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Sample records for wasp hymenoptera vespidae

  1. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

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    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  2. An anocellar polistine wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae from Texas

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    Volker Lohrmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable teratological female of Polistes (Fuscopolistes dorsalis neotropicus Bequaert, 1940 (Vespidae: Polistinae is described and illustrated. The specimen lacks all three external dorsal ocelli but is normally developed in almost every other aspect. Additionally, similar findings in other Hymenoptera are briefly discussed, as are the consequences and the reasons that might cause the random loss of ocelli.

  3. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  4. Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae).

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    Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zai-Fu; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (GenBank accession no. KR703583) was sequenced in the study. It represents the first mitochondrial genome from the genus Vespula. There are totally 163 42 bp in the currently sequenced portion of the genome, containing 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 18 tRNA genes and a partial A + T-rich region. Four tRNA genes of trnI, trnQ, trnM and trnY located at the downstream of the A + T-rich region were failed to sequence. At least two rearrangement events occurred in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects, corresponding to the translocation or remote inversion of tnnY from trnW-trnC-trnY cluster to the region of trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster and translocation of trnL1 from the downstream to the upstream of nad1 gene. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Twelve and one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Vespidae and Formicidae. Within the Formicidae, the Myrmicinae and Formicinae form a sister group and then sister to the Dolichoderinae, while within the Vespidae, the Eumeninae sister to the lineage of Vespinae + Polistinae.

  6. Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Sarah; Sann, Manuela; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigate...... studies on species of the family Vespidae, including their genomes, life styles, evolution of sociality, and co-evolution with other organisms....

  7. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  8. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitismo de colônias da vespa social Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 por fêmeas de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 foram registrados em uma área rural no município de Dourados estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no Brasil. Em todos os casos monitorados a invasão ocorreu na fase colonial de pré-emergência, e em geral foi executado por uma única fêmea de M. consimilis. O período de estabelecimento da fêmea estrangeira na colônia hospedeira foi marcado por comportamentos antagônicos entre as fêmeas interespecíficas. Em geral, a arquitetura do ninho parasitado foi modificada em relação à arquitetura típica do ninho da espécie hospedeira.

  9. Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

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    Stahlhut, J K; Cowan, D P

    2004-03-01

    The Hymenoptera have arrhenotokous haplodiploidy in which males normally develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, while females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Multiple sex determination systems are known to underlie haplodiploidy, and the best understood is single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) in which sex is determined at a single polymorphic locus. Individuals heterozygous at the sex locus develop as females; individuals that are hemizygous (haploid) or homozygous (diploid) at the sex locus develop as males. sl-CSD can be detected with inbreeding experiments that produce diploid males in predictable proportions as well as sex ratio shifts due to diploid male production. This sex determination system is considered incompatible with inbreeding because the ensuing increase in homozygosity increases the production of diploid males that are inviable or infertile, imposing a high cost on matings between close relatives. However, in the solitary hunting wasp Euodynerus foraminatus, a species suspected of having sl-CSD, inbreeding may be common due to a high incidence of sibling matings at natal nests. In laboratory crosses with E. foraminatus, we find that sex ratios and diploid male production (detected as microsatellite heterozygosity) are consistent with sl-CSD, but not with other sex determination systems. This is the first documented example of sl-CSD in a hymenopteran with an apparent natural history of inbreeding, and thus presents a paradox for our understanding of hymenopteran genetics.

  10. De urntjeswesp Eumenes coronatus zoekt het hogerop (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

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    Smit, J.

    2005-01-01

    The potter wasp Eumenes coronatus on the move (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) The first record of Eumenus coronatus in the Netherlands dates back from 1954. After that the species was not recorded until 1988. Since then many specimens were collected in the southern part of the country. In 2004 a female was

  11. Comparison of three liquid lures for trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

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    Wegner, Gerald S; Jordan, Kyle K

    2005-06-01

    Two citrus-based sodas and a known wasp attractant were compared in a field trial to assess their attractiveness to local nuisance wasp species. The wasps captured included Vespula germanica (F.), Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), Vespula vulgaris (L.), Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, Vespula squamosa (Drury), Dolichovespula maculata (L.), Polistes fuscatus (L.), Polistes metricus Say, and Polistes dominulus (Christ). Wasps in the genus Vespula were present in significantly higher numbers in traps than Dolichovespula and Polistes. Both citrus soda products were superior to the isobutanol-acetic acid mixture as attractants for almost all of the wasp species.

  12. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

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    Tshering Nidup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  13. Mouthpart dimorphism in male and female wasps of Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica (Vespidae, Hymenoptera

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    Bianca Baranek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social wasps perform a variety of tasks with their mouthparts. Female workers use them to feed on carbohydrate-rich fluids, to build nests by collecting wood fibers and forming paper, to hunt and manipulate insect prey for feeding larvae as well as for brood care. Since male wasps neither feed on insects nor participate in nest building, sex-specific differences in mouthpart morphology are expected. Despite these different applications, general mouthpart morphology of male and female wasps from the genus Vespula was similar. However, males possessed significantly shorter mandibles with fewer teeth than females. Furthermore, the adductor muscles of the mandibles were distinctly smaller in males than in females. Male wasps showed a higher number of sensilla on the mandibles and the labial palpi. Mouthpart dimorphism and functional morphology of fluid uptake are discussed.

  14. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

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    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  15. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

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    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid.

  16. Control experiments with yellow jacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) injuring cattle in Israel.

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    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Yeruham, I; Kolsky, O; Saran, A

    1998-04-01

    Injuries caused by the German yellow jacket Vespula germanica F. to dry and lactating dairy cows (Bos tourus) in 5 herds in Israel were monitored and adversely affected < or = 65% of the cows. Elimination of large alternative protein sources (placentas, sewage containing milk from the milking parlor), and prebaiting with high-quality minced meat (or fish) in adequate numbers of baiting cages around the dairy farm for several days, are necessary for successful control. Significant control was achieved after a shorter period of time when the dairy farm was surrounded by a smaller area of uncultivated land than by a larger area. At some dairy farms there were significant differences among numbers of wasps visiting the various cage sites and significant variability between baiting days. Efficient and significant control was achieved by minced meat bait containing 1.5% acephate (orthene) and 2% microencapsulated diazinon (Antikan). Wasps were totally repelled by minced meat bait containing 2.25% of a plant-derived bioinsecticide derived from Meliaceae (Ag1000). The potential of using Ag 1000 for repelling yellow jackets from teats and udders of dairy cows is discussed.

  17. Actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity isolated from paper wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) nests.

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    Madden, Anne A; Grassetti, Andrew; Soriano, Jonathan-Andrew N; Starks, Philip T

    2013-08-01

    Actinomycetes-a group of antimicrobial producing bacteria-have been successfully cultured and characterized from the nest material of diverse arthropods. Some are symbionts that produce antimicrobial chemicals found to protect nest brood and resources from pathogenic microbes. Others have no known fitness relationship with their associated insects, but have been found to produce antimicrobials in vitro. Consequently, insect nest material is being investigated as a new source of novel antimicrobial producing actinomycetes, which could be harnessed for therapeutic potential. To extend studies of actinomycete-insect associations beyond soil-substrate dwelling insects and wood boring excavators, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the actinomycetes within the nests of the paper wasp, Polistes dominulus (Christ). We found that actinomycetes were readily cultured from nest material across multiple invasive P. dominulus populations-including members of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Actinoplanes. Thirty of these isolates were assayed for antimicrobial activity against the challenge bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus subtilis. Sixty percent of isolates inhibited the growth of at least one challenge strain. This study provides the first assessment of bacteria associated with nests of P. dominulus, and the first record of antimicrobial producing actinomycetes isolated from social wasps. We provide a new system to explore nest associated actinomycetes from a ubiquitous and cosmopolitan group of insects.

  18. Activity cycle of the pollen wasp, Trimeria howardi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Southeastern Brasil

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    Maria Rita Mech

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the wasps, the Masarinae are a peculiar subfamily. It is the only group of wasps that provisions brood cells with pollen and nectar. The studied species Trimeria howardi Bertoni, 1911, was until recently abundant in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This paper deals with plant species visited by T. howardi, in relation to the species’ annual cycle of activity, based on periods of nest foundation, flight activity, and development stages of immatures present in the cells. During the study period (five years T. howardi visited four species of plants in two botanical families: Bidens pilosa L.(Asteraceae; Xanthium spinosum L. (Asteraceae; Stylosanthes guianensis (Aulb. Sw. (Leguminosae, and Zornia diphylla (L. Pers. (Leguminosae. Based on the number of visited families, T. howardi can be considered a narrow polylectic species. In general, the species annual activity cycle consists of three phases: Active phase: January to July; Inactive phase: August - September; Active phase: October to December. The annual cycle is bivoltine or multivoltine and the diapause is facultative, because it occurs in a single generation during the year.

  19. A Contribution to Insect Studies in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Vespid Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Batchuluun Buyanjargal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikh Nart Nature Reserve remains poorly studied for invertebrates, especially for vespid wasps. A total of 14 vespid species belonging to seven genera of the subfamily Eumeninae were recorded from diff erent habitats (rocky outcrops, springs, tall vegetation habitats, shrub-lands and short grass steppes in the nature reserve during three-year studies (2015-2017. These species represent 27 percent of the vespid fauna of the desert-steppe zone of Mongolia. We found the highest species richness in areas where water was available (near springs and wells, and the lowest richness in habitats with tall vegetation. Among the diff erent habitat types, vespid species composition was most similar (91% shared species between rocky outcrops and spring habitats. Six vespid species range from Kazakhstan to Mongolian, and one species is sub-endemic to Mongolia. Availability of water sources and nesting sites were possibly the main factors infl uencing the distribution of vespid wasps. It is necessary to conduct comprehensive research into the insect community of Ikh Nart Nature Reserve.

  20. Structure of ovarioles in adult queens and workers of the common wasp, Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

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    Jabłońska, A; Biliński, S M

    2001-01-01

    The ovaries of the common wasp, Vespula germanica are polytrophic-meroistic and consist of 2-3 (workers) or 7 (queens) ovarioles. The ovarioles are differentiated into three regions: a terminal filament, a germarium, and a vitellarium. The germaria of both castes consist of two zones: an anterior zone of germ-cell cluster formation and a posterior one of germ-cell cluster differentiation. The vitellaria comprise 4-6 (workers) or 7-10 (queens) ovarian follicles (egg chambers). Each chamber consists of an oocyte and about 60 isodiametric nurse cells (trophocytes). The egg chambers have been arbitrarily classified into four developmental categories: early and late previtellogenic, vitellogenic, and choriogenic. The process of oogenesis in workers proceeds only up to the onset of the late previtellogenesis. Neither vitellogenic nor choriogenic egg chambers were observed in this caste. During early and late previtellogenesis the envelope of the oocyte nucleus proliferates and becomes highly folded. This process leads to the formation of characteristic organelles, termed accessory nuclei (AN). Although AN arise in the oocytes of both queens and workers, their number in the latter caste is always considerably lower. At the onset of the late previtellogenesis AN start to migrate towards the periphery of the oocyte where they reside till the end of oogenesis. The physiological state of the worker ovaries is discussed in the light of the presented results.

  1. Phylogeny of wasps of the genus Mischocyttarus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Filogenia das vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis is presented of subgenera and species-groups of Mischocyttarus de Saussure, the largest genus of social wasps. The analysis is based on 62 morphological and nest architecture characters, coded for 71 terminals representing much of the taxonomic diversity within the genus, plus three outgroup terminals representing other polistine tribes. The main conclusions about phylogenetic relationships within the genus are based on parsimony analysis under implied weights. Monophyly of Mischocyttarus is confirmed as well as that of most of the previously recognized subgenera: Mischocyttarus s. str., Clypeopolybia, Monogynoecus, Scytokeraia, Phi, Kappa, Megacanthopus and Omega sensu Richards (1978. Haplometrobius as conceived by Richards (1978 is not a monophyletic taxon, but some of its species-groups are monophyletic. The groups of M.artifex and M.cerberus are raised to subgenus level, and a new concept of Haplometrobius restricts it to the group of M.iheringi (the type species of this subgenus in the sense of this work. The concept of subgenus Omega is widened to include the species-groups of M.surinamensis and M.prominulus. Besides the new subgeneric classification presented, limits and diagnoses of all species-groups of the subgenera Phi and Haplometrobius sensu Richards (1978 are discussed, and a new key for all subgenera and species-groups of Mischocyttarus is also presented.O artigo apresenta um estudo filogenético dos subgêneros e grupos de espécies de Mischocyttarus de Saussure, o maior dos gêneros de vespas sociais. A análise é baseada em 62 caracteres morfológicos e de arquitetura de ninhos, codificados para 71 terminais representantes da diversidade taxonômica do gênero e mais três terminais correspondentes às outras três tribos de Polistinae. As conclusões principais sobre relações filogenéticas são extraídas de análises usando pesagem implícita de caracteres. O monofiletismo de Mischocyttarus

  2. Social wasp species of Mischocyttarus (Phi related to M. alfkenii (Ducke and M. paraguayensis Zikán (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social wasp species of Mischocyttarus (Phi related to M. alfkenii (Ducke and M. paraguayensis Zikán (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae. A revision of the taxonomic status and an identification key are presented for species of the genus Mischocyttarus related to M. alfkenii (Ducke and M. paraguayensis Zikán. Seven new species are proposed in the alfkenii and basimacula groups (M. achagua sp. nov.; M. arawak sp. nov.; M. awa sp. nov.; M. embera sp. nov.; M. muisca sp. nov.; M. uniformis sp. nov.; M. waunan sp. nov., with five new synonymies [M. mamirauae Raw = M. alfkenii (Ducke; M. alfkenii excrucians Richards = M. flavicornis nigricornis Zikán = M. flavicornis Zikán; M. basimacula superpictus Richards = M. basimacula (Cameron]. Specific status is also newly recognized for M. trinitatis Richards. Two new species are described in the paraguayensis and bahiae group (M. suzannae sp. nov.; M. tayacaja sp. nov., while fifteen new synonymies are proposed (M. aracatubaensis Zikán = M. araujoi Zikán = M. costalimai Zikán = M. gilvus Zikán = M. infrastrigatoides Zikán = M. infrastrigatus Zikán = M. infrastrigatus Zikán = M. ornatulus Zikán = M. riograndensis Richards = M. rivulorum Richards = M. schrottkyi Zikán = M. scitulus Zikán = M. similaris Zikán = M. similatus Zikán = M. paraguayensis Zikán. These numbers change the picture of diversity in these species groups, as partly found in Richards's revision, published in 1978, reflecting higher diversity in northern Andean areas than in the Brazilian Atlantic region.

  3. Guia de identificação dos ninhos de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae na Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Identification guide for nests of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespidae sociais utilizam principalmente material vegetal para a elaboração de seus ninhos. Embora existam alguns estudos referentes à fauna de vespas na região Amazônica, nenhum trabalho trata exclusivamente dos ninhos. Além disso, nas coleções biológicas poucos são os ninhos tombados, devido principalmente à fragilidade e difícil conservação dos mesmos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o conhecimento de alguns ninhos encontrados na Reserva Ducke, apresentando informações a respeito dos mesmos e uma chave de identificação dos gêneros. Os ninhos foram coletados através da busca direta, percorrendo os transectos da grade do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade; locais como margens de igarapés, bordas de acampamentos e construções na sede da reserva também foram explorados. Para todos os ninhos obteve-se o registro fotográfico e a localização exata por GPS. Foram registrados 39 ninhos de vespas sociais alocados em 17 espécies de Polistinae: Agelaia constructor, A. pallipes, Angiopolybia pallens, Apoica pallens, Metapolybia unilineata, Mischocyttarus lecointei, M. saturatus, Polybia bistriata, P. dimidiata, P. jurinei, P. liliacea, P. occidentalis, P. procellosa, P. rejecta, Protopolybia bituberculata, P. chartergoides e Synoeca virginea. Cinco ninhos desabitados de Mischocyttarus, Polybia e Polistes também foram coletados.Nests of social wasps are composed mainly out of plant material. Although there are some studies about the social wasp fauna in the Amazon region, there is no work exclusively about these wasps' nests. Also, there are few catalogued nests in biological collections, because of their fragility and difficult conservation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinds of nests found at "Reserva Ducke", compiling information about them and developing a key to identify the nests of each genera. The nests were actively collected in tracks of the "Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade" plot; areas such

  4. Phylogeographic analysis reveals high genetic structure with uniform phenotypes in the paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P. sylveirae in a spatial-temporal framework was performed to investigate: the presence of genetic structure and its relationship with the geography, the evolution of distinct morphologic lineages and the possible historical event(s) in Neotropical region, which could explain the observed phylogeographic pattern. Individuals of P. sylveirae were obtained from populations of 16 areas throughout its distribution for DNA extraction and amplification of mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S and COI. Analysis of genetic diversity, construction of haplotype net, analysis of population structure and dating analysis of divergence time were performed. A morphometric analysis was also performed using 8 measures of the body of the adult (workers) to test if there are morphological distinction among populations. Thirty-five haplotypes were identified, most of them exclusively of a group and a high population structure was found. The possibility of genetic divergence because of isolation by distance was rejected. Morphological analysis pointed to a great uniformity in phenotypes, with only a small degree of differentiation between populations of south and the remaining. Divergence time analysis showed a Middle/Late Miocene origin, a period where an extensive marine ingression occurred in South America. Divergence of haplogroups began from the Plio/Pleistocene boundary

  5. Phylogeographic analysis reveals high genetic structure with uniform phenotypes in the paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marjorie; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; E Castro, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa

    2018-01-01

    Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P. sylveirae in a spatial-temporal framework was performed to investigate: the presence of genetic structure and its relationship with the geography, the evolution of distinct morphologic lineages and the possible historical event(s) in Neotropical region, which could explain the observed phylogeographic pattern. Individuals of P. sylveirae were obtained from populations of 16 areas throughout its distribution for DNA extraction and amplification of mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S and COI. Analysis of genetic diversity, construction of haplotype net, analysis of population structure and dating analysis of divergence time were performed. A morphometric analysis was also performed using 8 measures of the body of the adult (workers) to test if there are morphological distinction among populations. Thirty-five haplotypes were identified, most of them exclusively of a group and a high population structure was found. The possibility of genetic divergence because of isolation by distance was rejected. Morphological analysis pointed to a great uniformity in phenotypes, with only a small degree of differentiation between populations of south and the remaining. Divergence time analysis showed a Middle/Late Miocene origin, a period where an extensive marine ingression occurred in South America. Divergence of haplogroups began from the Plio/Pleistocene boundary

  6. Shape differences rather than size differences between castes in the Neotropical swarm-founding wasp Metapolybia docilis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Epiponini

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    Noll Fernando B

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swarm-founding epiponine wasps are an intriguing group of social insects in which colonies are polygynic (several queens share reproduction and differentiation between castes is often not obvious. However, caste differences in some may be more pronounced in later phases of the colony cycle. Results Using morphometric analyses and multivariate statistics, it was found that caste differences in Metapolybia docilis are slight but more distinct in latter stages of the colony cycle. Conclusions Because differences in body parts are so slight, it is proposed that such variation may be due to differential growth rates of body parts rather than to queens being larger in size, similar to other previously observed epiponines.

  7. Molecular Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Neotropical Swarm-Founding Social Wasp Genus Synoeca (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rodolpho Santos Telles; Brady, Seán Gary; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Del Lama, Marco Antonio; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical Region harbors high biodiversity and many studies on mammals, reptiles, amphibians and avifauna have investigated the causes for this pattern. However, there is a paucity of such studies that focus on Neotropical insect groups. Synoeca de Saussure, 1852 is a Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus with five described species that is broadly and conspicuously distributed throughout the Neotropics. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and historical biogeography of Synoeca species. We also investigate samples of the disjoint populations of S. septentrionalis that occur in both northwestern parts of South America through Central American and the Brazilian Atlantic rainforests. Our results showed that the interspecific relationships for Synoeca could be described as follows: (S. chalibea + S. virginea) + (S. cyanea + (S. septentrionalis/S. surinama)). Notably, samples of S. septentrionalis and S. surinama collected in the Atlantic Forest were interrelated and may be the result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or mitochondrial introgression among them. Our Bayesian divergence dating analysis revealed recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification in Synoeca. Moreover, our biogeographical analysis suggested an Amazonian origin of Synoeca, with three main dispersal events subsequently occurring during the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:25738705

  8. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus Synoeca (Hymenoptera: Vespidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Santos Telles Menezes

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Region harbors high biodiversity and many studies on mammals, reptiles, amphibians and avifauna have investigated the causes for this pattern. However, there is a paucity of such studies that focus on Neotropical insect groups. Synoeca de Saussure, 1852 is a Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus with five described species that is broadly and conspicuously distributed throughout the Neotropics. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and historical biogeography of Synoeca species. We also investigate samples of the disjoint populations of S. septentrionalis that occur in both northwestern parts of South America through Central American and the Brazilian Atlantic rainforests. Our results showed that the interspecific relationships for Synoeca could be described as follows: (S. chalibea + S. virginea + (S. cyanea + (S. septentrionalis/S. surinama. Notably, samples of S. septentrionalis and S. surinama collected in the Atlantic Forest were interrelated and may be the result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or mitochondrial introgression among them. Our Bayesian divergence dating analysis revealed recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification in Synoeca. Moreover, our biogeographical analysis suggested an Amazonian origin of Synoeca, with three main dispersal events subsequently occurring during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  9. Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae

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    Tiago H. Auko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae. New associations of host and parasitoids involving potter wasps: Toxophora leucon and Pleurochrysis sp. were found parasitizing Cyphomenes anisitsii, Chrysis sp. (gr. intricans was found parasitizing Minixi suffusum, Plega beardi was found parasitizing Montezumia pelagica sepulchralis and Macrosiagon sp. was found parasitizing Pachodynerus nasidens.

  10. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M; Hopkins, D C; Schellhorn, N A

    2006-04-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), was introduced into Australia in 1959 and has established throughout southern Australia. In urban environments, V. germanica is frequently a nuisance pest at public gatherings and to homeowners. In native environments, it has the potential to pose a threat to native invertebrates. The current practice for controlling the wasps is nest destruction with pesticide. However, locating the nest(s) is not always practical or possible. Meat baits impregnated with an insecticide that foraging wasps cut and carry back to the nest offer a means of suppressing wasps where the nest sites are unknown. The success of meat baits depends on the attractiveness and acceptance of the meat to the wasp and the mode of action of the insecticide. Our objective was to determine wasp preference and acceptance of five processed meats: canned chicken or fish and freeze-dried chicken, fish, or kangaroo. We found that more wasps visited and took freeze-dried kangaroo and canned chicken than the other baits. Canned and freeze-dried fish were similarly preferred, and freeze-dried chicken was the least attractive and accepted by foraging wasps. Our findings demonstrate that wasps prefer some processed meats and hence take more loads back to the nest. By combining a suitable insecticide with a meat bait preferred by wasps, the likelihood of effective suppression of nuisance wasp populations should be increased.

  11. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  12. Biodiversity of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae at Altitudes Above 1600 Meters in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marcos Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. O Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio é a maior Unidade de Conservação do sul de Minas Gerais, com áreas de Mata Atlântica, floresta de Araucária e Campos de Altitude. Apesar da importância biológica da área, muitos grupos animais não foram estudados, como as vespas sociais, insetos que pertencem à ordem Hymenoptera, família Vespidae, e que desempenham importante papel ecológico em diferentes ecossistemas. O estudo foi conduzido nessa Unidade de Conservação em altitudes entre 1600 a 2200 m, no período de julho de 2013 a abril de 2014, durante vinte dias de amostragem, utilizando busca ativa e armadilhas atrativas para registro das espécies. Foram amostradas 22 espécies de vespas sociais distribuídas em sete gêneros. Número menor em relação a outros estudos do estado, o que, provavelmente, foi ocasionado pela elevada altitude. Houve uma predominância de ninhos com invólucro protetor e a espécie mais frequente foi Polybia fastidiosuscula Saussure, o que pode ser explicado pela melhor regulação térmica obtida pelo invólucro. Outras duas espécies frequentes foram Mischocyttarus drewseni Saussure e Mischocyttarus rotundicolis (Cameron que possuem ninhos sem invólucro, porém essas espécies possuem coloração escura, assim como o substrato utilizado para nidificação e isso poderia reter melhor a radiação solar. Contudo outros fatores bióticos e abióticos podem estar envolvidos.

  13. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I.; Corley, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded ? 35 yrs earlier ? by another wasp, Vespula germanica. Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion proc...

  14. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I; Corley, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded - 35 yrs earlier - by another wasp, Vespula germanica Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion process of V. vulgaris wasps in Patagonia by focusing on the foraging interaction between both species. This is because food searching and exploitation are likely to overlap strongly among Vespula wasps. We carried out choice tests where two types of baits were presented in a pairwise manner. We found experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that V. germanica and V. vulgaris have an asymmetrical response to baits with stimuli simulating the presence of each other. V. germanica avoided baits with either visual or olfactory cues indicating the V. vulgaris presence. However, V. vulgaris showed no preference between baits with or lacking V. germanica stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of an established population of V. germanica may not contribute to added biotic resistance to V. vulgaris invasion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Odour-mediated foraging by yellowjacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): predation on leks of pheromone-calling Mediterranean fruit fly males (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, J; Katsoyannos, B I; Wornoayporn, V; Hendrichs, M A

    1994-09-01

    Predation is probably the most important male mortality factor in insect species with courtship displays that render males performing them conspicuous targets of predators. Sexually active Mediterranean fruit fly males, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), aggregate in leks, where they participate in agonistic encounters and engage in visual, acoustic and pheromone-calling displays to attract receptive females. The objective of this study was to assess: a) whether sexually displaying C. capitata males in leks inside host and non-host foliage are subject to predation by the most prominent predators yellow-jacket wasps, Vespula germanica (F.), and if so, b) whether olfactory, visual or auditive stimuli are used by foraging wasps in locating male C. capitata prey. Studies were carried out in a citrus orchard and surroundings on the island of Chios, Greece. Observations were conducted using perforated containers hung within mulberry, fig or citrus foliage. Living C. capitata flies of different sex and either mature or immature were placed inside. Our results show that the yellowjacket wasps have learned to associate the presence of sexually active medfly males aggregated in leks with their prey's pheromone (kairomone). Foraging wasps, flying through the crowns of host trees, responded to the odour source of C. capitata male pheromone by approaching from downwind. Even inside dense citrus tree foliage, wasps keyed in on aggregations of pheromone-calling males using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli of visual and acoustic male signalling were only used at close range, after having followed the pheromone plume close to its source. Visual cues played a greater role in directing wasp foraging under more open and exposed host foliage conditions. Odour-based foraging of wasps inside host foliage in the mid-morning hours, when medfly male lekking activities peak, shifted gradually to a more visual-based host fruit patrolling in the afternoons to capture ovipositing and feeding medfly females

  16. Notes on social wasps of the group of Mischocyttarus(Omega punctatus (Ducke, with description of six new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA revision of the taxonomic status and an identification key for wasp species of the genus Mischocyttarus related to M. punctatus (Ducke, 1904 are presented here. Six new species are proposed (M. tayrona Silveira sp. nov.; M. anchicaya Silveira sp. nov.; M. caxiuana Silveira sp. nov.; M. verissimoi Silveira sp. nov.; M. rodriguesi Silveira sp. nov.; M. ryani Silveira sp. nov., raising to nine the number of species in the M. punctatus group. The highest diversity of the group concentrates in northern South America, in Andean areas and Amazonia. New information concerning the very peculiar nests of these wasps is also given.

  17. List of the primary types of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) deposited in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, and the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kojima, J.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary types of social wasp subfamilies Vespinae, Polistinae and Stenogastrinae housed in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum in Leiden and the Zoölogisch Museum in Amsterdam are listed. Their complete label data are given unless they are available elsewhere. Lectotypes of Polistes snelleni

  18. Record of postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical social wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer (Hymenoptera, Vespidae on pig carcasses in the Eastern Amazon region: implications in forensic taphonomy

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    Rodrigo R. Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPostmortem injuries are a source of misinterpretations in forensic analysis and therefore are subject matter of taphonomic interest. Many types of injuries can cause different artifacts, which deserve attention of the forensic pathologists when evaluating corpses, either at the crime scene or during an autopsy. Insects can be important biotaphonomic agents and their activity may result in artifacts that resemble antemortem injuries. Here, we describe postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer, 1773 on domestic pig carcasses weighting 15 kg. The specimens showed extensive injuries to the lower lip, similar to lacerations, and some minor lesions on the snout and anus. In addition, we observed the same wasp species preying on larvae of Sarcophagidae (Peckia sp.. Besides causing postmortem injuries, the ability of this species to detect carcasses in the early and fresh decomposition stages should be noted. Thus, future applications aiming criminal, any biotaphonomic events caused by carrion insects need to be disclosed.

  19. Space-time variation in the composition, richness and abundance of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in a forest-agriculture mosaic in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ricardo Pablo Klein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wasps, important agents for the control of insect population, have been scantily studied in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. Current study investigates monthly variations of social wasps in microhabitats within a forest-agriculture mosaic. Samples were collected between February 2013 and February 2014, through active search and baited traps made from 2 L transparent PET bottles, in five microhabitats, namely, forest, monoculture, polyculture and the edges between the forest fragment and monoculture and polyculture, in the municipality of Doutor Maurício Cardoso. Statistical tests, similarity indices, dominance and constancy as well as PCoA were used for data analysis to group the collection. A total of 953 specimens were collected, distributed across 15 species and seven genera. Abundance differed between microhabitats and the monoculture cultivation was least similar to the other microhabitats. PCoA identified three different groups. Abundance was positively correlated with temperature, negatively correlated with air humidity and was not correlated with wind velocity. Social wasps are able to utilize resources outside the forest fragments, but monocultures may create barriers for their dispersal.

  20. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.

  1. Additions to the Knowledge of the Genus Phimenes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

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    Lien Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solitary wasp genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae was reported to occur in Vietnam by van der Vecht (1959, represented by one taxon, Phimenes flavopictus continentalis (Zimmermann, which was synonymized under nominotypical Phimenes flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849 by Kumar (2013. A note on gender of this genus is made in the text. One more species, Phimenes indosinensis (van der Vecht, 1959 is recorded in this study from Dak Lak in the southern and Son La in the northwestern parts of Vietnam for the first time. Detailed descriptions of the female and male of the latter are provided with figures. A key to the two species from Vietnam is also provided.

  2. Evidence for sex pheromones and inbreeding avoidance in select North America yellowjacket species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the roles of sex pheromones in mate-finding behavior of social wasps (Vespidae). Working with the aerial yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria (Fabricius), baldfaced hornet, D. maculata (L.), western yellowjacket, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), southern yellowjacket, V. squam...

