Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2005-11-01
Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.
Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying, Michael; Sin Manhong; Pang, Shuk-fan
2005-01-01
Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = π/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects
Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael
2017-04-01
The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey
2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Bifulco
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.
Comparison of 2-D and 3-D estimates of placental volume in early pregnancy.
Aye, Christina Y L; Stevenson, Gordon N; Impey, Lawrence; Collins, Sally L
2015-03-01
Ultrasound estimation of placental volume (PlaV) between 11 and 13 wk has been proposed as part of a screening test for small-for-gestational-age babies. A semi-automated 3-D technique, validated against the gold standard of manual delineation, has been found at this stage of gestation to predict small-for-gestational-age at term. Recently, when used in the third trimester, an estimate obtained using a 2-D technique was found to correlate with placental weight at delivery. Given its greater simplicity, the 2-D technique might be more useful as part of an early screening test. We investigated if the two techniques produced similar results when used in the first trimester. The correlation between PlaV values calculated by the two different techniques was assessed in 139 first-trimester placentas. The agreement on PlaV and derived "standardized placental volume," a dimensionless index correcting for gestational age, was explored with the Mann-Whitney test and Bland-Altman plots. Placentas were categorized into five different shape subtypes, and a subgroup analysis was performed. Agreement was poor for both PlaV and standardized PlaV (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001), with the 2-D technique yielding larger estimates for both indices compared with the 3-D method. The mean difference in standardized PlaV values between the two methods was 0.007 (95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.009). The best agreement was found for regular rectangle-shaped placentas (p = 0.438 and p = 0.408). The poor correlation between the 2-D and 3-D techniques may result from the heterogeneity of placental morphology at this stage of gestation. In early gestation, the simpler 2-D estimates of PlaV do not correlate strongly with those obtained with the validated 3-D technique. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andermann, P.; Schloegl, S.; Maeder, U.; Luster, M.; Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C.
2007-01-01
Thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography (US) is essential in numerous clinical diagnostic and therapeutic fields. While known to be limited, the accuracy and precision of two-dimensional (2D) US thyroid volume measurement have not been thoroughly characterized. Objective: We sought to assess the intra- and interobserver variability, accuracy and precision of thyroid volume determination by conventional 2D US in healthy adults using reference volumes determined by three-dimensional (3D) US. Design, methods: In a prospective blinded trial, thyroid volumes of ten volunteers were determined repeatedly by nine experienced sonographers using conventional 2D US (ellipsoid model). The values obtained were statistically compared to the so-called true volumes determined by 3D US (multiplanar approximation), the so-called gold standard, to estimate systematic errors and relative deviations of individual observers. Results: The standard error of measurement (SEM) for one observer and successive measurements (intraobserver variability), was 14%, and for different observers and repeated measurements (interobserver variability), 17%. The minimum relative thyroid volume change significantly different at the 95% level was 39% for the same observer and 46% for different observers. Regarding accuracy, the mean value of the differences showed a significant thyroid volume overestimation (17%, p <0.01) by 2D relative to 3D US. Conclusion: 2D US is appropriate for routine thyroid volumetry. Nevertheless, the so-called human factor (random error) should be kept in mind and correction is needed for methodical bias (systematic error). Further efforts are required to improve the accuracy and precision of 2D US thyroid volumetry by optimizing the underlying geometrical modeling or by the application of 3D US. (orig.)
Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Yapici
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.
Evaluation of right ventricular volume and function by 2D and 3D echocardiography compared to MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjaergaard, Jesper; Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas
2005-01-01
: Thirty-four subjects with (a) prior inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n=17), (b) a history of pulmonary embolism and persistent dyspnea (n=7) or (c) normal subjects (n=10) had 2D and 3D echocardiography, SPECT and MRI within 24h. End-diastolic volume and peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity...... were increased in patients with a history of pulmonary embolism compared to healthy subjects, 130+/-26 ml vs. 94+/-26 ml, P... volume showed significant correlation to RV volumes by MRI. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) had the better correlation to RVEF by MRI, r=0.48, P
Hao, Tian; Xu, Yuanze; Hao, Ting
2018-04-01
The Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept are employed to treat protons (or other particles) transporting through a 2D (two dimensional) crystal like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The protons are assumed to be activated first in order to participate conduction and the conduction rate is dependent on how much free volume available in the system. The obtained proton conductivity equations show that only the number of conduction protons, proton size and packing structure, and the energy barrier associated with 2D crystals are critical; the quantization conductance is unexpectedly predicted with a simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence. The predictions agree well with experimental observations and clear out many puzzles like much smaller energy barrier determined from experiments than from the density function calculations and isotope separation rate independent of the energy barrier of 2D crystals, etc. Our work may deepen our understandings on how protons transport through a membrane and has direct implications on hydrogen related technology and proton involved bioprocesses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-08-01
This document, Volume 4, describes the current safety concerns associated with the tank waste and analyzes the potential accidents and associated potential health effects that could occur under the alternatives included in this Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington
Brain tissues volume measurements from 2D MRI using parametric approach
L'vov, A. A.; Toropova, O. A.; Litovka, Yu. V.
2018-04-01
The purpose of the paper is to propose a fully automated method of volume assessment of structures within human brain. Our statistical approach uses maximum interdependency principle for decision making process of measurements consistency and unequal observations. Detecting outliers performed using maximum normalized residual test. We propose a statistical model which utilizes knowledge of tissues distribution in human brain and applies partial data restoration for precision improvement. The approach proposes completed computationally efficient and independent from segmentation algorithm used in the application.
An enhanced finite volume method to model 2D linear elastic structures
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available . Suliman) Preprint submitted to Applied Mathematical Modelling July 22, 2013 Keywords: finite volume, finite element, locking, error analysis 1. Introduction Since the 1960s, the finite element method has mainly been used for modelling the mechanics... formulation provides higher accuracy 2 for displacement solutions. It is well known that the linear finite element formulation suffers from sensitivity to element aspect ratio or shear locking when subjected to bend- ing [16]. Fallah [8] and Wheel [6] present...
SOLA-VOF, 2-D Transient Hydrodynamic Using Fractional Volume of Fluid Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, B.D.; Hirt, C.W.; Hotchkiss, R.S.
1991-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: SOLA-VOF is a program for the solution of two-dimensional transient fluid flow with free boundaries, based on the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF). Its basic mode of operation is for single fluid calculations having multiple free surfaces. However, SOLA-VOF can also be used for calculations involving two fluids separated by a sharp interface. In either case, the fluids may be treated as incompressible or as having limited compressibility. Surface tension forces with wall adhesion are permitted in both cases. Internal obstacles may be defined by blocking out any desired combination of cells in the mesh, which is composed of rectangular cells of variable size. 2 - Method of solution: The basis of the SOLA-VOF method is the fractional volume of fluid scheme for tracking free boundaries. In this technique, a function F(x,y,t) is defined whose value is unity at any point occupied by fluid and zero elsewhere. When averaged over the cells of a computational mesh, the average value of F in a cell is equal to the fractional volume of the cell occupied by fluid. In particular, a unit value of F corresponds to a cell full of fluid, whereas a zero value indicates that the cell contains no fluid. Cells with F values between zero and one contain a free surface. SOLA-VOF uses an Eulerian mesh of rectangular cells having variable sizes. The fluid equations solved are the finite difference approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The setting of array dimensions is controlled through PARAMETER statements
1D and 2D Numerical Modeling for Solving Dam-Break Flow Problems Using Finite Volume Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szu-Hsien Peng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the flow movement in an idealized dam-break configuration. One-dimensional and two-dimensional motion of a shallow flow over a rigid inclined bed is considered. The resulting shallow water equations are solved by finite volumes using the Roe and HLL schemes. At first, the one-dimensional model is considered in the development process. With conservative finite volume method, splitting is applied to manage the combination of hyperbolic term and source term of the shallow water equation and then to promote 1D to 2D. The simulations are validated by the comparison with flume experiments. Unsteady dam-break flow movement is found to be reasonably well captured by the model. The proposed concept could be further developed to the numerical calculation of non-Newtonian fluid or multilayers fluid flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-08-01
The U.S. Department Of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology added Appendix L (Volume 6), Response to Public Comments, to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to fully address and respond to public comments on the Draft EIS. In addition, DOE considered public comments, along with other factors such as programmatic need, short- and long-term impacts, technical feasibility, and cost, in arriving at DOE's preferred alternative. During the public comment period for the Draft EIS, more than 350 individuals, agencies, Tribal Nations, and organizations provided comments. This volume represents a broad spectrum of private citizens; businesses; local, State, and Federal officials; Tribal Nations; and public interest groups
2D and 3D milled surface roughness of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on surface roughness generated by high speed milling of high volume fraction (65% silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum matrix (SiCp/Al composites. Typical 2D (Ra and Rz and 3D (Sa and Sq surface roughness parameters were selected to evaluate the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality in comparison with aluminum alloy. The 3D topography of the milled surface was studied as well. The results indicate that 3D parameters (Sa and Sq are more capable to describe the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality, and among them Sq is preferable due to its good sensitivity. Sq decreases with milling speed and increases with feed rate. The influence of axial depth of cut (ADOC is negligible.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredgart, Maise Høigaard; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Møller, Jacob Eifer
2018-01-01
Background: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard for assessment of left atrial (LA) volume. We assessed the feasibility of evaluating LA volume using 3D non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT). Furthermore, since manual tracing of LA volume is time consuming, we...... evaluated the accuracy of the LA area using 2D NCCT imaging for LA volume assessment. Methods: MRI and NCCT imaging were performed in 69 patients before and one year after aortic valve replacement. In 3D MRI and 3D NCCT, each slice was manually traced, excluding the pulmonary veins and atrial appendage...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoo, V.S.; Bedford, J.L.; Webb, S.; Dearnaley, D.P.
