.; Bolton, Alan; Field, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Recent explanations for the evolution of eusociality, focusing more on costs and benefits than relatedness, are largely untested. We validate one such model by showing that helpers in foundress groups of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus benefit from an insurance-based mechanism known as Assured Fitness Returns (AFRs). Experimental helper removals left remaining group members with more offspring than they would normally rear. Reduced groups succeeded in preserving the dead helpers' investment...

  13. Pathophysiological effects caused by the venom of the social wasp Synoeca surinama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro e Silva, Juliana; Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Moreira, Karla Graziela; Mayer, Andreia Biolchi; Freire, Daniel Oliveira; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelas; Gomes de Oliveira Junior, Nelson; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2016-04-01

    Envenomation by wasp stings is a public health preoccupation, and signals after stings have variable effects depending on the number of attacks and individual sensitivities. Even with the high rate of wasp sting cases, the study of phatophysiological effects of the envenomation is still very incipient. In this context, early and accurate assessment of this prognostic can aid in the reduction of the symptomatology and complete remission of the later symptoms. Then, the present study evaluated the toxicological effects caused by envenomation produced by Synoeca surinama, a wasp easily found in Neotropical regions. In vivo tests comprised the evaluation of LD50 (OECD 423), nociception, edema, myotoxic lesion and hemorrhage induction, in vitro tests were realized to evaluate hemolysis, contractile and coagulation alteration. The envenomation effects observed were dose- and time-dependent; the LD50 observed for S. surinama was 178 μg/kg, approximately 17 times more lethal than that of the honeybee. Moreover, a potent algesic and oedema effect, and weak hemorrhagic signal were observed after injection of the venom wasp. Assays in vitro showed that this venom is able to prolong the clotting time of plasma and to increase creatine kinase levels. Our results demonstrated that this venom induced serious local and systemic effects in mammals and, so, to avoid permanent damage to the patient, health professionals should carefully investigate each accident. Moreover, due to its high occurrence in Neotropical regions, ecological management, particularly in areas with free access of children and elderly, should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  15. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  16. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  17. Invasive Vespula Wasps Utilize Kairomones to Exploit Honeydew Produced by Sooty Scale Insects, Ultracoelostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Unelius, C Rikard; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Suckling, David M

    2015-11-01

    Vespula wasps are widely distributed invasive alien species that are able to reach high population densities in the 1.2 M ha of beech forests (Fuscospora spp.) of New Zealand's South Island. These endemic temperate forests have an abundance of carbohydrate-rich honeydew produced by native scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp.). A characteristic aroma is associated with the honeydew in beech forests, which we hypothesized is the signal used by wasps to harvest the vast resources previously exploited by birds and other insects. Volatile collections were taken of black beech tree trunks with honeydew and sooty mold present, and analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Eleven compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, methyl 2-phenylacetate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, methyl salicylate, n-octanol, octan-3-ol, and 1-octen-3-ol) were positively identified from the headspace, and were shown to elicit an electrophysiological response from Vespula vulgaris worker antennae by using electroantennography (EAG). Field trials with delta traps individually baited with these compounds confirmed wasp attraction to 8 of the 11 compounds tested, with 2-phenylethyl acetate, methyl salicylate, and octan-3-ol capturing the same numbers of wasps as the control. In later trials, attraction to a 1:1 blend of benzaldehyde and n-octanol was significantly higher (45%) than to any other treatment. Many of the chemicals identified are known to be associated with fermenting sugars, or with fungal aroma. Benzaldehyde and n-octanol are common compounds produced by many different species in nature. The ability to respond to generic signals emanating from sugar resources is likely to contribute to the success of V. vulgaris as an invasive species.

  18. Nature's Swiss Army knives: ovipositor structure mirrors ecology in a multitrophic fig wasp community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Ghara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resource partitioning is facilitated by adaptations along niche dimensions that range from morphology to behaviour. The exploitation of hidden resources may require specially adapted morphological or sensory tools for resource location and utilisation. Differences in tool diversity and complexity can determine not only how many species can utilize these hidden resources but also how they do so. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sclerotisation, gross morphology and ultrastructure of the ovipositors of a seven-member community of parasitic wasps comprising of gallers and parasitoids developing within the globular syconia (closed inflorescences of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae was investigated. These wasps also differ in their parasitism mode (external versus internal oviposition and their timing of oviposition into the expanding syconium during its development. The number and diversity of sensilla, as well as ovipositor teeth, increased from internally ovipositing to externally ovipositing species and from gallers to parasitoids. The extent of sclerotisation of the ovipositor tip matched the force required to penetrate the syconium at the time of oviposition of each species. The internally ovipositing pollinator had only one type of sensillum and a single notch on the ovipositor tip. Externally ovipositing species had multiple sensilla types and teeth on their ovipositors. Chemosensilla were most concentrated at ovipositor tips while mechanoreceptors were more widely distributed, facilitating the precise location of hidden hosts in these wasps which lack larval host-seeking behaviour. Ovipositor traits of one parasitoid differed from those of its syntopic galler congeners and clustered with those of parasitoids within a different wasp subfamily. Thus ovipositor tools can show lability based on adaptive necessity, and are not constrained by phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ovipositor structure mirrored the increasingly complex

  19. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  20. Use of molecular identification techniques for the study of parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. A three-year monitoring of the indigenous parasitoids of this pest was performed by collecting specimens inside the galls. Each specimen was processed by molecular analysis. DNA was analysed by amplification and sequencing of the COI gene, coding for cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1. Each sequence was compared with reference sequences from adults sampled i...