  3. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  4. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As vespas integram a comunidade de visitantes florais e podem constituir uma parcela representativa dos polinizadores. Por este motivo, objetivou-se conhecer e analisar a preferência floral das espécies de Vespidae, bem como investigar o uso de recursos florais por estas vespas. Foram realizadas coletas entre o período de 2001 a 2008 em diferentes localidades do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu, entre 08:00 a 17:00 horas, utilizando redes entomológicas para a captura dos vespídeos visitando flores. Os espécimes coletados foram depositados na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. Coletou-se 1.483 indivíduos alocados em 73 espécies de vespas, sendo que 78,9% são Polistinae (30 espécies e 21,1% Eumeninae (43 espécies, visitando as flores de 33 espécies de plantas classificadas em 16 famílias botânicas; as famílias com maior número de espécies vegetais foram Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 e Apiaceae (3. A planta com o maior número de vespídeos coletados foi Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, seguida por Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 e Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. A análise da sobreposição de nicho trófico de 26 espécies que visitaram quatro ou mais floração, mostrou que a sobreposição foi igual ou maior que 50% em apenas seis casos.Floral Preferences of Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in the Rio Grande do Sul State, BrazilAbstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the

  5. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile

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    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.

  6. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

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    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  7. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  8. Utilização de frutos de cactos (Cactaceae como recurso alimentar por vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae em uma área de caatinga (Ipirá, Bahia, Brasil The use of cactus fruit food resources by social wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in an area of Caatinga (lpirá, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M. M. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as espécies utilizadas como recurso alimentar e descrever os padrões locais de utilização de frutos de cactos como recurso alimentar por vespas sociais em uma área de Caatinga. Novecentos e oito indivíduos de nove espécies de vespas foram capturados visitando seis espécies de cactáceas. Cereus jamacaru DC. e Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & G.D foram as cactáceas mais utilizadas por vespas sociais, tanto em número de espécies quanto de indivíduos. Polybia paulista von Ihering, 1896, Polybia ignobilis (Haliday, 1836, Polistes versicolor (Olivier, 1791, Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Polistes billardieri Fabricius, 1804, Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758, Polybia occidentalis (Olivier, 1791 e Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1705 apresentaram as maiores amplitudes de nicho trófico. As maiores sobreposições no nicho trófico foram observadas entre Mischocyttarus lanei Zikán, 1949 e Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951 (0,83. Os altos níveis de sobreposição de nichos observados são explicados em função do comportamento generalista das vespas sociais, bem como da exploração intensiva de poucas espécies de cactáceas.This study aims to identify food resource plants used by social wasp species in a Caatinga area, as well as describe the local patterns of cactus fruit resources used by wasps. Nine hundreds and eight foraging wasps, belonging to nine species, were captured while visiting six cactus species. Cereus jamacaru DC. and Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & G.D. were the most frequently visited plants. Several wasp species and a great number of individuals visited them. Polybia paulista von Ihering, 1896, Polybia ignobilis (Haliday, 1836, Polistes versicolor (Olivier, 1791, Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Polistes billardieri Fabricius, 1804, Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758, Polybia occidentalis (Olivier, 1791 and Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1705 had the larger trophic

  9. A catalogue of the genera of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.; Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive generic catalogue of the Vespidae is presented. New nomenclatural changes include synonymy of Alastoroides Saussure, 1856, with Paralastor Saussure 1856; Araucodynerus Willink, 1968, with Hypodynerus Saussure 1855; and Paranortonia Bequaert, 1940, with Parazumia Saussure, 1855.

  10. Brewer’s Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. PMID:28922898

  11. Brewer's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae Variação na diversidade de vespas sociais em escala local numa floresta pluvial amazônica em Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.Vespas sociais são importantes nos ecossistemas neotropicais pela abundância e diversidade. A maioria dos inventários recentes não têm dedicado atenção aos atributos espaciais dos espécimes coletados. Dados espaciais são importantes para estudar e mitigar impactos sobre ecossistemas naturais e proteger espécies. Este artigo descreve e

  13. Successful removal of German yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) by toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, P; Rabinovich, M; Corley, J C

    2001-08-01

    Vespula germanica (F.) is a social vespid that has invaded many parts of the world, including Argentina. This wasp usually becomes a pest, affecting several economic activities. It also may impact the host community through predation or competition. The purpose of our study was to field test toxic baiting for reduction of wasp abundance. Wasps were poisoned with 0.1% fipronil mixed with raw minced beef in two beech forest sites on 20 February 2000 in northwestern Patagonia. All nests (46) within the two 6-ha sites with poisoned bait stations were killed, whereas Malaise traps in those sites captured 81.1% fewer wasps at the end of the season than traps in the two control sites. The average reduction of forager wasps on nontoxic baits was 87%. Fipronil was very effective in controlling wasp numbers, although there are limitations to the method, especially concerning conservation purposes. Toxic baiting can be useful in controlling wasp numbers in honey bee hive yards, farms, and parks.

  14. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the flower-visiting wasps. The collected specimens were deposited at the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. 1.483 specimens were captured belonging to 73 wasp species, whose 78.9% were Polistinae (30 species and 21.1% Eumeninae (43 species, visiting the flowers of 33 plant species classified in 16 botanical families; the families with the larger number of plant species were Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 and Apiaceae (3. The plant species with the largest number of wasps collected was Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, followed by Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 and Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. The analysis of the trophic niche overlap of 26 species with four or more visited plant species, showed an overlap equal or higher than 50% in six cases.

  15. Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this catalogue — entitled "provisional" because our knowledge of the subject is still so evidently incomplete — all species of Ficus mentioned as hosts of fig wasps, are listed with the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea reared from their receptacles. The names used for the Agaonidae are in

  16. Mitochondrial DNA variation in social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J; Moritz, R F

    1990-10-15

    Patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of European Vespinae were more similar within genera than between them. Distance trees were constructed that support the hypothesis of monophyly of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. Within the genus Vespula, V. germanica was more closely related to V. rufa than to V. vulgaris. The position of the genus Vespa remained uncertain due to the precision limits of the RFLP technique.

  17. Attraction of Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) foragers by conspecific heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Adamo, P; Corley, J C; Lozada, M

    2001-08-01

    The socialwasp Vespula germanica (F.) is a serious pest in many regions it has invaded. Control programs to reduce its populations are commonly based on the use of poison baits. These baits also attract nonpestiferous invertebrates and vertebrates. In this work we studied the attraction of V. germanica foragers by conspecific worker squashes, comparing the effect of head and abdomen squashes in wasps behavior. We found that head squashes attract V. germanica foragers, elicit landing and transportation to nests. Furthermore, the addition of squashed heads to a protein bait increased attraction. This could be an alternative to improve baiting programs.

  18. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité Masciocchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus is a social vespid native to the Holarctic region. The first detection of this species in Argentina is here reported. Workers were captured close to San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina during February 2010, while sampling for another successful invader, the German wasp or Yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Fabricius. Both these wasp species are very similar morphologically and share a number of common habits. Also, some identification features and biological characters are here explained.

  19. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  20. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  1. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  2. Sting microsculpture in the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matushkina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sting microsculpture of the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Fabricius, 1781 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae is studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM for the first time. As in many other hymenopterans, the second valvifer of B. rostrata possesses two fields of styloconic sensilla (hair plates of proprioceptive function. The presence of two paired fields of campaniform sensilla on the second valvula and second valvifer is first shown in an apoid wasp. The first and the second valvulae bear scattered sensilla-like structures on the external surface, more numerous apically. The first valvula has two subapical barbs externally and a pair of valvilli on its inner surface, whereas the outer surface of the second valvula is smooth. The third valvula is sclerotized externally, consisting of proximal and distal parts, and bearing four sensilla morphotypes of mechanoreceptive and probably chemoreceptive functions. The inner surface of the valvulae and the membranous cuticle that is touching the sting have microstructures of different shapes directed distally. Functional aspects of characters studied are discussed.

  3. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  4. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  5. Cognitive plasticity in foraging Vespula germanica wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a highly invasive social wasp that exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire in which learning and memory play a fundamental role in foraging. The learning abilities of these wasps were analyzed while relocating a food source and whether V. germanica foragers are capable of discriminating between different orientation patterns and generalizing their choice to a new pattern. Foraging wasps were trained to associate two different stripe orientation patterns with their respective food locations. Their response to a novel configuration that maintained the orientation of one of the learned patterns but differed in other aspects (e.g. width of stripes) was then evaluated. The results support the hypothesis that V. germanica wasps are able to associate a particular oriented pattern with the location of a feeder and to generalize their choice to a new pattern, which differed in quality, but presented the same orientation.

  6. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  7. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  8. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Al-Nakeeb, Kosai Ali Ahmed; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    The Oriental Hornet (Vespa orientalis) is a social insect belonging to the Vespiade family (Wasps, Hornets, Yellowjackets), genus Vespa (true Hornets). The oriental hornet is a scavenger and an agricultural pest, especially to bee farmers, but is also recently described as a harvester of solar...... energy. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F., which may play a vital role in understanding this wasp biology, light trapping and generation of electricity. The mitochondrial genome of this hornet is 16,099 bp in length, containing 13 protein...

  10. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius) improves model fit to predict potential for further spread

    OpenAIRE

    de Villiers, Marelize; Kriticos, Darren J.; Veldtman, Ruan

    2017-01-01

    The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In ...

  11. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in West-Azerbaijan province. The galls occurring on 50 cm sampled branches from four cardinal directions on each tree were counted multiple times throughout the season. Species ...

  12. Epipona media cooper (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), a social wasp new to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Carvalho Filho, Antonio F; Raw, Anthony; Costa, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    An occupied nest of Epipona media Cooper was discovered and collected in a cabruca (cocoa plantation with native tree cover). This is the first record of E. media from Bahia State. We described the nest structure and compared the adults with the closely related species Epipona tatua Cuvier.

  13. Reproductive Status of Females in the Eusocial Wasp Polistes ferreri Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, E R P; Torres, V O; Antonialli-Junior, W F

    2014-12-01

    In the subfamily Polistinae, caste dimorphism is not pronounced and differences among females are primarily physiological and behavioral. We investigated factors that indicate the reproductive status in females of Polistes ferreri Saussure. We analyzed females from nine colonies and evaluated morphometric parameters, ovarian development, occurrence of insemination, relative age, and cuticular chemical profile. The colony females showed three kinds of ovarian development: type A, filamentous ovarioles; type B, ovarioles containing partially developed oocytes; and type C, long and well-developed ovarioles containing two or more mature oocytes. The stepwise discriminant analysis of the cuticular chemical profile showed that it was possible to distinguish the three groups of females: workers 1, workers 2, and queens. However, the stepwise discriminant analysis of the morphological differences did not show significant differences among these groups. The queens were among the older females in the colony and were always inseminated, while the age of the workers varied according to the stage of colony development.

  14. Nesting biology of Paravespa rex (von Schulthess 1924) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in the Crimea, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateryga, Alexander V; Ivanov, Sergey P

    2013-01-01

    Paravespa rex is the only species of the wasp genus Paravespa that occurs in Europe. Females of this species nest in clay loam soil of proluvial terraces and deluvial aprons of badlands. The nests are vertical burrows 10-12 cm deep, surmounted by turrets of two distinct architectural forms: funnel-shaped and curved. The nests contain 1-3 vertical cells (mean-1.9) not different from the other parts of nest burrow. An egg is laid onto the bottom of the cell without attaching; it stands vertically via the moist adhesive surface of the bottom and then with the help of the position of the first prey, which is laid around the egg. The species is univoltine; prepupae hibernate in the cocoon for one or several years. Females hunt for caterpillars of two species of the noctuid genus Heliotis; 3-7 caterpillars (mean-3.7) are stored per cell. Adult feeding is recorded on flowers of Thymus tauricus. Males look for females at their water-collecting sites. Only a third of the cells are successful; the other ones are damaged by rain and the gold wasp, Chrysis valesiana, parasitizing in the nests. Nest-building and hunting activity of the species is described with the duration of certain nesting acts. Nesting biology of Paravespa species, rarity of P. rex, turret function, egg position, and measures for species conservation are discussed.

  15. Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini

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    Keize Nagamati Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies.

  16. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is

  17. Wasps are the cause of an increasing mastitis problem in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Schwimmer, A

    1998-07-01

    The German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) has been observed to injure dairy cows teats, causing lesions which can lead to mastitis. The number of dairy herds in Israel reported to be affected in this way has increased from five prior to 1989 to 32 from 1989 to 1993. Likewise, the geographical distribution of the colonies of these wasps has expanded from the Galilee to the northern Negev. Most cases of mastitis appeared during August and September when the wasps were most active; the predominant organism isolated was Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Apparently the wasps served as a vector in spreading S. dysgalactiae infection in the herds. More adult cows than first-calving cows were affected. The teats of the front quarters were more affected than those of the hind quarters.

  18. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benavides, William; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Chavarría, Juan B

    2009-09-01

    The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC). It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host). We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F citrifolia), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females' sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games.

  19. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  20. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

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    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  1. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia

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    Carlos Restrepo-Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Araneae: Theraphosidae, which were dragged backwards to the nest by the wasp. The nest was excavated before hunting. This is the first description of the behavior of Pepsis montezuma.

  2. Ten unique and charismatic new species of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from North America

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species within four genera of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are described from Canada and United States: Diolcogaster ichiroi, Diolcogaster miamensis, Glyptapanteles pseudotsugae, Microgaster archboldensis, Microgaster syntopic, Microplitis altissimus, Microplitis jorgeluisi, Microplitis juanmanueli, Microplitis julioalbertoi, and Microplitis mariamargaritae. The new taxa are significant because they represent the first North American records of a tropical group (species of the basimacula group in Diolcogaster, exemplify interesting ecological cases (niche-based host selection in Glyptapanteles, syntopic species in Microgaster, and showcase unique morphological features and/or altitudinal records (Microplitis. Most of the new species were collected in protected areas or areas with strong research programs (Archbold Biological Station and hammock forests near Miami, Florida; Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and Mount Evans Wilderness Area, Colorado; Sapelo Island, Georgia; Tonto National Forest, Arizona, and thus are also of value and interest for conservation and research efforts.

  3. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

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    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  4. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo-Giraldo, Carlos; Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Aran...

  5. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

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    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  6. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramírez-Benavides

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC. It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host. We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F. citrifolia, in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females’ sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 605-621. Epub 2009 September 30.

  7. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

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    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  8. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  9. Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Wen-Juan Ma

    Full Text Available An attractive way to improve our understanding of sex determination evolution is to study the underlying mechanisms in closely related species and in a phylogenetic perspective. Hymenopterans are well suited owing to the diverse sex determination mechanisms, including different types of Complementary Sex Determination (CSD and maternal control sex determination. We investigated different types of CSD in four species within the braconid wasp genus Asobara that exhibit diverse life-history traits. Nine to thirteen generations of inbreeding were monitored for diploid male production, brood size, offspring sex ratio, and pupal mortality as indicators for CSD. In addition, simulation models were developed to compare these observations to predicted patterns for multilocus CSD with up to ten loci. The inbreeding regime did not result in diploid male production, decreased brood sizes, substantially increased offspring sex ratios nor in increased pupal mortality. The simulations further allowed us to reject CSD with up to ten loci, which is a strong refutation of the multilocus CSD model. We discuss how the absence of CSD can be reconciled with the variation in life-history traits among Asobara species, and the ramifications for the phylogenetic distribution of sex determination mechanisms in the Hymenoptera.

  10. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Análise do conteúdo do trato digestivo das larvas de Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 é uma vespa social de interesse biológico devido ao seu papel como polinizador e possível agente de controle biológico de pragas sanitárias e agrícolas. O presente estudo analisou o conteúdo do trato digestivo de larvas de P. scutellaris de quatros ninhos em Magdalena (província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. O conteúdo inclui restos animais (partes de artrópodos e vegetais (pólen, epiderme de folhas e frutos. A análise do conteúdo polínico mostrou que as vespas visitaram 19 táxons durante o último período ativo da colônia antes dos ninhos serem coletados. A diversidade de recursos utilizados por P. scutellaris permite caracterizá-la como um visitante generalista de flores. As vespas visitaram plantas nativas e exóticas localizados nas proximidades do ninho. A maioria dos restos de epiderme encontradas no trato digestivo das larvas pertence às Malvaceae, uma família não explorada pelas colônias estudadas como fonte de pólen.

  11. Flower associations and nesting of the pollen wasp Quartinia major Kohl, 1898 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Masarinae in Morocco

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    Volker Mauss

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Females of Quartinia major Kohl were observed to visit flowers of Pulicaria mauritanica Batt., Cladanthus arabicus (L. Cass. and Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., (all Asteroideae Asteraceae at two localities in southern Morocco. Pollen in the provisions of two brood cells was more than 99% Aster-type (Asteroideae, indicating broad oligolecty. During pollen uptake from P. mauritanica, the females of Q. major employed a hitherto undescribed harvesting technique: They used their mouthparts to squeeze pollen from the corolla tubes of early male phase disc florets. Pollen was ingested immediately after it had been extracted. The nest was a multicellular subterranean burrow excavated in friable soil and surmounted by a turret. The nest walls were stabilized with self-generated silk.

  12. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

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    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  13. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remanent

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola, Rafael D.; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Temporal variation of solitary wasps and bees, nesting frequency, mortality, and parasitism were recorded from a remanent forest in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Wasps and bees were collected in trap-nests placed in areas with 25, 100, and 400 m², from February to November 2004. The 137 trap-nests collected contained 11 species of wasps and bees. Wasps occupied most nests (75%). Occupation peaks occurred in March (25%) and September (26%); in June, the lowest occupation (2%) was observed. Excep...

  14. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  15. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remanent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Rafael D; Martins, Rogério P

    2006-01-01

    Temporal variation of solitary wasps and bees, nesting frequency, mortality, and parasitism were recorded from a remanent forest in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Wasps and bees were collected in trap-nests placed in areas with 25, 100, and 400 m2, from February to November 2004. The 137 trap-nests collected contained 11 species of wasps and bees. Wasps occupied most nests (75%). Occupation peaks occurred in March (25%) and September (26%); in June, the lowest occupation (2%) was observed. Except for Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure, no significant correlation was found between number of occupied nests, and temperature and rainfall means. In the nests, 48% of the immature specimens died; 13% of the nests were parasitized. Total death and parasitism rates of wasps and bees differed significantly.

  16. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Temporal polyethism and worker specialization in the wasp, Vespula germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Christine R; Jeanne, Robert L; Nordheim, Erik V

    2007-01-01

    Temporal polyethism is a common mechanism of worker specialization observed in social insect species with large colony sizes, Vespula wasp colonies consist of thousands of monomorphic workers, yet studies based on small cohorts of workers report that temporal polyethism is either weak or completely absent in different Vespula species. Concerned that the small sample size of these studies precluded detection of temporal polyethism, several hundred, known-age Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) workers were studied. High variability was found in the sequence and diversity of tasks workers perform, suggesting that V. germanica colonies exhibit weak temporal polyethism. The most common order in which tasks were taken up was 1) nest work, 2) pulp foraging, 3) carbohydrate foraging, and 4) protein foraging. However, only 61% of the wasps performed more than two of the tasks during their lives. Thorax size had a significant negative effect on the age at first foraging, but the magnitude of the effect was small. The daily ratio of task generalists to specialists was relatively constant despite the high turnover of workers, growth of the colony, and the colony's transition from rearing worker larvae to rearing reproductives. Over the course of their lives, 43% of the workers averaged more than one kind of task performed per day. Life history traits are identified that may explain why vespines with large colonies use a generalist strategy of labor division rather than the specialist strategy observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and large colonies of wasps (Polybia occidentalis).

  18. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

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    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  19. Sexual dimorphism in the parasitoid wasps Aphidius balcanicus, Aphidius rosae, and Aphidius urticae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Starý, Petr; Ivanović, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2014), s. 1027-1032 ISSN 0013-8746 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : geometric morphometric * parasitoid wasp * sexual size dimorphism Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2014

  20. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Parasitoidism of Chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae

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    M. S. Couri

    Full Text Available Philornis Meinert larvae are known as parasites of birds, with coprophagous, semi-hematophagous or hematophagous habits. Biological data of the larvae of the fifty described species are still scarcely known. Here we describe some aspects of the parasitism of a species of Philornis on Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin (Trochilidae and record two species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera parasitoids, Conura annulifera (Walker, 1864 and Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787, reared from Philornis puparia.

  2. Notes on Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) Species Collected by Bait Traps in OrganicVineyard and Orchards of Kemalpaşa (İzmir), Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÜZÜM, Ahu; TANYERİ, Rukiye; GÜLPERÇİN, Nilay; TEZCAN, Serdar; YILDIRIM, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera species collected by bait traps during the months of June-October in organic vineyard and orchards in Kemalpaşa district, (İzmir) of Western Turkey were evaluated in this study. As a result, six species belonging 2007 to two families of Hymenoptera were determined. Those were Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) and Polistes gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767). Amon...

  3. The exotic wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae): first record and damage on the Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius drupes, in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Piña-Rodrigues, Fátima C M; Silva, José M S; Guerreiro, Julio C; Ghiotto, Thaís C; Piotrowski, Ivonir; Dias, Luiz P; Wilcken, Carlos F; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-01-01

    This paper records the first report of Megastigmus transvaalensis Hussey (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) in Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) drupes in Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This wasp is an invasive species and was found damaging S. terebinthifolius drupes in urban areas (35.0 ± 15.8%), natural forests (21.5 ± 10.2%) and restoration areas (15.8 ± 8.4%). The bio-ecology and damage caused by M. transvaalensis in the S. terebinthifolius drupes warrants further study focused upon the management of this phytophagous wasp. Megastigmus transvaalensis has a potential to be disseminated throughout Brazil and is posing a threat to the natural regeneration of S. terebinthifolius in the native forests and restoration areas and ecological regions of this country.

  4. FIRST RECORDS OF THE INVASIVE AMERICAN WASP ISODONTIA MEXICANA (HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ćetković, Aleksandar; Čubrilović, Branka; Plećaš, Milan; Popović, Anđelka; Savić, Dragiša; Stanisavljević, Ljubiša

    2012-01-01

    The first verified occurrences of the invasive American sphecid wasp, Isodontia mexicana (Saussure, 1867), in Serbia are reported. It was first collected from a trap-nest sample in the northern surroundings of Belgrade in 2010. During 2012, we recorded well-established, abundant populations in the central city area of Belgrade, its surroundings, and also at a single site on the Fruška Gora Mt. We briefly review the circumstances and course of its recent eastward and northeastward spreading in...

  5. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  6. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

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    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  7. TRAP-NESTING BEES AND WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, ACULEATA IN A SEMIDECIDUAL SEASONAL FOREST FRAGMENT, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    PRISCILA S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trap-nesting bee and wasp inventories are common in Brazil but many phytophysiognomies are still poorly studied. The main objective of this study is to survey trap-nesting bees and wasps in a Semidecidual Seasonal Forest fragment. Also, we test the differences on nesting between interior and edge transects. A sum of 1,500 trap nests was made with bamboo cane internodes and two consecutive years were monitored. In the first year 46 nests were occupied by Pachodynerus grandis (19 nests, Pachodynerus guadulpensis (19, Centris analis (two, and Centris tarsata, Megachile fiebrigi, Megachile guaranitica, Megachile susurrans, Trypoxylon sp and Zethus smithii with one nest each. No statistical differences were found between interior and edge transects for richness and occupation rate, but the species composition was different. In the second year 39 nests were occupied by four species, three previously recorded, C. analis (seven nests, P. guadulpensis and P. grandis (six nests each, plus Monobia angulosa with 15 nests. Parasitoids from four families and one cleptoparasite were recorded and the mortality rate was higher in bees than in wasps. These findings reinforce the notion that trap nests assemblages from different studies are not directly comparable for richness and composition.

  8. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae.

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    Katharina Weiss

    Full Text Available Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R-(--mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R-(--mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R-(--mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum. We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R-(--mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several

  9. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes?

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    Lucyna Twerd

    Full Text Available Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species.In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages.Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  10. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

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    Daniel S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea, suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny.

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in the Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea

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    Farache Fernando HA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-pollinating Sycophaginae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea form small communities within Urostigma and Sycomorus fig trees. The species show differences in galling habits and exhibit apterous, winged or dimorphic males. The large gall inducers oviposit early in syconium development and lay few eggs; the small gall inducers lay more eggs soon after pollination; the ostiolar gall-inducers enter the syconium to oviposit and the cleptoparasites oviposit in galls induced by other fig wasps. The systematics of the group remains unclear and only one phylogeny based on limited sampling has been published to date. Here we present an expanded phylogeny for sycophagine fig wasps including about 1.5 times the number of described species. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear markers (4.2 kb on 73 species and 145 individuals and conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We then used this phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of Sycophaginae life-history strategies and test if the presence of winged males and small brood size may be correlated. Results The resulting trees are well resolved and strongly supported. With the exception of Apocrytophagus, which is paraphyletic with respect to Sycophaga, all genera are monophyletic. The Sycophaginae are divided into three clades: (i Eukoebelea; (ii Pseudidarnes, Anidarnes and Conidarnes and (iii Apocryptophagus, Sycophaga and Idarnes. The ancestral states for galling habits and male morphology remain ambiguous and our reconstructions show that the two traits are evolutionary labile. Conclusions The three main clades could be considered as tribes and we list some morphological characters that define them. The same biologies re-evolved several times independently, which make Sycophaginae an interesting model to test predictions on what factors will canalize the evolution of a particular biology. The ostiolar gall-inducers are the only monophyletic group. In 15 Myr, they

  12. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A.; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  13. A new mesoserphid wasp from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea

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    Yan Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Mesoserphidae (Hymenoptera, Juraserphus modicus gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a well-preserved fossil specimen from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of northeastern China. It is characterized by the following forewing features: the forking of Rs+M located approximately one-third of the distance between 1m-cu and 2r-rs, both 1cu-a and 2cu-a antefurcal; 1-M more than twice as long as 1m-cu and hind wing with cells r and rm closed. In addition, it has a short ovipositor, only extending slightly beyond the metasomal apex. Its new morphological characters broaden the diversity of Mesoserphidae in the Mesozoic and provide new insights into the evolution and relationships of Mesoserphidae.

  14. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  15. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  16. Classification of endosymbiont Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in opiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muhamad Azmi; Zuki, Ameyra Aman; Yusof, Suhana; Othman, Nurul Wahida; Zain, Badrul Munir Md; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    Endosymbiont Wolbachia has always been a hot topic of discussion among entomologists and microbiologists as it can manipulate the reproductive system of their arthropod hosts. In this study, a total of 10 sequences which consist of concatenate data from three genetic markers of Wolbachia (groEL, gltA, and wsp) were obtained from opiine wasps from five localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Among the 10 sequences, six were isolated from Fopius arisanus, one from F. vandenboschi, and three from Psyttalia sp. SY2013. Based on Neighbour-Joining (NJ) analysis of the concatenate data and genetic distances, four variants of Wolbachia have been successfully identified. Our data thus provide an insight on Wolbachia infections in oriental insects as Wolbachia research is still considered as in early stage in Malaysia.

  17. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nugnes

    Full Text Available The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  18. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed. PMID:25970681

  19. Gene arrangement and sequence of mitochondrial genomes yield insights into the phylogeny and evolution of bees and sphecid wasps (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo-Ying; Cao, Li-Jun; Tang, Pu; van Achterberg, Kees; Hoffmann, Ary A; Chen, Hua-Yan; Chen, Xue-Xin; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2018-07-01

    The Apoidea represent a large and common superfamily of the Hymenoptera including the bees and sphecid wasps. A robust phylogenetic tree is essential to understanding the diversity, taxonomy and evolution of the Apoidea. In this study, features of apoid mitochondrial genomes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. Twelve apoid mitochondrial genomes were newly sequenced, representing six families and nine subfamilies. Gene rearrangement events have occurred in all apoid mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date. Sphecid wasps have both tRNA and protein-coding gene rearrangements in 5 of 8 species. In bees, the only rearranged genes are tRNAs; long-tongued bees (Apidae + Megachilidae) are characterized by movement of trnA to the trnI-trnQ-trnM tRNA cluster. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial gene sequences support the known paraphyly of sphecid wasps, with bees nested within this clade. The Ampulicidae is sister to the remaining Apoidea. Crabronidae is paraphyletic, split into Crabronidae s.s. and Philanthidae, with the latter group a sister clade to bees. The monophyletic bees are either classified into two clades, long-tongued bees (Apidae + Megachilidae) and short-tongued bees (Andrenidae + Halictidae + Colletidae + Melitidae), or three groups with the Melitidae sister to the other bees. Our study showed that both gene sequences and arrangements provide information on the phylogeny of apoid families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R

    2013-04-01

    The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Guia de identificação dos ninhos de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae na Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespidae sociais utilizam principalmente material vegetal para a elaboração de seus ninhos. Embora existam alguns estudos referentes à fauna de vespas na região Amazônica, nenhum trabalho trata exclusivamente dos ninhos. Além disso, nas coleções biológicas poucos são os ninhos tombados, devido principalmente à fragilidade e difícil conservação dos mesmos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o conhecimento de alguns ninhos encontrados na Reserva Ducke, apresentando informações a respeito dos mesmos e uma chave de identificação dos gêneros. Os ninhos foram coletados através da busca direta, percorrendo os transectos da grade do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade; locais como margens de igarapés, bordas de acampamentos e construções na sede da reserva também foram explorados. Para todos os ninhos obteve-se o registro fotográfico e a localização exata por GPS. Foram registrados 39 ninhos de vespas sociais alocados em 17 espécies de Polistinae: Agelaia constructor, A. pallipes, Angiopolybia pallens, Apoica pallens, Metapolybia unilineata, Mischocyttarus lecointei, M. saturatus, Polybia bistriata, P. dimidiata, P. jurinei, P. liliacea, P. occidentalis, P. procellosa, P. rejecta, Protopolybia bituberculata, P. chartergoides e Synoeca virginea. Cinco ninhos desabitados de Mischocyttarus, Polybia e Polistes também foram coletados.

  2. Rapid evolution of the mitochondrial genome in Chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea driven by parasitic lifestyles.

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    Jin-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Among the Chalcidoids, hymenopteran parasitic wasps that have diversified lifestyles, a partial mitochondrial genome has been reported only from Nasonia. This genome had many unusual features, especially a dramatic reorganization and a high rate of evolution. Comparisons based on more mitochondrial genomic data from the same superfamily were required to reveal weather these unusual features are peculiar to Nasonia or not. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from the species Philotrypesis. pilosa and Philotrypesis sp., both of which were associated with Ficus hispida. The acquired data included all of the protein-coding genes, rRNAs, and most of the tRNAs, and in P. pilosa the control region. High levels of nucleotide divergence separated the two species. A comparison of all available hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes (including a submitted partial genome from Ceratosolen solmsi revealed that the Chalcidoids had dramatic mitochondrial gene rearrangments, involved not only the tRNAs, but also several protein-coding genes. The AT-rich control region was translocated and inverted in Philotrypesis. The mitochondrial genomes also exhibited rapid rates of evolution involving elevated nonsynonymous mutations.