1997-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the adequacy of tumor volume coverage using a three dimensional (3D) margin growing algorithm compared to a two dimensional (2D) margin growing algorithm in the conformal radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two gross tumor volumes (GTV) were segmented in each of ten patients with localized prostate cancer: prostate gland only (PO) and prostate with seminal vesicles (PSV). A margin of 10 mm was applied to these two groups (PO and PSV) using both the 2D and 3D margin growing algorithms. The true planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the region delineated by the 3D algorithm. Adequacy of geometric coverage of the GTV with the two algorithms was examined throughout the target volume. Discrepancies between the two margin methods were measured in the transaxial plane. Results: The 2D algorithm underestimated the PTV by 17% (range 12-20) in the PO group and by 20% (range 13-28) for the PSV group when compared to the 3D algorithm. For both the PO and PSV groups, the inferior coverage of the PTV was consistently underestimated by the 2D margin algorithm when compared to the 3D margins with a mean radial distance of 4.8 mm (range 0-10). In the central region of the prostate gland, the anterior, posterior, and lateral PTV borders were underestimated with the 2D margin in both the PO and PSV groups by a mean of 3.6 mm (range 0-9), 2.1 mm (range 0-8), and 1.8 (range 0-9) respectively. The PTV coverage of the PO group superiorly was radially underestimated by 4.5mm (range 0-14) when comparing the 2D margins to the 3D margins. For the PSV group, the junction region between the prostate and the seminal vesicles was underestimated by the 2D margin by a mean transaxial distance of 18.1 mm in the anterior PTV border (range 4-30), 7.2 mm posteriorly (range 0-20), and 3.7 mm laterally (range 0-14). The superior region of the seminal vesicles in the PSV group was also consistently underestimated with a radial discrepancy of 3.3 mm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1994-01-01
In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-08-01
This document, Volume 2, provides the inventory of waste addressed in this Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The inventories consist of waste from the following four groups: (1) Tank waste; (2) Cesium (Cs) and Strontium (Sr) capsules; (3) Inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs); and (4) Anticipated future tank waste additions. The major component by volume of the overall waste is the tank waste inventory (including future tank waste additions). This component accounts for more than 99 percent of the total waste volume and approximately 70 percent of the radiological activity of the four waste groups identified previously. Tank waste data are available on a tank-by-tank basis, but the accuracy of these data is suspect because they primarily are based on historical records of transfers between tanks rather than statistically based sampling and analyses programs. However, while the inventory of any specific tank may be suspect, the overall inventory for all of the tanks combined is considered more accurate. The tank waste inventory data are provided as the estimated overall chemical masses and radioactivity levels for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The tank waste inventory data are broken down into tank groupings or source areas that were developed for analyzing groundwater impacts
Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.
1981-01-01
A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bangard, Christopher; Roesgen, Silvia; Lackner, Klaus J.; Wahba, Roger; Stippel, Dirk L.; Wiemker, Rafael; Hellmich, Martin; Reiter, Hannah; Fischer, Juergen H.
2010-01-01
To compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) measurements of ablation zones (AZs) related to the shaft of two different large-volume monopolar multi-tined expandable electrodes. Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed in 12 pigs (81.6±7.8 kg) using two electrodes (LeVeen 5 cm, Rita XL 5 cm; n=6 in each group). Contrast-enhanced CT with the electrode shaft in place evaluated the AZ. The largest sphere centred on the electrode shaft within the AZ was calculated (1) based on the 2D axial CT image in the plane of the shaft assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ and (2) using prototype software and the 3D volume data of the AZ measured with CT. The mean largest diameter of a sphere centred on the electrode shaft was always smaller using the 3D data of the AZ than using 2D CT measurements assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ (3D vs 2D): LeVeen 18.2±4.8 mm; 24.5 ±3.1 mm; p=0.001; Rita XL 20.0±3.7 mm; 28.8±4.9 mm; p=0.0002. All AZ showed indentations around the tines. Two-dimensional CT measurements assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ overestimate the largest ablated sphere centred on the electrode shaft compared with 3D CT measurements. (orig.)
Changes in sediment volume in Alder Lake, Nisqually River Basin, Washington, 1945-2011
Czuba, Jonathan A.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Gish, Casey C.
2012-01-01
The Nisqually River drains the southwest slopes of Mount Rainier, a glaciated stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of western Washington. The Nisqually River was impounded behind Alder Dam when the dam was completed in 1945 and formed Alder Lake. This report quantifies the volume of sediment deposited by the Nisqually and Little Nisqually Rivers in their respective deltas in Alder Lake since 1945. Four digital elevation surfaces were generated from historical contour maps from 1945, 1956, and 1985, and a bathymetric survey from 2011. These surfaces were used to compute changes in sediment volume since 1945. Estimates of the volume of sediment deposited in Alder Lake between 1945 and 2011 were focused in three areas: (1) the Nisqually River delta, (2) the main body of Alder Lake, along a 40-meter wide corridor of the pre-dam Nisqually River, and (3) the Little Nisqually River delta. In each of these areas the net deposition over the 66-year period was 42,000,000 ± 4,000,000 cubic meters (m3), 2,000,000 ± 600,000 m3, and 310,000 ± 110,000 m3, respectively. These volumes correspond to annual rates of accumulation of 630,000 ± 60,000 m3/yr, 33,000 ± 9,000 m3/yr, and 4,700 ± 1,600 m3/yr, respectively. The annual sediment yield of the Nisqually (1,100 ± 100 cubic meters per year per square kilometer [(m3/yr)/km2]) and Little Nisqually River basins [70 ± 24 (m3/yr)/km2] provides insight into the yield of two basins with different land cover and geomorphic processes. These estimates suggest that a basin draining a glaciated stratovolcano yields approximately 15 times more sediment than a basin draining forested uplands in the Cascade Range. Given the cumulative net change in sediment volume in the Nisqually River delta in Alder Lake, the total capacity of Alder Lake since 1945 decreased about 3 percent by 1956, 8 percent by 1985, and 15 percent by 2011.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoo, Vincent S.; Bedford, James L.; Webb, Steve; Dearnaley, David P.
1998-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the adequacy of tumor volume coverage using a three-dimensional (3D) margin-growing algorithm compared to a two-dimensional (2D) margin-growing algorithm in the conformal radiotherapy planning of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two gross tumor volumes (GTV) were segmented in each of 10 patients with localized prostate cancer; prostate gland only (PO) and prostate with seminal vesicles (PSV). A predetermined margin of 10 mm was applied to these two groups (PO and PSV) using both 2D and 3D margin-growing algorithms. The 2D algorithm added a transaxial margin to each GTV slice, whereas the 3D algorithm added a volumetric margin all around the GTV. The true planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the region delineated by the 3D algorithm. The adequacy of geometric coverage of the GTV by the two algorithms was examined in a series of transaxial planes throughout the target volume. Results: The 2D margin-growing algorithm underestimated the PTV by 17% (range 12-20) in the PO group and by 20% (range 13-28) for the PSV group when compared to the 3D-margin algorithm. For the PO group, the mean transaxial difference between the 2D and 3D algorithm was 3.8 mm inferiorly (range 0-20), 1.8 mm centrally (range 0-9), and 4.4 mm superiorly (range 0-22). Considering all of these regions, the mean discrepancy anteriorly was 5.1 mm (range 0-22), posteriorly 2.2 (range 0-20), right border 2.8 mm (range 0-14), and left border 3.1 mm (range 0-12). For the PSV group, the mean discrepancy in the inferior region was 3.8 mm (range 0-20), central region of the prostate was 1.8 mm ( range 0-9), the junction region of the prostate and the seminal vesicles was 5.5 mm (range 0-30), and the superior region of the seminal vesicles was 4.2 mm (range 0-55). When the different borders were considered in the PSV group, the mean discrepancies for the anterior, posterior, right, and left borders were 6.4 mm (range 0-55), 2.5 mm (range 0-20), 2.6 mm (range 0-14), and 3
Chen, Xiang; Gilkeson, Robert; Fei, Baowei
2007-03-01
We are investigating three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) registration methods for computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy digital radiography (DR) for the detection of coronary artery calcification. CT is an established tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Dual-energy digital radiography could be a cost-effective alternative for screening coronary artery calcification. In order to utilize CT as the "gold standard" to evaluate the ability of DR images for the detection and localization of calcium, we developed an automatic intensity-based 3D-to-2D registration method for 3D CT volumes and 2D DR images. To generate digital rendering radiographs (DRR) from the CT volumes, we developed three projection methods, i.e. Gaussian-weighted projection, threshold-based projection, and average-based projection. We tested normalized cross correlation (NCC) and normalized mutual information (NMI) as similarity measurement. We used the Downhill Simplex method as the search strategy. Simulated projection images from CT were fused with the corresponding DR images to evaluate the localization of cardiac calcification. The registration method was evaluated by digital phantoms, physical phantoms, and clinical data sets. The results from the digital phantoms show that the success rate is 100% with mean errors of less 0.8 mm and 0.2 degree for both NCC and NMI. The registration accuracy of the physical phantoms is 0.34 +/- 0.27 mm. Color overlay and 3D visualization of the clinical data show that the two images are registered well. This is consistent with the improvement of the NMI values from 0.20 +/- 0.03 to 0.25 +/- 0.03 after registration. The automatic 3D-to-2D registration method is accurate and robust and may provide a useful tool to evaluate the dual-energy DR images for the detection of coronary artery calcification.