  1. Sustainable control of taro beetles via scoliid wasps\\ud and Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear o...

  2. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  3. Nanomorphology of the blue iridescent wings of a giant tropical wasp, ''Megascolia procer javanensis'' (Hymenoptera)

    CERN Document Server

    Sarrazin, Michael; Welch, Victoria; Rassart, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The wings of the giant wasp ''Megascolia Procer Javanensis'' are opaque and iridescent. The origin of the blue-green iridescence is studied in detail, using reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and physical modelling. It is shown that the structure responsible for the iridescence is a single homogeneous transparent wax layer covering the whole surface of each wing. The opacity is essentially due to the presence of melanin in the stratified medium which forms the mechanical core of the wing.

  4. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  5. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  6. Empowering Water Quality Management in Lamtakhong River Basin, Thailand Using WASP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nares Chuersuwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at empowering local authorities on water quality management in the Lamtakhong river basin, Thailand with the assist of a water quality model, namely Water quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP. Organic overcapacity and consequent dissolved oxygen depletion was recently the primary water quality issue of the river. WASP was successfully calibrated and validated using collected monthly hydrologic and water quality data from the year 2008 to 2009. The model was found to be capable of capturing variation and predicting the concentrations of dissolved oxygen for the river system. With the aid of the WASP simulation model, it was demonstrated that “business-as-usual” will seriously impact water quality in the future, causing dissolved oxygen levels to approach zero in some areas downstream. The model results were used in local communities hearing campaign in upstream, middle-stream and downstream communities to raise public awareness. Consensus was reach that household pollution reduction was needed and 5% should be a starting point. Pollution reduction of 5-20% will help improve water quality somewhat. However, a substantial 50% reduction in pollution would considerably improve the water quality of the river.

  7. Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code and Application to WASP-43b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Bowman, Oliver; Rojo, Patricio; Stemm, Madison; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Challener, Ryan; Foster, Austin James; Foster, Andrew S.; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Bruce, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new open-source Bayesian radiative-transfer framework, Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART, https://github.com/exosports/BART), and its application to WASP-43b. BART initializes a model for the atmospheric retrieval calculation, generates thousands of theoretical model spectra using parametrized pressure and temperature profiles and line-by-line radiative-transfer calculation, and employs a statistical package to compare the models with the observations. It consists of three self-sufficient modules available to the community under the reproducible-research license, the Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances module (TEA, https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA, Blecic et al. 2015}, the radiative-transfer module (Transit, https://github.com/exosports/transit), and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module (MCcubed, https://github.com/pcubillos/MCcubed, Cubillos et al. 2015). We applied BART on all available WASP-43b secondary eclipse data from the space- and ground-based observations constraining the temperature-pressure profile and molecular abundances of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  8. Departure from the constant-period ephemeris for the transiting exoplanet WASP-12 b

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, G; Fernández, M; Sota, A; Nowak, G; Ohlert, J; Nikolov, G; Bukowiecki, Ł; Hinse, T C; Pallé, E; Tingley, B; Kjurkchieva, D; Lee, J W; Lee, C -U

    2016-01-01

    Most hot Jupiters are expected to spiral in towards their host stars due to transfering of the angular momentum of the orbital motion to the stellar spin. Their orbits can also precess due to planet-star interactions. Calculations show that both effects could be detected for the very-hot exoplanet WASP-12 b using the method of precise transit timing over a timespan of the order of 10 yr. We acquired new precise light curves for 29 transits of WASP-12 b, spannning 4 observing seasons from November 2012 to February 2016. New mid-transit times, together with literature ones, were used to refine the transit ephemeris and analyse the timing residuals. We find that the transit times of WASP-12 b do not follow a linear ephemeris with a 5 sigma confidence level. They may be approximated with a quadratic ephemeris that gives a rate of change in the orbital period of -2.56 +/- 0.40 x 10^{-2} s/yr. The tidal quality parameter of the host star was found to be equal to 2.5 x 10^5 that is comparable to theoretical predicti...

  9. Deciphering the Atmospheric Composition of WASP-12b: A Comprehensive Analysis of its Dayside Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ~1" from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously-unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 microns. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent ...