  3. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  4. Evolution of Metapostnotum in Flat Wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae: Implications for Homology Assessments in Chrysidoidea.

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    Ricardo Kawada

    Full Text Available Some authors in the past based their conclusions about the limits of the metapostnotum of Chrysidoidea based on the position of the mesophragmo-metaphragmal muscle, rather than aspects of the skeleton and musculature associated with the metapectal-propodeal complex. The latter character system suggests another interpretation of the metapostnotum delimitation. Given this scenario, the main goal of this work is to present a new perspective on the metapostnotum in Chrysidoidea, especially Bethylidae, helping to resolve questions related to the evolution of the metapostnotum. This is based on homologies established by associating of insertion points of ph2-ph3 and ph3-T2 muscles with the delimitation of the respective sclerite the muscles insert into. Our results indicate that, according the position of the metaphragmal muscles, the metapostnotum in Bethylidae is medially expanded in the propodeal disc and has different forms of configuration. Internally, the limits of the metapostnotum can be tracked by the shape of the mesopostnotum, and vice versa. Thus, the anteromedian area of the propodeal disc sensu Evans was reinterpreted in the current study as the metapostnotum. In conjunction with associated structures, we provide evidence to clarify the relationships between the families within Chrysidoidea, although certain families like Embolemidae, Dryinidae and Chrysididae exhibit extreme modifications of the condition found in Aculeata, as observed in Bethylidae. We review the terminology used to describe anatomical features on the metapectal-propodeal complex in Bethylidae in general, and provide a list of recommended terms in accordance with the online Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. The morphology of the studied subfamilies are illustrated. Studies that focus on a single structure, across a larger number of taxa, are more insightful and present specific questions that can contribute to broader issues, thus providing a better understanding of the

  5. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

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    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Pompilinae (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): Evidence for rapid diversification and host shifts in spider wasps.

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    Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P; Florez, Jaime A; Bond, Jason E; von Dohlen, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    Pompilinae is one of the largest subfamilies of spider wasps (Pompilidae). Most pompilines are generalist spider predators at the family level, but some taxa exhibit ecological specificity (i.e., to spider-host guild). Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pompilinae, toward the aim of evaluating the monophyly of tribes and genera. We further test whether changes in the rate of diversification are associated with host-guild shifts. Molecular data were collected from five nuclear loci (28S, EF1-F2, LWRh, Wg, Pol2) for 76 taxa in 39 genera. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic results were compared with previous hypotheses of subfamilial and tribal classification, as well as generic relationships in the subfamily. The classification of Pompilus and Agenioideus is also discussed. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analysis was used to examine divergence times. Diversification rate-shift tests accounted for taxon-sampling bias using ML and BI approaches. Ancestral host family and host guild were reconstructed using MP and ML methods. Ancestral host guild for all Pompilinae, for the ancestor at the node where a diversification rate-shift was detected, and two more nodes back in time was inferred using BI. In the resulting phylogenies, Aporini was the only previously proposed monophyletic tribe. Several genera (e.g., Pompilus, Microphadnus and Schistonyx) are also not monophyletic. Dating analyses produced a well-supported chronogram consistent with topologies from BI and ML results. The BI ancestral host-use reconstruction inferred the use of spiders belonging to the guild "other hunters" (frequenting the ground and vegetation) as the ancestral state for Pompilinae. This guild had the highest probability for the ML reconstruction and was equivocal for the MP reconstruction; various switching events to other guilds occurred throughout the evolution of the group. The diversification of

  7. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

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    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  8. Taxonomic notes on the species of the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-02

    A taxonomic study on the solitary wasps in the vespid genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863, from Vietnam is presented. One species previously identified as A. (Anterhynchium) abdominale abdominale (Illiger, 1802) is described as new, namely A. punctatum Nguyen, sp. nov. Antechynchium (Dirhynchium) flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) and A. (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852) are newly recorded from Vietnam. New synonymy is proposed for A. flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith, 1857) =A. flavolineatum malaisei van der Vecht, 1963, syn. nov. A. coracinum van der Vecht sensu Girish Kumar (2013) is a misidentification of A. f. flavomarginatum (Smith), and the record of this species from Pakistan and India belongs to A. f. flavolineatum. A key to species of the genus from Vietnam is provided. 

  9. Distribution and nests of paper wasps of Polistes (Polistella) in northeastern Vietnam, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae)

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    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong; Kojima, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of the subgenus Polistella Ashmead of the genus Polistes Latreille including a new species, P. brunetus Nguyen & Kojima, sp. n. described here, are recognized to occur in northeastern Vietnam, the easternmost part of the eastern slope of the Himalayas. A key to these species is provided. Their distributional records are remarked. Nests of P. delhiensis Das & Gupta, P. mandarinus de Saussure and P. brunetus are also described. PMID:24478582

  10. On the nesting biology of eumenine wasps yet again: Minixi brasilianum (de Saussure is a builder and a renter... at the same time! (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of eumenine nesting biology is still elusive. The use of two nesting strategies, namely renting and building, are reported concomitantly for the first time for Minixi brasilianum (de Saussure, 1875. Ecological factors such as resource availability and protection against potential enemies may play an important role in eumenine nesting biology.

  11. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

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    Yoshida, Naruo; Hirata, Hirokuni; Watanabe, Mineaki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Ves v 5 and Pol d 5, which constitute antigen 5, are recognized as the major, most potent allergens of family Vespidae. Several studies have reported the diagnostic sensitivity of the novel recombinant (r)Ves v 5 and rPol d 5 allergens in routine clinical laboratory settings by analyzing a group of Vespula and Polistes venom-allergic patients. In this study, we analyzed the sensitivity to venom specific (s)IgE by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Subjects were 41 patients who had experienced systemic reactions to hornet and/or paper wasp stings. Levels of serum sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPold d 5, respectively, as improvement testing, compared with hornet and paper wasp venom, as conventional testing, were measured by ImmunoCAP. Of the 41 patients, 33 (80.5%) were positive (≥0.35 UA/ml) for hornet and/or paper wasp venom in conventional sIgE testing. sIgE levels correlated significantly (P venom (R = 0.78) in improvement testing and conventional testing. To determine specificity, 20 volunteers who had never experienced a Hymenoptera sting were all negative for sIgE against these venoms in both improvement and conventional testing. Improved sensitivity was seen in 8 patients negative for sIgE against both venoms in conventional testing, while improvement testing revealed sIgE against hornet or paper wasp venom in 5 (total 38 (92.7%)) patients. The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera

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    Heavner, Mary E.; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E.; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma’s predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation marks the first functional genomic study for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts’ immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557

  13. A Nutritional Profile of the Trap-Nesting Wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): Comparison of Sexes and Overwintering and Non-Overwintering Generations

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    Judd, Timothy M.; Fasnacht, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure is a bivoltine trap-nesting species that possesses a non-overwintering generation (G1) and a generation that overwinters as a prepupa (G2). Thus, the nutritional needs of the G1 individuals were predicted to be different than the G2 because the latter generation needs to store energy prior to diapause. Trap-nesting Trypoxylon are also of interest because, unlike most Hymenoptera, the males guard the nest while females forage. Thus, males may lose nutrients as they stay and guard the nest. In this study, a nutritional profile was created for T. lactitarse to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and micronutrient (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn) levels of the different life stages of the wasp and compare individuals of the G1 and G2 generations. There were distinct changes in the nutrient levels relative to the original food source as individuals metamorphosed into larvae, pupae, and adults. G1 larvae had higher levels of carbohydrates than G2 larvae. G2 larvae had higher levels of lipids and K than G1 larvae, indicating possible differences in energy storage. In adults, there was an increase in levels of carbohydrates and Mn. Parental males, which stay and guard the nest, were found to have higher levels of carbohydrates at the end of the nesting period than females and emerging adults. One possible implication is that females may feed males during the nesting period, as the females are the only individuals to forage. PMID:28054943

  14. A Nutritional Profile of the Trap-Nesting Wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae: Comparison of Sexes and Overwintering and Non-Overwintering Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Judd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure is a bivoltine trap-nesting species that possesses a non-overwintering generation (G1 and a generation that overwinters as a prepupa (G2. Thus, the nutritional needs of the G1 individuals were predicted to be different than the G2 because the latter generation needs to store energy prior to diapause. Trap-nesting Trypoxylon are also of interest because, unlike most Hymenoptera, the males guard the nest while females forage. Thus, males may lose nutrients as they stay and guard the nest. In this study, a nutritional profile was created for T. lactitarse to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and micronutrient (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn levels of the different life stages of the wasp and compare individuals of the G1 and G2 generations. There were distinct changes in the nutrient levels relative to the original food source as individuals metamorphosed into larvae, pupae, and adults. G1 larvae had higher levels of carbohydrates than G2 larvae. G2 larvae had higher levels of lipids and K than G1 larvae, indicating possible differences in energy storage. In adults, there was an increase in levels of carbohydrates and Mn. Parental males, which stay and guard the nest, were found to have higher levels of carbohydrates at the end of the nesting period than females and emerging adults. One possible implication is that females may feed males during the nesting period, as the females are the only individuals to forage.

  15. Assessment of prey overlap between a native (Polistes humilis) and an introduced (Vespula germanica) social wasp using morphology and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA.

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    Kasper, Marta L; Reeson, Andrew F; Cooper, Steven J B; Perry, Kym D; Austin, Andrew D

    2004-07-01

    Abstract In newly invaded communities, interspecific competition is thought to play an important role in determining the success of the invader and its impact on the native community. In southern Australia, the native Polistes humilis was the predominant social wasp prior to the arrival of the exotic Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Both species forage for similar resources (water, pulp, carbohydrate and protein prey), and concerns have arisen about potential competition between them. The aim of this study was to identify the protein foods that these wasps feed on. As many prey items are masticated by these wasps to the degree that they cannot be identified using conventional means, morphological identification was complemented by sequencing fragments of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. GenBank searches using blast and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify prey items to at least order level. The results were used to construct complete prey inventories for the two species. These indicate that while P. humilis is restricted to feeding on lepidopteran larvae, V. germanica collects a variety of prey of invertebrate and vertebrate origin. Calculated values of prey overlap between the two species are used to discuss the implications of V. germanica impacting on P. humilis. Results obtained are compared to those gained by solely 'conventional' methods, and the advantages of using DNA-based taxonomy in ecological studies are emphasized.

  16. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

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    Strassmann Joan E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group.

  17. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae); Biologia y habitos del barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A., E-mail: hernandez.luismartin@inifap.gob.m, E-mail: urias.marioalfonso@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestal000, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Santiago, Nayarit (Mexico). Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor, E-mail: nestor@colpos.m [Instituto de Fitosanidad, Montecillo, Texcoco (Mexico). Colegio de Postgraduados

    2010-07-15

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  18. Gene variation and genetic differentiation among populations of the solitary mud dauber wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

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    Antonio C.B. Bergamaschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trypoxylon is a genus of solitary crabronid wasps whose population genetics is poorly known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation and differentiation among five populations of Trypoxylon albitarse, a species widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, with records from Panama to northern Argentina. Eight species-specific microsatellite loci were used for genotyping 96 adult wasps (one female per nest sampled at five sites in Brazil. The analysis of allelic richness and private alleles indicated high genetic diversity in the populations sampled. Pairwise comparisons using the Fst and Dest indices revealed significant differentiation for all, but one pair of populations. Fst, Dest, AMOVA and assignment test values pointed to inter-population differentiation. Additionally, the analysis of population structure using Bayesian and PCA methods characterized two alternative genetic groups. The Mantel test indicated no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Despite evidence of considerable dispersal capacity for T. albitarse, the data indicate low to moderate population structuring in this species.

  19. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) stimulates different chemical and phytohormone responses in two Eucalyptus varieties that vary in susceptibility to galling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Q; Liu, Y Z; Guo, W F; Solanki, M K; Yang, Z D; Xiang, Y; Ma, Z C; Wen, Y G

    2017-09-01

    Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages. Nitrogen, total phenolics, tannins and four kinds of phytohormones strongly accumulated in tissues galled by L. invasa (especially during early larval feeding stages). While N, Z + ZR and GA levels were higher, tannins and ABA levels were lower in the galled tissues on the highly susceptible variety. Nitrogen, total phenolics, GA, Z + ZR and IAA levels in the galled tissues gradually decreased during gall development, but ABA and tannins conversely increased in the galled tissues of the less susceptible variety. Our results suggest that the effects of gall-inducing insects on plants depend not only on the susceptibility of the plant infested but also on the developmental stage of galled tissues. Gall formation process is thus synergistically influenced by both gall-inducing insect and plant genotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gene structure and expression characteristic of a novel odorant receptor gene cluster in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S-N; Shan, S; Zheng, Y; Peng, Y; Lu, Z-Y; Yang, Y-Q; Li, R-J; Zhang, Y-J; Guo, Y-Y

    2017-08-01

    Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M. demolitor ORs. Within a subfamily, six MmedOR genes, MmedOR98, 124, 125, 126, 131 and 155, shared a similar gene structure and were tightly linked in the genome. To evaluate whether the clustered MmedOR genes share common regulatory features, the transcription profile and expression characteristics of the six closely related OR genes were investigated in M. mediator. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR experiments revealed that the OR genes within the cluster were transcribed as single mRNAs, and a bicistronic mRNA for two adjacent genes (MmedOR124 and MmedOR98) was also detected in female antennae by reverse transcription PCR. In situ hybridization experiments indicated that each OR gene within the cluster was expressed in a different number of cells. Moreover, there was no co-expression of the two highly related OR genes, MmedOR124 and MmedOR98, which appeared to be individually expressed in a distinct population of neurons. Overall, there were distinct expression profiles of closely related MmedOR genes from the same cluster in M. mediator. These data provide a basic understanding of the olfactory coding in parasitoid wasps. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Morphological studies on castes of Protopolybia chartergoides (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini observed in colonies during male production stage Estudos morfológicos sobre as castas de Protopolybia chartergoides (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini observadas em colônias durante o estágio de produção de machos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Tocchini Felippotti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Social wasps are important for the study of social behavior evolution because their colonies present different degrees of caste differentiation, from morphologically similar to highly conspicuous, associated with the occasional presence of intermediate females, which bears developed ovaries but no insemination. In the Polistinae, depending on the taxon, such differentiation can be discreet or conspicuous. This work intended to study morphological and physiological differences between castes in Protopolybia chartergoides by using morphometric analyses associated with multivariate statistical analyses and physiological evaluations from females' ovarian development. Results evidence low morphological and physiological differences among the castes in P. chartergoides, indicating three groups of females: queens, workers and intermediates. In this way, it was possible to suggest that Protopolybia chartergoides presents post-imaginal caste differentiation (or a very subtle form of pre-imaginal determination.Vespas sociais são importantes para o estudo da evolução do comportamento social devido suas colônias apresentarem diferentes graus de diferenciação de castas, de morfologicamente similares às altamente conspícuas, associadas com a presença de fêmeas intermediárias, as quais desenvolvem seus ovários, mas não estando inseminadas. Nos Polistinae, tais diferenciações podem ser discretas ou conspícuas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as diferenças morfológicas e fisiológicas entre as castas de Protopolybia chartergoides pelo uso de análises morfométricas associada com análises estatísticas multivariadas e avaliações fisiológicas do desenvolvimento ovariano das fêmeas. Os resultados mostraram baixa diferenciação morfológica e fisiológica entre as castas de P. chartergoides, indicando a presença de três grupos de fêmeas: rainhas, operárias e intermediárias. Assim, foi possível sugerir que Protopolybia

  2. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  3. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  4. Venom and Dufour's glands of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Sphecidae): structural and biochemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatzy, Werner; Michels, Jan; Volknandt, Walter; Goller, Stephan; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The digger wasp species Ampulex compressa produces its venom in two branched gland tubules. They terminate in a short common duct, which is bifurcated at its proximal end. One leg is linked with the venom reservoir, the other one extends to the ductus venatus. Each venom gland tubule possesses, over its entire length, a cuticle-lined central duct. Around this duct densely packed class 3 gland units each composed of a secretory cell and a canal cell are arranged. The position of their nuclei was demonstrated by DAPI staining. The brush border of the secretory cells surrounds the coiled end-apparatus. Venom is stored in a bladder like reservoir, which is surrounded by a thin reticulated layer of muscle fibres. The reservoir as a whole is lined with class 3 gland units. The tubiform Dufour's gland has a length of about 350 μm (∅ 125 μm) only and is surrounded by a network of pronounced striated muscle fibres. The glandular epithelium is mono-layered belonging to the class 1 type of insect epidermal glands. The gland cells are characterized by conspicuous lipid vesicles. Secretion of material via the gland cuticle into the gland lumen is apparent. Analysis of the polypeptide composition demonstrated that the free gland tubules and the venom reservoir contain numerous proteins ranging from 3.4 to 200 kDa. The polypeptide composition of the Dufour's gland is completely different and contains no lectin-binding glycoproteins, whereas a dominant component of the venom droplets is a glycoprotein of about 80 kDa. Comparison of the venom reservoir contents with the polypeptide pattern of venom droplets revealed that all of the major proteinaceous constituents are secreted. The secreted venom contains exclusively proteins present in the soluble contents of the venom gland. The most abundant compound class in the Dufour's gland consisted of n-alkanes followed by monomethyl-branched alkanes and alkadienes. Heptacosane was the most abundant n-alkane. Furthermore, a single

  5. De wespbijen (Nomada) van Nederland (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.

    2004-01-01

    The wasp bees (Nomada) of the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) In the Netherlands 44 species of Nomada are known to occur. The name wasp bee is derived from the often yellow and black colour, which give the insects a wasplike appearance. Nomada bees are cleptoparasites mostly with Andrena species.

  6. Queen signaling in social wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining...... sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula...

  7. Bee or Wasp Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-09-01

    While jogging in a local park in Hong Kong, a 55-year-old, previously healthy man was stung on the ventral aspect of his right wrist. The tiny stinger was gently removed with nail cutters and examined under a microscope at 80x magni cation; plucking the stinger is ill- advised as this may inject more venom into the wounded site. Two days after stinging, the microscopic appearance of the stinger con rmed the diagnosis to be from a bee instead of a wasp or other insect. A simple method of con rming the nature of insect stings and an overview of Hymenoptera stings and their management are provided herein.

  8. ホソアシナガバチParapolybia indica (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)の生活史,とくにコロニーの発達について

    OpenAIRE

    杉浦, 正昭; 関島, 正憲; 松浦, 誠; Sugiura, Masaaki; Sekijima, Masanori; Matsuura, Makoto

    1983-01-01

    The outline of the life cycle of Parapolybia indica SAUSSURE was studied under natural conditions in the vicinity of Tsu, Mie Prefecture, southwest Japan, situated near the northernmost district of distribution of this genus, during 1976-1981. 1) Colony cycle lasted about three and a half months from early May to mid August, and total duration of nesting activity was about one and a half months shorter than that of Polistes wasps in the same district. 2) Overwintered queens of P.indica left t...

  9. New Occurrences of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Semideciduous Seasonal Montane Forest and Tropical Dry Forest in Minas Gerais and in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Souza

    2015-04-01

    Resumo. Neste trabalho é registrado pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, Mischocyttarus ignotus Zikán, Mischocyttarus nomurae Richards e Mischocyttarus paraguayensis Zikán para o estado de Minas Gerais e Mischocyttarus garbei Zikán para o estado do Rio de Janeiro coletadas por meio de busca ativa e armadilhas atrativas.

  10. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius) improves model fit to predict potential for further spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Marelize; Kriticos, Darren J; Veldtman, Ruan

    2017-01-01

    The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.

  11. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius improves model fit to predict potential for further spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize de Villiers

    Full Text Available The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.

  12. On the identity of cereal aphid parasitoid wasps Aphidius uzbekistanicus, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, and Aphidius avenaphis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Aphidiinae) by examination of COI mitochondrial gene, geometric morphometrics and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kos, K.; Petrović, A.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Ivanović, A.; Toševski, I.; Jakše, J.; Trdan, S.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 6 (2011), s. 1221-1232 ISSN 0013-8746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/1940 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) P4-0013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aphidiine wasps * morphological * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.317, year: 2011

  13. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour' in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera: Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Ranjith

    Full Text Available The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially, has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  14. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour') in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera): Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, A P; Quicke, Donald L J; Saleem, U K A; Butcher, Buntika A; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Nasser, M

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation) are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially), has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae) in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae) were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  15. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr and 1500-1530 hr in 1994. More than 140 species of at least 37 families were found; Hymenoptera dominated (with more than a half of specimens, followed by Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. Among Hymenoptera, bees (Apoidea were the largest group, especially Apis mellifera L; followed by wasps (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae and ichneumon flies (Ichneumonidae; Microhymenopterans were not sampled. Hymenopterans of each weed were compared for diversity, similarity, dominant and subdominant species, visitation time, sampling efficiency, etc. Each plant species had a particular Hymenoptera complex, almost one third of which were natural enemies of agricultural pests, and most are believed to be potential pollinators. Closely related species showed similar patterns of daily activity, with a peak at 0900 - 0930 hr for all plant species. Second grade polynomial equations were the best fitted models to describe the relationships between number of species and number of specimens, and between total number of species and number of samples (R² = 0.9734 and R² = 0.9573, p < 0.01. The role of weeds in the biodiversity of the agroecosystems is analyzed; as well as the effectiveness of this collection method to study Hymenoptera

  16. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  17. First record of the oak gall wasp genus Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Central America with description of three new species from Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Medianero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini are described from Panama and Costa Rica: Neuroterus elvisi sp. n., Neuroterus pulchrigalla sp. n., and Neuroterus glandiphilus sp. n. The new species are the first of the genus Neuroterus recorded from Central America and the Neotropical region. The new species induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks. Additional evidence of the presence of other unidentified species of Neuroterus in the sampled area is presented. Diagnostic morphological characters, gall descriptions, distributions, host plant and other biological data of the new species are given and discussed. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48D0C1E1-1D0C-40D8-B890-FFC85AE7A213

  18. Biology of a trap-nesting wasp of one species the ground-nesting Liris (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Ferreira da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on the nesting biology of Liris are restricted to a few notes and observations on ground-nesting species. There are no studies of this kind about Brazilian species. We investigated and described the nesting biology of Liris sp. obtained by trap-nests that were installed at an area of Atlantic Forest vegetation (25°10'S, 48°18'W in southern Brazil. The nests of Liris sp. are built with a variety of plant debris. They usually have one cell, but may have up to two. Nests do not show vestibular or intercalary cells. Immatures have a hard cocoon made with the silk they produce, mixed with the fine sand and sawdust left by the adult female at the bottom of the cell. No nest parasites were observed. The wasps did not go through diapause at the prepupal stage, and emerged within 36 to 46 days after nests were collected from the field. There was no emergence of male wasps. Even though Liris sp. nest in preexisting cavities, they resemble ground-nesting species of the same genus in their habits, nest architecture, and development characteristics. The absence of males in our samples might be related to nest diameter. The eggs from which males hatch can be laid in smaller burrows than those available at the present study. We believe that the hardiness of the cocoon is the species' main strategy against parasites, although it is complemented by the camouflage provided by the nest closure. We suggest that a broader comparison of the nesting biology of Liris Fabricius, 1804 should be carried out, leading to a better understanding of the evolution of nests in the genus.

  19. Brood size and sex ratio in response to host quality and wasp traits in the gregarious parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study investigated whether the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii females adjust their brood size and sex ratio in response to body size and stage of Plutella xylostella larval hosts, as well as to their own body size and the order of oviposition. These factors were analyzed using multiple regression with simultaneous entry of them and their two-way interactions. Parasitoids brood size tended to increase with host body size at parasitism when the 4th instar larval host was attacked, but did not change when the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were attacked. Parasitoids did not vary in brood size according to their body size, but decreased with their bouts of oviposition on a linear trend from 10 offspring adults emerged per host in the first bout of oviposition down to eight in the third. Parasitoid offspring sex ratio did not change with host instar, host body weight, wasp body size, and oviposition bout. Proportions of male offspring per brood were from 11% to 13% from attacking the 2nd to 4th instar larvae and from 13% to 16% across three successive bouts of oviposition, with a large variation for smaller host larvae and wasps. When fewer than 12 offspring were emerged from a host, one male was most frequently produced; when more than 12 offspring were emerged, two or more males were produced. Our study suggests that O. sokolowskii females may optimize their clutch size in response to body size of mature P. xylostella larvae, and their sex allocation in response to clutch size.

  20. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  1. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  2. Species composition and flight periods of horntail wasps (Hymenoptera: Siricidae within Basque Country pine forests, with the confirmation of establishment of the exotic species Urocerus albicornis

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    Goldarazena, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and flight periods of horntails wasps in Basque Country pine forests in northern Spain are studied in order to determine if alien invasive species have been introduced and established. Panel traps baited with Contech Inc. Sirex noctilio lures were erected at sites in six distinct Basque Country forest regions (Menagarai and Gordoa forests in Alava Province, Orio and Zegama forests in Gipuzkoa province and Carranza and Muxika forests in Bizkaia province. Traps were monitored throughout 2011 and 2012. At the same time in January, ten dead logs with oviposition holes from the same localities were collected and reared in emergence cages for wasp collection. In the pheromone traps three autochthonous, Palaearctic species were found: Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1773, and Urocerus gigas (Linnaeus, 1758, and one exotic species Urocerus albicornis (Fabricius, 1781 was detected. From logs, the same three species plus U. augur (Klug, 1803 were obtained with a collection of parasitoids. Sirex noctilio, Urocerus gigas and Urocerus albicornis were found in all provinces of the Basque Country. Trapping results show flight occurs from late June to September. The establishment of U. albicornis, an exotic species from North America, is confirmed in northern Spain.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición de especies y el periodo de vuelo de las avispas de la madera en los bosques de coníferas del País Vasco (norte de España, para conocer si especies invasoras previamente introducidas se habían establecido. Trampas de interceptación tipo Panel cebadas con dispositivos Contech específicos para Sirex noctilio fueron colocadas en seis diferentes areas forestales del País Vasco (Menagarai y Gordoa en la provincial de Álava, Orio y Zegama en Gipuzkoa y Carranza y Muxika en Bizkaia. Las trampas fueron monitoreadas a lo largo de 2011 y 2012. Al mismo tiempo en enero, se recogieron de las mismas localidades 10 trozas con agujeros

  3. Seasonal patterns of parasitism of the tropical spiders Theridion evexum (Araneae, Theridiidae and Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae, Araneidae by the wasps Zatypota petronae and Polysphincta gutfreundi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae

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    Gilbert Barrantes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rates of parasitism of Theridion evexum by the parasitoid wasp Zatypota petronae, and Allocyclosa bifurca by Polysphincta gutfreundi, were followed for two years. Parasitism of T. evexum was very low (mean 1.39+1.8%, and restricted to nearly seven months of the year. Parasitism of A. bifurca was higher (mean 7.8+7.6%, and did not show a seasonal pattern. Reproduction of the host spider T. evexum was highly seasonal, with only one, highly coordinated generation per year, while adults of A. bifurca were present year round. Short-term autocorrelation on parasitism rates over time at different sites suggest that P. gutfreundi tend to return to the same sites to hunt hosts over periods of a few weeks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 749-754. Epub 2008 June 30.Las tasas de parasitismo de Theridion evexum por la avispa parasitoide Zatypota petronae y de Allocyclosa bifurca por Polysphincta gutfreundi fueron estudiadas durante dos años. El parasitismo en T. evexum fue muy bajo (promedio 1.39+1.8% y restringido a aproximadamente siete meses del año. El parasitismo en A. bifurca fue más alto (promedio 7.8+7.6% y no mostró un claro patrón estacional. La reproducción de la araña hospedera T. evexum fue muy estacional, con solamente una generación por año, mientras que los adultos de A. bifurca estuvieron presentes todo el año. Autocorrelaciones de las tasas de parasitismo entre censos consecutivos en diferentes sitios sugiere que P. gutfreundi tiende a retornar a los mismos sitios para parasitar las arañas hospederas durante algunas semanas.

  4. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maité MASCIOCCHI; Jacqueline R. BEGGS; James M. CARPENTER; Juan C. CORLEY

    2010-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  5. First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Masciocchi, Maité; Beggs, Jacqueline R.; Carpenter, James M.; Corley, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de i...

  6. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité MASCIOCCHI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.

  7. The genus Anterhynchium in the Philippine Islands (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae

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    Marco Selis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 from the Philippine Islands is presented. Two species are recorded: A. astrophilum Giordani Soika, 1996 and A. townesi van der Vecht, 1963. Anterhynchium astrophilum is recorded for the first time since its description, A. flavomarginatum townesi is raised to species rank (A. townesi stat. nov. and its unknown male is described. A key to the species and new distributional records are provided.

  8. Caste differences in Pseudopolybia compressa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae

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    Laura Chavarría Pizarro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of morphological caste syndromes in the tribe Epiponini help us to understand the evolution of social behavior in insects. Few studies have integrated morphological syndromes of various species from the same or distinct genera. We studied morphological differences between castes from three colonies of Pseudopolybia compressa de Saussure, 1854, in order to relate their caste syndrome with those of other species in the genus. We took eight morphometric measures and females were classified in relation to ovarian development and spermathecal contents. Females of Colony 1 (C1 present a higher distinction between castes than females of Colonies 2 and 3 (C2 and C3, and, in general, queens of the three colonies are larger than workers in some measures but smaller in others. In Pseudopolybia Dalla Torre, 1894, shape rather than size is a more important trait in caste divergence.