Leong, Andrew F T; Fouras, Andreas; Islam, M Sirajul; Wallace, Megan J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J
2013-04-01
Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions ≈ 16.2 μm). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Ranjan; Mishra, Subhash C.; Ajith, M.; Uppaluri, R.
2008-01-01
This article deals with the simultaneous estimation of parameters in a 2-D transient conduction-radiation heat transfer problem. The homogeneous medium is assumed to be absorbing, emitting and scattering. The boundaries of the enclosure are diffuse gray. Three parameters, viz. the scattering albedo, the conduction-radiation parameter and the boundary emissivity, are simultaneously estimated by the inverse method involving the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the finite volume method (FVM) in conjunction with the genetic algorithm (GA). In the direct method, the FVM is used for computing the radiative information while the LBM is used to solve the energy equation. The temperature field obtained in the direct method is used in the inverse method for simultaneous estimation of unknown parameters using the LBM-FVM and the GA. The LBM-FVM-GA combination has been found to accurately predict the unknown parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-08-01
This document, Volume 1 of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 1, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 2. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. The DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules is the No Action alternative
Groundwater contaminant plume maps and volumes, 100-K and 100-N Areas, Hanford Site, Washington
Johnson, Kenneth H.
2016-09-27
extents are shown graphically and in tabular form for comparison to previous estimates. Plume data also were interpolated to a finer grid (10 × 10 m) for some processing, particularly to estimate volumes of contaminated groundwater. However, hydrogeologic transport modeling was not considered for the interpolation. The compilation of plume extents for each contaminant also allowed estimates of overlap of the plumes or areas with more than one contaminant above regulatory standards.A mapping of saturated aquifer thickness also was derived across the 100-K and 100–N study area, based on the vertical difference between the groundwater level (water table) at the top and the altitude of the top of the Ringold Upper Mud geologic unit, considered the bottom of the uppermost unconfined aquifer. Saturated thickness was calculated for each cell in the finer (10 × 10 m) grid. The summation of the cells’ saturated thickness values within each polygon of plume regulatory exceedance provided an estimate of the total volume of contaminated aquifer, and the results also were checked using a SURFER® volumetric integration procedure. The total volume of contaminated groundwater in each plume was derived by multiplying the aquifer saturated thickness volume by a locally representative value of porosity (0.3).Estimates of the uncertainty of the plume delineation also are presented. “Upper limit” plume delineations were calculated for each contaminant using the same procedure as the “average” plume extent except with values at each well that are set at a 95-percent upper confidence limit around the log-normally transformed mean concentrations, based on the standard error for the distribution of the mean value in that well; “lower limit” plumes are calculated at a 5-percent confidence limit around the geometric mean. These upper- and lower-limit estimates are considered unrealistic because the statistics were increased or decreased at each well simultaneously and were not
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, S.
1988-01-01
The commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal site at Richland, Washington has been receiving waste from generators nationwide since 1965 and is one of the three sites in the nation currently receiving commercial LLRW for disposal. In the past, volumes of LLRW have been increasing steadily, however, this trend has reversed since 1986. This paper addresses waste volume and activity of the waste disposed, factors which have caused this dramatic reduction in LLRW volume, and regulatory concerns regarding environmental protection, and public and occupational health and safety. Future volumes of LLRW that are disposed at the Richland site depend on economic, technological, political and regulatory variables. Provided there is a continual increase in industrial growth, and a demand for medical research and diagnosis, the volume of LLRW increases. However, this volume also offsets by an increase in demand for volume reduction due to economic and institutional pressures. Yet, if all generators continue to volume reduce their LLRW, some time in future, a limit will be reached when the facility site operator needs to increase the unit disposal cost to cover the fixed cost and maintain a profit margin in order to operate the site
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Bernhardt
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Histological imaging is still considered the gold standard for analysing bone formation around metallic implants. Generally, a limited number of histological sections per sample are used for the approximation of mean values of peri-implant bone formation. In this study we compared statistically the results of bone-implant contact (BIC and bone-implant volume (BIV obtained by histological sections, with those obtained by X-ray absorption images from synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRµCT using osseointegrated screw-shaped implants from a mini-pig study. Comparing the BIC results of 3-4 histological sections per implant sample with the appropriate 3-4 SRµCT slices showed a non-significant difference of 1.9 % (p = 0.703. The contact area assessed by the whole 3D information from the SRµCT measurement in comparison to the histomorphometric results showed a non-significant difference in BIC of 4.9 % (p = 0.171. The amount of the bone-implant volume in the histological sections and the appropriate SRµCT slices showed a non-significant difference by only 1.4 % (p = 0.736 and also remains non-significant with 2.6 % (p = 0.323 using the volumetric SRµCT information. We conclude that for a clinical evaluation of implant osseointegration with histological imaging at least 3-4 sections per sample are sufficient to represent the BIC or BIV for a sample. Due to the fact that in this study we have found a significant intra-sample variation in BIC of up to ± 35 % the selection of only one or two histological sections per sample may strongly influence the determined BIC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, Christophe
2001-01-01
Scope of the lecture was the modelling of severe reactor accidents. The PERICLES 2D experiment was compared to CATHARE 3D simulation results considering progression of a quench front inside the reactor core, steam flow rates, heat conduction, cladding temperature. (uke)
Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz
2009-09-01
The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1994-01-01
BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1983-07-01
The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-07-01
The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D [University of California, Los Angeles, Ca (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D
2016-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.
THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORAL EDUCATION OF THE DEAF ARE THE WRITTEN RECORD OF A CONFERENCE HELD AT CLARKE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND LEXINGTON SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF IN JUNE 1967. VOLUME I CONTAINS THE PAPERS FROM FIVE PLENARY SESSIONS AND SEVERAL SECTIONAL MEETINGS PRESENTED BY REPRESENTATIVES FROM 16 COUNTRIES. SUBJECTS…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-08-01
As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, LKB Resources, Inc. has performed a rotary-wing, reconnaissance high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey in north-east Washington. Three 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangles (Spokane, Sandpoint, and Okanogan) were surveyed. A total of 14,421 line miles (23,203 kilometers) of data were collected utilizing a Sikorsky S58T helicopter. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at 1.0 and 3.0 mile (1.6 and 4.8 kilometers) spacing, with tie lines flown in a north-south direction at 12 mile (20 kilometer) spacing. The data were digitally recorded at 1.0 second intervals. The NaI terrestrial detectors used in this survey had a total volume of 2,154 cubic inches. The magnetometer employed was a modified ASQ-10 fluxgate system. This report covers only the Okanogan and Sandpoint 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangles. Spokane 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangle is covered in a separate report. The radiometric data were normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The data are presented in the form of computer listings on microfiche and as stacked profile plots. Profile plots are contained in Volume II of this report. A geologic interpretation of the radiometric and magnetic data is included as part of this report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-08-01
As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, LKB Resources, Inc. has performed a rotary-wing, reconnaissance high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey in north-east Washington. Three 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangles (Spokane, Sandpoint, and Okanogan) were surveyed. A total of 14,421 line miles (23,203 kilometers) of data were collected utilizing a Sikorsky S58T helicopter. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at 1.0 and 3.0 mile (1.6 and 4.8 kilometers) spacing, with tie lines flown in a north-south direction at 12 mile (20 kilometer) spacing. The data were digitally recorded at 1.0 second intervals. The NaI terrestrial detectors used in this survey had a total volume of 2,154 cubic inches. The magnetometer employed was a modified ASQ-10 fluxgate system. This report covers only the Okanogan and Sandpoint 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangles. Spokane 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangle is covered in a separate report. The radiometric data were normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The data are presented in the form of computer listings on microfiche and as stacked profile plots. Profile plots are contained in Volume II of this report. A geologic interpretation of the radiometric and magnetic data is included as part of this report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloomquist, R. Gordon
1985-06-01
This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)
Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henze, M.
1999-01-01
The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....
Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsparg, P.; Moore, G.
1992-01-01
This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions
From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning
Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.
2010-01-01
Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the
2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat
Smolander, Aku
2009-01-01
Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...
HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, N N
1998-03-01
The implementation of a hyperbolic mesh generation procedure, based on an equation for orthogonality and an equation for the cell face area is described. The method is fast, robust and gives meshes with good smoothness and orthogonality. The procedure is implemented in a program called HypGrid2D. The HypGrid2D program is capable of generating C-, O- and `H`-meshes for use in connection with the EllipSys2D Navier-Stokes solver. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, some test examples are shown. First a series of C-meshes are generated around a NACA-0012 airfoil. Secondly a series of O-meshes are generated around a NACA-65-418 airfoil. Finally `H`-meshes are generated over a Gaussian hill and a linear escarpment. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.D.; Lyon, S.P.
1982-04-01
SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run
Jason C. Cross; Eric C. Turnblom; Gregory J. Ettl
2013-01-01
Biomass residue produced by timber harvest operations is estimated for the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington. Scattered residues were sampled in 53 harvest units and piled residues were completely enumerated in 55 harvest units. Production is based on 2008 and 2009 data and is stratified by forest location, ownership type, harvest intensity, and harvest method...
Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.
Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald
1981-01-01
This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington.
Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald
1983-01-01
This report summarizes a 1980 timber resource inventory of the 16 forested counties in Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Computational 2D Materials Database
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2015-01-01
We present a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic structure of 51 semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides and -oxides in the 2H and 1T hexagonal phases. The quasiparticle (QP) band structures with spin-orbit coupling are calculated in the G(0)W(0) approximation...... and used as input to a 2D hydrogenic model to estimate exciton binding energies. Throughout the paper we focus on trends and correlations in the electronic structure rather than detailed analysis of specific materials. All the computed data is available in an open database......., and comparison is made with different density functional theory descriptions. Pitfalls related to the convergence of GW calculations for two-dimensional (2D) materials are discussed together with possible solutions. The monolayer band edge positions relative to vacuum are used to estimate the band alignment...
VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR
African Journals Online (AJOL)
hennie
estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1981-01-01
The 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference was held in Washington from 11-13 March. It was the ninth in the series of meetings organized in the USA which differ from the 'International' meetings in their coverage of the full range of accelerator engineering and technology, including applications outside e field of high energy physics. The Conference took place under the cloud of further budget cuts for Fiscal Year 1982 in the USA which the Department of Energy has applied in line with the financial policy of the new administration. Coming on top of many years of budget trimming which have reduced the number of high energy physics Laboratories funded by the DOE to three (Brookhaven, Fermilab, Stanford - Cornell is funded by the National Science Foundation) and reduced the exploitation of these Laboratories to less than half of their potential, the new cuts did not exactly help to boost morale. Nevertheless, the huge amount of tailed work in accelerator physics and technology which was presented at the Conference showed how alive the field is
Fallow), Stray
2009-01-01
Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and
NASA-VOF2D, 2-D Transient Free Surface Incompressible Fluid Dynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torrey, M.D.
1988-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: NASA-VOF2D is a two- dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles. 2 - Method of solution: NASA-VOF2D simulates incompressible flows with free surfaces using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm. This technique is based on the use of donor-acceptor differencing to track the free surface across an Eulerian grid. The complete Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables for an incompressible fluid are solved by finite differences with surface tension and wall adhesion included. Optionally the pressure equation can be solved by a conjugate residual method rather than the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny
2008-01-01
We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brekke, L.; Imbo, T.D.
1992-01-01
The authors study the inequivalent quantizations of (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models with space manifold S 1 and target manifold X. If x is multiply connected, these models possess topological solitons. After providing a definition of spin and statistics for these solitons and demonstrating a spin-statistics correlation, we give various examples where the solitons can have exotic statistics. In some of these models, the solitons may obey a generalized version of fractional statistics called ambistatistics. In this paper the relevance of these 2d models to the statistics of vortices in (2 + 1)-dimensional spontaneously broken gauge theories is discussed. The authors close with a discussion concerning the extension of our results to higher dimensions
Waldin, Nicholas
2016-06-24
2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.
2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.
2002-01-01
Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1974-01-01
The Environmental Protection Agency embarked on a program to evaluate the environmental impact of the transuranium elements and to consider whether further guidelines or standards are needed to assure adequate protection of the general ambient environment and of the public health from potential contamination of the environment by radionuclides of these elements. Public hearings were held in Washington, D. C., and Denver, Colorado, to gather information regarding the public and social implications of plutonium utilization; the factors involved in the balancing of costs vs benefits; dosimetry, health, and environmental effects; environmental levels and pathways; applications using plutonium; and control and cleanup technology. The proceedings of the hearing in Washington, D. C., Dec. 10-11, 1974, are presented. Data are included on current and potential sources of transuranium elements in the environment; animal studies on the tissue distribution of 233 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 249 Bk, 252 Cf, and 253 Es and pathological effects of body burdens of these radionuclides; and data on the health status of personnel known to have body burdens of 238 Pu or 239 Pu acquired during acute or chronic exposure, many of them over 30 years previously. It is pointed out that the lack of demonstrable biological effects of Pu in man provides presumptive evidence that the radiation protection standards in effect are adequate. (U.S.)
2017-03-01
This is the second of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how : they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically at-risk : drivers. This volume pre...
Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S
2015-03-21
The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples.
Learn Unity for 2D game development
Thorn, Alan
2013-01-01
The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-11-01
As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Evaluation Program a rotary wing detailed high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was performed which encompassed 8 areas in the northeastern portion of Washington State. The total area surveyed consisted of approximately 9105 line miles. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer and magnetometer. The airborne spectrometer system was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado and at the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. The radiometric data was corrected and normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance and identified as to rock type by correlating each sample with existing geologic map information. A multi-variate analysis was performed, which together with the radiometric and magnetic contour maps was utilized in the geochemical analysis of each area. The survey data is presented in the form of contour maps, stacked profiles, histograms and microfiche copies of the data listings. This graphic material is presented in the individual area reports. The results of the geologic and geochemical evaluation are presented as individual chapters of this narrative report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-03-01
The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of final disposal actions for high-level, transuranic and tank wastes located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, and into the construction, operation and decommissioning of waste treatment facilities that may be required in implementing waste disposal alternatives. Specifically evaluated are a Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Transportable Grout Facility, and a Waste Receiving and Packaging Facility. Also an evaluation is presented to assist in determining whether any additional action should be taken in terms of long-term environmental protection for waste that was disposed of at Hanford prior to 1970 as low-level waste (before the transuranic waste category was established by the AEC) but which might fall into that category if generated today. The alternatives considered in this EIS are: (1) in-place stabilization and disposal, where waste is left in place but is isolated by protective and natural barriers; (2) geologic disposal, where most of the waste (to the extent practicable) is exhumed, treated, segregated, packaged and disposed of in a deep geologic repository; waste classified as high-level would be disposed of in a commercial repository developed pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; transuranic waste would be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico; (3) reference alternative, where some classes of waste are disposed of in geologic repositories and other classes of waste are disposed of by in-place stabilization and disposal; and (4) a ''no disposal'' action alternative (continued storage)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-03-01
The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of final disposal actions for high-level, transuranic and tank wastes located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, and into the construction, operation and decommissioning of waste treatment facilities that may be required in implementing waste disposal alternatives. Specifically evaluated are a Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Transportable Grout Facility, and a Waste Receiving and Packaging Facility. Also an evaluation is presented to assist in determining whether any additional action should be taken in terms of long-term environmental protection for waste that was disposed of at Hanford prior to 1970 as low-level waste (before the transuranic waste category was established by the AEC) but which might fall into that category if generated today. The alternatives considered in this EIS are: (1) in-place stabilization and disposal, where waste is left in place but is isolated by protective and natural barriers; (2) geologic disposal, where most of the waste (to the extent practicable) is exhumed, treated, segregated, packaged and disposed of in a deep geologic repository; waste classified as high-level would be disposed of in a commercial repository developed pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; transuranic waste would be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico; (3) reference alternative, where some classes of waste are disposed of in geologic repositories and other classes of waste are disposed of by in-place stabilization and disposal; and (4) a ''no disposal'' action alternative (continued storage)
FEM-2D - Input description and performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, F.A.R.
1975-03-01
FEM-2D solves the 2d diffusion equation by the Finite Element Method. This version of the code was written for x-y geometry, triangular elements with first and second order flux approximations, and has a solution routine which is based on a modified Cholesky procedure. FEM-2D is fully integrated into the modular system RSYST. However, we have developed a simulation program RSIMK which simulates some of the functions of RSYST and allows to run FEM-2D independently. (orig.) [de
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan
2005-06-24
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.
2D NMR studies of biomolecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamerichs, R.M.J.N.
1989-01-01
The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Damkier, Per
2018-01-01
Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by about one-half. It is converted to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and transported by ATP-binding cassette transporters. Genetic polymorphisms that confer reduced CYP2...
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strachan, J.D.; Corrigan, G.
2005-01-01
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables
Analysis of chronic aortic regurgitation by 2D and 3D echocardiography and cardiac MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoebe, Stephan; Metze, Michael; Jurisch, Daniel
2018-01-01
) were assessed retrospectively by 2D, 3D echocardiography and cMRI in 55 chronic AR patients. Semi-quantitative parameters were assessed by 2D echocardiography. RESULTS: 22 (40%) patients had mild, 25 (46%) moderate and 8 (14%) severe AR. The quantitative volumetric approach was feasible using 2D, 3D...... echocardiography and cMRI, whereas the feasibility of semi-quantitative parameters varied considerably. LV volume (LVEDV, LVESV, SVtot) analyses showed good correlations between the different imaging modalities, although significantly increased LV volumes were assessed by cMRI. RVol was significantly different...... between 2D/3D echocardiography and 2D echocardiography/cMRI but was not significantly different between 3D echocardiography/cMRI. RF was not statistically different between 2D echocardiography/cMRI and 3D echocardiography/cMRI showing poor correlations (r
Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.
Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean
1995-01-01
This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...
Timber resource statistics for western Washington.
Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary
1992-01-01
This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Light field morphing using 2D features.
Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung
2005-01-01
We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field.
Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.
Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald
1961-01-01
This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma
2011-01-01
The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...
Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.
2017-01-01
of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date
A companion matrix for 2-D polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boudellioua, M.S.
1995-08-01
In this paper, a matrix form analogous to the companion matrix which is often encountered in the theory of one dimensional (1-D) linear systems is suggested for a class of polynomials in two indeterminates and real coefficients, here referred to as two dimensional (2-D) polynomials. These polynomials arise in the context of 2-D linear systems theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions are also presented under which a matrix is equivalent to this companion form. (author). 6 refs
Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2010-01-01
In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....
2d index and surface operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei
2014-01-01
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role
3-D Imaging using Row--Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays with a Diverging Lens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Stuart, Matthias Bo
2016-01-01
It has been shown that row–column-addressed (RCA) 2-D arrays can be an inexpensive alternative to fully addressed 2-D arrays. Generally imaging with an RCA 2-D array is limited to its forward-looking volume region. Constructing a double-curved RCA 2-D array or applying a diverging lens over......, is designed for imaging down to 14 cm at a volume rate of 88 Hz. The curvilinear imaging performance of a λ/2-pitch 3 MHz 62+62 RCA 2-D array is investigated as a function of depth, using a diverging lens with f-number of -1. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed beamforming approach...