  10. Antimycobacterial Activity of a New Peptide Polydim-I Isolated from Neotropical Social Wasp Polybia dimorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Rogerio Coutinho; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; de Castro e Silva, Juliana; Simon, Karina Smidt; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Mortari, Marcia Renata; Kipnis, Andre; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense, a rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) that is becoming increasingly important among human infectious diseases, is virulent and pathogenic and presents intrinsic resistance to several antimicrobial drugs that might hamper their elimination. Therefore, the identification of new drugs to improve the current treatment or lower the risk of inducing resistance is urgently needed. Wasp venom primarily comprises peptides that are responsible for most of the biological activities in this poison. Here, a novel peptide Polydim-I, from Polybia dimorpha Neotropical wasp, was explored as an antimycobacterial agent. Polydim-I provoked cell wall disruption and exhibited non-cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. Polydim-I treatment of macrophages infected with different M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains reduced 40 to 50% of the bacterial load. Additionally, the Polydim-I treatment of highly susceptible mice intravenously infected with M. abscessus subsp. massiliense induced 0.8 to 1 log reduction of the bacterial load in the lungs, spleen, and liver. In conclusion, this is the first study to show the therapeutic potential of a peptide derived from wasp venom in treating mycobacteria infections. Polydim-I acts on the M. abscessus subsp. massiliense cell wall and reduce 40–90% of the bacterial load both in vitro and in vivo. The presented results encourage further studies on the use of Polydim-I as one of the components for M. abscessus subsp. massiliense treatment. PMID:26930596

  11. EFFICASY OF NATURAL POPULATION OF Trichogramma WASPS AGAINST EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural infestation of European corn borer (ECB eggs by Trichogramma wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under field conditions. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia in 2013. The experiment included two levels of irrigations, two nitrogen rates and two maize genotypes. Parameters of ECB feeding activity and maize tolerance (cob mass, tunnel length, number of ECB larvae per plant, as well as number of parasitized ECB eggs by Trihogramma wasps were evaluated. Genotypes were significantly different in terms of tolerance to ECB injury. In treatments with nitrogen fertilization, ECB feeding activity was increased at both nitrogen rates. Agricultural practices did not significantly affect parasitism of ECB eggs by Trichogramma. Correlation between parameters of ECB feeding activity and parasitism by Trichogramma was slight to moderate and not significant. Natural occurrence of Trichogramma wasps were not significantly affected by agricultural practices in maize, and population of these parasitoids was low significantly affect ECB feeding activity.

  12. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bechter, Eric B; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Phillip S; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Montet, Benjamin T; Matthews, Christopher T; Morton, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate the hot Jupiters WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary star of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightness consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. 2011 and Crossfield et al. 2012, into two distinct sources separated by 84.3+/-0.6 mas (21 +/- 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al. 2011, is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3+/-0.5 mas (15+/-1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper-motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18+/-0.02Msun using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well-studied pl...

  13. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Agrawal

    Full Text Available Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  14. WASP-41b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Planet Orbiting a Magnetically Active G8V Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Street, R. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Gillon, M.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05 days orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8 V star (V = 11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the Ca ii H and K ines and photometric variability with a period of 18.4 days and an amplitude of about 1%. We use a new method to show quantitatively that this periodic signal has a low false-alarm probability. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8 Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.92 ± 0.06 MJup, 1.20 ± 0.06 RJup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

  15. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  16. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather, E-mail: khaynes0112@gmail.com [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  17. Observed spectral energy distribution of the thermal emission from the dayside of WASP-46b

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo; Wang, Hongchi; Nikolov, Nikolay; Seemann, Ulf; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We aim to construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) for the emission from the dayside atmosphere of the hot Jupiter WASP-46b and to investigate its energy budget. We observed a secondary eclipse of WASP-46b simultaneously in the g'r'i'z'JHK bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Eclipse depths of the acquired light curves were derived to infer the brightness temperatures at multibands that cover the SED peak. We report the first detection of the thermal emission from the dayside of WASP-46b in the K band at 4.2-sigma level and tentative detections in the H (2.5-sigma) and J (2.3-sigma) bands, with flux ratios of 0.253 +0.063/-0.060%, 0.194 +/- 0.078%, and 0.129 +/- 0.055%, respectively. The derived brightness temperatures (2306 +177/-187K, 2462 +245/-302K, and 2453 +198/-258K, respectively) are consistent with an isothermal temperature profile of 2386K, which is significantly higher than the dayside-averaged equilibrium temperature, indicative of very poor heat redistribution eff...

  18. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  19. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  20. The Curious Case of Elemental Abundance Differences in the Dual Hot Jupiter Hosts WASP-94AB

    CERN Document Server

    Teske, Johanna K; Ramírez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94AB, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ~2700 AU separation suggests their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab's orbit -- misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde -- points towards a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different than that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we ...