  9. Establishment of Vespa bicolor in Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, I-Hsin; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Chao, Jung-Tai; Yeh, Wen-Chi; Lee, Wei-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The establishment of a hornet, Vespa bicolor F., in Taiwan was confirmed based on successful field collection of adults of both sexes and two subterranean colonies. Information on nesting habitat, nest measurement, and colony composition of this species are provided in this article. V. bicolor is the ninth hornet species ever recorded from Taiwan. Possible pathway for the introduction of this alien species is also discussed. PMID:25434034

  10. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

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    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  11. Ocupação diferencial do habitat por vespas do gênero Trypoxylon (Trypargilum Latreille (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae Differential occupation of the habitat by Trypoxylon (Trypargilum Latreille wasps (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

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    Mariana Marchi Santoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespas do gênero Trypoxylon apresentam comportamento solitário e aprovisionam seus ninhos de forma massiva com aranhas paralisadas. Algumas espécies utilizam cavidades preexistentes para nidificação, o que facilita sua amostragem e estudo. Neste trabalho, dados sobre a biologia de nidificação de quatro espécies de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum - T. rogenhoferi, T. lactitarse, T. aurifrons e T. nitidum - são apresentados. As espécies foram amostradas por meio de ninhos-armadilha durante três anos em Araras e dois anos em Rifaina e São Carlos (São Paulo. As localidades de estudo foram subdivididas em sítios de amostragem. Foram obtidos 2.698 ninhos de himenópteros solitários, dos quais 2.268 foram fundados por espécies de Trypoxylon. Intensa atividade de nidificação foi observada principalmente na estação quente e chuvosa (outubro-março. Os ninhos-armadilha utilizados para nidificação pelas diferentes espécies apresentaram dimensões significativamente diferentes. A família de aranhas mais utilizada para aprovisionamento foi Araneidae; no entanto, as espécies de vespas diferiram quanto às espécies forrageadas. O principal parasitóide das quatro espécies foi Melittobia, mas indivíduos das famílias Chrysididae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae e Sarcophagidae também foram verificados. Observou-se que as espécies de Trypoxylon coexistem temporalmente e que nas três localidades cada espécie nidificou com maior freqüência em um sítio particular, sugerindo uma ocupação diferencial do habitat. A partição do habitat aparentemente homogêneo pode ser resultado de "competição aparente" mediada por inimigos naturais comuns.Wasps of the genus Trypoxylon are solitary and females mass-provision their nests with paralyzed spiders. Some species use successfully trap-nests for nesting foundation, making easier their sampling and study. This paper reports data about nesting biology of four species of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum - T

  12. Palp-faction: an African milkweed dismembers its wasp pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-06-01

    Interactions between pollinators and nectar-producing flowers are usually assumed to be mutualistic, but the exploitative basis of these relationships can lead to antagonistic interactions. Flowers of the African milkweed, Pachycarpus appendiculatus E. Mey, produce concentrated nectar that is consumed primarily by the large spider-hunting wasp Hemipepsis dedjas Guerin (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Pollinaria of this milkweed become attached to the palps of these wasps during nectar feeding. Broken wasp palps were found between guide rails, attached to corpuscula that were trapped behind the guide rails, and attached to pollinia that were inserted into the stigmatic chambers of the flowers. Approximately 85% of wasps captured on flowers of P. appendiculatus were missing one or more palps, whereas only 9% of wasps captured on flowers of another asclepiad species were missing any palps. It thus seems that wasps face a high risk of losing their palps when foraging on these flowers. The interaction may thus be antagonistic for the wasps if the cost of losing their sensory palps (not yet established) is greater than the benefits of the nectar reward. The plants, however, gain clear benefit from the interaction, as verified by the removal and insertion of pollinia in flowers exposed solely to visits by pompilid wasps.

  13. Diversity of peptidic and proteinaceous toxins from social Hymenoptera venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Lasa, Alexis Musacchio; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2018-06-15

    Among venomous animals, Hymenoptera have been suggested as a rich source of natural toxins. Due to their broad ecological diversity, venom from Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps and ants) have evolved differentially thus widening the types and biological functions of their components. To date, insect toxinology analysis have scarcely uncovered the complex composition of bee, wasp and ant venoms which include low molecular weight compounds, highly abundant peptides and proteins, including several allergens. In Hymenoptera, these complex mixtures of toxins represent a potent arsenal of biological weapons that are used for self-defense, to repel intruders and to capture prey. Consequently, Hymenoptera venom components have a broad range of pharmacological targets and have been extensively studied, as promising sources of new drugs and biopesticides. In addition, the identification and molecular characterization of Hymenoptera venom allergens have allowed for the rational design of component-resolved diagnosis of allergy, finally improving the outcome of venom immunotherapy (VIT). Until recently, a limited number of Hymenoptera venoms had been unveiled due to the technical limitations of the approaches used to date. Nevertheless, the application of novel techniques with high dynamic range has significantly increased the number of identified peptidic and proteinaceous toxins. Considering this, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the most representative Hymenoptera venom peptides and proteins which are under study for a better understanding of the insect-caused envenoming process and the development of new drugs and biopesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps

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    Rafael D. Loyola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps. The research was conducted in an urban forest remnant in southeast Brazil. We tested the predictions of the following hypotheses: (1 larger areas present higher species richness of bees and wasps, (2 solitary bees and wasps occupy more nests in larger areas, (3 rare species occupy more nests in smaller areas. We sampled Aculeate bees and wasps using trap nests from February to November 2004. We placed trap nests in sampling units (SU with different size (25, 100 and 400 m² located in 6 ha of secondary mesophytic forest. One hundred and thirty-seven trap nests were occupied by seven species of bees and four species of wasps. We found an increase in wasp, but not bee species richness following increase in SU size. Hymenoptera richness (i.e. bees plus wasps was also greater in larger SU. Both the number and density of occupied nests increased with SU size. The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse responded significantly to area size, larger SU having more occupied nests. The same pattern was exhibited by the wasp Auplopus militaris, the Megachile bee species, and the bee Anthodioctes megachiloides. Only Trypoxylon sp. was not affected by SU size. Our results show that cavity-nesting bee and wasps respond differently to the area effects. Such findings must be complemented by information on the frequency and dynamics of area colonization and nest occupancy by species of solitary Hymenoptera.

  15. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

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    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  16. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  17. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We...... evaluated conservation of 27 trinucleotide loci that were derived from 2 species of Polistes wasps in cross-species applications on 27 species chosen from the major lineages of the Vespidae, which diverged as much as 144 million years ago. We further investigated cross-species polymorphism levels for 18...... of the loci. There was a clear relationship between cladistic distance and both conservation of the priming sites and heterozygosity. However the loci derived from P. bellicosus were much more widely conserved and polymorphic than were those derived from P. annularis. The disparity in cross-species utility...

  18. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a vespidae predadores do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro

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    GUSMÃO MARCOS RAFAEL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em laboratório, a seletividade dos inseticidas clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, ethion, monocrotofós e permetrina às vespas predadoras Apoica pallens Fab., Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae em concentrações que correspondem a 50% e 100% da dosagem recomendada para o controle do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro, Perileucoptera coffeella Guérin-Meneville (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae. Deltametrina foi seletivo em favor de P. versicolor versicolor e A. pallens. O ethion foi medianamente seletivo a A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor, e seletivo em favor de B. lecheguana. Os demais inseticidas não foram seletivos às vespas predadoras. A ordem crescente de tolerância das vespas a deltametrina foi: P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens > B. lecheguana. Para o ethion esta ordem foi: B. lecheguana > P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens. O clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, monocrotofós e permetrina apresentaram semelhante toxicidade às vespas nas duas dosagens utilizadas. O ethion, por sua vez, reduziu seu impacto sobre A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor quando aplicado em subdosagem.

  19. Colony stage and not facultative policing explains pattern of worker reproduction in the Saxon wasp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonckaert, W.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera headed by a multiple-mated queen, workers should benefit from policing eggs laid by other workers. Foster & Ratnieks provided evidence that in the vespine wasp Dolichovespula saxonica, workers police other workers’ eggs only...

  20. Putting your sons in the right place: the spatial distribution of fig wasp offspring inside figs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavodna, M.; Compton, S.G.; Biere, A.; Gilmartin, P.M.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1. Pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) display sex ratio adjustment, producing less female-biased combined sex ratios as the number of ovipositing females (foundresses) inside a fig increases. Because males have low mobility, the oviposition sites (galled ovules) chosen by each foundress

  1. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

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    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  2. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a Vespidae predadores de Ascia monuste orseis Insecticide physiological selectivity to Vespidae predators of Ascia monuste orseis

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    André Luiz Barreto Crespo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a seletividade dos inseticidas carbaril, deltametrina, paratiom metílico, permetrina e triclorfom em relação a Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae e a seus predadores Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Por meio de curvas de concentração-mortalidade e das concentrações letais para 90% da população (CL90, calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial (ISD90, de toxicidade relativa, e de tolerância relativa (ITRe90. O paratiom metílico e triclorfom apresentaram seletividade em favor de B. lecheguana (ISD90 = 2,83 e 1,75 e P. sylveirae (ISD90 = 2,95 e 3,59 em relação a A. monuste orseis. Deltametrina e permetrina apresentaram seletividade em favor de P. sylveirae (ISD90 = 1,98 e 2,70 em relação a A. monuste orseis, mas não apresentaram seletividade em favor de B. lecheguana (ISD90 = 0,21 e 0,64. B. lecheguana foi menos tolerante a deltametrina, permetrina e triclorfom do que P. sylveirae (ITRe90 = 9,36, 4,23 e 2,05, e mais tolerante ao carbaril (ITRe90 = 0,14. Os predadores apresentaram tolerância semelhante ao paratiom metílico (ITRe90 = 1,04. As curvas de concentração-mortalidade do carbaril, permetrina e triclorfom em ambos os predadores, de deltametrina em B. lecheguana, e de paratiom metílico em P. sylveirae, apresentaram maiores inclinações do que as curvas em A. monuste orseis.This work aimed to study the selectivity of the insecticides carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl parathion, permethrin and trichlorfon in relation to Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae and to their predators Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille and Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Based on concentration-response curves and lethal concentrations for 90% of the population (LC90, the differential selectivity index (DSI90, relative toxicity index and relative tolerance index (ReTI90 were calculated

  3. Vespas Sociais (Vespidae: Polistinae em Fitofisionomias Urbanas: um Checklist do Município de Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Souza

    2016-12-01

    Checklist of Social Wasps (Vespidae: Polistinae in Two Green Urban Areas in the Municipality of Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract. New concepts on city planning and urbanization have progressively encouraged the creation and maintenance of public or private green areas, which are important feeding and shelter zones for several species of social wasps. However, in spite of the sampling effort and representativeness of southeastern Brazil, knowledge of richness and abundance of social wasps in Rio de Janeiro is still poor. The present study aimed at inventorying the fauna of social wasps in urban phytophysiognomies in downtown Barra Mansa, state of Rio de Janeiro, within the campus of Barra Mansa University. We sampled two areas for 12 months - a human-modified grassland and a reforested area, through active search with insect nests, Möericke traps, and aromatic traps. We collected 148 wasps of three tribes, four genera, and 17 species. Through active search we recorded 70.7% of the species sampled. The tribe Epiponini showed the highest species richness, and Polybia chrysothorax Lichtenstein and Polybia erythrothoraxla Richards were recorded for the first time in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In the anthropic field it was observed greater diversity (H’ = 1,890, equitability (J = 0,7605, and minor dominance (D(1/D = 0,2124, while in the reforested area was obtained H’ = 1,582, J = 0,6366 e D(1/D = 0,3465. The configuration and size of the reforested area in the campus Barra Mansa (UBM are insufficient elements to restrict the movement of species or segregate communities when considering the anthropic field, thereby still allowing that species could also be sampled between the areas.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42, WASP-55 (Southworth+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Andersen, M. I.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; Colque, J. P.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Herrera-Cordova, A.; Hinse, T. C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Skottfelt, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Elyiv, A.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Haugbolle, T.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Vilela, C.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    17 light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary systems WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55 are presented. 13 of the light curves were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R or Bessell I passbands. The other 4 light curves were obtained using the 84cm telescope at Observatorio Cerro Armazones, Chile, using either an R filter or no filter. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (4 data files).

  5. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Carabajal Paladino

    Full Text Available We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD. Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  6. Safety with Wasps and Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with safe learning activities concerning bees and wasps. The following topics are included: (1) the importance of a positive teacher attitude towards bees and wasps; (2) special problems posed by paper wasps; (3) what to do when a child is bothered by a wasp; (4) what to do if a wasp…

  7. Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-05-15

    May 15, 1990 ... Supplemental Library User's Guide 1983 Edition. pp. 131-144. (Ed.) S. Ioyner. SAS Institute Incorporated, Cary,. North Carolina. CORBARA, B., LACHAUD, I. & FRESNEAU, D. 1989. Individual variability, social structure and division of labour in the ponerine ant, Ectatommo. ruidum Roger (Hymenoptera,.

  8. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Schneider

    Full Text Available We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences 'hitchhiking' on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps.

  9. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  10. Genomics and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones present in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Neupert, Susanne; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones constitute a very important group of signaling molecules, regulating central physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and behavior. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome of the parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitrip...... melanogaster, Aedes aegypti (both Diptera), Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera). This lower number of neuropeptide genes might be related to Nasonia's parasitic life....

  11. Biologic aspects of different species of Pachodynerus (Hymenoptera; Vespidae; Eumeninae Aspectos biológicos de diferentes espécies de Pachodynerus (Hymenoptera; Vespidae; Eumeninae

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    MLT. Buschini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare biological aspects of the Pachodynerus species occurring in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava, Paraná, Southern Brazil. It was carried from December 2001 to December 2004. Forty one nests belonging to 5 species were collected, of which 17 Pachodynerus guadulpensis, 15 Pachodynerus sp., 1 Pachodynerus argentinus, 1 Pachodynerus ca guadulpensis and 7 Pachodynerus nasidens. The nesting activity of Pachodynerus sp., P. argentinus and P. guadulpensis occurred in similar periods, from December to March, with the exception of P.guadulpensis, that built one nest in October. Pachodynerus ca guadulpensis nested in March and P. nasidens from January to April. The nests of Pachodynerus species present a very similar architecture, comprising a linear series of cylindrical cells that fit perfectly into each other forming a continuous tube. With these results we were able to conclude that, even though Pachodynerus species present common characteristics, such as nest architecture, nesting activities and habitats in which they occur, the used resources, mortality rates, etc., vary among groups of species occurring in different regions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar aspectos biológicos das espécies de Pachodynerus que ocorrem no Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava, Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Ele foi realizado de dezembro de 2001 a dezembro de 2004. Quarenta e um ninhos de cinco espécies foram coletados sendo 17 de Pachodynerus guadulpensis, 15 de Pachodynerus sp., um de Pachodynerus argentinus, um de Pachodynerus ca guadulpensis e sete de Pachodynerus nasidens. As nidificações de Pachodynerus sp., P. argentinus e P. guadulpensis ocorreram de dezembro a março, com exceção de P. guadulpensis, que construiu um ninho em outubro. Pachodynerus ca guadulpensis nidificou em março e P. nasidens de janeiro a abril. Os ninhos de todas as espécies de Pachodynerus apresentaram arquitetura similar, com uma série linear de células cilíndricas que se encaixam perfeitamente umas nas outras, formando um tubo contínuo. Pelos resultados deste estudo nós concluímos que, mesmo apresentando características em comum, como a arquitetura dos ninhos, atividades de nidificação e habitats onde ocorrem, os recursos usados pelas espécies de Pachodynerus bem como as suas taxas de mortalidades, etc., variam entre grupos de espécies que ocorrem em diferentes regiões.

  12. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  13. New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humala, Andrei E.; Kruidhof, Marjolein; Woelke, Joop

    2017-01-01

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The

  14. Hymenoptera venom review focusing on Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements. Several of these components have been isolated and characterized, and their primary structures determined by biochemical techniques. These compounds are responsible for many toxic or allergic reactions in different organisms, such as local pain, inflammation, itching, irritation, and moderate or severe allergic reactions. The most extensively characterized Hymenoptera venoms are bee venoms, mainly from the Apis genus and also from social wasps and ant species. However, there is little information about other Hymenoptera groups. The Apis venom presents high molecular weight molecules - enzymes with a molecular weight higher than 10.0 kDa - and peptides. The best studied enzymes are phospholipase A2, responsible for cleaving the membrane phospholipids, hyaluronidase, which degrades the matrix component hyaluronic acid into non-viscous segments and acid phosphatase acting on organic phosphates. The main peptide compounds of bee venom are lytic peptide melittin, apamin (neurotoxic, and mastocyte degranulating peptide (MCD.

  15. The parasitic wasp genus Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae, with the description of a new species from Mexico El género de avispas parasíticas Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae, con la descripción de una especie nueva de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The doryctine wasp genus Hecabolus Curtis and its type species, H. sulcatus Curtis, are redescribed. A new species from Mexico, H. mexicanus sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished from H. sulcatus and the other known species of the genus, H. costaricensis Marsh, in having a narrower pterostigma, longer discoidal (discal cell, basal (1M and recurrent (m-cu veins diverging posteriorly, first abscissa of mediocubital (M+CU vein of hind wing as long as the second abscissa (1M, and first metasomal tergite with a very small dorsope. A key for identification of the 3 known species of Hecabolus is provided.Se redescriben el género de avispas doryctinas Hecabolus Curtis y su especie tipo, H. sulcatus Curtis. Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de México, H. mexicanus sp. nov. La nueva especie se distingue de H. sulcatus y de la otra especie conocida del género, H. costaricensis Marsh, por presentar un pterostigma más angosto, una celda discoidal más larga, las venas basal y recurrente divergiendo posteriormente, la primer abscisa de la vena mediocubital del ala posterior tan larga como la segunda abscisa, y el primer tergo metasomal con un dorsopo muy pequeño. Se presenta una clave para identificar las 3 especies conocidas de Hecabolus.

  16. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

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    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  17. Partial cytochrome b sequences for six Hymenoptera of the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Gardner, L M

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have been commonly used to determine honeybee subspecies relationships. To see if these markers would also be useful for comparisons of other Hymenoptera, we collected workers of six local species: Vespa crabro, the European hornet; Bombus impatiens, a bumblebee; Vespula germanica, the German yellow jacket; Polistes fuscatus, a paper wasp; Halictus ligatus, an alkali bee; and an unspecified Megachile, a leafcutting bee. MtDNA was isolated and digested with six endonucleases (AvaI, BglII, EcoRI, HindIII, HinfI, XbaI). The digested DNA was electrophoresed and visualized on agarose gels with comparison to a standard fragment marker and similarly treated honeybee mtDNA. The fragments obtained were also purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships between six wasp and bee species, Apis mellifera, and several other similar aculeate Hymenoptera were determined. Newly defined DNA sequences were posted to GenBank (AF281169-AF281174).

  18. Gastral drumming: a nest-based food-recruitment signal in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin J.; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2018-04-01

    Many social insect species produce signals that either recruit foragers to a specific food source or simply activate more nestmates to become foragers. Both are means of enhancing resource exploitation by increasing the number of individuals devoted to gathering profitable resources. Gastral drumming (GD) has been documented in several species of yellowjackets and hornets (Vespidae: Vespinae). It has been hypothesized that it is a hunger signal, but there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. An alternative hypothesis is that GD recruits workers to forage for food. Here, we report the results of a test between the hunger-signal and food-recruitment hypotheses in the German yellowjacket wasp, Vespula germanica. We show that the rate of performance of GD decreased when colonies were deprived of food and increased when supplemental food was provided. Playback of GD caused increased rates of (1) movement in the nest, (2) trophallaxis, and (3) worker departures from the nest. Together, these results support the conclusion that GD is not a hunger signal as previously asserted but instead is a nest-based food-recruitment signal, the first to be reported for a social wasp.

  19. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  1. Diversidad de avispas parasitoides de la familia Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea del bosque tropical caducifolio en San Buenaventura, Jalisco, México Diversity of parasitoid wasps of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea in the tropical dry forest of San Buenaventura, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodríguez-Velez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la fauna de avispas parasitoides de la familia Encyrtidae en el bosque tropical caducifolio de San Buenaventura, Jalisco, México. El estudio se llevó a cabo de noviembre de 1996 a octubre de 1997. La recolección se realizó con trampas Malaise durante 5 días de cada mes. Se registró un total de 61 especies, 30 géneros, 13 tribus y 2 subfamilias. El mayor número de géneros y especies fue de la subfamilia Encyrtinae, con 22 géneros y 44 especies, seguida por Tetracneminae con 8 géneros y 17 especies. El género con mayor número de especies fue Metaphycus con 11. Las especies recolectadas no fueron abundantes, y su riqueza y abundancia varió estacionalmente, registrándose los valores más altos durante la temporada de lluvias. La similitud de la fauna de San Buenaventura, Jalisco con la de Huautla, Morelos fue mayor que la encontrada en otras regiones previamente estudiadas de bosque tropical caducifolio (San Javier, Sonora y Huatulco, Oaxaca.Results of a faunistic study of the parasitoid wasps of the family Encyrtidae of the tropical dry forest of San Buenaventura, Jalisco, Mexico are presented. The study was carried out from November 1996 to October 1997. Collecting technique was Malaise trapping. Collections were carried out during 5 days of every month. A total of 61 species, 30 genera, 13 tribes and 2 subfamilies were recorded. The subfamily with the largest number of species was Encyrtinae with 22 genera and 44 species, followed by Tetracneminae with 8 genera and 17 species. The genus with the largest number of species was Metaphycus with 11. Species had low abundance. Species richness and abundance varied with time, with the highest values recorded in the rainy season. The fauna of San Buenaventura, Jalisco was most similar to that of Huautla, Morelos, than to that of San Javier, Sonora and Huatulco, Oaxaca, all of them previously studied.

  2. Wasp sting induced STEMI with complete coronary artery occlusion: a case of Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin; Choudhury, Tawfiqur Rahman; Hindle, Mark; Galasko, Gavin

    2017-09-07

    A 45-year-old previously healthy man with minimal coronary artery disease on imaging presented with an acute MI after sustaining a wasp sting following previous non-eventful exposures throughout his life. This is the first case of Kounis syndrome with optical coherence tomography imaging and proven IgE wasp venom hypersensitivity. The Hymenoptera venom is composed of allergenic proteins and vasoactive amines which are responsible for venom toxicity. This patient also has a history of atopy giving a predisposition for developing IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Hymenoptera stings can be severe in atopic individuals and anaphylaxis may ensue. However, it is a rare cause of myocardial infarction (MI) (Kounis syndrome). Multiple wasp stings in the past may have contributed to sensitisation. Kounis syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation which should remain in the minds of physicians, especially with younger patients with no history of ischaemic heart disease or few risk factors. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. A taxonomic review of the genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M; Sureshan, Pavittu M

    2016-08-16

    A review of 20 Indian species of the genus Antepipona de Saussure with a key to species and subspecies is provided. A new synonymy is proposed for Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius, 1787) =A. excelsa keralensis Lambert, 2004, syn. nov. The parasitic association of Strepsiptera is reported for the first time in the genus Antepipona. Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) is newly recorded from India and A. ovalis (de Saussure, 1853) from Bangladesh. The reported distributions of ten species within India are enlarged.

  4. Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-06-22

    Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium are described and figured: P. striatum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Ha Tinh and Thai Nguyen) and P. concavum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Cao Bang). A key to all known species of the genus is provided.

  5. Taxonomic Review of the Genus Euodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae in the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Korean species of the genus Euodynerus Dalla Torre were taxonomically reviewed. Four species were confirmed: E. trilobus, E. dantici violaceipennis, E. nipanicus nipanicus, and E. quadrifasciatus atripes. The specimens previously identified as E. dantici brachyotomus and E. notatus pubescence form North Korea were re-examined, and corrected to E. dantici violaceipennis and E. nipanicus nipanicus, respectively. Euodynerus quadrifasciatus atripes was re-described for future researchers. After careful reading previous descriptions, Euodynerus seuli Radoszkowski was tentatively supposed to be conspecific with E. nipanicus.

  6. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Delta de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Delta de Saussure, 1855 from Vietnam is presented. A total of four species are recorded: D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, D. esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, and D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775. Of these, D. campaniforme campaniforme was first recorded from Vietnam by de Saussure et al., 1904, under the name Eumenes esuriens and is now reconfirmed to occur in Vietnam after more than 100 years, and D. conoideum is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to species based on morphological characters is given with illustrations, and distributional records in Vietnam are also provided.

  7. The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles E Budge

    Full Text Available The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina colour form nigrithorax was introduced into France from China over a decade ago. Vespa velutina has since spread rapidly across Europe, facilitated by suitable climatic conditions and the ability of a single nest to disperse many mated queens over a large area. Yellow-legged hornets are a major concern because of the potential impact they have on populations of many beneficial pollinators, most notably the western honey bee (Apis mellifera, which shows no effective defensive behaviours against this exotic predator. Here, we present the first report of this species in Great Britain. Actively foraging hornets were detected at two locations, the first around a single nest in Gloucestershire, and the second a single hornet trapped 54 km away in Somerset. The foraging activity observed in Gloucestershire was largely restricted to within 700 m of a single nest, suggesting highly localised movements. Genetic analyses of individuals from the Gloucestershire nest and the single hornet from Somerset suggest that these incursions represent an expansion of the European population, rather than a second incursion from Asia. The founding queen of the Gloucestershire nest mated with a single male, suggesting that sexual reproduction may have occurred in an area of low nest density. Whilst the nest contained diploid adult males, haploid 'true' males were only present at the egg stage, indicating that the nest was detected and removed before the production of queens. Members of the public reported additional dead hornets associated with camping equipment recently returned from France and imported timber products, highlighting possible pathways of incursion. The utility of microsatellites to inform surveillance during an incursion and the challenge of achieving eradication of this damaging pest are discussed.

  8. Utility of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachová, Martina; Panzner, Petr; Malkusová, Ivana; Hanzlíková, Jana; Vlas, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    A diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy is based on clinical history and the results of skin tests and/or laboratory methods. To analyze the utility of available laboratory tests in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Ninety-five patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy with a history of bee (35) or wasp (60) anaphylactic sting reaction and positive skin test with bee or wasp venom were included in this analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (to bee venom extract, wasp venom extract, available recombinant molecules, and a basophil activation test with venom extracts were assessed in all the patients. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using standard threshold values; then, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compute optimal threshold values. Also, statistical analysis of the utility of different combinations of laboratory tests was performed. The optimal threshold values were revealed to be the following: 1.0 kIU/L for bee venom extract (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 100%), 0.35 kIU/L for rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 68.57%; specificity, 100%), 1.22 kIU/L for wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 88.33%; specificity, 95.45%), 0.7 kIU/L for rVes v 5 (sensitivity, 86.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 1.0 kIU/L for rVes v 1 (sensitivity, 56.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 6.5% for basophil activation test with bee venom extract (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 95.45%), and 4.5% for basophil activation test with wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 91.53%; specificity, 95.45%). The best test combinations were found to be the following: bee venom extract plus rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 95.45%) in bee and either wasp venom extract plus rVes v 5, or rVes v 5 plus rVes v 1 (both sensitivity, 98.33%; specificity, 95.45%) in patients with wasp venom allergy. Our analysis confirmed that currently used laboratory tests represent effective tools in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Moreover, our probabilistic approach offered another

  9. Ultrastructure of the silk glands in three adult females of sphecid wasps of the genus Microstigmus (Hymenoptera: Pemphredoninae Ultraestructura de las glándulas de seda en hembras adultas de tres especies de avispas del género Microstigmus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: Pemphredoninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO SERRÃO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of silk glands in adult females of sphecid wasps is described. Individual glands are scattered in the more posterior portion of the metasoma being each gland formed by an enlarged secretory unity with one conducting canal. Each secretory unit is a gland cell containing a large lumen and numerous secretory granules, which are delimited by membrane and filled with middle electron dense content of homogeneous aspect, which are exocytosed into the extra cellular lumen. Cell cytoplasm is filled with rough endoplasmic reticulum, polyribosomes and Golgi apparatuses profiles. The basal plasma membrane has many short infoldings and is lined by a thin basement membrane. The apical membrane is invaginated to form the boundary of the lumen, containing scattered short microvilli. The cells are mononucleated and the nucleus is pleomorphic containing disperse chromatin. The extracellular lumen is separated of the receiving canal by a convoluted sponge-like wall forming many villi, which in their tip are lined by a thin single layered cuticle. In the basal region of the villi a cuticular covering is lacking. In the conducting canal secretion acquire two different electron densities. A thin cuticle lines the lumen of conducting canal and the cell cytoplasm is scarce and the organelles are represented for few rough endoplasmic reticulum and polyribosomes. These results are discussed in relation to function and origin of silk gland in adult SphecidaeSe describe la ultraestructura de las glándulas de la seda en tres hembras adultas de avispas Sphecidae del género Microstigmus. Las glándulas individualmente se dispersan en la porción más posterior del metasoma, y cada una de ellas está formada por una unidad secretora grande y un canal que conduce la secreción. Cada célula de la unidad secretora contiene un gran lumen y numerosos gránulos secretores, los que están delimitados por una membrana y repletos de un contenido denso a los

  10. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  11. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    m

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... following formula: ... Sørensen similarity index is calculated from this formula as: ..... Bayesian phylogenetics and the evolution of gall ... theory. Ecology, 89(7): 1921-1930. Stone GN, Schonrogge K, Atkinson R, Bellido D, ...

  12. Conspectus of the Sphecid wasps of Egypt (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    propodeum with dorsal area transversely striate; petiole longer than hind tarsomere 1; tarsi 1 with long comb of fine brown hairs with pale stout spines; on anterior surface, long semi-recumbent hairs, on inner side stout white spines; SMC2 almost parallel sided. Length 17 mm. Range: Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Algeria, ...

  13. Reward value determines memory consolidation in parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidhof, H Marjolein; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Fatouros, Nina E; Figueroa, Ilich A; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae), similarly adjust the memory form they consolidate to a fitness-determining reward: egg-laying into a host-insect that serves as food for their offspring. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) was consolidated after single-trial conditioning with a high-value host. However, single-trial conditioning with a low-value host induced consolidation of a shorter-lasting memory form. For Cotesia glomerata, we subsequently identified this shorter-lasting memory form as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) because it was not sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors or anesthesia. Associative conditioning using a single reward of different value thus induced a physiologically different mechanism of memory formation in this species. We conclude that the memory form that is consolidated does not only change in response to relatively large differences in conditioning, such as the number and type of conditioning trials, but is also sensitive to more subtle differences, such as reward value. Reward-dependent consolidation of exclusive ARM or LTM provides excellent opportunities for within-species comparison of mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  15. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmølledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complexterrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  16. Analysis of Genetic Variation across the Encapsidated Genome of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus in Parasitoid Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelen R Burke

    Full Text Available Insect parasitoids must complete part of their life cycle within or on another insect, ultimately resulting in the death of the host insect. One group of parasitoid wasps, the 'microgastroid complex' (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, engage in an association with beneficial symbiotic viruses that are essential for successful parasitism of hosts. These viruses, known as Bracoviruses, persist in an integrated form in the wasp genome, and activate to replicate in wasp ovaries during development to ultimately be delivered into host insects during parasitism. The lethal nature of host-parasitoid interactions, combined with the involvement of viruses in mediating these interactions, has led to the hypothesis that Bracoviruses are engaged in an arms race with hosts, resulting in recurrent adaptation in viral (and host genes. Deep sequencing was employed to characterize sequence variation across the encapsidated Bracovirus genome within laboratory and field populations of the parasitoid wasp species Microplitis demolitor. Contrary to expectations, there was a paucity of evidence for positive directional selection among virulence genes, which generally exhibited signatures of purifying selection. These data suggest that the dynamics of host-parasite interactions may not result in recurrent rounds of adaptation, and that adaptation may be more variable in time than previously expected.