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.
García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M
2016-10-06
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V -1 , ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panagiotis GIOANNIS
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-10-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V-1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
2D/3D/4D ULTRASOUND IN INFERTILITY MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uršula Reš-Muravec
2018-02-01
Ultrasound in infertility diagnostics: Ultrasound is used for examination of uterus, tubes, ovaries and peritoneal cause of infertility. It can be used in different menstrual phases: proliferative, periovulatory and secretory phase. Examination of uterus: A 2D scan can measure the size of the uterus (length, width and depth and a 2D flow (colour and power doppler. With 3D technology we can measure the whole volume with VOCAL (virtual organ computer-aided analysis and 3D circulation with the index (VI – vascular index, FI – flow index and VFI – vascular flow index in the uterus. A 2D scan can help us define uterine malformations, fibroids and adenomyosis to a certain extent. However, a 3D scan offers more accurate diagnosis of these malformations. Endometrium is examined separately. With 2D the width is measured and morphology and focal lesions (polyp, fibroids, adhesions are examined. With 3D the real sagital plane for the width measurement can be defined . We can measure the volume of endometrium and subendometrium and 3D circulation in endometrium and subendometrium. The FIS (f luid instlation sonography is very useful when examining the endometrium; saline or gel can be used for uterine instalation. We can measure and define the position of the structures in the endometrium more accurately when they are surrouned by saline or gel. We can view these structures with a surface view, similar to the one used for hysteroscopy. With this information we can explain the pathology to the patient and easily plan the surgical procedures. Examination of the tubes: With 2D US we can see the tubes in the pelvis only if there are dilatations, but sometimes it is difficult to distinguish them from the neighbouring forma- tions. With a 3D ultrasound we can define the shape and continuity of the tube and we can view the tube from different angles (inversion mode. Different contrast media are used for determining tubal patency. Tubal patency can be diagnosed with 2D Hy
Explorative analysis of 2D color maps
Steiger, Martin; Bernard, Jürgen; Thum, Simon; Mittelstädt, Sebastian; Hutter, Marco; Keim, Daniel A.; Kohlhammer, Jörn
2015-01-01
Color is one of the most important visual variables in information visualization. In many cases, two-dimensional information can be color-coded based on a 2D color map. A variety of color maps as well as a number of quality criteria for the use of color have been presented. The choice of the best color map depends on the analytical task users intend to perform and the design space in choosing an appropriate 2D color map is large. In this paper, we present the ColorMap-Explorer, a visual-inter...
GAIA: A 2-D Curvilinear moving grid hydrodynamic code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jourdren, H.
1987-02-01
The GAIA computer code is developed for time dependent, compressible, multimaterial fluid flow problems, to overcome some drawbacks of traditional 2-D Lagrangian codes. The initial goals of robustness, entropy accuracies, efficiency in presence of large interfacial slip, have already been achieved. The general GODUNOV approach is applied to an arbitrary time varying control-volume formulation. We review in this paper the Riemann solver, the GODUNOV cartesian and curvilinear moving grid schemes and an efficient grid generation algorithm. We finally outline a possible second order accuracy extension
Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hakl, H
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...
2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu
2011-01-01
Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular wavegui...
2-D model for electrokinetic remediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez Maroto, J.M.; Garcia Delgado, R.A.; Gomez Lahoz, C.; Garcia Herruzo, F. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Vereda Alonso, C. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)]|[Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)
2001-07-01
A simple two-dimensional numerical model is presented in this work. In this case, the model is used to examine the enhanced method of the electrokinetic remediation technique in a 2-D arrangement. Nevertheless the model with minor changes can also be used to study the effect of the electrode configuration in the performance of this technique. (orig.)
Small polarons in 2D perovskites
Cortecchia, Daniele
2017-11-02
We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.
Small polarons in 2D perovskites
Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Birowosuto, Muhammad D.; Lo, Shu-Zee A.; Gurzadyan, Gagik G.; Bruno, Annalisa; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Soci, Cesare
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.
Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Chien, Chi-Bin; Hansen, Charles
2012-01-01
2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.
Wan, Yong
2012-02-01
2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists\\' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.
Analysis of chronic aortic regurgitation by 2D and 3D echocardiography and cardiac MRI
Stoebe, Stephan; Metze, Michael; Jurisch, Daniel; Tayal, Bhupendar; Solty, Kilian; Laufs, Ulrich; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas
2018-01-01
Purpose The study compares the feasibility of the quantitative volumetric and semi-quantitative approach for quantification of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) using different imaging modalities. Methods Left ventricular (LV) volumes, regurgitant volumes (RVol) and regurgitant fractions (RF) were assessed retrospectively by 2D, 3D echocardiography and cMRI in 55 chronic AR patients. Semi-quantitative parameters were assessed by 2D echocardiography. Results 22 (40%) patients had mild, 25 (46%) moderate and 8 (14%) severe AR. The quantitative volumetric approach was feasible using 2D, 3D echocardiography and cMRI, whereas the feasibility of semi-quantitative parameters varied considerably. LV volume (LVEDV, LVESV, SVtot) analyses showed good correlations between the different imaging modalities, although significantly increased LV volumes were assessed by cMRI. RVol was significantly different between 2D/3D echocardiography and 2D echocardiography/cMRI but was not significantly different between 3D echocardiography/cMRI. RF was not statistically different between 2D echocardiography/cMRI and 3D echocardiography/cMRI showing poor correlations (r echocardiography and 2D echocardiography/cMRI and good agreement was observed between 3D echocardiography/cMRI. Conclusion Semi-quantitative parameters are difficult to determine by 2D echocardiography in clinical routine. The quantitative volumetric RF assessment seems to be feasible and can be discussed as an alternative approach in chronic AR. However, RVol and RF did not correlate well between the different imaging modalities. The best agreement for grading of AR severity by RF was observed between 3D echocardiography and cMRI. LV volumes can be verified by different approaches and different imaging modalities. PMID:29519957
2D/ 3D Quantitative Ultrasound of the Breast
Nasief, Haidy Gerges
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death of women in the United States, so breast cancer screening for early detection is common. The purpose of this dissertation is to optimize quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods to improve the specificity and objectivity of breast ultrasound. To pursue this goal, the dissertation is divided into two parts: 1) to optimize 2D QUS, and 2) to introduce and validate 3D QUS. Previous studies had validated these methods in phantoms. Applying our QUS analysis on subcutaneous breast fat demonstrated that QUS parameter estimates for subcutaneous fat were consistent among different human subjects. This validated our in vivo data acquisition methods and supported the use of breast fat as a clinical reference tissue for ultrasound BI-RADSRTM assessments. Although current QUS methods perform well for straightforward cases when assumptions of stationarity and diffuse scattering are well-founded, these conditions often are not present due to the complicated nature of in vivo breast tissue. Key improvements in QUS algorithms to address these challenges were: 1) applying a "modified least squares method (MLSM)" to account for the heterogeneous tissue path between the transducer and the region of interest, ROI; 2) detecting anisotropy in acoustic parameters; and 3) detecting and removing the echo sources that depart from diffuse and stationary scattering conditions. The results showed that a Bayesian classifier combining three QUS parameters in a biased pool of high-quality breast ultrasound data successfully differentiated all fibroadenomas from all carcinomas. Given promising initial results in 2D, extension to 3D acquisitions in QUS provided a unique capability to test QUS for the entire breast volume. QUS parameter estimates using 3D data were consistent with those found in 2D for phantoms and in vivo data. Extensions of QUS technology from 2D to 3D can improve the specificity of breast ultrasound, and thus, could lead to
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kateryna Shavanova
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.
2D-deformaatio-animaatio peligrafiikassa
Falck, Tia
2017-01-01
Opinnäytetyössä tavoitteena oli esitellä deformaatio-animaation hyötyjä peligrafiikassa. Esimerkillisenä pelinä käytettiin pääasiassa Vanillawaren Dragon’s Crownian, koska siinä yhdistyvät perinteinen sprite sheet -animaatiota käyttävä peligrafiikka ja animaatiotyyli, jonka pystyisi tekemään helpommin kokonaan 2D-mesh-deformaatiota ja luurankoanimaatiota käyttäen. Projektityön osuudessa käytiin läpi animoidun 2D-hahmon työvaiheet kahdessa eri ohjelmassa, joissa molemmissa pystyi teke...
Flexible 2D layered material junctions
Balabai, R.; Solomenko, A.
2018-03-01
Within the framework of the methods of the electron density functional and the ab initio pseudopotential, we have obtained the valence electron density spatial distribution, the densities of electron states, the widths of band gaps, the charges on combined regions, and the Coulomb potentials for graphene-based flexible 2D layered junctions, using author program complex. It is determined that the bending of the 2D layered junctions on the angle α leads to changes in the electronic properties of these junctions. In the graphene/graphane junction, there is clear charge redistribution with different signs in the regions of junctions. The presence in the heterojunctions of charge regions with different signs leads to the formation of potential barriers. The greatest potential jump is in the graphene/fluorographene junction. The greatest value of the band gap width is in the graphene/graphane junction.
Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan
1998-07-01
2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.
Design of 2-D rational digital filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, D.B
1981-01-01
A novel 2-D rational filter design technique is presented which makes use of a reflection coefficient function (RCF) representation for the filter transfer function. The design problem is formulated in the frequency domain. A least-square error criterion is used though the usual error measure is augmented with barrier functions. These act to restrict the domain of approximation to the set of stable filters. Construction of suitable barrier functions is facilitated by the RCF characterization
Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems.
Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui
2017-03-15
At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe 2 ), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.
Thermodynamics of 2D string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrov, Sergei Yu.; V.A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg University
2003-01-01
We calculate the free energy, energy and entropy in the matrix quantum mechanical formulation of 2D string theory in a background strongly perturbed by tachyons with the imaginary minkowskian momentum ±i/R ('Sine-Liouville' theory). The system shows a thermodynamical behaviour corresponding to the temperature T={1/(2π R)}. We show that the microscopically calculated energy of the system satisfies the usual thermodynamical relations and leads to a non-zero entropy. (author)
2D materials: Graphene and others
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bansal, Suneev Anil, E-mail: suneev@gmail.com; Singh, Amrinder Pal [Deptt. of Mech Engg, UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Kumar, Suresh [Deptt. of Applied Sciences, UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)
2016-05-06
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
Simulation of 2D Granular Hopper Flow
Li, Zhusong; Shattuck, Mark
2012-02-01
Jamming and intermittent granular flow are big problems in industry, and the vertical hopper is a canonical example of these difficulties. We simulate gravity driven flow and jamming of 2D disks in a vertical hopper and compare with identical companion experiments presented in this session. We measure and compare the flow rate and probability for jamming as a function of particle properties and geometry. We evaluate the ability of standard Hertz-Mindlin contact mode to quantitatively predict the experimental flow.
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials
Lien, Derhsien
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials
Lien, Derhsien; Kang, Jeongseuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsinping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S.; Wu, Ming C.; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Sichen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali
2015-01-01
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
From 2D to 3D turbulence through 2D3C configurations
Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca; Linkmann, Moritz
2017-11-01
We study analytically and numerically the geometry of the nonlinear interactions and the resulting energy transfer directions of 2D3C flows. Through a set of suitably designed Direct Numerical Simulations we also study the coupling between several 2D3C flows, where we explore the transition between 2D and fully 3D turbulence. In particular, we find that the coupling of three 2D3C flows on mutually orthogonal planes subject to small-scale forcing leads to a stationary 3D out-of-equilibrium dynamics at the energy containing scales where the inverse cascade is directly balanced by a forward cascade carried by a different subsets of interactions. ERC AdG Grant No 339032 NewTURB.
2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography
Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.
2017-05-01
The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.
Temple, Aidan
2013-01-01
Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...... diameter to water depth ratio and the wave hight to water depth ratio on wave run-up of piles. The measurements should be used to design access platforms on piles....
Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators
Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew
2017-10-01
Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.
2D gravity and random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.
1990-01-01
Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods
Is 'bosonic matter' unstable in 2D?
Manoukian, E B
2003-01-01
An upper bound is derived for the exact ground-state energy in 2D, E sub N <= -(me sup 4 /2 h-bar sup 2)(N sup 3 sup / sup 2 /50 pi sup 2), of 'bosonic matter' consisting of N positive and N negative charges with Coulombic interactions. This is to be compared with the classic N sup 7 sup / sup 5 3D-law of Dyson and gives rise to a more 'violent' collapse of such matter in 2D for large N. The derivation is based on a rigorous analysis which, in the process, controls the negative part of the Hamiltonian over its positive kinetic energy part and detailed estimates needed for counting trial wavefunctions of arbitrary states. A formal dimensional analysis in the style of Dyson alone shows, in arbitrary dimensions of space d = 1, 2, ..., that E sub N approx = -(me sup 4 /2 h-bar sup 2)C sub d N suprho, rho = (d + 4)/(d + 2), where C sub d is a positive constant depending on d, consistent with our rigorous bound, and we are led to conjecture that 'bosonic matter' is unstable in all dimensions.
Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.
Improved Focusing Method for 3-D Imaging using Row–Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Stuart, Matthias Bo
2017-01-01
A row–column-addressed (RCA) 2-D array can be interpreted as two orthogonal 1-D arrays. By transmitting with row elements and receiving the echoes through column elements or vice versa, a rectilinear volume in front of the array can be beamformed. Since the transmit and receive 1-D arrays are ort...... measurements with a PZT λ/2-pitch 3 MHz 62+62 RCA 2-D transducer probe. A synthetic aperture imaging sequence with single element transmissions at a time, is designed for imaging down to 14 cm at a volume rate of 44 Hz....
Recent developments: Washington focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
November was a quiet month in Washington. Although Congress has recessed until 1991, the Senate filled vacancies in party leadership positions created by November's elections. The House is expected to proceed with its changes in early December. The Nuclear Energy Forum was held in Washington, DC on November 11-14 to discuss the status of the nuclear industry in the USA. The Forum, held in conjunction with the American Nuclear Society's annual meeting, assembled a large number of CEO's from US, European, and Far Eastern utilities and vendors. The meeting concluded with an announcement by Philip Bayne, President of NYPA and chairman of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), of the results of a year-long NPOC study entitled a open-quotes Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliphant, T.A.; Morel, J.E.; Gula, W.P.; Pfeufer, G.W.
1997-01-01
The cell-centered diffusion differencing scheme presented by Morel et al. has been applied to magnetic diffusion associated with Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes. Thus, the method applies to non-orthogonal meshes. Although the present application involves structured meshes, the method applies equally well to unstructured meshes. Morel's example of application is to 2D diffusion using Ficke's law. Thus, a volume integral approach is applied to the divergence operator. In 2D magnetic diffusion symmetry allows the use of an area integral approach involving the field components normal to the area, e.g. A-theta and B-theta. Instead of a divergence of a term proportional to the field gradient a curl of a term proportional to the curl of the field is used. An essential fact that allows this procedure is that the solenoidal property of the magnetic field is automatic. In the case of 3D it is necessary to return to the volumetric integral approach and to use rectangular components of the vector potential. Successful benchmarks have been run in comparison with the 1D code RAVEN. A typical example is that of a metal cylinder being compressed by a magnetic field applied at the outer boundary. So far, the 3D diffusion model has been tested in the orthogonal case and found to preserve the linear, homogeneous solution. Results of these and further tests are presented
2-d Simulations of Test Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thrane, Lars Nyholm
2004-01-01
One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...... using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...
2D vector-cyclic deformable templates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut
1998-01-01
In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....
2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.
Gliozzi, F
2011-01-21
In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.
Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Socolar, J.E.S.
1990-01-01
The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs
Nonlinear Optics with 2D Layered Materials.
Autere, Anton; Jussila, Henri; Dai, Yunyun; Wang, Yadong; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei
2018-03-25
2D layered materials (2DLMs) are a subject of intense research for a wide variety of applications (e.g., electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics) due to their unique physical properties. Most recently, increasing research efforts on 2DLMs are projected toward the nonlinear optical properties of 2DLMs, which are not only fascinating from the fundamental science point of view but also intriguing for various potential applications. Here, the current state of the art in the field of nonlinear optics based on 2DLMs and their hybrid structures (e.g., mixed-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fiber integrated structures) is reviewed. Several potential perspectives and possible future research directions of these promising nanomaterials for nonlinear optics are also presented. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou
1994-01-01
). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992...... was on the Dolos breakwater with a high superstructure, where there was almost no overtopping. This case is believed to be the most dangerous one. The test of the Dolos breakwater with a low superstructure was also performed. The objective of the last part of the experiment is to investigate the influence...
Full revivals in 2D quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanak, M; Jex, I; Kollar, B; Kiss, T
2010-01-01
Recurrence of a random walk is described by the Polya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is understood as the return of the walker to the origin, rather than the full revival of its quantum state. Localization for two-dimensional quantum walks is known to exist in the sense of non-vanishing probability distribution in the asymptotic limit. We show, on the example of the 2D Grover walk, that one can exploit the effect of localization to construct stationary solutions. Moreover, we find full revivals of a quantum state with a period of two steps. We prove that there cannot be longer cycles for a four-state quantum walk. Stationary states and revivals result from interference, which has no counterpart in classical random walks.
Predicting 2D target velocity cannot help 2D motion integration for smooth pursuit initiation.
Montagnini, Anna; Spering, Miriam; Masson, Guillaume S
2006-12-01
Smooth pursuit eye movements reflect the temporal dynamics of bidimensional (2D) visual motion integration. When tracking a single, tilted line, initial pursuit direction is biased toward unidimensional (1D) edge motion signals, which are orthogonal to the line orientation. Over 200 ms, tracking direction is slowly corrected to finally match the 2D object motion during steady-state pursuit. We now show that repetition of line orientation and/or motion direction does not eliminate the transient tracking direction error nor change the time course of pursuit correction. Nonetheless, multiple successive presentations of a single orientation/direction condition elicit robust anticipatory pursuit eye movements that always go in the 2D object motion direction not the 1D edge motion direction. These results demonstrate that predictive signals about target motion cannot be used for an efficient integration of ambiguous velocity signals at pursuit initiation.
Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-01-01
Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the
Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Kürklüoglu, Mustafa [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Lovejoy, John [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Yaniv, Ziv, E-mail: ZYaniv@childrensnational.org [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)
2013-12-15
Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on
Photovoltaic Effect of 2D Homologous Perovskites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Mi-Hee
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The mixed perovskite was prepared by exposure of MAI gas on the BAPbI_4 film. • The increased dimensional perovskite shows a smaller band gap than 2D perovskite. • The mixed perovskite system shows the vertical crystal orientation. • The mixed perovskite cell exhibits the higher Jsc and FF than 2D perovskite cell. - Abstract: The controlled growth of mixed dimensional perovskite structures, (C_6H_5CH_2NH_2)(CH_3NH_3)_n_-_1Pb_nI_3_n_+_1, through the introduction of CH_3NH_3I molecule vapor into the two-dimensional perovskite C_6H_5CH_2NH_3PbI_4 structure and its application in photovoltaic devices is reported. The dimensionality of (C_6H_5CH_2NH_2)(CH_3NH_3)_n_-_1Pb_nI_3_n_+_1 is controlled using the exposure time to the CH_3NH_3I vapor on the C_6H_5CH_2NH_3PbI_4 perovskite film. As the stacking of the lead iodide lattice increases, the crystallographic planes of the inorganic perovskite compound exhibit vertical growth in order to facilitate efficient charge transport. Furthermore, the devices have a smaller band gap, which offers broader absorption and the potential to increase the photocurrent density in the solar cell. As a result, the photovoltaic device based on the (C_6H_5CH_2NH_2)(CH_3NH_3)_n_-_1Pb_nI_3_n_+_1 perovskite exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.43% with a short circuit current density of 14.49 mA cm"−"2, an open circuit voltage of 0.85 V, and a fill factor of 44.30 for the best power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm"−"2), which is significantly higher than the 0.34% of the pure two-dimensional BAPbI_4 perovskite-based solar cell.
Parallelization of 2-D lattice Boltzmann codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Soichiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yokokawa, Mitsuo.
1996-03-01
Lattice Boltzmann (LB) codes to simulate two dimensional fluid flow are developed on vector parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500 and scalar parallel computer Intel Paragon XP/S. While a 2-D domain decomposition method is used for the scalar parallel LB code, a 1-D domain decomposition method is used for the vector parallel LB code to be vectorized along with the axis perpendicular to the direction of the decomposition. High parallel efficiency of 95.1% by the vector parallel calculation on 16 processors with 1152x1152 grid and 88.6% by the scalar parallel calculation on 100 processors with 800x800 grid are obtained. The performance models are developed to analyze the performance of the LB codes. It is shown by our performance models that the execution speed of the vector parallel code is about one hundred times faster than that of the scalar parallel code with the same number of processors up to 100 processors. We also analyze the scalability in keeping the available memory size of one processor element at maximum. Our performance model predicts that the execution time of the vector parallel code increases about 3% on 500 processors. Although the 1-D domain decomposition method has in general a drawback in the interprocessor communication, the vector parallel LB code is still suitable for the large scale and/or high resolution simulations. (author)
Multimodal 2D Brain Computer Interface.
Almajidy, Rand K; Boudria, Yacine; Hofmann, Ulrich G; Besio, Walter; Mankodiya, Kunal
2015-08-01
In this work we used multimodal, non-invasive brain signal recording systems, namely Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), disc electrode electroencephalography (EEG) and tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) electroencephalography (tEEG). 7 healthy subjects participated in our experiments to control a 2-D Brain Computer Interface (BCI). Four motor imagery task were performed, imagery motion of the left hand, the right hand, both hands and both feet. The signal slope (SS) of the change in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by NIRS was used for feature extraction while the power spectrum density (PSD) of both EEG and tEEG in the frequency band 8-30Hz was used for feature extraction. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used to classify different combinations of the aforementioned features. The highest classification accuracy (85.2%) was achieved by using features from all the three brain signals recording modules. The improvement in classification accuracy was highly significant (p = 0.0033) when using the multimodal signals features as compared to pure EEG features.
FILM ANIMASI 2D (DIMENSI PENYULUHAN KB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tri Hidayatul Ahmad Ismail
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Multimedia Animation is an attempt to make a live presentation of static or moving, the animation may consist of images and music to blend together and become alive. In this case Multimedia Animation designed by using multimedia-based information technology. From year to year Multimedia Animation Film Animation shaped more advanced, both in coloring, and in concep movement. With the community Animation Film spoiled by progress dazzling animation creation. Later in the era of globalization in Indonesia's population penetration rate can be calculated very rapidly. So the authors designed an Animated Film to Family Planning Counseling to promote family planning in the community.Data collection methods used to make this application is the method of interview and literature study. For the development of the system in this paper by using development techniques Luther systems development models - Sutopo which consists of six stages: concept, design, collecting materials, assembly, testing and distribution. The results of this study are 2D Animation Film as a medium of socialization to Family Planning Department with extension. Avi and will be distributed via CD media and aired on Social Media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. This animation movie aims to be one choice as the media reduces the increase in the number of residents is too drastic. Keywords: movies, animation, family planning, Luther-Sutopo
2D conformal field theories and holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Krasnov, Kirill
2004-01-01
It is known that the chiral part of any 2D conformal field theory defines a 3D topological quantum field theory: quantum states of this TQFT are the CFT conformal blocks. The main aim of this paper is to show that a similar CFT/TQFT relation exists also for the full CFT. The 3D topological theory that arises is a certain 'square' of the chiral TQFT. Such topological theories were studied by Turaev and Viro; they are related to 3D gravity. We establish an operator/state correspondence in which operators in the chiral TQFT correspond to states in the Turaev-Viro theory. We use this correspondence to interpret CFT correlation functions as particular quantum states of the Turaev-Viro theory. We compute the components of these states in the basis in the Turaev-Viro Hilbert space given by colored 3-valent graphs. The formula we obtain is a generalization of the Verlinde formula. The later is obtained from our expression for a zero colored graph. Our results give an interesting 'holographic' perspective on conformal field theories in two dimensions
2D electromagnetic modelling of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morandi, Antonio
2012-01-01
Some issues concerning the numerical analysis of superconductors are discussed and a novel approach to 2D modelling is proposed. Both axial and translational symmetric as well as current driven and voltage driven systems are examined in detail. The E–J power law is chosen instead of the critical state model as a constitutive relation of the material and the need to modify this relation in order to account for the normal state transition at high currents is discussed. A linear space reconstruction of the current density by means of nodal shape functions is used in order to build the finite dimensional model. A method to relax the tangential continuity of the current density, which is inherent to the discretization method used, is discussed. The performance of the proposed approach, both in terms of current distribution and AC loss, is evaluated with reference to some cases of practical interest involving composite materials. The role of the electric field as a natural state variable for superconducting problems is also pointed out. The use of the method as an alternative to the circuit approach or edge elements for modelling the superconductors is finally discussed. (paper)
Parallelization of 2-D lattice Boltzmann codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Soichiro; Kaburaki, Hideo; Yokokawa, Mitsuo
1996-03-01
Lattice Boltzmann (LB) codes to simulate two dimensional fluid flow are developed on vector parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500 and scalar parallel computer Intel Paragon XP/S. While a 2-D domain decomposition method is used for the scalar parallel LB code, a 1-D domain decomposition method is used for the vector parallel LB code to be vectorized along with the axis perpendicular to the direction of the decomposition. High parallel efficiency of 95.1% by the vector parallel calculation on 16 processors with 1152x1152 grid and 88.6% by the scalar parallel calculation on 100 processors with 800x800 grid are obtained. The performance models are developed to analyze the performance of the LB codes. It is shown by our performance models that the execution speed of the vector parallel code is about one hundred times faster than that of the scalar parallel code with the same number of processors up to 100 processors. We also analyze the scalability in keeping the available memory size of one processor element at maximum. Our performance model predicts that the execution time of the vector parallel code increases about 3% on 500 processors. Although the 1-D domain decomposition method has in general a drawback in the interprocessor communication, the vector parallel LB code is still suitable for the large scale and/or high resolution simulations. (author).
A simplified 2D HTTR benchmark problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Z.; Rahnema, F.; Pounders, J. M.; Zhang, D.; Ougouag, A.
2009-01-01
To access the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of relevant whole core configurations. In this paper we have created a numerical benchmark problem in 2D configuration typical of a high temperature gas cooled prismatic core. This problem was derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. For code-to-code verification, complex details of geometry and material specification of the physical experiments are not necessary. To this end, the benchmark problem presented here is derived by simplifications that remove the unnecessary details while retaining the heterogeneity and major physics properties from the neutronics viewpoint. Also included here is a six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library for the benchmark problem. This library was generated using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, benchmark quality Monte Carlo solutions are provided for three different configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out). The reference solutions include the core eigenvalue, block (assembly) averaged fuel pin fission density distributions, and absorption rate in absorbers (burnable poison and control rods). (authors)
A scintillating GEM detector for 2D dose imaging in hadron therapy
Seravalli, E.
2008-01-01
The main aim of radiotherapy techniques is to deliver the dose to the target volume while sparing as much as possible the healthy tissue. Dose verifications prior the treatment of the patient are mandatory in order to guarantee high accuracy to the treatment. We have developed a 2D dose imaging
Usefulness of the classification technique of cerebral artery for 2D/3D registration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takemura, Akihiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Yuzo; Okumura, Yusuke; Harauchi, Hajime
2007-01-01
Several papers have proposed 2D/3D registration methods of the cerebral artery using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Since differences between vessels in a DSA image and MRA volume data cause registration failure, we previously proposed a method to extract vessels from MRA volume data using a technique based on classification of the cerebral artery. In this paper, we evaluated the usefulness of this classification technique by evaluating the reliability of this 2D/3D registration method. This classification method divides the cerebral artery in MRA volume data into 12 segments. According to the results of the classification, structures corresponding to vessels on a DSA image can then be extracted. We applied the 2D/3D registration with/without classification to 16 pairs of MRA volume data and DSA images obtained from six patients. The registration results were scored into four levels (Excellent, Good, Fair and Poor). The rates of successful registration (>fair) were 37.5% for registration without classification and 81.3% for that with classification. These findings suggested that there was a low percentage of incorrectly extracted voxels and we could facilitate reliable registration. Thus, the classification technique was shown to be useful for feature-based 2D/3D registration. (author)
Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in normal and uraemic men
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandi, Lisbet; Egfjord, Martin; Olgaard, Klaus
2002-01-01
,25(OH)(2)D(3) (n=6) protocol. RESULTS: After oral administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) the bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was 70.6+/-5.8/72.2+/-4.8% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.). After i.v. administration the volume of distribution of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was similar, 0.49+/-0.14 vs 0...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, N.; Attia, G.; Radwan, A.; El-Badawy, S.; El-Ghoneimy, E.