  17. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  18. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  19. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Couto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.

  20. The origins of species richness in the Hymenoptera: insights from a family-level supertree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Robert B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The order Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, sawflies contains about eight percent of all described species, but no analytical studies have addressed the origins of this richness at family-level or above. To investigate which major subtaxa experienced significant shifts in diversification, we assembled a family-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera using supertree methods. We used sister-group species-richness comparisons to infer the phylogenetic position of shifts in diversification. Results The supertrees most supported by the underlying input trees are produced using matrix representation with compatibility (MRC (from an all-in and a compartmentalised analysis. Whilst relationships at the tips of the tree tend to be well supported, those along the backbone of the tree (e.g. between Parasitica superfamilies are generally not. Ten significant shifts in diversification (six positive and four negative are found common to both MRC supertrees. The Apocrita (wasps, ants, bees experienced a positive shift at their origin accounting for approximately 4,000 species. Within Apocrita other positive shifts include the Vespoidea (vespoid wasps/ants containing 24,000 spp., Anthophila + Sphecidae (bees/thread-waisted wasps; 22,000 spp., Bethylidae + Chrysididae (bethylid/cuckoo wasps; 5,200 spp., Dryinidae (dryinid wasps; 1,100 spp., and Proctotrupidae (proctotrupid wasps; 310 spp.. Four relatively species-poor families (Stenotritidae, Anaxyelidae, Blasticotomidae, Xyelidae have undergone negative shifts. There are some two-way shifts in diversification where sister taxa have undergone shifts in opposite directions. Conclusions Our results suggest that numerous phylogenetically distinctive radiations contribute to the richness of large clades. They also suggest that evolutionary events restricting the subsequent richness of large clades are common. Problematic phylogenetic issues in the Hymenoptera are identified, relating especially to

  1. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nympha...

  2. Traumatic ventriculitis following consumption of introduced insect prey (Hymenoptera) in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Rosemary J; Alley, Maurice R; Castro, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nestling mortality in the endangered and endemic Hihi, also called Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta), was studied over the 2008-09 breeding season at Zealandia-Karori Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. Histopathology showed traumatic ventriculitis in seven of 25 (28%) dead nestlings. Single or multiple granulomas centered on chitinous insect remnants were found lodged within the gizzard mucosa, muscle layers, and ventricular or intestinal serosa. The insect remnants were confirmed as bee or wasp stings (Hymenoptera) using light and electron microscopy. Bacteria or yeasts were also found in some granulomas, and death was due to bacterial septicemia in four cases. Endemic New Zealand birds are likely to lack evolutionary adaptations required to safely consume introduced honey bees (Apis mellifera) and vespulid wasps (Vespula germanica [German wasp], and Vespula vulgaris [common wasp]). However, these insects are attracted to feeding stations used to support translocated Hihi populations. As contact between bees, wasps, and the endemic fauna of New Zealand seems inevitable, it may be necessary to minimize the numbers of these introduced insects in areas set aside for ecologic restoration.

  3. Safety of specific immunotherapy using an ultra-rush induction regimen in bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Andrzej; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-02-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy to Hymenoptera venom (VIT) is a basic treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of an ultra-rush regimen compared with the rush and conventional protocols. In 31 patients with an allergy to bee venom and 82 with an allergy to wasp venom, the allergic adverse reactions during VIT were monitored. Patients were selected based on the criteria established by EAACI (European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology) recommendations. Adverse reactions during the ultra-rush immunotherapy were measured, documented and classified according to the criteria of Mueller. Ultra-rush, rush or conventional protocols of the initial phase VIT using the Venomenhal vaccine (Hal Allergy, Leiden, Netherlands) were conducted. Six (13.7%) patients on the ultra-rush regimen, 5 (14.3%) patients on the rush regimen and 9 (26.5%) on conventional VIT experienced an allergic reaction. There were no associations between the adverse allergic reactions and the following factors: gender, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE to wasp or bee venom before the VIT and cardiological drugs that were used. We found that the ultra-rush protocol (similar to the rush protocol) using the Venomenhal vaccine is safer than the conventional protocol.

  4. SPIN–ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D., E-mail: baddison2005@gmail.com [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2016-05-20

    We have measured the sky-projected spin–orbit alignments for three transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky-projected spin–orbit angles of λ = 3° ± 33°, λ = −8° ± 11°, and λ = −4° ± 22° for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star’s spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star’s Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ( T {sub eff} = 6450 ± 120 K and T {sub eff} = 6600 ± 150 K, respectively) mid-F stars, making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high-obliquity orbits. Moderate spin–orbit misalignments for WASP-103b and WASP-66b are consistent with our data, but polar and retrograde orbits are not favored for these systems.

  5. SPIN–ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Bayliss, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the sky-projected spin–orbit alignments for three transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky-projected spin–orbit angles of λ = 3° ± 33°, λ = −8° ± 11°, and λ = −4° ± 22° for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star’s spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star’s Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ( T eff = 6450 ± 120 K and T eff = 6600 ± 150 K, respectively) mid-F stars, making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high-obliquity orbits. Moderate spin–orbit misalignments for WASP-103b and WASP-66b are consistent with our data, but polar and retrograde orbits are not favored for these systems.

  6. The genomic features of parasitism, Polyembryony and immune evasion in the endoparasitic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chuanlin; Li, Meizhen; Hu, Jian; Lang, Kun; Chen, Qiming; Liu, Jinding; Guo, Dianhao; He, Kang; Dong, Yipei; Luo, Jiapeng; Song, Zhenkun; Walters, James R; Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Fei; Chen, Xuexin

    2018-05-30

    Parasitoid wasps are well-known natural enemies of major agricultural pests and arthropod borne diseases. The parasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been widely used to control the notorious insect pests Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian Corn Borer) and O. nubilalis (European corn borer). One striking phenomenon exhibited by M. cingulum is polyembryony, the formation of multiple genetically identical offspring from a single zygote. Moreover, M. cingulum employs a passive parasitic strategy by preventing the host's immune system from recognizing the embryo as a foreign body. Thus, the embryos evade the host's immune system and are not encapsulated by host hemocytes. Unfortunately, the mechanism of both polyembryony and immune evasion remains largely unknown. We report the genome of the parasitoid wasp M. cingulum. Comparative genomics analysis of M. cingulum and other 11 insects were conducted, finding some gene families with apparent expansion or contraction which might be linked to the parasitic behaviors or polyembryony of M. cingulum. Moreover, we present the evidence that the microRNA miR-14b regulates the polyembryonic development of M. cingulum by targeting the c-Myc Promoter-binding Protein 1 (MBP-1), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2E (KMT2E) and segmentation protein Runt. In addition, Hemomucin, an O-glycosylated transmembrane protein, protects the endoparasitoid wasp larvae from being encapsulated by host hemocytes. Motif and domain analysis showed that only the hemomucin in two endoparasitoids, M. cingulum and Venturia canescens, possessing the ability of passive immune evasion has intact mucin domain and similar O-glycosylation patterns, indicating that the hemomucin is a key factor modulating the immune evasion. The microRNA miR-14b participates in the regulation of polyembryonic development, and the O-glycosylation of the mucin domain in the hemomucin confers the passive immune evasion in this wasp. These key findings provide

  7. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  8. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  9. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  10. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  11. Padrão de Nidificação de Monobia angulosa Saussure (Vespidae Durante Estação Seca Prolongada na Região da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, com Notas Sobre Nidificação em Ninho Abandonado de Xylocopa cearensis Ducke (Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mahlmann

    2015-03-01

    Abstract. Weather can be treated as an important factor in the nesting pattern of several solitary wasps species. Nesting pattern of wasp Monobia angulosa Saussure (Vespidae: Eumeninae was accessed in present study in the agricultural area of Mucugê-Ibicoara, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, during an extended period of dry season. In here we also presented the first record of a natural nest in pre-existing cavities prior used by Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa cearensis Ducke (Apidae: Xylocopinae. For a description of the M. angulosa’s natural nest a single nest found in apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh was used. For the nesting pattern study we used the trap nests technique with 25 points along the agricultural sampled area; traps were placed in remaining native vegetation. Each sample point was at least 4 km apart. Emerged in the laboratory a total of 19 females and 23 males for a total of 19 established nests, males emerged prior females. Unlike the horizontal trap nests, the natural one was built in vertical linear series and a wooden stake was used as a substrate. Nesting concentrated in the warmer months, between February and April, 2012, with very low precipitation, evidencing influence on nesting pattern of this species, probably due fast response to climatic changes.

  12. WASP in Nuclear Power Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chi; Vuong Minh Quang; Nguyen Tri Ho

    1993-03-01

    The main modules of WASP are presented in details in the introduction paragraph. The authors have emphasized on the probabilistic simulation used in WASP for evaluating different costs of the objective function and the Bellman principle for finding the optimal trajectory in dynamic programming. In the second paragraph the principal results obtained by the Nuclear Power Dept. of VINATOM are enumerated: a/the most cost-effective solution for Vietnam is to introduce a nuclear power capacity of 800-1200 MW by around the year 2010; b/ different types of reactors for the first NPP are ranked according to their economic criteria; c/ the sensitivity analysis is also carried out with respect to discount rates, LOLP (loss of load probability), ENS (energy non served), construction cost. (author). 4 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Soriano, V; Mayorga, L; Mayor, M

    2005-02-01

    The natural history of stings, the clinical reaction of the patient and in vivo and in vitro tests are necessary parameters to assess before initiating Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. In the decision to initiate immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venom, it is not usual to evaluate the natural history of the disease, which seems to be self-limiting and therefore of variable clinical significance. Our aim was to determine the natural history of Hymenoptera hypersensitivity over 4 consecutive years in a rural Mediterranean population. An epidemiological study of Hymenoptera sting reactions and possible sensitivity was carried out in 145 randomly selected subjects out of a rural Mediterranean population of 600. Seventy-two subjects, including those with a history of anaphylaxis, completed the 4-year study. The nature of their clinical reactions, age, sex, history of atopy, profession, family history of reactions to Hymenoptera insects, time elapsed since the last sting, number of stings and specific IgE and IgG were determined (the latter, to the three most important insects in the area: Apis mellifera, Polistes dominulus, and Vespula germanica). Of the 72 subjects, four subjects had systemic reactions (SR), 23 had large local reaction (LLR) and all the others (117) was minor local reactions. None who had experienced an SR had a repeat SR when re-stung over the 4-year study. Of those with LLR, 12 subjects had the same type of reaction and 11 experienced more mild local reactions when re-stung. In the SR and local reaction groups, IgE to honey bee (Hb) increased significantly during the study period, whereas in those with only LLR, specific IgE to wasp (Polistes) decreased. Specific IgG to Polistes and Vespula (wasps) decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in the specific IgG to Hb in any of the groups. The number of stings per year decreased at the end of the study in all groups, but positive-specific IgG was higher in subjects with the greatest number of

  14. ANALYSIS OF SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT IN THE WASP-32, WASP-38, AND HAT-P-27/WASP-40 SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Enoch, B.; Miller, G. R. M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diaz, R. F. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Doyle, A. P.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Building, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gillon, M. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 (Bat. B5C) Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Queloz, D. [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Boisse, I. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Hebrard, G., E-mail: djab@st-andrews.ac.uk [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2012-12-01

    We present measurements of the spin-orbit alignment angle, {lambda}, for the hot Jupiter systems WASP-32, WASP-38, and HAT-P-27/WASP-40, based on data obtained using the HARPS spectrograph. We analyze the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for all three systems and also carry out Doppler tomography for WASP-32 and WASP-38. We find that WASP-32 (T {sub eff} = 6140{sup +90} {sub -100} K) is aligned, with an alignment angle of {lambda} = 10.{sup 0}5{sup +6.4} {sub -6.5} obtained through tomography, and that WASP-38 (T {sub eff} = 6180{sup +40} {sub -60} K) is also aligned, with tomographic analysis yielding {lambda} = 7.{sup 0}5{sup +4.7} {sub -6.1}. The latter result provides an order-of-magnitude improvement in the uncertainty in {lambda} compared to the previous analysis of Simpson et al. We are only able to loosely constrain the angle for HAT-P-27/WASP-40 (T{sub eff} = 5190{sup +160} {sub -170} K) to {lambda} = 24.{sup 0}2{sup +76.0}{sub -44.5}, owing to the poor signal-to-noise ratio of our data. We consider this result a non-detection under a slightly updated version of the alignment test of Brown et al. We place our results in the context of the full sample of spin-orbit alignment measurements, finding that they provide further support for previously established trends.

  15. Evaluation of the quality of life in subjects with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to the Hymenoptera venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Pulka, Grażyna; Pełka, Karolina; Latra, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Sensitization to the Hymenoptera venom is one of the main causes of anaphylaxis in Poland. Venom immunotherapy is the only effective treatment in such cases. Comprehensive patient care includes also education. The aim of our study was to assess the state of knowledge and to evaluate the quality of life and the anxiety level in patients allergic to the Hymenoptera venom after anaphylactic reaction. The survey was carried out in the period of the insects flight in 61 adult subjects (35 wasp and 26 bee allergic), using a validated Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (VQLQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and subjective assessment of anxiety level. The majority of respondents received venom immunotherapy. Sensitized to the wasp venom had significantly impaired quality of life (VQLQ score) as compared to the bee venom allergic (p = 0.014). The intensity of anxiety decreased with the duration of immunotherapy (p = 0.01). The majority of subjects knew how to recognize and treat anaphylaxis, but only 8% employed an identification card and about 50% implemented rules of the pre-exposition prophylaxis. History of a severe anaphylaxis to the Hymenoptera venom affected the quality of life. Venom immunotherapy reduced anxiety. We hope that presented surveys and their results might be useful in qualifying for immunotherapy in clinically uncertain cases.

  16. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John

    2008-01-01

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  17. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  18. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  19. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  20. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  2. Observations on Forced Colony Emigration in Parachartergus fraternus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini: New Nest Site Marked with Sprayed Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of colony emigration induced by removal of nest envelope and combs and a single one by manipulation are described. The disturbance was followed by defensive patterns, buzz running, and adult dispersion. An odor trail created by abdomen dragging, probably depositing venom or Dufour's gland secretions, connected the original nest to the newly selected nesting place and guided the emigration. The substrate of the selected nesting place is intensely sprayed with venom prior to emigration, and this chemical cue marked the emigration end point. The colony moves to the new site in a diffuse cloud with no temporary clusters formed along the odor trail. At the original nest, scouts performed rapid gaster dragging and intense mouth contacts stimulating inactive individuals to depart. Males were unable to follow the swarm. Individual scouts switched between different behavioral tasks before and after colony emigration. Pulp collected from the old nest was reused at the new nest site.

  3. A taxonomic review of the genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M

    2013-10-30

    The genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 is reviewed from the Indian subcontinent. Three species with one additional subspecies are present, namely Antodynerus flavescens flavescens (Fabricius, 1775), A. f. karachiensis Giordani Soika, 1970, A. limbatus (de Saussure, 1852), and A. punctatipennis (de Saussure, 1853). The parasitic association of strepsipteran insects and the symbiotic association of mites are reported for the first time in the genus Antodynerus. The distribution of A. f. flavescens (Fabricius) and A. limbatus (de Saussure) in the Indian states is augmented. The latter species is newly recorded from China (Tibet). A key to species of the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  4. Well, what about intraspecific variation? Taxonomic and phylogenetic characters in the genus Synoeca de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James M; Andena, Sergio R; Noll, Fernando B; Wenzel, John W

    2013-01-01

    Cely and Sarmiento (2011) took issue with the cladistic analysis of relationships among species of the genus Synoeca by Andena et al. (2009a), and presented a reanalysis. They claimed that intraspecific variation in the genus is meaningful, and proper consideration yields a conclusion different from that of Andena et al. Both their critique and reanalysis are vitiated by numerous errors, as is shown in the present paper.

  5. Notes on the genus Epsilon de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selis, Marco

    2017-11-28

    The genus Epsilon de Saussure, 1855, is newly recorded from the Moluccas. New distributional records on Epsilon grandipunctatum Gusenleitner, 1996 are provided. Epsilon rufipes Selis, sp. nov. (Moluccas, Aru islands) is described and figured.

  6. Laboratory demonstrations of pheromone-mediated scent-marking, orientation, and mounting behavior in Polistes exclamans Vienick (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A combination of arena, Y-tube olfactometer, and flight tunnel assays were used to determine responses of male and reproductive female Polistes exclamans Vierick to odors and extracts of conspecific males and females, as potential pheromone-mediated sexual behaviors. Males rubbed the sternites of th...

  7. Nesting associations between Chartergus globiventris Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae and Tolmomyias sulphurescens Spix (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Souza

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. O sucesso das espécies de vespas sociais está relacionado tanto a construção quanto a manutenção das colônias. Várias espécies utilizam de diversas estratégias para evitar a predação de seus ninhos, como a associação com outros insetos e vertebrados. O presente estudo descreve o primeiro registro da associação da vespa social Chartergus globiventris Saussure com a ave Tolmomyias sulphurescens Spix em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual no Sudeste do Brasil. Foram registradas oito colônias de C. globiventris ativas em diferentes espécies arbóreas, das quais três estavam associadas a ninhos ativos de T. sulphurescens. A associação entre a ave e a vespa tem sido tratada como comensalismo, pois apenas a ave obtém vantagens aparente, como discutido na literatura. Contudo, é necessário realizar experimentações ou análises mais aprofundadas a fim de se obter afirmações sobre os benefícios dessa relação.

  8. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  9. Population Dynamics of Native Parasitoids Associated with the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Panzavolta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013 of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker (Hymenoptera: Torymidae, which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.

  10. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  11. Life inside a gall: closeness does not favour horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between a gall wasp and its parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Liberata; Nugnes, Francesco; Nappo, Anna G; Gebiola, Marco; Bernardo, Umberto

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of horizontal transmission as a route for spreading symbiont infections is still being debated, but a common view is that horizontal transfers require intimate between-species relationships. Here we study a system that meets ideal requirements for horizontal transmission: the gall wasp Leptocybe invasa and its parasitoid Quadrastichus mendeli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These wasps belong to the same subfamily, spend most of their lives inside the same minute gall and are both infected by Rickettsia, a maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infects several arthropods, sometimes manipulating their reproduction, like inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Despite intimate contact, close phylogenetic relationship and the parasitoid's host specificity, we show that host and parasitoid do not share the same Rickettsia. We provide indirect evidence that Rickettsia infecting Q. mendeli may be inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis, as the symbiont is densely present in the reproductive apparatus and is vertically transmitted. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S and gltA placed this symbiont in the leech group. The confirmed and presumed parthenogenesis-inducing Rickettsia discovered so far only infect eulophid wasps, and belong to three different groups, suggesting multiple independent evolution of the parthenogenesis inducing phenotype. We also show some degree of cospeciation between Rickettsia and their eulophid hosts. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Investigation of the lethal and behavioral effects of commercial insecticides on the parasitoid wasp Copidosoma truncatellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo S; de Araújo, Vitor C R; Pereira, Renata R; Martins, Júlio C; Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Silva, Ricardo S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-01

    Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%. In contrast, cartap, deltamethrin, and methomyl caused 100% mortality, and acephate and spinosad caused 76% and 78% mortality, respectively. At least one of the detoxifying enzymes (monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase, and/or esterases) may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the selectivity of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb for the parasitoid based on the results for the insecticide plus synergist treatment. Changes in the behavioral patterns (walking time and resting time) of the parasitoid were found with exposure to acephate, flubendiamide, indoxacarb and methomyl, but behavioral avoidance was not observed. Our results indicate that the insecticides chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr are the most suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for the control of C. includens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compositional changes in bee and wasp communities along Neotropical mountain altitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Neves Perillo

    Full Text Available Climate conditions tend to differ along an altitudinal gradient, resulting in some species groups' patterns of lower species richness with increasing altitude. While this pattern is well understood for tropical mountains, studies investigating possible determinants of variation in beta-diversity at its different altitudes are scarce. We sampled bee and wasp communities (Hymenoptera: Aculeata along an altitudinal gradient (1,000-2,000 m.a.s.l. in a tropical mountainous region of Brazil. Trap nests and Moericke traps were established at six sampling points, with 200 m difference in altitude between each point. We obtained average climate data (1970-2000 from Worldclim v2 for altitudes at each sampling site. Nest traps captured 17 bee and wasp species from six families, and Moericke traps captured 124 morphospecies from 13 families. We found a negative correlation between altitude and species richness and abundance. Temperature, precipitation, water vapor pressure, and wind speed influenced species richness and abundance, and were correlated with altitude. β-diversity was primarily determined by species turnover as opposed to nestedness, and Aculeate community similarity was higher for more similar altitudinal ranges. Moericke traps seem to be more efficient for altitudinal surveys compared to nest traps. We found high occurrence of singleton and doubleton species at all altitudes, highlighting the need for long-term studies to efficiently assess hymenopteran diversity in these environments.

  14. Recombination and its impact on the genome of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp Nasonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Niehuis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous meiotic recombination occurs in most sexually reproducing organisms, yet its evolutionary advantages are elusive. Previous research explored recombination in the honeybee, a eusocial hymenopteran with an exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate. A comparable study in a non-social member of the Hymenoptera that would disentangle the impact of sociality from Hymenoptera-specific features such as haplodiploidy on the evolution of the high genome-wide recombination rate in social Hymenoptera is missing. Utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between two Nasonia parasitoid wasp genomes, we developed a SNP genotyping microarray to infer a high-density linkage map for Nasonia. The map comprises 1,255 markers with an average distance of 0.3 cM. The mapped markers enabled us to arrange 265 scaffolds of the Nasonia genome assembly 1.0 on the linkage map, representing 63.6% of the assembled N. vitripennis genome. We estimated a genome-wide recombination rate of 1.4-1.5 cM/Mb for Nasonia, which is less than one tenth of the rate reported for the honeybee. The local recombination rate in Nasonia is positively correlated with the distance to the center of the linkage groups, GC content, and the proportion of simple repeats. In contrast to the honeybee genome, gene density in the parasitoid wasp genome is positively associated with the recombination rate; regions of low recombination are characterized by fewer genes with larger introns and by a greater distance between genes. Finally, we found that genes in regions of the genome with a low recombination frequency tend to have a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, likely due to the accumulation of slightly deleterious non-synonymous substitutions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that recombination reduces interference between linked sites and thereby facilitates adaptive evolution and the purging of deleterious mutations. Our results imply

  15. Description of the 'Variable System' in WASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The VARSYS modul of the WASP code prepares a disc data file describing the plant types to be considered as candidates for possible addition to installed capacity in order to be able to meet forecast loads. (RW) [de

  16. Wasp sting: An unusual fatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Mathew, P.; Pawar, B.; Calton, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wasp stings are not uncommon especially in populations living in theproximity of forested area-s all over the world. Local manifestationsfollowing stings are common and unusually life threatening anaphylaxis mayoccur, requiring prompt treatment. Multi organ failure and acute renalfailure following wasp stings are rare and histological evaluation suggestacute tubular necrosis secondary to hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and directvenom toxicity. A rare complication of a patient following multiple waspstings with disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure andthrombotic microangiopathy is presented. (author)

  17. System interconnection studies using WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Y [Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corp., Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of WASP as a modelling tool for determining the development of two electric systems with interconnections. A case study has been carried out to determine the possibilities of transfer of baseload energy between Turkey and a neighboring country. The objective of this case study is to determine the amount of energy that can be transferred, variations of Loss Probability (LOLP) and unserved energy, and the cost of additional generation with interconnection. The break-even cost will be determined to obtain the minimum charge rate at which TEAS (Turkish Electricity Generation-Transmission Corp.) needs to sell the energy in order to recover the costs. The minimum charge rate for both capacity and energy will be estimated without considering extra capacity additions, except for the ones needed by the Turkish system alone. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  18. Parasitismo entre especies (Diptera, Hymenoptera en los nidos de Stictia signata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the

  19. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  20. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy of the development of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens within its host moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudek, J A; Crook, A M; Hubbard, S F; Hunter, G

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy was used to image the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) within larval and pupal instars of its host, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The images were obtained using gradient-echo and chemical shift selective pulse sequences and clearly showed the location and shapes of the parasitoid as it developed from the L1 larva to a pupal stage within the host. The digestive, nervous, and tracheal systems of the host were identified and changes were observed as the host underwent metamorphosis. Destruction of the host tissues by the parasitoid was visible. It was found that the parasitoid first ate the fat body and digestive system of the host, allowing the host to continue to grow, and only progressed to the vital organs when its own development had neared pupation.

  2. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-10 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Close, L. M.; Scuderi, L. J.; Morris, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present here observations of the transit of WASP-10b on 2009 October 14 UT taken from the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow. Conditions were photometric and accuracies of 2.0 mmag rms were obtained throughout the transit. We have found that the ratio of the planet to host star radii is in agreement with the measurements of Christian et al. instead of the refinements of Johnson et al., suggesting that WASP-10b is indeed inflated beyond what is expected from theoretical modeling. We find no evidence for large (>20 s) transit timing variations in WASP-10b's orbit from the ephemeris of Christian et al. and Johnson et al.

  3. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  4. Genome, transcriptome and methylome sequencing of a primitively eusocial wasp reveal a greatly reduced DNA methylation system in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Daniel S; Berens, Ali J; Glastad, Karl M; Severin, Andrew J; Brendel, Volker P; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Comparative genomics of social insects has been intensely pursued in recent years with the goal of providing insights into the evolution of social behaviour and its underlying genomic and epigenomic basis. However, the comparative approach has been hampered by a paucity of data on some of the most informative social forms (e.g. incipiently and primitively social) and taxa (especially members of the wasp family Vespidae) for studying social evolution. Here, we provide a draft genome of the primitively eusocial model insect Polistes dominula, accompanied by analysis of caste-related transcriptome and methylome sequence data for adult queens and workers. Polistes dominula possesses a fairly typical hymenopteran genome, but shows very low genomewide GC content and some evidence of reduced genome size. We found numerous caste-related differences in gene expression, with evidence that both conserved and novel genes are related to caste differences. Most strikingly, these -omics data reveal a major reduction in one of the major epigenetic mechanisms that has been previously suggested to be important for caste differences in social insects: DNA methylation. Along with a conspicuous loss of a key gene associated with environmentally responsive DNA methylation (the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3), these wasps have greatly reduced genomewide methylation to almost zero. In addition to providing a valuable resource for comparative analysis of social insect evolution, our integrative -omics data for this important behavioural and evolutionary model system call into question the general importance of DNA methylation in caste differences and evolution in social insects. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  6. Cuticular lipids as trail pheromone in a social wasp.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Inge; Schmolz, Erik; Ruther, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the origin and composition of the chemical trail of the common yellow jacket Vespula vulgaris L. (Vespidae) and found that an artificial trail made from an extract of cuticular lipids from V. vulgaris foragers was biologically as active as a trail laid naturally by the foragers. Chemical analysis of natural trail extracts and the behaviourally active cuticular extracts by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the majority of cuticular hydrocarbons were als...

  7. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  8. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms

  9. Enkele bijzondere bijenwaarnemingen (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    Some interesting records on Dutch bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) The publication of the preliminary atlas of Dutch bees (Peeters et al. 1999) has stimulated many specialists in their mapping activity. The author reports several interesting new distribution records on ten bee-species in 1999. The Dutch

  10. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  11. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  12. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G. Elias

    study mutualistic interactions and opportunistic strategies (parasites of mutualism. Plants of the genus Ficus maintain a mutualistic interaction with tiny pollinating wasps (Agaonidae and are exploited by other non-pollinating fig wasp species. This study aimed to assess the effect of non-pollinating wasps over the mutualistic relation between Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae and its pollinator Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919 (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae. We compared both seed (female plant function and pollinating female (male plant function production rates among samples of high- and low-infested figs by non-pollinating wasps, sampled in three Brazilian cities, Londrina (State of Paraná, Campinas and Ribeirão Preto (state of São Paulo, Brazil. Our results have shown a negative impact over both female and male floral reproductive components. This effect was higher on the male plant component (production of pollinating females. Pollinator production was approximately seven times lower in infested figs, whereas seed production was 1.5 times lower in those figs. We discuss hypotheses about mutualism stability with the occurrence of opportunistic species.

  13. Observations on the Nesting and Prey of the Solitary Wasp, Tachysphex inconspicuus, with a Review of Nesting Behavior in the T. obscuripennis species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczewski, Frank E.; Coville, Rollin E.; Schal, Coby

    2010-01-01

    The nesting behaviors of 10 females of Tachysphex inconspicuus (Kirby) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) were studied on a sandy, mowed lawn at the La Selva Biological Station in northeastern Costa Rica on 27–29 April 1980. Twenty-four completed nests were observed, excavated, and measured. The nests had oblique, short burrows leading to one or two shallow cells. Prey cockroaches belonging to 11 species of Chorisoneura and Riatia fulgida (Saussure) (Blattaria: Blattellidae), all tropical wet forest canopy indicator species, were removed from the cells, weighed, and identified. The cockroaches consisted mainly of adult females, selectively preyed upon over adult males and nymphs due to their larger sizes. The aggregate prey mass in cells was separable into prospective larger (heavier) female and smaller (lighter) male cells. Wasps usually oviposited on the heaviest cockroach in a cell, in most cases an adult female. Atypical genus behavior included (1) prey being carried to one side of the wasp and perhaps grasped by a hindleg during removal of the temporary entrance closure and nest entry and (2) wasp's egg being laid affixed to a forecoxal corium and extending backward in a longitudinally posteriad position across the prey's ventral thorax. A comparison with the nesting behavior of other species in the Tachysphex obscuripennis species group is made. PMID:21062142

  14. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  15. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth

    . The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  16. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations...

  17. The sphecid wasps (Hym. Ampulicidae, Sphecidae & Crabronidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The list of Egyptian sphecid wasps includes the current names of those species recorded in the literature with indications where these have changed together with previously unrecorded genera and species. Three genera have not been recorded from Egypt hitherto (Spilomena, Crossocerus, Lestica). Twenty-four species ...

  18. Does kin recognition and sib-mating avoidance limit the risk of genetic incompatibility in a parasitic wasp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Metzger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When some combinations of maternal and paternal alleles have a detrimental effect on offspring fitness, females should be able to choose mates on the basis of their genetic compatibility. In numerous Hymenoptera, the sex of an individual depends of the allelic combination at a specific locus (single-locus Complementary Sex Determination, and in most of these species individuals that are homozygous at this sexual locus develop into diploid males with zero fitness.In this paper, we tested the hypothesis of genetic incompatibility avoidance by investigating sib-mating avoidance in the solitary wasp parasitoid, Venturia canescens. In the context of mate choice we show, for the first time in a non-social hymenopteran species, that females can avoid mating with their brothers through kin recognition. In "no-choice" tests, the probability a female will mate with an unrelated male is twice as high as the chance of her mating with her brothers. In contrast, in choice tests in small test arenas, no kin discrimination effect was observed. Further experiments with male extracts demonstrate that chemical cues emanating from related males influence the acceptance rate of unrelated males.Our results are compatible with the genetic incompatibility hypothesis. They suggest that the female wasps recognize sibs on the basis of a chemical signature carried or emitted by males possibly using a "self-referent phenotype matching" mechanism.

  19. Release from prey preservation behavior via prey switch allowed diversification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in digger wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdack, Mareike; Polidori, Carlo; Keller, Alexander; Feldhaar, Heike; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHC), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here, we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile coevolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the behavior to embalm prey stored in the nest with hydrocarbons is adaptive to protect larval food from fungi in those species hunting for Hymenoptera. The prey embalming secretion is identical in composition to the alkene-dominated CHC profile in these species, suggesting that their profile is adaptively conserved for this purpose. In contrast, prey embalming is not required in those species that switched to Coleoptera as prey. Released from this chemical brood-care strategy, Coleoptera-hunting species considerably diversified their CHC profiles. Differential needs to successfully protect prey types used as larval food have thus driven the diversification of CHCs profiles of female Philanthinae wasps. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a direct link between selection pressure for food preservation and CHC diversity. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Tournament ABC analysis of the western Palaearctic population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; White, Sarah C; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Mutun, Serap; Pénzes, Zsolt; Sadeghi, S Ebrahim; Schönrogge, Karsten; Tavakoli, Majid; Nicholls, James A

    2017-12-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and widely used approach in inference of population history. However, the computational effort required to discriminate among alternative historical scenarios often limits the set that is compared to those considered more likely a priori. While often justifiable, this approach will fail to consider unexpected but well-supported population histories. We used a hierarchical tournament approach, in which subsets of scenarios are compared in a first round of ABC analyses and the winners are compared in a second analysis, to reconstruct the population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) across the Western Palaearctic. We used 4,233 bp of sequence data across seven loci to explore the relationships between four putative Pleistocene refuge populations in Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Western Asia. We compared support for 148 alternative scenarios in eight pools, each pool comprising all possible rearrangements of four populations over a given topology of relationships, with or without founding of one population by admixture and with or without an unsampled "ghost" population. We found very little support for the directional "out of the east" scenario previously inferred for other gall wasp community members. Instead, the best-supported models identified Iberia as the first-regional population to diverge from the others in the late Pleistocene, followed by divergence between the Balkans and Western Asia, and founding of the Italian population through late Pleistocene admixture from Iberia and the Balkans. We compare these results with what is known for other members of the oak gall community, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of using a tournament approach to explore phylogeographic model space. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differences in the reliance on cuticular hydrocarbons as sexual signaling and species discrimination cues in parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buellesbach, Jan; Vetter, Sebastian G; Schmitt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues. We found a surprising degree of either unspecific or insufficient sexual signaling when CHC are singled out as recognition cues. Most strikingly, the cosmopolitan species Nasonia vitripennis , expected to experience enhanced selection pressure to discriminate against other co-occurring parasitoids, did not discriminate against CHC of a partially sympatric species from another genus, Trichomalopsis sarcophagae . Focusing on the latter species, in turn, it became apparent that CHC are even insufficient as the sole cue triggering conspecific sexual behavior, hinting at the requirement of additional, synergistic sexual cues particularly important in this species. Finally, in the phylogenetically and chemically most divergent species Muscidifurax uniraptor, we intriguingly found both CHC-based sexual signaling as well as species discrimination behavior intact although this species is naturally parthenogenetic with sexual reproduction only occurring under laboratory conditions. Our findings implicate a discrepancy in the reliance on and specificity of CHC as sexual cues in our tested parasitioid wasps. CHC profiles were not sufficient for unambiguous discrimination and preference behavior, as demonstrated by clear cross-attraction between some of our tested wasp genera. Moreover, we could show that only in T. sarcophagae , additional behavioral cues need to be present for triggering natural mating behavior, hinting at an interesting

  2. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  3. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  4. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...... improved significantly if displacement height and roughness length as calculated from the forest mast data were used or if a simple model estimate of roughness length and displacement height based on stand density (frontal area index) was used. The two estimates of displacement height and roughness length...... (mast data and simple model) did not agree well with each other. One reason for this may be that all evaluated sites are windy and that both d and z0 depend on the wind speed. All analysed forest sites are dense, in which case the influence from the roughness sublayer is limited and the effect on mean...

  5. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes.

  6. Costs of egg-laying and offspring provisioning: multifaceted parental investment in a digger wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Jeremy; Turner, Ed; Fayle, Tom; Foster, William A

    2007-02-07

    Nest-building Hymenoptera have been a major testing ground for theories of parental investment and sex allocation. Investment has usually been estimated by the likely costs of offspring provisioning, ignoring other aspects of parental care. Using three experimental treatments, we estimated the costs of egg-laying and provisioning separately under field conditions in a digger wasp Ammophila pubescens. In one treatment, we increased the provisioning effort required per offspring by removing alternate prey items as they were brought to the nest. In two other treatments, we reduced parental effort by either preventing females from provisioning alternate nests or preventing them from both ovipositing and provisioning. Our results indicate that both egg-laying and provisioning represent significant costs of reproduction, expressed as differences in productivity but not survival. A trade-off-based model suggests that other components of parental care such as nest initiation may also represent significant costs. Costs of egg production and nest initiation are probably similar for male and female offspring, so that taking them into account leads to a less male-biased expected sex ratio. Mothers compensated only partially for prey removal in terms of the total provisions they gave to individual offspring.

  7. The effect of age on sperm stock and egg laying in the parasitoid wasp, Dinarmus basalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damiens

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sperm quantity and quality during storage may be constraints acting on female fecundity and hence fitness. In Hymenoptera, the importance of sperm quality has rarely been considered, despite its central role in reproductive strategies and especially in sex ratio control. In these insects, fertilized eggs develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males. Experiments were conducted on the female wasp, Dinarmus basalis, in the laboratory with and without egg-laying resources (hosts. The first point was to test if sperm age influenced sperm storage by measuring sperm count and viability using a sperm viability test (SYBR-14 : propidium iodide. The second point was the influence of prolonged storage in the female genital tract on the quantity, sex ratio and fitness of offspring produced. Results show that sperm viability in the spermatheca does not change significantly with maternal age, and that the sperm stock is not affected when females are deprived of hosts. Egg-laying is gradually restored after 21 days of host deprivation but remains at a low level after 115 days. The fitness of mated D. basalis females is therefore not constrained by sperm quantity or quality and seems to depend on host availability and female age.

  8. Epidemiology of asexuality induced by the endosymbiotic Wolbachia across phytophagous wasp species: host plant specialization matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, T; Henri, H; Vavre, F; Gidoin, C; Veber, P; Candau, J-N; Magnoux, E; Roques, A; Auger-Rozenberg, M-A

    2014-05-01

    Among eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is by far the most predominant mode of reproduction. However, some systems maintaining sexuality appear particularly labile and raise intriguing questions on the evolutionary routes to asexuality. Thelytokous parthenogenesis is a form of spontaneous loss of sexuality leading to strong distortion of sex ratio towards females and resulting from mutation, hybridization or infection by bacterial endosymbionts. We investigated whether ecological specialization is a likely mechanism of spread of thelytoky within insect communities. Focusing on the highly specialized genus Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), we first performed a large literature survey to examine the distribution of thelytoky in these wasps across their respective obligate host plant families. Second, we tested for thelytoky caused by endosymbionts by screening in 15 arrhenotokous and 10 thelytokous species for Wolbachia, Cardinium, Arsenophonus and Rickettsia endosymbionts and by performing antibiotic treatments. Finally, we performed phylogenetic reconstructions using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine the evolution of endosymbiont-mediated thelytoky in Megastigmus and its possible connections to host plant specialization. We demonstrate that thelytoky evolved from ancestral arrhenotoky through the horizontal transmission and the fixation of the parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia. We find that ecological specialization in Wolbachia's hosts was probably a critical driving force for Wolbachia infection and spread of thelytoky, but also a constraint. Our work further reinforces the hypothesis that community structure of insects is a major driver of the epidemiology of endosymbionts and that competitive interactions among closely related species may facilitate their horizontal transmission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Phospholipase A1-based cross-reactivity among venoms of clinically relevant Hymenoptera from Neotropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Fernandes, Luís Gustavo Romani; Musacchio Lasa, Alexis; Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Moitinho Abram, Débora; Izuka Moraes, Gabriel Hideki; Jabs, Frederic; Miehe, Michaela; Seismman, Henning; Palma, Mario Sergio; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo; Spillner, Edzard; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Molecular cross-reactivity caused by allergen homology or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) is a major challenge for diagnosis and immunotherapy of insect venom allergy. Venom phospholipases A1 (PLA1s) are classical, mostly non-glycosylated wasp and ant allergens that provide diagnostic benefit for differentiation of genuine sensitizations from cross-reactivity. As CCD-free molecules, venom PLA1s are not causative for CCD-based cross-reactivity. Little is known however about the protein-based cross-reactivity of PLA1 within vespid species. Here, we address PLA1-based cross-reactivity among ten clinically relevant Hymenoptera venoms from Neotropical and temperate regions including Polybia paulista (paulistinha) venom and Vespula vulgaris (yellow jacket) venom. In order to evaluate cross-reactivity, sera of mice sensitized with recombinant PLA1 (rPoly p 1) from P. paulista wasp venom were used. Pronounced IgE and IgG based cross-reactivity was detected for wasp venoms regardless the geographical region of origin. The cross-reactivity correlated well with the identity of the primary sequence and 3-D models of PLA1 proteins. In contrast, these mice sera showed no reaction with honeybee (HBV) and fire ant venom. Furthermore, sera from patients monosensitized to HBV and fire ants did not recognize the rPoly p 1 in immunoblotting. Our findings reveal the presence of conserved epitopes in the PLA1s from several clinically relevant wasps as major cause of PLA1-based in vitro cross-reactivity. These findings emphasize the limitations but also the potential of PLA1-based HVA diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the entomofauna of Mt. Durmitor (Northern Montenegro: Braconid wasps of the subfamily Opiinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Braconids are primary parasites of other insects and their eggs, larvae, and adults, and species have been recently discovered that lay their eggs in plant seeds. Classified into about 25 genera, more than 1,400 species of Opiinae are known at the present time in the world fauna. They have been registered in all zoogeographic regions. The Opiinae are solitary endoparasites of the larvae of cyclorhaphous Diptera, most often those of species belonging to the families Agromyzidae, Tephritidae, Anthomyiidae Ephydridae. In investigations conducted on Mt. Durmitor since 1982, we have up to now established 10 species of braconids of the subfamily Opiinae (Opius peterseni Fi., O. caudatus Wesm., O. parvungula Th., O. levisWesm., O. pallipesWesm., O. quasiquisti Fi., O. exilis Hal., O. filicornis Th., O. lugens Hal., and O. meracus Fi, eight of which are new for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

  11. Does allometry account for shape variability in Ephedrus persicae Froggatt (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitic wasps?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikić, V.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Ivanović, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2010), s. 373-380 ISSN 1439-6092 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant - others:The Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(SR) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : allometry * morphometric variability * geometric morphometrics Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.581, year: 2010

  12. Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus asobara (hymenoptera: braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.J.; Kuijper, B.; Boer, de J.G.; Zande, van de L.; Beukeboom, L.W.; Wertheim, B.; Pannebakker, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    An attractive way to improve our understanding of sex determination evolution is to study the underlying mechanisms in closely related species and in a phylogenetic perspective. Hymenopterans are well suited owing to the diverse sex determination mechanisms, including different types of

  13. Chromosomes of parasitic wasps of the genus Metaphycus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of four species of the genus Metaphycus Mercet, 1917, namely, M. flavus (Howard, 1881 and M. luteolus (Timberlake, 1916 (both have n = 10 and 2n = 20, M. angustifrons Compere, 1957 (n = 9 and 2n = 18 and M. stanleyi Compere, 1940 (n = 5 and 2n = 10 were studied. The latter chromosome number, n = 5, is the lowest known one for the family Encyrtidae. A karyotype with n = 10 is considered ancestral for the genus Metaphycus. Karyotype evolution in this genus is likely to have occurred through chromosomal fusions.

  14. Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Wen-Juan; Kuijper, Bram; de Boer, Jetske G.; van de Zande, Louis; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Wertheim, Bregje; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2013-01-01

    An attractive way to improve our understanding of sex determination evolution is to study the underlying mechanisms in closely related species and in a phylogenetic perspective. Hymenopterans are well suited owing to the diverse sex determination mechanisms, including different types of

  15. New Palaeogene horntail wasps (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) and a discussion of their fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmann, Sonja; Pouillon, Jean-Marc; Nel, André

    2014-09-29

    The phylogenetic placement of siricid hymenopterans and especially the relationships among Siricidae are not resolved, and are in need of further investigation. The fossil record helps to illuminate the evolutionary history of this group. In this paper, Xoanon? eocenicus sp. nov. is newly described from the Eocene Fossillagerstätte Grube Messel (Germany). Although several characters of the wing venation of this fossil are similar to the extant genus Xoanon, there remain some doubts concerning the generic placement. A newly found fossil is attributed to Urocerus ligniticus (Piton, 1940) from the Paloecene Fossillagerstätte Menat (France) and provides more morphological information on this species. An overview of the fossil record of Siricidae in the strict sense is given and the state of knowledge on the different fossils is reviewed.

  16. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  17. Wasp venom proteins: phospholipase A1 and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T P; Kochoumian, L; Joslyn, A

    1984-04-01

    Three major venom proteins from different species of wasps have been isolated and characterized. They are hyaluronidase, phospholipase, and antigen 5 of as yet unknown biochemical function. These three proteins are allergens in wasp venom-sensitive persons. The species of wasps studied, of the genus Polistes, were annularis, carolina, exclamans, fuscatus, and instabilis. Antigen 5 and phospholipase from wasp venoms were shown to be antigenically distinct from homologous proteins of yellowjacket venoms. The venom phospholipase from wasp, as well as that from yellowjacket (Vespula germanica), appears to have dual enzymatic specificities of the A1 and B types. That is, hydrolysis takes place at the 1-acyl residue of phosphatidylcholine and at the 1- or 2-acyl residue of lysophosphatidylcholine.

  18. Pollinator attraction of the wasp-flower Scrophularia umbrosa (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, J; Emer, D; Ayasse, M

    2012-05-01

    Certain species of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae), such as S. nodosa and S. umbrosa, are mainly pollinated by social wasps and are consequently described as wasp-flowers. Because plants attract their pollinators with the help of various floral cues, such as floral odour and/or optical cues, we have investigated the role of olfactory and visual floral signals responsible for wasp attraction in S. umbrosa. Using a combination of chemical (GC, GC-MS) and electrophysiological analyses (GC-EAD), we identified ten compounds in the complex floral odour bouquet that are detectable by the wasps' antennae. As in the wasp-flower Epipactis helleborine, we found so-called 'green leaf volatiles' (GLVs) in the floral odour; these GLVs are highly attractive to the wasps. GLVs, mostly six-carbon aldehydes, alcohols and acetates, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are emitted by many plants infested with herbivores, e.g. caterpillars. In contrast to other investigated wasp-flowers, behavioural experiments have demonstrated that, in addition to the floral odour of S. umbrosa, visual cues are involved in pollinator attraction. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  20. Progeny Density and Nest Availability Affect Parasitism Risk and Reproduction in a Solitary Bee (Osmia lignaria) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla

    2018-02-08

    Gregarious nesting behavior occurs in a broad diversity of solitary bees and wasps. Despite the prevalence of aggregative nesting, the underlying drivers and fitness consequences of this behavior remain unclear. I investigated the effect of two key characteristics of nesting aggregations (cavity availability and progeny density) on reproduction and brood parasitism rates in the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria Say) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary species that nests gregariously and appears to be attracted to nesting conspecifics. To do so, I experimentally manipulated nest cavity availability in a region of northern Utah with naturally occurring populations of O. lignaria. Nest cavity availability had a negative effect on cuckoo bee (Stelis montana Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) parasitism rates, with lower parasitism rates occurring in nest blocks with more available cavities. For both S. montana and the cleptoparasitic blister beetle Tricrania stansburyi Haldeman (Coleoptera: Meloidae), brood parasitism rate was negatively correlated with log-transformed O. lignaria progeny density. Finally, cavity availability had a positive effect on male O. lignaria body weight, with the heaviest male progeny produced in nest blocks with the most cavities. These results suggest that cavity availability and progeny density can have substantial effects on brood parasitism risk and reproduction in this solitary bee species. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Parasitic Wasps Can Reduce Mortality of Teosinte Plants Infested With Fall Armyworm: Support for a Defensive Function of Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira S. de Lange

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic wasps use volatiles emitted by plants under herbivore attack to find their hosts. It has therefore been proposed that these inducible plant volatiles serve an indirect defense function by recruiting parasitoids and other natural enemies. This suggested function remains controversial because there is little evidence that, in terms of fitness, plants benefit from the actions of natural enemies, particularly parasitoids, which do not immediately kill their hosts. We aimed to address this controversy in a semi-natural field experiment in Mexico, where we used large screen tents to evaluate how parasitoids can affect plant performance. The tritrophic study system comprised teosinte (Zea spp., the ancestor of maize, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Campoletis sonorensis Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, which have a long evolutionary history together. In tents without parasitoids, S. frugiperda larvae inflicted severe damage to the plants, whereas in the presence of parasitoid wasps, leaf damage was reduced by as much as 80%. Parasitoids also mitigated herbivore-mediated mortality among young teosinte plants. Although these findings will not resolve the long-standing debate on the adaptive function of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, they do present strong support for the hypothesis that plants can benefit from the presence of parasitoid natural enemies of their herbivores.

  2. Nutrition-dependent fertility response to juvenile hormone in non-social Euodynerus foraminatus wasps and the evolutionary origin of sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Mettler, Alexander; Donajkowski, Kellie

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) proposes that the ovarian cycle in solitary insects provides the basis for social evolution, so similar mechanisms are predicted to influence reproductive plasticity in social and solitary species. Specifically, reproductive plasticity in social species originated via modification of nutrition-dependent fertility response to juvenile hormone (JH) in solitary insects. Testing this prediction requires information about the factors that influence fertility in non-social relatives of the eusocial hymenoptera. However, no previous studies have examined how JH or nutritional condition influence fertility in Eumenines, the non-social group most closely related to social wasps. Here, we find support for the RGPH, as JH increases Euodynerus foraminatus fertility. Fertility is also condition-dependent, as heavy E. foraminatus are more fertile than light E. foraminatus. In addition, we measure the factors associated with mating success in E. foraminatus, finding that multiple factors influence mating success, including male weight, male mating experience, and female age. There is also higher variance in male than female reproductive success, suggesting that males may experience substantial sexual selection in this species. Overall, the relationships between JH, body weight, and fertility in E. foraminatus support the RGPH for the origin of sociality by demonstrating that there are strong parallels in the mechanisms that mediate fertility of social and non-social wasps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  4. Raalin, a transcript enriched in the honey bee brain, is a remnant of genomic rearrangement in Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Y; Morpurgo, N; Cohen, M; Linial, M; Bloch, G

    2012-06-01

    We identified a predicted compact cysteine-rich sequence in the honey bee genome that we called 'Raalin'. Raalin transcripts are enriched in the brain of adult honey bee workers and drones, with only minimum expression in other tissues or in pre-adult stages. Open-reading frame (ORF) homologues of Raalin were identified in the transcriptomes of fruit flies, mosquitoes and moths. The Raalin-like gene from Drosophila melanogaster encodes for a short secreted protein that is maximally expressed in the adult brain with negligible expression in other tissues or pre-imaginal stages. Raalin-like sequences have also been found in the recently sequenced genomes of six ant species, but not in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. As in the honey bee, the Raalin-like sequences of ants do not have an ORF. A comparison of the genome region containing Raalin in the genomes of bees, ants and the wasp provides evolutionary support for an extensive genome rearrangement in this sequence. Our analyses identify a new family of ancient cysteine-rich short sequences in insects in which insertions and genome rearrangements may have disrupted this locus in the branch leading to the Hymenoptera. The regulated expression of this transcript suggests that it has a brain-specific function. © 2012 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  6. Ankara Vespidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) Türleri Üzerine Faunistik Çalışmalar ve Ekolojik Gözlemler

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZÜN, Ayla; KEKİLLİOĞLU, Aysel

    2003-01-01

    Bu araştırma, 1998-2001 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin başkenti Ankara ili civarında yapılan arazi çalışmaları sonucunda elde edilen 683 örneğe dayanmaktadır. Çalışma sonucunda 4 cinse ait (Vespa, Vespula, Dolichovespula, Polistes ) 9 tür ve 1 alt tür; Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Vespula (Paravespula) germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespula (Paravespula) vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Dolichovespula (Metavespula) slyvestris (Scopoli, 1763), Polistes (s.str.) gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767), Polistes (s...

  7. Reciente invasión del Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego por la avispa Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. SOLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica es una especie invasora de nivel mundial que ha sido detectada en la Patagonia continental de la Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, ampliamos el rango de distribución de este véspido de la Patagonia, al Archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego. Indicamos ubicación, año y ambiente de cada avistamiento y/o captura. El patrón de expansión indicaría que esta especie está bien establecida tanto en áreas naturales como antrópicas, y probablemente ha dependido del transporte humano para llegar desde el continente. Esta comunicación breve sirve también para tomar medidas prácticas de mitigación y control de esta especie, incluyendo información básica para que la ciudadanía tome conciencia sobre su presencia y esto ayude a evitar su transporte a nuevos lugares. Finalmente, se recomienda mayor investigación para el manejo y control de esta especie invasora en Tierra del Fuego.

  8. Description and biological notes of the first species of Xenos (Strepsiptera:Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kathirithamby, J.; Hughes, David P.

    2006-01-01

    A description and biological notes on the first species of Xenos (X. hamiltoni) (Strepsiptera: Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. from Mexico is given. A list of Strepsiptera and their hosts from Mexico is provided....

  9. Revision of the West Palaearctic Polistes Latreille, with the descriptions of two species – an integrative approach using morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmid-Egger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Polistes is revised for the West Palaearctic region based on morphology and DNA barcodes. The revision includes all known West Palaearctic species, raising the number of species in Europe to 14 and to 17 for the West Palaearctic realm. DNA barcodes were recovered from 15 species, 14 of which belong to the subgenus Polistes, and one, P. wattii, to the subgenus Gyrostoma. An integrative taxonomic approach combining morphology and molecular data (DNA barcoding was employed to resolve longstanding taxonomic problems in this group. Two species, P. austroccidentalis van Achterberg & Neumeyer, sp. n. (= P. semenowi auctt. from W and SW Europe and P. maroccanus Schmid-Egger, sp. n. from Morocco are described as new. Polistes bucharensis Erichson, 1849, and P. foederatus Kohl, 1898, were restored from synonymy. The following new synonyms are proposed: P. sulcifer Zimmermann, 1930, and Pseudopolistes sulcifer var. similator Zirngiebl, 1955, under P. semenowi Morawitz, 1889, syn. n.; Polistes iranus Guiglia, 1976, Polistes gallica var. ornata Weyrauch, 1938 and Polistes gallicus muchei Gusenleitner, 1976, under P. bucharensis Erichson, 1849, syn. n.; Polistes omissus var. ordubadensis Zirngiebl, 1955, and P. hellenicus Arens, 2011, under Polistes mongolicus du Buysson, 1911, syn. n. An illustrated key includes all species and additionally three species from the subgenera Aphanilopterus Meunier, 1888 and Gyrostoma Kirby, 1828 (including a Nearctic species recently introduced to Spain and two species occurring in Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and SW Asia. A phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference provides insights into phylogenetic relationships within the genus Polistes.

  10. Disentangling a holobiont – recent advances and perspectives in Nasonia wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dittmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea is a well-established model organism for insect development, evolutionary genetics, speciation and symbiosis. The host-microbiota assemblage which constitutes the Nasonia holobiont (a host together with all its associated microbes consists of viruses, two heritable bacterial symbionts and a bacterial community dominated in abundance by a few taxa in the gut. In the wild, all four Nasonia species are systematically infected with the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia and can additionally be co-infected with Arsenophonus nasoniae. These two reproductive parasites have different transmission modes and host manipulations (cytoplasmic incompatibility vs. male-killing, respectively. Pioneering studies on Wolbachia in Nasonia demonstrated that closely-related Nasonia species harbor multiple and mutually incompatible Wolbachia strains, resulting in strong symbiont-mediated reproductive barriers that evolved early in the speciation process. Moreover, research on host-symbiont interactions and speciation has recently broadened from its historical focus on heritable symbionts to the entire microbial community. In this context, each Nasonia species hosts a distinguishable community of gut bacteria that experiences a temporal succession during host development and members of this bacterial community cause strong hybrid lethality during larval development. In this review, we present the Nasonia species complex as a model system to experimentally investigate questions regarding: (i the impact of different microbes, including (but not limited to heritable endosymbionts, on the extended phenotype of the holobiont, (ii the establishment and regulation of a species-specific microbiota, (iii the role of the microbiota in speciation, and (iv the resilience and adaptability of the microbiota in wild populations subjected to different environmental pressures. We discuss the potential for easy

  11. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Application of recombinant antigen 5 allergens from seven allergy-relevant Hymenoptera species in diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiener, M; Eberlein, B; Moreno-Aguilar, C; Pietsch, G; Serrano, P; McIntyre, M; Schwarze, L; Russkamp, D; Biedermann, T; Spillner, E; Darsow, U; Ollert, M; Schmidt-Weber, C B; Blank, S

    2017-01-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different species can be a diagnostic challenge. To address immunological IgE cross-reactivity on molecular level, seven recombinant antigens 5 of the most important Vespoidea groups were assessed by different diagnostic setups. The antigens 5 of yellow jackets, hornets, European and American paper wasps, fire ants, white-faced hornets, and Polybia wasps were recombinantly produced in insect cells, immunologically and structurally characterized, and their sIgE reactivity assessed by ImmunoCAP, ELISA, cross-inhibition, and basophil activation test (BAT) in patients with yellow jacket or Polistes venom allergy of two European geographical areas. All recombinant allergens were correctly folded and structural models and patient reactivity profiles suggested the presence of conserved and unique B-cell epitopes. All antigens 5 showed extensive cross-reactivity in sIgE analyses, inhibition assays, and BAT. This cross-reactivity was more pronounced in ImmunoCAP measurements with venom extracts than in sIgE analyses with recombinant antigens 5. Dose-response curves with the allergens in BAT allowed a differentiated individual dissection of relevant sensitization. Due to extensive cross-reactivity in various diagnostic settings, antigens 5 are inappropriate markers for differential sIgE diagnostics in vespid venom allergy. However, the newly available antigens 5 from further vespid species and the combination of recombinant allergen-based sIgE measurements with BAT represents a practicable way to diagnose clinically relevant sensitization in vespid venom allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  14. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  15. The East-Asiatic and Indo-Australian species of Polybioides Buysson and Parapolybia Saussure (HYM., Vespidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.

    1966-01-01

    In 1913 A. von Schulthess published under the title "Parapolybia Saussure" a revision of the Old World social wasps which in general appearance are similar to certain species of the American genus Polybia. Only a few months later R. du Buysson described some new species of "Polybia" from Asia and

  16. Description of the male of Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Liviidae, with notes on its reproductive traits and hyperparasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Triapitsyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A colony of the encyrtid wasp Psyllaephagus euphyllurae (Masi (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae has been established in the quarantine laboratory at the University of California, Riverside, California, USA as part of a classical biological control program against its invasive host, the olive psylla, Euphyllura olivina (Costa (Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Liviidae, an important pest of olives in some parts of the world. The colony originators were reared from the same host found on abandoned, commercial olives in Catalonia, Spain; additional collections were made in Murcia. The parasitoid reproduces primarily by thelytoky; however, a few occasional males have been found in the field in Spain, but not in colonies reared under quarantine or laboratory conditions. Here, the female of P. euphyllurae is redescribed and its male is described and illustrated for the first time; the only previous mention of male P. euphyllurae was from Tunisia, reared from the same psyllid host but without any details on its morphology. A lectotype is designated for Encyrtus euphyllurae Masi. Information is given on the results of genetic matching between the two sexes of the parasitoid and also on the presence of the bacterial Wolbachia symbiont that apparently is affecting reproduction of this species, including its sex ratio in the field. Two species of hyperparasitoids have also emerged from the parasitized olive psylla nymphs from Catalonia: numerous specimens of Apocharips trapezoidea (Hartig (Hymenoptera, Figitidae and one specimen of a Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae.

  17. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  18. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  19. Lack of behavioural evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in a hymenopteran parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, D; Hance, T

    2009-05-01

    Mechanisms for inbreeding avoidance should be prevalent in insects that reproduce by arrhenotokous haplodiploidy because of the higher potential production of unviable diploid males in inbred matings. Few studies have focused on mating strategies in insect parasitoids and even less on kinship relationships during mate choice. In this study we tested avoidance of kin as mate in the parasitic wasp Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using an ethological approach. Key mating parameters, such as male wing fanning, latent period before genitalia contact and duration of copulation were measured. No evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in both A. matricariae males and females was observed in our behaviour (no choice or choice tests) tests. This lack of ethological sib mating avoidance could be due to different factors such as sex determination rule different than the single locus complementary sex determination, making lower the proportion of diploid males in case of sib matings and thus its negative consequence. The existence of other inbreeding avoidance strategies and mechanisms that reduce the probability of 2 receptive relatives meeting in nature may be common, for example, inbred mating may be rare through differential dispersal, delayed maturation, or protandry.

  20. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H

    2012-06-01

    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  1. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBiewer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem gene, a transformer (tra ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2 sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway.

  2. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a Discussion of Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Dave; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The Braconidae, a family of parasitic wasps, constitute a major taxonomic challenge with an estimated diversity of 40,000 to 120,000 species worldwide, only 18,000 of which have been described to date. The skeletal morphology of braconids is still not adequately understood and the terminology is partly idiosyncratic, despite the fact that anatomical features form the basis for most taxonomic work on the group. To help address this problem, we describe the external skeletal morphology of Opius dissitus Muesebeck 1963 and Biosteres carbonarius Nees 1834, two diverse representatives of one of the least known and most diverse braconid subfamilies, the Opiinae. We review the terminology used to describe skeletal features in the Ichneumonoidea in general and the Opiinae in particular, and identify a list of recommend terms, which are linked to the online Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. The morphology of the studied species is illustrated with SEM-micrographs, photos and line drawings. Based on the examined species, we discuss intraspecific and interspecific morphological variation in the Opiinae and point out character complexes that merit further study. PMID:22558068

  3. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.

  4. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-08-01

    The biology of the 10 species of Leucophora (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) recorded in the Neotropics remains unknown. The large majority of the studied species so far are kleptoparasites of bees and wasps. Here, we report the first observations of Leucophora andicola (Bigot) and Leucophora peullae (Malloch) visiting the nests of ground-nesting sweat bees Corynura (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Chilean Patagonia. Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests. The overall behavior closely resembles that observed for many other species of the genus. Excavations of some bee nests returned only two dipteran puparia, possibly of Leucophora, suggesting a low parasitism rate. One male of L. peullae was also collected at the bee aggregation. This is the first report of host association for any Leucophora from the Neotropics and the first report of any anthomyiid fly associated with augochlorine bees.

  5. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  6. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  7. PLN's experience with the WASP-III model in generation expansion planning for the Java system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudja, N.; Afiff, A.; Simarmata, B.

    1988-01-01

    The State Electric Power Corporation of Indonesia (PLN) was one of the first recipients of the WASP computer model, and since 1976 has been using the model (first the version WASP-II, and later the WASP-III version) for carrying out generation expansion planning studies for the country, and particularly, for the Java power system. This paper discusses PLN's experience with WASP-III and comments on some problems and constraints encountered, particularly: the time-fixed forced outage rate (FOR) assumed for generating units, simulation of the hydro system and computation time. The paper concludes with some suggestions about future enhancements to WASP-III. (author). 3 figs, 11 tabs

  8. Worker policing in the German wasp Vespula germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers

    2008-01-01

    In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...

  9. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  10. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera : an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilgenburg, Ellen van; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  11. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgenburg, E.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Beukeboom, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  12. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  13. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  14. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  15. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  16. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  17. WASP as a planning tool of electrical generation systems expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isidoro, G.

    1984-01-01

    The ''Wien Automatic System Package'' (WASP), consists of six modules or computer programmes which assist in decision taking process in expanding an electrical generation network. A general description of this model is made and some conclusions are drawn from the data processed to this date

  18. Inheritance of gynandromorphism in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamping, Albert; Katju, Vaishali; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, Jobn H.; Werren, John H.; Kaufman, T.C.

    The parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis has haplo-diploid sex determination. Males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, whereas females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Females and males can be easily distinguished by their morphology. A strain that produces individuals with

  19. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  20. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  1. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  2. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  3. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  4. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A.; Underhill, J. G.; Cruaud, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M.; Johnson, S. D.; Tolley, K. A.; Kjellberg, F.; van Noort, S.; Proffit, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association. PMID:22130605

  5. Oviposition Behavior and Survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an Ectoparasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), on Hosts Exposed to an Entomopathogenic Fungus, Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Andrew; Dunlap, Christopher A; Jackson, Mark A; Flores, Daniel; Patt, Joseph M; Sétamou, Mamoudou

    2016-10-01

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 strain of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Three interactions were evaluated under laboratory conditions at 25 °C: 1) parasitoid survival if parasitized hosts were exposed to ARSEF 3581 blastospores before or after host mummification; 2) parasitoid survival if mummies containing larva or pupa were exposed to ARSEF 3581 hyphae; 3) parasitoid oviposition on infected hosts with visible or without visible hyphae. Topical application of blastospore formulation onto the dorsal surfaces of live nymphs parasitized with second-instar wasp larva (3 d after parasitism) reduced host mummification by 50% and parasitoid emergence by 85%. However, parasitoid emergence was not affected by topical application of blastospore formulation onto mummies that contained fourth-instar wasp larva (6 d after parasitism). Parasitoid emergence was reduced by 80% if mummies containing fourth-instar wasp larva were covered with blastospore formulation colonized by fungal hyphae. In comparison, parasitoid emergence was not affected if mummies containing wasp pupa (9 d after parasitism) were covered with formulation colonized by fungal hyphae. Female parasitoids oviposited on infected hosts without visible hyphae but not on infected hosts with visible hyphae. Our findings suggest that I. fumosorosea could detrimentally affect T. radiata, if both natural enemies are simultaneously deployed for biological control of D. citri However, temporal separation of the fungus and parasitoid could reduce antagonism and enhance control of D. citri. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Entedoninae wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) associated with ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in tropical America, with new species and notes on their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Christer; Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Eulophidae associated, or presumed to be associated with ants are described: two species of Horismenus Walker and one species of Microdonophagus Schauff. Information on the biology is also included. The two Horismenus species are from Chiapas, Mexico. Horismenus myrmecophagus sp. n. is known only from females and is a gregarious endoparasitoid in larvae of the weaver ant Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The parasitoids pupate inside the host larva, and an average of 6.7 individuals develops per host. This is the second time a species of genus Horismenus is found parasitizing the brood of a formicine ant of genus Camponotus. Horismenus microdonophagus sp. n. is described from both males and females, and is a gregarious endoparasitoid attacking the larvae of Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a predator on ant brood found in nests of Camponotus sp. ca. textor. The new species of Microdonophagus, Microdonophagus tertius, is from Costa Rica, and known only from the female. Nothing is known about its biology but since another species in same genus, Microdonophagus woodleyi Schauff, is associated with ants through its host, Microdon larva (with same biology as Horismenus microdonophagus), it is possible that also Microdonophagus tertius has this association. A new distributional record for Microdonophagus woodleyi is also reported, extending its distribution from Panama and Colombia to Brazil. PMID:22140342

  7. Refining the Roots of the Beewolf-Streptomyces Symbiosis: Antennal Symbionts in the Rare Genus Philanthinus (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Erol; Gürbüz, M. Faruk; Herzner, Gudrun; Strohm, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    Insects engage in symbiotic associations with a large diversity of beneficial microorganisms. While the majority of well-studied symbioses have a nutritional basis, several cases are known in which bacteria protect their host from pathogen infestation. Solitary wasps of the genera Philanthus and Trachypus (beewolves; Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) cultivate the actinomycete “Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi” in specialized antennal gland reservoirs. The symbionts are transferred to the larval cocoon, where they provide protection against pathogenic fungi by producing at least nine different antibiotics. Here we investigated the closest relatives of Philanthus and Trachypus, the rare genus Philanthinus, for the presence of antennal gland reservoirs and symbiotic streptomycetes. Molecular analyses identified “Ca. Streptomyces philanthi” in reservoirs of Philanthinus quattuordecimpunctatus. Phylogenies based on the 16S rRNA gene suggest that P. quattuordecimpunctatus may have acquired “Ca. Streptomyces philanthi” by horizontal transfer from other beewolf species. In histological sections and three-dimensional reconstructions, the antennal gland reservoirs were found to occupy six antennal segments (as opposed to only five in Philanthus and Trachypus) and to be structurally less complex than those of the evolutionarily more derived genera of beewolves. The presence of “Ca. Streptomyces philanthi” in antennal glands of Philanthinus indicates that the symbiosis between beewolves and Streptomyces bacteria is much older than previously thought. It probably evolved along the branch leading to the monophyletic tribe Philanthini, as it seems to be confined to the genera Philanthus, Trachypus, and Philanthinus, which together comprise 172 described species of solitary wasps. PMID:22113914

  8. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biondi

    Full Text Available Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life

  9. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  10. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  11. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  12. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) package. Version 1.0. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. (WASP is designed for data analysis of the STAR and ALICE experiments). It uses a wavelet analysis for this purpose and the vanishing momentum or gaussian wavelets are chosen for transformations. WASP provides an user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which makes it quite simple to use. WASP design, a brief description of the used wavelet transformation algorithm and GUI are presented in this user's guide

  13. Detection of sodium in the atmosphere of WASP-69b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasayas-Barris, N.; Palle, E.; Nowak, G.; Yan, F.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to characterize exoplanets' atmospheres. From the ground, these observations are very challenging due to the terrestrial atmosphere and its intrinsic variations, but high-spectral-resolution observations overcome this difficulty by resolving the spectral lines and taking advantage of the different Doppler velocities of the Earth, the host star, and the exoplanet. Aims: We analyze the transmission spectrum around the Na I doublet at 589 nm of the extrasolar planet WASP-69b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a K-type star with a period of 3.868 days, and compare the analysis to that of the well-known hot Jupiter HD 189733b. We also present the analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for WASP-69b. Methods: We observed two transits of WASP-69b with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS-North) spectrograph (R = 115 000) at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We perform a telluric contamination subtraction based on the comparison between the observed spectra and a telluric water model. Then, the common steps of the differential spectroscopy are followed to extract the transmission spectrum. The method is tested with archival transit data of the extensively studied exoplanet HD 189733b, obtained with the HARPS-South spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope, and then applied to WASP-69b data. Results: For HD 189733b, we spectrally resolve the Na I doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.72 ± 0.05% (D2) and 0.51 ± 0.05% (D1), and full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 0.64 ± 0.04 Å (D2) and 0.60 ± 0.06 Å (D1), in agreement with previously published results. For WASP-69b only the contrast of the D2 line can be measured (5.8 ± 0.3%). This corresponds to a detection at the 5σ-level of excess absorption of 0.5 ± 0.1% in a passband of 1.5 Å. A net blueshift of 0.04 Å is measured for HD 189733b and no shift is obtained for WASP-69b. By measuring the RM effect, we get an angular

  14. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  15. New faunistic data on the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of the four genera in the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera are reported for the first time in Korea. These species belong to the subfamily Euphorinae (Braconidae. Faunistic and distribution data are included.

  16. New type of progressive provisioning as a characteristic parental behavior of the crabronid wasp Pemphredon fabricii (Hymenoptera Crabronidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogusch, P.; Havelka, Jan; Astapenková, A.; Heneberg, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2018), s. 114-127 ISSN 0394-9370 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nesting biology * Lipara * reed bed Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2016

  17. Genetics of female functional virginity in the Parthenogenesis-Wolbachia infected parasitoid wasp Telenomus nawai (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2005-01-01

    A lepidopteran egg parasitoid species Telenomus nawai consists of two distinct populations with different reproductive modes. One is a completely thelytokous population consisting of females only, whereas the other displays arrhenotokous reproduction where fertilized eggs develop into diploid

  18. Eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an emerging pest of eucalyptus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new emerging pest of eucalyptus, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle, was first found in Italy but mistakenly identified as Aprostocetus sp.. This was followed by another report of an infestation from Turkey in early 2000. It was first formally described in 2004 from Australia as Leptocybe invasa a...

  19. First records of the American wasps Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770 and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS GRADINAROV

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two alien sphecid species are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Nearctic species Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770 and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867 were found in Sofia. The first species is collected as well from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, near Varna.

  20. Nesting biology of the trap-nesting Neotropical wasp Trypoxylo n(Trypargilum) aurifrons Shuckard (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santoni,Mariana Marchi; Del Lama,Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out in three localities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Araras (Dec/03-Dec/06), São Carlos (Nov/04-Nov/06) and Rifaina (Jul/04-Dec/06). Trap-nests were distributed among sites in the sampling areas and were collected every 35 days. Data from 295 nests indicate that T. aurifrons is a multivoltine species, with higher rates of nest building and cell production in the warm, rainy season. The trap-nests used by the females ranged from 117 to 467 mm in length and 3...

  1. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas inviáveis com o aumento do tempo de exposição.

  2. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  3. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μm thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  4. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  5. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  6. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  7. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Delrez, Laetitia; Barker, Adrian J.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b (M p = 10.3M J , a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q‧, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q‧ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q‧ ≥ 1 × 106, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  8. Write a scientific paper (WASP) - a career-critical skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Cuschieri, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    The ability to write a scientific paper (WASP) is becoming progressively more critical because the "publish or perish" mantra is increasingly valid in today's world where success is judged by number of publications and quality of publications based on journals which publish the researcher's work. These metrics are used to gauge applicants in often cut-throat competitions for jobs and/or career advancement. However, the science and art of paper-writing comprise a vast panoply of different skills, from writing a proposal, to ethics and data protection applications, to data collection and analysis, to writing and dealing with editors and authors, and so on. Over the next few issues, Early Human Development will embark on a series of Best Practice Guidelines that will outline and explain the various requisite WASP skills while providing practical guidelines for paper writing. The purpose is to impart the authors' collective experience to trainees in this crucial aspect of career progress. This first set of WASP papers will mainly focus on statistical analysis using Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of a Parasitic Wasp as a Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Olson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screening cargo for illicit substances is in need of rapid high-throughput inspection systems that accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component of cocaine, by examining their response to training concentrations, their sensitivity at low concentrations, and their ability to detect methyl benzoate when two concealment substances (green tea and ground coffee are added to the testing arena. Utilizing classical associative learning techniques with sucrose as reward, we found that M. croceipes learns individual concentrations of methyl benzoate, and they can generalize this learning to concentrations 100× lower than the training concentration. Their sensitivity to methyl benzoate is very low at an estimated 3 ppb. They are also able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by green tea, but were not able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by coffee grounds. Habituation to the tea and coffee odors prior to testing improves their responses, resulting in effective detection of methyl benzoate covered by the coffee grounds. With the aid of the portable device called ‘the wasp hound’, the wasps appear to have potential to be effective on-site biosensors for the detection of cocaine.

  10. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Barker, Adrian J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, allée du 6 Août 19C, B-4000 Lige (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b ( M{sub p} = 10.3 M{sub J}, a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q ′, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer ) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope ) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q ′ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q ′ ≥ 1 × 10{sup 6}, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  11. An evaluation of phylogenetic informativeness profiles and the molecular phylogeny of diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Kropf, Christian; Quicke, Donald L J

    2010-03-01

    How to quantify the phylogenetic information content of a data set is a longstanding question in phylogenetics, influencing both the assessment of data quality in completed studies and the planning of future phylogenetic projects. Recently, a method has been developed that profiles the phylogenetic informativeness (PI) of a data set through time by linking its site-specific rates of change to its power to resolve relationships at different timescales. Here, we evaluate the performance of this method in the case of 2 standard genetic markers for phylogenetic reconstruction, 28S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial DNA, with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of relationships within a group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae). Retrieving PI profiles of the 2 genes from our own and from 3 additional data sets, we find that the method repeatedly overestimates the performance of the more quickly evolving CO1 compared with 28S. We explore possible reasons for this bias, including phylogenetic uncertainty, violation of the molecular clock assumption, model misspecification, and nonstationary nucleotide composition. As none of these provides a sufficient explanation of the observed discrepancy, we use simulated data sets, based on an idealized setting, to show that the optimum evolutionary rate decreases with increasing number of taxa. We suggest that this relationship could explain why the formula derived from the 4-taxon case overrates the performance of higher versus lower rates of evolution in our case and that caution should be taken when the method is applied to data sets including more than 4 taxa.

  12. Biology of Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae are the most important and diverse group of natural enemies of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere is the most common parasitoid associated with Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret in the Serra Gaúcha region, Brazil. We conducted laboratory studies to assess the development time, sex ratio, adult longevity, host stage selection for parasitism, and effect of food on the longevity of adult females of B. clavicornis. The experiments were conducted in a climate chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12 L:D photoperiod. The solitary parasitoid B. clavicornis parasitized third-instar and adult female stages of P. viburni. The development time was more than 30 days (31.75 ± 0.38 for females and 30.02 ± 0.34 for males when B. clavicornis laid eggs in adult mealybug females, and 35 days (36.50 ± 0.50 for females and 34.24 ± 0.43 for males on third-instar mealybug nymphs. The wasps did not survive longer than four days when they were fed only water, while females survived for about 30 days when fed with honey. The lifespan of females is about 20 days longer than the lifespan of males. Although B. clavicornis can provide significant natural control, reducing the number of individuals in the next generation by parasitizing advanced mealybug instars, we consider it unpromising for use in applied biological-control programs. Furthermore, the predominance of males in the progeny observed here suggests that P. viburni may not be the most suitable or preferred host for B. clavicornis.

  13. Wien Automatic System Package (WASP). A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    With several Member States, the IAEA has completed a new version of the WASP program, which has been called WASP-Ill Plus since it follows quite closely the methodology of the WASP-Ill model. The major enhancements in WASP-Ill Plus with respect to the WASP-Ill version are: increase in the number of thermal fuel types (from 5 to 10); verification of which configurations generated by CONGEN have already been simulated in previous iterations with MERSIM; direct calculation of combined Loading Order of FIXSYS and VARSYS plants; simulation of system operation includes consideration of physical constraints imposed on some fuel types (i.e., fuel availability for electricity generation); extended output of the resimulation of the optimal solution; generation of a file that can be used for graphical representation of the results of the resimulation of the optimal solution and cash flows of the investment costs; calculation of cash flows allows to include the capital costs of plants firmly committed or in construction (FIXSYS plants); user control of the distribution of capital cost expenditures during the construction period (if required to be different from the general 'S' curve distribution used as default). This second volume of the document to support use of the WASP-Ill Plus computer code consists of 5 appendices giving some additional information about the WASP-Ill Plus program. Appendix A is mainly addressed to the WASP-Ill Plus system analyst and supplies some information which could help in the implementation of the program on the user computer facilities. This appendix also includes some aspects about WASP-Ill Plus that could not be treated in detail in Chapters 1 to 11. Appendix B identifies all error and warning messages that may appear in the WASP printouts and advises the user how to overcome the problem. Appendix C presents the flow charts of the programs along with a brief description of the objectives and structure of each module. Appendix D describes the

  14. Effects of decomposition on carcass attendance in a guild of carrion-breeding flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A

    2003-09-01

    Many forensically important calliphorids, sarcophagids and muscids (Diptera) oviposit or larviposit on corpses only during the early stages of decomposition, yet individuals may attend bodies throughout decay. A field study was conducted to investigate how patterns of carcass use and attendance by some fly species are affected by decomposition. Five fly traps were placed in the forest and baited with whole, fresh piglet carcasses. Piglets decomposed in traps throughout the experiment, and all were skeletonized within 6 days. Flies were trapped at both early and late decomposition stages, and the species and population structures of trap catches were compared. More flies attended carcasses early rather than late in decay. For all species, flies attending early were mainly gravid females, but few gravid females attended late in decay. No females ovi- or larviposited late in decay, whereas females of all fly species deposited offspring early in decay. The number of males trapped of each species correlated positively with the number of females with eggs at early development stages. Observations were made of fly predation by European wasps Vespula germanica Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and jumper ants Myrmecia pilosula Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) throughout the experiment. There was a higher risk for smaller fly species of being killed following predator attack. Ants and wasps attacked smaller fly species, whereas only wasps attacked larger fly species.

  15. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  16. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  17. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) Package. Version 1.2. Long Write Up and User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Altaisky, M V; Soloviev, A G; Stadnik, A V; Shitov, A B

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. WASP package is based on wavelet transform algorithms. This work includes the user's guide, description of algorithms and mathematical methods, graphical user interface. We have also analyzed what problems of nuclear physics can be tackled with WASP.

  18. Data from: Compatible and incompatible pathogen-plant interactions differentially affect plant volatile emissions and the attraction of parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Dicke, M.; Gols, R.

    2016-01-01

    The three data sheets show the data for the three types of comparisons that were made: (1) wasp choice when offered acaterpillar infested plant and a caterpillar + pathogen infected plant (2) wasp choice when offered a healthy plant against a singleattacker infected/infected plant and (3) wasp

  19. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  20. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  1. Relevance of wing morphology in distinguishing and classifying genera and species of Stenogastrinae wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baracchi, D.; Dapporto, L.; Turillazzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny of the Stenogastrinae wasps is still under discussion and their systematic incomplete. In the present work we used geometric morphometrics, a technique based on a rigorous statistical assessment of shape, to compare the forewings of fifteen species of Stenogastrinae wasps belonging to

  2. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  3. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical...

  4. Gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous populations of Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, MV; Driessen, G; Beukeboom, LW; Boll, R; van Eunen, K; Selzner, A; Talsma, J; Lapchin, L

    In the solitary parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens both arrhenotokously (sexual) and thelytokously (parthenogenetical) reproducing individuals occur sympatrically. We found in the laboratory that thelytokous wasps are able to mate, receive and use sperm of arrhenotokous males. Using nuclear

  5. The phylogeny of Orussidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the parasitic wasp family Orussidae is analyzed with a slightly expanded version of a previously published data set. The basal splitting events in the family between two fossil taxa and the extant members are not unambiguously resolved. Intergeneric relationships in general...... are poorly supported and change under different analytical conditions. This corroborates earlier fi ndings regarding the phylogeny of the family. A resumé of the evolutionary history of the Orussidae is provided. Leptorussus madagascarensis sp.n. is described. Udgivelsesdato: 7/12...

  6. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  7. Non-detection of a Helium Exosphere for the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Oklopčić, Antonija

    2018-06-01

    An exosphere was recently detected around the exoplanet WASP-107b, a low-density, warm Neptune, based on an absorption feature from metastable helium (which has a vacuum wavelength of 10833 \\AA). Inspired by the WASP-107b detection, we reanalyzed archival HST observations of another evaporating exoplanet, WASP-12b, to search for signs of helium in its exosphere. We find no significant increase in transit depth at 10833 \\AA. We compare this result to theoretical predictions from a 1D model, and find that the expected helium feature amplitude is small, in agreement with the observed non-detection. We discuss possible explanations for why the helium feature is weaker for WASP-12b than WASP-107b, and conclude that the amplitude of the signal is highly sensitive to the stellar spectrum and the geometry of the evaporating gas cloud. These considerations should be taken into account in the design of future searches for helium exospheres.

  8. Occurrence of Hymenoptera on Sus scrofa carcasses during summer and winter seasons in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Hymenoptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa durante as estações de inverno e verão do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance has been given to nest construction and larval food transport to the nest as a precondition for the eusociality of insects. Most adult hymenopterans feed on liquids, although bees and a few wasps may also feed on pollen. Carrion represents an additional source of protein for some species and they will scavenge for dead animals in the wild. This paper aims at analyzing Hymenoptera visitors on a pig carcass during the process of decomposition, in the summer of 2005 and the winter of 2006 in Brazil, and comparing the results with other studies in the Neotropical region. To our knowledge, this is the first study which described the occurence of Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista and Scaptotrigona depilis on decomposing carcasses in southeastern Brazil. It also raises the hypothesis of possible applications of Hymenoptera to achieve more precise PMI estimations, apart from other insects already known as having great importance in such estimates.Considerável importância tem sido dada às construções de ninhos e transporte de alimento larval para o ninho como uma pré-condição para a eusociabilidade dos insetos. Muitos adultos de himenópteros alimentam-se em líquidos, embora as abelhas e poucas vespas podem também se alimentarem de pólen. Carcaças representam uma fonte adicional de proteína para algumas espécies e elas foram uma vez observadas se alimentando de animais mortos na natureza. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar Hymenoptera visitantes em carcaças de porcos durante o verão de 2005 e inverno de 2006 no Brasil, ao longo dos estágios de decomposição, comparando com resultados de outros estudos na região Neotropical. Pelo nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro estudo que descreveu a ocorrência de Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista e Scaptotrigona depilis em carcaças em decomposição no sudeste do Brasil. Isso também aumenta a hipótese na possibilidade de aplicação de Hymenoptera em auxiliar a

  9. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  10. Expression of N-WASP is regulated by HiF1α through the hypoxia response element in the N-WASP promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Salvi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cell migration and invasion involves temporal and spatial regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is regulated by the WASP family of proteins such as N-WASP (Neural- Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein. We have previously shown that expression of N-WASP was increased under hypoxic conditions. In order to characterize the regulation of N-WASP expression, we constructed an N-WASP promoter driven GFP reporter construct, N-WASPpro-GFP. Transfection of N-WASPpro-GFP construct and plasmid expressing HiF1α (Hypoxia Inducible factor 1α enhanced the expression of GFP suggesting that increased expression of N-WASP under hypoxic conditions is mediated by HiF1α. Sequence analysis of the N-WASP promoter revealed the presence of two hypoxia response elements (HREs characterized by the consensus sequence 5′-GCGTG-3′ at -132 bp(HRE1 and at -662 bp(HRE2 relative to transcription start site (TSS. Site-directed mutagenesis of HRE1(-132 but not HRE2(-662 abolished the HiF1α induced activation of N-WASP promoter. Similarly ChIP assay demonstrated that HiF1α bound to HRE1(-132 but not HRE2(-662 under hypoxic condition. MDA-MB-231 cells but not MDA-MB-231KD cells treated with hypoxia mimicking agent, DMOG showed enhanced gelatin degradation. Similarly MDA-MB-231KD(N-WASPpro-N-WASPR cells expressing N-WASPR under the transcriptional regulation of WT N-WASPpro but not MDA-MB-231KD(N-WASPproHRE1-N-WASPR cells expressing N-WASPR under the transcriptional regulation of N-WASPproHRE1 showed enhanced gelatin degradation when treated with DMOG. Thus indicating the importance of N-WASP in hypoxia induced invadopodia formation. Thus, our data demonstrates that hypoxia-induced activation of N-WASP expression is mediated by interaction of HiF1α with the HRE1(-132 and explains the role of N-WASP in hypoxia induced invadopodia formation.

  11. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  12. Kinins in ant venoms--a comparison with venoms of related Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, T.; Schmidt, J. O.; de Jong, J. M.; Mantel, P.

    1989-01-01

    1. Venom preparations have been made of six ant, one pompilid wasp, two mutillid wasp, and four social wasp species. 2. The venoms were analysed pharmacologically in order to detect kinin-like activity. 3. Due to the small amounts of venoms available only a cascade of smooth muscle preparation could

  13. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  14. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  15. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  16. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen® for the treatment of bee and wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenhull, J; Elremeli, M; Cherry, M G; Mahon, J; Lai, M; Darroch, J; Oyee, J; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Boyle, R

    2012-01-01

    hymenoptera venom allergy and therefore does not assess the effectiveness of VIT in general. The current use of PhVIT in clinical practice in the NHS appears to be based on limited and poor-quality clinical effectiveness research. Available evidence indicates that sting reactions following the use of PhVIT are low and that the ARs related to treatment are minor and easily treatable. The results of the AG's de novo economic evaluation demonstrate that PhVIT + AAI + HDA compared with AAI + HDA and with avoidance advice only yields ICERs in the range of £8-20M per QALY gained. Two subgroups ('High Risk of Sting Patients' and 'VIT Anxiety QoL Improvement') were considered in the economic evaluation and the AG concludes that the use of PhVIT + AAI + HDA may be cost-effective in both groups. Future research should focus on clearly identifying groups of patients most likely to benefit from treatment and ensure that clinical practice is focussed on these groups. Furthermore, given the paucity of UK data in this area it would be informative if data could be collected routinely when VIT is administered in the NHS (e.g. rates of systemic adverse reactions to VIT, rates of systemic reactions to bee/wasp stings). The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

  17. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  19. Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, S.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous

  20. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  1. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru; Oshima, Takuma; Takenouchi, Takato; Chiba, Joe; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies

  2. Orchids mimic green-leaf volatiles to attract prey-hunting wasps for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Hölzler, Gerald; Zhang, Qing-He; Ayasse, Manfred

    2008-05-20

    An outstanding feature of orchids is the diversity of their pollination systems [1]. Most remarkable are those species that employ chemical deceit for the attraction of pollinators [2]. The orchid Epipactis helleborine is a typical wasp flower, exhibiting physiological and morphological adaptations for the attraction of pollinating social wasps [3]. As noted by Darwin [1], this species is almost entirely overlooked by other potential pollinators, despite a large nectar reward. Therefore, the mechanism for the attraction of pollinating social wasps was something of a mystery. By using a combination of behavioral experiments, electrophysiological investigations, and chemical analyses, we demonstrate for the first time that the flowers of E. helleborine and E. purpurata emit green-leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are attractive to foragers of the social wasps Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris. GLVs, emitted by damaged plant tissues, are known to guide parasitic wasps to their hosts [4]. Several E. helleborine GLVs that induced response in the antennae of wasps were also emitted by cabbage leaves infested with caterpillars (Pieris brassicae), which are common prey items for wasps [5]. This is the first example in which GLVs have been implicated in chemical mimicry for the attraction of pollinating insects.

  3. HST PanCET Program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Mandell, A. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stevenson, K. B.; Lewis, N. K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sing, D. K.; Evans, T. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marley, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kataria, T. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballester, G. E. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E Univ. Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barstow, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ben-Jaffel, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D. [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Buchhave, L. A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); García Muñoz, A., E-mail: hannah.wakeford@nasa.gov [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H{sub 2}O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13 σ . Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmission features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature–pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.

  4. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  5. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  6. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  7. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D' Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  8. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  9. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  10. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  11. The Apparently Decaying Orbit of WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kishore C.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Yu, Liang; Deming, Drake; Dai, Fei

    2017-07-01

    We present new transit and occultation times for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. The data are compatible with a constant period derivative: \\dot{P}=-29+/- 3 ms yr-1 and P/\\dot{P}=3.2 {Myr}. However, it is difficult to tell whether we have observed orbital decay or a portion of a 14-year apsidal precession cycle. If interpreted as decay, the star’s tidal quality parameter {Q}\\star is about 2× {10}5. If interpreted as precession, the planet’s Love number is 0.44 ± 0.10. Orbital decay appears to be the more parsimonious model: it is favored by {{Δ }}{χ }2=5.5 despite having two fewer free parameters than the precession model. The decay model implies that WASP-12 was discovered within the final ˜0.2% of its existence, which is an unlikely coincidence but harmonizes with independent evidence that the planet is nearing disruption. Precession does not invoke any temporal coincidence, but it does require some mechanism to maintain an eccentricity of ≈ 0.002 in the face of rapid tidal circularization. To distinguish unequivocally between decay and precession will probably require a few more years of monitoring. Particularly helpful will be occultation timing in 2019 and thereafter.

  12. Life History of the Emerald Jewel Wasp Ampulex compressa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Arvidson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emerald Jewel Wasp Ampulex compressa (Fabricius is an endoparasitoid of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Its host subjugation strategy is unusual in that envenomation is directed into the host central nervous system, eliciting a long-term behavior modification termed hypokinesia, turning stung cockroaches into a lethargic and compliant, but not paralyzed, living food supply for wasp offspring. A. compressa manipulates hypokinesic cockroaches into a burrow, where it oviposits a single egg onto a mesothoracic leg, hatching three days later. Herein we describe the life history and developmental timing of A. compressa. Using head capsule measurements and observations of mandibular morphology, we found that the larvae develop through three instars, the first two ectoparasitoid, and the third exclusively endoparasitoid. The first two instars have mandibles sufficient for piercing and cutting the cuticle respectively, while the third instar has a larger and blunter mandibular structure. During ecdysis to the third instar, the larva enters the body cavity of the cockroach, consuming internal tissues selectively, including fat body and skeletal muscle, but sparing the gut and Malpighian tubules. The developmental timing to pupation is similar between males and females, but cocoon volume and mass, and pupation duration are sexually dimorphic. Further, we show that the difference in cocoon mass and volume can be used to predict sex before eclosion, which is valuable for studies in venom pharmacology, as only females produce venom.

  13. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  14. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  15. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-IV. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As a continuation of its efforts to provide methodologies and tools to Member States to carry out comparative assessment and analyse priority environmental issues related to the development of the electric power sector, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package WASP-IV for carrying out power generation expansion planning taking into consideration fuel availability and environmental constraints. This manual constitutes a part of this work and aims to provide users with a guide to use effectively the new version of the model WASP-IV. WASP was originally developed in 1972 by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA to meet the IAEA needs to analyse the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. Previous versions of the model were used by Member States in many national and regional studies to analyse the electric power system expansion planning and the role of nuclear energy in particular. Experience gained from its application allowed development of WASP into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. New, improved versions were developed, which took into consideration the needs expressed by the users of the programme in order to address important emerging issues being faced by the electric system planners. In 1979, WASP-IV was released and soon after became an indispensable tool in many Member States for generation expansion planning. The WASP-IV version was continually upgraded and the development of version WASP-III Plus commenced in 1992. By 1995, WASP-III Plus was completed, which followed closely the methodology of the WASP-III but incorporated new features. In order to meet the needs of electricity planners and following the recommendations of the Helsinki symposium, development of a new version of WASP was

  16. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  17. [Therapy control of specific hymenoptera venom allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, W; Wichmann, G; Dietz, A

    2010-12-01

    In Germany anaphylactic reactions after insect stings are mostly caused by honey bee (Apis mellifera) and wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica). In the majority of cases venom immunotherapy is a successful therapy and protects patients from recurrent systemic anaphylactic reaction. In some patients persistent severe reactions after insect sting can even occur in spite of venom therapy, as a sign of therapy failure. It is important to identify these patients, who do not benefit from venom immunotherapy, in an early stage of therapy. In this case dose rate of venom immunotherapy must be adjusted for a successful therapy outcome. Up to now skin prick tests, specific IgE-antibodies and in vitro diagnostics are not suitable for detecting therapy failure. Patients with treatment failure can be diagnosed by insect sting test and almost all of them will become fully protected by increasing the maintenance dose. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Ovarian development in a primitively eusocial wasp: social interactions affect behaviorally dominant and subordinate wasps in opposite directions relative to solitary females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu; Pareek, Vidhi; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2014-07-01

    In many primitively eusocial wasp species new nests are founded either by a single female or by a small group of females. In the single foundress nests, the lone female develops her ovaries, lays eggs as well as tends her brood. In multiple foundress nests social interactions, especially dominance-subordinate interactions, result in only one 'dominant' female developing her ovaries and laying eggs. Ovaries of the remaining 'subordinate' cofoundresses remain suppressed and these individuals function as workers and tend the dominant's brood. Using the tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp Ropalidia marginata and by comparing wasps held in isolation and those kept as pairs in the laboratory, we demonstrate that social interactions affect ovarian development of dominant and subordinate wasps among the pairs in opposite directions, suppressing the ovaries of the subordinate member of the pair below that of solitary wasps and boosting the ovaries of dominant member of the pair above that of solitary females. In addition to being of physiological interest, such mirror image effects of aggression on the ovaries of the aggressors and their victims, suggest yet another mechanism by which subordinates can enhance their indirect fitness and facilitate the evolution of worker behavior by kin selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Primera cita de la Argentina de Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su parasitoide, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A AQUINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina la presencia de la avispa galí - cola exótica Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su para - sitoide natural, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Eucalyptus camaldulensis de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ophelimus maskelli es una especie invasora de origen Australiano que ha sido reportada como plaga de los eucaliptos en numerosos países de Asia, Europa y América. Closterocerus chamaleon es un parasitoide exótico cuyo potencial como biocontrolador de O. maskelli está siendo evaluado en algunos países.

  20. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Sobczak

    Full Text Available Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  1. Sensitivity to European wasps in a group of allergic patients in Marseille: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, R; Blanca, M; Sánchez, F; Juarez, C

    1994-01-01

    The wasp Polistes dominulus (PD), the yellow jacket Vespula germanica (VG) and the hornet Vespa crabro (VC) are allergenically important social wasps found in Europe. Serum samples obtained from allergic subjects in Marseille were studied in order to determine the positivity by RAST to these venoms. All the sera studied had IgE antibodies to at least one of the wasp venoms tested and 50% had IgE antibodies that reacted with more than one venom. The presence in some sera of IgE antibodies to the venoms of all three wasps and RAST inhibition studies suggested that the three venoms were relevant in the area studied and that most sera were positive to the three venoms due to allergenic cross-reactivity. However, inhibition studies revealed that 2 patients may have had antibodies that did not cross-react and that were specific for the venom of only one species.

  2. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee...... only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction...... was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...

  3. A role for sexual conflict in the evolution of reproductive traits in Nasonia wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory predicts that female and male reproductive traits coevolve resulting in disruption of reproductive behaviour upon mating of individuals from diverged populations. We used interfertile species of haplodiploid Nasonia wasps to compare re-mating frequency, longevity, oviposition

  4. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  5. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada, Mariana; D? Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (f...

  6. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Paredes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida. S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided.

  7. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 ± 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5σ level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 ± 0.015, a 3σ result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 ± 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 ± 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 μm) and 0.5006 ± 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 μm). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 ± +0.007 -0.006 ) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2σ. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1σ; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  9. WASP-ASSOCIATED FACTORS ACT IN INTERSPECIES COMPETITION DURING MULTIPARASITISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaraog, Peter M; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence or displacement of parasitoids in hosts during intrinsic competitive interactions between different parasitoid species (multiparasitism) may depend on their life history traits and behavior. Intense competition for possession of hosts may lead to the elimination of the inferior competitor through physical attack and/or physiological suppression. However, the mechanisms of physiological suppression during multiparasitism remain unclear. Previous work has shown that first instar larvae of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis possess well-developed mandibles that are used to kill competitors. Two gregarious endoparasitoids, Cotesia kariyai and C. rufricus, share host resources especially when the time gap of oviposition is short. Here, we investigated the physiological influence of wasp-regulatory factors of the three endoparasitoids, M. pulchricornis, C. kariyai, and C. ruficrus, in their common host Mythimna separata. We found that MpVLP alone (or with venom) deleteriously affected the development of the two gregarious species. Similarly, CkPDV plus venom had toxic effect on M. pulchricornis eggs and immature larvae, although they were not harmful to immature stages of C. ruficrus. Cotesia kariyai and C. ruficrus were able to coexist mainly through the expression of regulatory factors and both could successfully emerge from a multiparasitized host. The injection of CkPDV plus venom after oviposition in L5 host larvae facilitated C. ruficrus development and increased the rate of successful parasitism from 9% to 62%. This suggests that the two gregarious parasitoid wasps exhibit strong phylogenetic affinity, favoring their coexistence and success in multiparasitized hosts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-2 SYSTEM BY THE APOSTLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rose, Amy E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of {approx}2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced {chi}{sup 2} values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 s and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g., continuous observations from space-based platforms). However, even in systems observed with the Kepler spacecraft, there is a noted lack of transiting companions and TTVs in hot-Jupiter systems. This result is more meaningful, and indicates that hot-Jupiter systems, while they are easily observable from the ground, do not appear to be currently configured in a manner favorable to the detection of TTVs. The future of ground-based TTV studies may reside in resolving secular trends, and/or implementation at extreme quality observing sites to minimize atmospheric red noise.

  11. Epidemiologic Investigation of Hornet and Paper Wasp Stings in Forest Workers and Electrical Facility Field Workers in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeko Hayashih

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: 21% of FWs and 14% of EFFWs had experienced systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings with a higher frequency compared with office workers in the same area. 40% of FWs and 30% of EFFWs had sera that were sIgE positive to Hymenoptera venom.

  12. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  13. Six new genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.

    2004-01-01

    Six new genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from China are described and illustrated: two genera of the subfamily Agathidinae: Facilagathis gen. nov. (type species: F. spinulata spec. nov.) and Cremnoptoides gen. nov. (type species: Cremnops pappi Sharkey, 1994); one genus of the subfamily

  14. On the Hymenoptera (exclusive of the Anthophila and Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, P.

    1913-01-01

    Our knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Island of Waigeu hitherto has been based on the material collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace and described by Mr. Frederick Smith in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 1863, pp. 6—48. Omitting the bees (5 species) and the ants (27 species) Smith

  15. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis mannii (Naudin) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Boniface Posho Ndola, Yves Brostaux, Guillaume Le Goff, Marie-Lucie Susini, Eric Haubruge, Frederic Francis, Bach Kim Nguyen ...

  16. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  17. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom

  18. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  19. Flee or fight: ontogenetic changes in the behavior of cobweb spiders in encounters with spider-hunting wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Divya B; Weiss, Martha R

    2012-12-01

    An animal's body size plays a predominant role in shaping its interspecific interactions, and, in encounters between two predators, often determines which shall be predator and which shall be prey. Spiders are top predators of insects, yet can fall prey to mud-dauber wasps that provision their larval nests with paralyzed spiders. Here we examined predator-prey interactions between Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Sphecidae), a mud-dauber wasp, and Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch (Theridiidae), a cobweb spider. We examined whether a spider's size influences its response to an attacking wasp, and report a size-dependent change in spider behavior: small-sized spiders fled, whereas medium- and large-sized spiders fought in response to wasp attacks. From the wasps' perspective, we examined whether spider size influences a wasp's hunting behavior and capture success. We found that wasps commonly approached small spiders, but were much less likely to approach medium and large spiders. However, wasp capture success did not vary with spider size. We also report a strategy used by Chalybion wasps toward cobweb spiders that is consistent with an interpretation of aggressive mimicry.

  20. New species of Ancistrocerus (Vespidae, Eumeninae) from the Neotropics with a checklist and key to all species south of the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, Patrick K.; Carpenter, James M.; Sharanowski, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of potter wasp from South America, Ancistrocerus sur sp. n., is described. A species key and checklist for all described Ancistrocerus that occur south of the Rio Grande are provided. New synonymy includes Odynerus bolivianus Brèthes = Ancistrocerus pilosus (de Saussure), while the subspecies bustamente discopictus Bequaert, lineativentris kamloopsensis Bequaert, lineativentris sinopis Bohart, tuberculocephalussutterianus (de Saussure), and pilosus ecuadorianus Bertoni, are all sunk under their respective nominotypical taxa. PMID:29290718

  1. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  2. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  3. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITIKA PADA TIPE EKOSISTEM BERBEDA DI BANGKA TENGAH, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Marta Saputra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands. Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems, i.e., forest, oil palm plantation, and ex-tin mining. The location was located in Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Island. The study was conducted in Juli 2014 until October 2015. Parasitic Hymenoptera was collected with insect sweep net and yellow pan trap on one transect line with 1000 m length. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as 732 morphospecies, 326 morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and 293 morphospecies on ex-tin mining. Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera on forest was higher than oil palm plantation and ex-tin mining area. Braconidae family was found dominant on forest, however on oil palm plantation and extin mining area the dominant family was Scelionidae.

  4. Four newly recorded species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hye-Rin Lee; Tae-Ho An; Deok-Seo Ku; Bong-Kyu Byun

    2017-01-01

    Four species of the genus Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) are reported for the first time from Korea: Meteorus brevicauda Thomson, 1895, Meteorus colon Haliday, 1835, Meteorus kunashiricus Belokobylskij, 1995, and Meteorus vexator Haliday, 1835. Diagnosis, distribution, and host information are provided for each species. Keywords: Braconidae, Hymenoptera, Korea, Meteorus, New record

  5. Four newly recorded species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rin Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of the genus Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae are reported for the first time from Korea: Meteorus brevicauda Thomson, 1895, Meteorus colon Haliday, 1835, Meteorus kunashiricus Belokobylskij, 1995, and Meteorus vexator Haliday, 1835. Diagnosis, distribution, and host information are provided for each species. Keywords: Braconidae, Hymenoptera, Korea, Meteorus, New record

  6. Flower-Visiting Social Wasps and Plants Interaction: Network Pattern and Environmental Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Aparecido Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis as a tool for ecological interactions studies has been widely used since last decade. However, there are few studies on the factors that shape network patterns in communities. In this sense, we compared the topological properties of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants in two distinct phytophysiognomies in a Brazilian savanna (Riparian Forest and Rocky Grassland. Results showed that the landscapes differed in species richness and composition, and also the interaction networks between wasps and plants had different patterns. The network was more complex in the Riparian Forest, with a larger number of species and individuals and a greater amount of connections between them. The network specialization degree was more generalist in the Riparian Forest than in the Rocky Grassland. This result was corroborated by means of the nestedness index. In both networks was found asymmetry, with a large number of wasps per plant species. In general aspects, most wasps had low niche amplitude, visiting from one to three plant species. Our results suggest that differences in structural complexity of the environment directly influence the structure of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants.

  7. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  8. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  9. Revisiting the Phase Curves of WASP-43b: Confronting Re-analyzed Spitzer Data with Cloudy Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    red noise due to intra-pixel sensitivity, which leads to greater fluxes emanating from the nightside of WASP-43b, thus reducing the tension between theory and data. On the theoretical front, we construct cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres of WASP-43b using our Global Circulation Model (GCM), THOR...

  10. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  11. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Smithers, Cherice; Irvin, Allyn; Kimmel, Chase B; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Daniels, Jaret C; Ellis, James D

    2017-10-10

    Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds ( Bambusa sp.) were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots) to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots) did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis , Euodynerus megaera , Parancistrocerus pedestris , and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile . The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs). The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  12. Three-dimensional organization of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the parasitoid wasps Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Bleeker, M.A.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, differ in their use of associative learning. To investigate the neural basis underlying these differences, it is necessary to describe the olfactory pathway of both wasp species. This paper focuses on the organization of

  13. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp. were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs. The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  14. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica –including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5. Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI mitochondrial gene, information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae, ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  15. Role and structural mechanism of WASP-triggered conformational changes in branched actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Luan, Qing; Liu, Su-Ling; Nolen, Brad J

    2016-07-05

    The Arp2/3 (Actin-related proteins 2/3) complex is activated by WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family proteins to nucleate branched actin filaments that are important for cellular motility. WASP recruits actin monomers to the complex and stimulates movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into a "short-pitch" conformation that mimics the arrangement of actin subunits within filaments. The relative contribution of these functions in Arp2/3 complex activation and the mechanism by which WASP stimulates the conformational change have been unknown. We purified budding yeast Arp2/3 complex held in or near the short-pitch conformation by an engineered covalent cross-link to determine if the WASP-induced conformational change is sufficient for activity. Remarkably, cross-linked Arp2/3 complex bypasses the need for WASP in activation and is more active than WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex. These data indicate that stimulation of the short-pitch conformation is the critical activating function of WASP and that monomer delivery is not a fundamental requirement for nucleation but is a specific requirement for WASP-mediated activation. During activation, WASP limits nucleation rates by releasing slowly from nascent branches. The cross-linked complex is inhibited by WASP's CA region, even though CA potently stimulates cross-linking, suggesting that slow WASP detachment masks the activating potential of the short-pitch conformational switch. We use structure-based mutations and WASP-Arp fusion chimeras to determine how WASP stimulates movement toward the short-pitch conformation. Our data indicate that WASP displaces the autoinhibitory Arp3 C-terminal tail from a hydrophobic groove at Arp3's barbed end to destabilize the inactive state, providing a mechanism by which WASP stimulates the short-pitch conformation and activates Arp2/3 complex.

  16. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms...... by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy......, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses...

  17. História natural da interação entre Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) e seu hiperparasitoide Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sobczak, JF; Maia, DP; Moura, JCMS; Costa, VA; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-01-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, ...

  18. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  19. New Types of Behavioral Manipulation of Host Spiders by a Parasitoid Wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of the parasitic wasp Zatypota sp. nr. solanoi induces its host spiders Anelosimus spp. to modify its web in ways not seen in normal webs of this species or in any other species, providing apparent protection and support for the wasp's cocoon by covering the entire web with a protective sheet and adding a central platform and opening a space below in the enclosed tangle, where the larva suspends its cocoon. These modifications differ qualitatively from those induced by a congeneric wasp. Parasitized spiders appeared to adjust modified web construction behavior to local conditions, implying that larval manipulations may occur at higher rather than lower levels of behavioral control (e.g., eliciting overall design decisions, rather than particular motor patterns.

  20. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  1. Hierarchical genetic structure of the introduced wasp Vespula germanica in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodisman, M A; Matthews, R W; Crozier, R H

    2001-06-01

    The wasp Vespula germanica is a highly successful invasive pest. This study examined the population genetic structure of V. germanica in its introduced range in Australia. We sampled 1320 workers and 376 males from 141 nests obtained from three widely separated geographical areas on the Australian mainland and one on the island of Tasmania. The genotypes of all wasps were assayed at three polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers. Our analyses uncovered significant allelic differentiation among all four V. germanica populations. Pairwise estimates of genetic divergence between populations agreed with the results of a model-based clustering algorithm which indicated that the Tasmanian population was particularly distinct from the other populations. Within-population analyses revealed that genetic similarity declined with spatial distance, indicating that wasps from nests separated by more than approximately 25 km belonged to separate mating pools. We suggest that the observed genetic patterns resulted from frequent bottlenecks experienced by the V. germanica populations during their colonization of Australia.

  2. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  3. Expression of Enzymatically Inactive Wasp Venom Phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  4. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification. Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  5. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M; Wagner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  6. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Gabriel A. R.

    2013-01-01

    On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argen...

  7. Spermatogenesis in the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Lo Nostro, F.; Papeschi, A.; Cladera, J.; Bressa, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 38-43 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * modified meiosis * abortive division Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/azo.12148/pdf

  8. Does size matter? - Thermoregulation of 'heavyweight' and 'lightweight' wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-09-15

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  9. Ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara; Lammer, Helmut; Fossati, Luca; Eggl, Siegfried; Schwarz, Richard; Boudyada, Mohammed; Erkaev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source in the WASP-12 and HD189733b systems to explain part of the phenomena observed in ultraviolet (UV) light curves during planetary transits. In the proposed scenario, material originates from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on orbits near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky Trojans and to form shallow lava oceans on them. At the orbital distance of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are ≈ 2.2 × 1027 s-1 and ≈ 2.2 × 1026 s-1, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the observed lack of emission in MgII h&k and CaII H&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. The early ingress of HD 189733b observed in the far-UV (FUV) CII doublet couldn't be explained by this mechanism due to absence of carbon within elements outgassed by molten lava. We investigate the long-term stability region of WASP-12b and HD 189733b in case of planar and inclined motion of these satellites and show that unlike the classical exomoons orbiting the planet, Io-sized Trojans can be stable for the whole systems life time.

  10. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  11. Recombinant allergen-based IgE testing to distinguish bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermann, Irene; Zidarn, Mihaela; Silar, Mira; Markovic-Housley, Zora; Aberer, Werner; Korosec, Peter; Kosnik, Mitja; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    The identification of the disease-causing insect in venom allergy is often difficult. To establish recombinant allergen-based IgE tests to diagnose bee and yellow jacket wasp allergy. Sera from patients with bee and/or wasp allergy (n = 43) and patients with pollen allergy with false-positive IgE serology to venom extracts were tested for IgE reactivity in allergen extract-based tests or with purified allergens, including nonglycosylated Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant (r) Api m 1, rApi m 2, rVes v 5, and insect cell-expressed, glycosylated rApi m 2 as well as 2 natural plant glycoproteins (Phl p 4, bromelain). The patients with venom allergy could be diagnosed with a combination of E coli-expressed rApi m 1, rApi m 2, and rVes v 5 whereas patients with pollen allergy remained negative. For a group of 29 patients for whom the sensitizing venom could not be identified with natural allergen extracts, testing with nonglycosylated allergens allowed identification of the sensitizing venom. Recombinant nonglycosylated allergens also allowed definition of the sensitizing venom for those 14 patients who had reacted either with bee or wasp venom extracts. By IgE inhibition studies, it is shown that glycosylated Api m 2 contains carbohydrate epitopes that cross-react with natural Api m 1, Ves v 2, natural Phl p 4, and bromelain, thus identifying cross-reactive structures responsible for serologic false-positive test results or double-positivity to bee and wasp extracts. Nonglycosylated recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens allow the identification of patients with bee and wasp allergy and should facilitate accurate prescription of venom immunotherapy. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Jancek

    Full Text Available The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome

  13. HST HOT-JUPITER TRANSMISSION SPECTRAL SURVEY: CLEAR SKIES FOR COOL SATURN WASP-39b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sing, David K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred [CNRS, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-08-10

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μ m, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  14. Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The

  15. Convergent development of a parasitoid wasp on three host species with differing mass and growth potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Molina, A.C.; Bezemer, T.M.; Malcicka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids develop in hosts that continue feeding and growing during the course of parasitism. Here, we compared development of a solitary koinobiont endoparasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis Westmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in second (L2) and fourth (L4) instars of three host species

  16. Cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants and hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehler, Randolf; Grundmann, Sonja; Stöcker, Benedikt

    2013-08-01

    Insect venom allergy is an important cause of anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy assume the clear identification of the culprit insect, but this is impeded by Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to cross reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD) epitopes of common glycoproteins. Here we give an overview about inducers, importance, and relevance of anti-N-Glycan CCD IgE antibodies. Pollen exposure and insect stings induce anti-CCD IgE antibodies interfering with in-vitro tests for allergy diagnosis due to extensive IgE cross-reactivity. Instead of being biologically active these antibodies are irrelevant for allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. The general response of the immune system to the ubiquitous exposure to N-glycan containing glycoproteins is still a matter of debate. CCD specific IgG antibodies in sera of bee keepers suggest tolerance induction due to high-dose exposure. Tolerance induction by pollen and food glycoproteins has not been proved. Hymenoptera stings and pollen exposure induce anti-CCD IgE. In regard to anaphylaxis due to Hymenoptera stings these antibodies are not clinically relevant, but they are important for the specificity of in-vitro tests proving insect venom allergy. The introduction of component based diagnostic IgE testing improves the specificity of in-vitro tests if proteins devoid of CCD epitopes are used.

  17. Experience with the Agency's WASP for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    An Advisory Group Meeting to discuss recent experience with, and to suggest improvements to, Wien Automatic System Planning Program (WASP), was held in Vienna in September 1985. It was clear from the meeting that WASP is a very useful tool as an aid in planning electric power generation systems. It is widely used in both developed and developing countries and its use will continue particularly if some of the suggestions for its improvements are implemented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 presentations of this meeting

  18. The implementation and application of the WASP-III at CNEN/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, L.H.; Lima, J.O.V.; Silva, R.C.O. da.

    1983-09-01

    The main dificulties faced in the implementation of the WASP-III on the Honeywell Bull DPS 6/64 computer at CNEN, are discribed. After the implementation, tests making use of input data provided by International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA were performed and comparative results from accomplishment peiods of time are presented with the basic characteristics of the computer employed and the modifications carried out to adapt the programm. The WASP-III was applied to middle-sized electric system based upon the Brazilian North/Northeast System. (Author) [pt

  19. Attraction and antennal response of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to selected synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Manning, Lee-Anne; Unelius, C Rikard; Park, Kye Chung; Stringer, Lloyd D; White, Nicola; Bunn, Barry; Twidle, Andrew; Suckling, David M

    2009-09-01

    The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were investigated usi...

  1. APHIDIINAE (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO – TRITROPHIC INTERACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Žikić, Vladimir; Ilić-Milošević, Marijana; Stanković, Saša; Petrović, Andjeljko; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; KAVALLIERATOS, NICKOLAS; Stary, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    This study brings a list of original data of parasitic wasps from the subfamily Aphidiinae collected on the territory of Serbia and Montenegro associated with their aphid hosts and plants. Twenty-three genera and 122 species of Aphidiinae were identified from 204 aphid taxa occurring on 344 plant taxa. A total number of 794 parasitoid-aphid-plant associations is reported and presented alphabetically according to parasitoids classified in four tribes.

  2. IgE antibodies to Hymenoptera venoms in the serum are common in the general population and are related to indications of atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T; Przybilla, B

    1996-06-01

    Determination of Hymenoptera venom (HV)-specific serum IgE antibodies is a useful diagnostic method in patients with systemic anaphylactic reaction (SAR) to Hymenoptera stings. In a general population cohort, we determined the prevalence of SAR and HV-specific IgE antibodies and assessed parameters associated with the latter. A total of 277 voluntarily participating inhabitants of rural Bavaria (Germany) (232 adults, mean age 38.0 years; 45 children, mean age 8.4 years) were investigated for a history of atopic disease or SAR to insect stings; in 258 of these, total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to HV (Apis mellifera, Vespula vulgaris/germanica) and four common aeroallergens (birch pollen, grass pollen, house-dust mite, and cat dander) in the serum were determined. Nine (3.3%) subjects reported SAR to insect stings. In 27.1% of the sera, specific IgE antibodies to HV were found, to bee venom in 24.8%, and to wasp venom in 8.5% (P 100 kU/l was found in 22.5%. Specific serum IgE to HV was significantly associated with male sex (female vs. male, OR = 0.47; CI 0.25-0.86), young age (children vs. adults, OR = 2.80; CI 1.25-6.28), a history of SAR to insect stings (OR = 4.16; CI 1.15-15.03), total sIgE > 100 kU/l (OR = 3.88; CI 1.98-7.60), and specific IgE antibodies to three of the four aeroallergens (grass pollen, OR = 7.24 CI 3.66-14.38; birch pollen, OR = 3.67 CI 1.54-8.81; and house-dust mite, OR = 4.61 CI 2.08-10.32). It is concluded that immunologic sensitization to HV is common in the general population and is associated with atopy-related humoral IgE hyperresponsiveness.

  3. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  4. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  5. How does an invasive social wasp deal with changing contextual cues while foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, M; D'Adamo, P

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we explore how an invasive social wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), deals with contextual changes while searching for a food source that is no longer available. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different degrees of context modification on wasp behavior. Learning sessions consisted of a variable number of feeding trials during which an individual wasp fed from a landmark array made up of a feeder surrounded by four cylinders of the same color. The food and cylinders were subsequently removed from the training site, and this learned landmark array was modified in such a way that information relating to color and/or location of the resulting feeding arrays varied from that previously learned. The results indicate that the color most recently associated with food is prioritized over a formerly learned color, and this pattern is also maintained when wasps have learned the alternative color during a higher number of feeding experiences. This highlights the high plasticity with which V. germanica responds to unpredictable contextual changes while foraging.

  6. New potent antimicrobial peptides from the venom of Polistinae wasps and their analogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Borovičková, Lenka; Ježek, Rudolf; Bednárová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2008), s. 992-1003 ISSN 0196-9781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * wasp venom * circular dichroism * hemolytic activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  7. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  8. Selfish element maintains sex in natural populations of a parasitoid wasp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, R.; Tilborg, van M.; Jong, de J.H.; Nunney, L.; Luck, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic conflicts between heritable elements with different modes of inheritance are important in the maintenance of sex and in the evolution of sex ratio. Generally, we expect sexual populations to exhibit a 1:1 sex ratio. However, because of their biology, parasitoid wasps often exhibit a

  9. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; Buter, Jeffrey; van Beek, Teris A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  10. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  11. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  12. Quantitative trait locus analysis of mating behavior and male sex pheromones in Nasonia wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation.

  13. Generation of a Circumstellar Gas Disk by Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrecht, Alex; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan; Frank, Adam; Fossati, Luca; Blackman, Eric G.; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Observations of transiting extra-solar planets provide rich sources of data for probing the in-system environment. In the WASP-12 system, a broad depression in the usually-bright MgII h&k lines has been observed, in addition to atmospheric escape from the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b. It has been hypothesized that a translucent circumstellar cloud is formed by the outflow from the planet, causing the observed signatures. We perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the full system environment of WASP-12, injecting a planetary wind and stellar wind from their respective surfaces. We find that a torus of density high enough to account for the lack of MgII h&k line core emission in WASP-12 can be formed in approximately 13 years. We also perform synthetic observations of the Lyman-alpha spectrum at different points in the planet's orbit, which demonstrate that significant absorption occurs at all points in the orbit, not just during transits, as suggested by the observations.

  14. Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of 'ovigeny'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jervis, M.A.; Heimpel, G.E.; Ferns, P.N.; Harvey, J.A.; Kidd, N.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    1. Ecologists concerned with life-history strategies of parasitoid wasps have recently focused on interspecific variation in the fraction of the maximum potential lifetime egg complement that is mature when the female emerges into the environment. Species that have all of this complement mature upon

  15. Are population differences in plant quality reflected in the preference and performance of two endoparasitoid wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Dam, van N.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid in exploring the role of direct plant defence, through the production of allelochemicals, on the performance of parasitoid wasps and their hosts. However, few studies have determined if parasitoids can detect differences in plant quality and thus

  16. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus; Eyheramendy, Susana; Sing, David K.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  17. Introduced and Native Parasitoid Wasps Associated With Larch Casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Western Larch

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Miller-Pierce; D. C. Shaw; A. Demarco; P. T. Oester

    2015-01-01

    The larch casebearer [Coleophora laricella (Hubner)], a non-native insect, continues to impact western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) through defoliation events in the Pacific Northwest. Biological control programs starting in the 1960s released seven species of parasitoid wasps to control C. laricella...

  18. WICH, a member of WASP-interacting protein family, cross-links actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masayoshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2005-01-01

    In yeast, Verprolin plays an important role in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. There are three mammalian homologues of Verprolin, WIP, CR16, and WICH, and all of them bind actin and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and/or neural-WASP. Here, we describe a novel function of WICH. In vitro co-sedimentation analysis revealed that WICH not only binds to actin filaments but also cross-links them. Fluorescence and electron microscopy detected that this cross-linking results in straight bundled actin filaments. Overexpression of WICH alone in cultured fibroblast caused the formation of thick actin fibers. This ability of WICH depended on its own actin cross-linking activity. Importantly, the actin cross-linking activity of WICH was modified through a direct association with N-WASP. Taken together, these data suggest that WICH induces a bundled form of actin filament with actin cross-linking activity and the association with N-WASP suppresses that activity. WICH thus appears to be a novel actin bundling protein

  19. Development of microsatellite markers and estimation of inbreeding frequency in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, Jun; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using

  20. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...