2009-01-01
Objectives: In pediatric radiotherapy, the enhanced radiosensitivity of the developing tissues combined with the high overall survival, raise the possibility of late complications. The present study aims at comparing two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) planning regarding dose homogeneity within target volume and dose to organs at risk (OARs) to demonstrate the efficacy of 3D in decreasing dose to normal tissue. Material and Methods: Thirty pediatric patients (18 years or less) with different pediatric tumors were planned using 2D and 3D plans. All were CT scanned after proper positioning and immobilization. Structures were contoured; including the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Conformal beams were designed and dose distribution analysis was edited to provide the best dose coverage to the PTV while sparing OARs using dose volume histograms (DVHs) of outlined structures. For the same PTVs conventional plans were created using the conventional simulator data (2-4 coplanar fields). Conventional and 3D plans coverage and distribution were compared using the term of V95% (volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose), V107% (volume of PTV receiving 107% of the prescribed dose), and conformity index (CI) (volume receiving 90% of the prescribed dose/PTV). Doses received by OARs were compared in terms of mean dose. In children treated for brain lesions, OAR volume received 90% of the dose (V 90%) and OAR score were calculated. Results: The PTV coverage showed no statistical difference between 2D and 3D radiotherapy in terms of V95% or V107%. However, there was more conformity in 3D planning with CI 1.43 rather than conventional planning with CI 1.86 (p-value <0.001). Regarding OARs, 3D planning shows large gain in healthy tissue sparing. There was no statistical difference in mean dose received by each OAR. However, for brain cases, brain stem mean dose and brain V 90% showed better sparing in 3D planning (brain stem mean dose was
Identification of novel CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids: non-functional and functional variants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Gaedigk
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 contributes to the wide range of activity observed for this clinically important drug metabolizing enzyme. In this report we describe novel CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes encoding non-functional and functional CYP2D6 protein and a CYP2D7 variant that mimics a CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene. Five kb long PCR products encompassing the novel genes were entirely sequenced. A quantitative assay probing in different gene regions was employed to determine CYP2D6 and 2D7 copy number variations and the relative position of the hybrid genes within the locus was assessed by long-range PCR. In addition to the previously known CYP2D6*13 and *66 hybrids, we describe three novel non-functional CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids with gene switching in exon 2 (CYP2D6*79, intron 2 (CYP2D6*80 and intron 5 (CYP2D6*67. A CYP2D7-specific T-ins in exon 1 causes a detrimental frame shift. One subject revealed a CYP2D7 conversion in the 5’-flanking region of a CYP2D6*35 allele, was otherwise unaffected (designated CYP2D6*35B. Finally, three DNAs revealed a CYP2D7 gene with a CYP2D6-like region downstream of exon 9 (designated CYP2D7[REP6]. Quantitative copy number determination, sequence analyses and long-range PCR mapping were in agreement and excluded the presence of additional gene units. Undetected hybrid genes may cause over-estimation of CYP2D6 activity (CYP2D6*1/*1 vs *1/hybrid, etc, but may also cause results that may interfere with the genotype determination. Detection of hybrid events, ‘single’ and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data.
2D model for melt progression through rods and debris
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fichot, F.
2001-01-01
During the degradation of a nuclear core in a severe accident scenario, the high temperatures reached lead to the melting of materials. The formation of liquid mixtures at various elevations is followed by the flow of molten materials through the core. Liquid mixture may flow under several configurations: axial relocation along the rods, horizontal motion over a plane surface such as the core support plate or a blockage of material, 2D relocation through a debris bed, etc.. The two-dimensional relocation of molten material through a porous debris bed, implemented for the simulation of late degradation phases, has opened a new way to the elaboration of the relocation model for the flow of liquid mixture along the rods. It is based on a volume averaging method, where wall friction and capillary effects are taken into account by introducing effective coefficients to characterize the solid matrix (rods, grids, debris, etc.). A local description of the liquid flow is necessary to derive the effective coefficients. Heat transfers are modelled in a similar way. The derivation of the conservation equations for the liquid mixture falling flow (momentum) in two directions (axial and radial-horizontal) and for the heat exchanges (energy) are the main points of this new model for simulating melt progression. In this presentation, the full model for the relocation and solidification of liquid materials through a rod bundle or a debris bed is described. It is implemented in the ICARE/CATHARE code, developed by IPSN in Cadarache. The main improvements and advantages of the new model are: A single formulation for liquid mixture relocation, in 2D, either through a rod bundle or a porous debris bed, Extensions to complex structures (grids, by-pass, etc..), The modeling of relocation of a liquid mixture over plane surfaces. (author)
On physical states in 2d (topological) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouwknegt, P.; McCarthy, J.; Pilch, K.
1993-01-01
We review the BRST computation of physical states in various 2d gravity theories. First we discuss the cohomology relevant for 2d gravity coupled to c ≤ 1 conformal matter. We then use these results to compute the cohomology of a c=26 βγ-system, i.e. restricted 2d topological gravity. We also comment on the cohomology for the complete 2d topological gravity. (author). 39 refs
Experience with Honeycrisp apple storage management in Washington
High demand and premium pricing have led to rapid increases in Honeycrisp plantings and fruit volume in Washington State, USA since introduction of the cultivar in 1999. Most fruit is packed and sold by January because of strong demand coupled with difficulties associated with extended storage. Howe...
Timber resource statistics for Washington, January 1, 1973.
Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate
1974-01-01
Timber resource statistics to January 1, 1973, for the State of Washington show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973.
Washington State Biofuels Industry Development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2017-04-09
The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.
NKG2D and its ligands in cancer.
Dhar, Payal; Wu, Jennifer D
2018-04-01
NKG2D is an activating immune receptor expressed by NK and effector T cells. Induced expression of NKG2D ligand on tumor cell surface during oncogenic insults renders cancer cells susceptible to immune destruction. In advanced human cancers, tumor cells shed NKG2D ligand to produce an immune soluble form as a means of immune evasion. Soluble NKG2D ligands have been associated with poor clinical prognosis in cancer patients. Harnessing NKG2D pathway is considered a viable avenue in cancer immunotherapy over recent years. In this review, we will discuss the progress and perspectives. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amanda K Riffel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O
1978-02-01
This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
Full text: Over 1200 accelerator physicists and engineers gathered in Washington mid-May for the 15th in the series of biennial Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) - the major US forum for accelerator physics and technology. For the first time since their inception, actual attendance declined, however the number of contributed papers stayed around 1500. CERN Director General designate Chris Llewellyn Smith spelled out the challenges with an opening talk underlining the deficiencies in today's Standard Model. From many directions comes the message that collision in the 1 TeV range must tell us something new - wherefore art thou SSC and LHC? The secondary shock waves of last year's (fortunately overturned) bid to cancel the SSC Superconducting Supercollider project still ripple around the USA, while progress towards authorization of CERN's LHC Large Hadron Collider has been slower than initially hoped. The new US administration has indicated a constant rate of SSC funding over the next four years; the figure is higher than the present budget but considerably below the originally proposed budget profile, implying that completion will be retarded by some three years beyond the end of the decade. The SSC Laboratory will clearly have problems to fight increased overall cost and sustain enthusiasm. CERN hopes for LHC blessing in time to allow machine completion by the year 2000. Pride of place at Washington went to DESY's HERA electron-proton collider - the major new facility since the previous PAC. Commissioning has been impressive and physics is well underway, with luminosity climbing towards the design figure. The varied user community of the ubiquitous synchrotron radiation facilities is now considerably larger than that of particle physics and has extensive industrial involvement. Three such machines have come into operation since the previous PAC - the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Grenoble, the 1.5 GeV Advanced Light Source
Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Cai
Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.
High performance CCD camera system for digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels.
Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Roesler, Stefan; Feenders, Christoph; Danzer, Daniel; Riemenschneider, Udo; Blasius, Bernd; Rabus, Ralf
2016-07-01
An essential step in 2D DIGE-based analysis of differential proteome profiles is the accurate and sensitive digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. The performance progress of commercially available charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based systems combined with light emitting diodes (LED) opens up a new possibility for this type of digitalisation. Here, we assessed the performance of a CCD camera system (Intas Advanced 2D Imager) as alternative to a traditionally employed, high-end laser scanner system (Typhoon 9400) for digitalisation of differential protein profiles from three different environmental bacteria. Overall, the performance of the CCD camera system was comparable to the laser scanner, as evident from very similar protein abundance changes (irrespective of spot position and volume), as well as from linear range and limit of detection. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Washington Accelerator Conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped
Recent developments: Washington focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs
Washington Accelerator Conference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1993-09-15
Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped.
The no-hair conjecture in 2D dilaton supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Georgelin, Y.
1993-06-01
Two dimensional dilaton gravity and supergravity are studied following Hamiltonian methods. The structure of constraints of 2D dilaton gravity and the 2D dilaton supergravity theory is discussed taking the square root of the bosonic constraints. The equations of motion are integrated in both cases, and it is shown that the solutions of the equation of motion of 2D dilaton supergravity differs from the solutions of 2D dilaton gravity only by boundary conditions on the fermionic variables, i.e. the black holes of 2D dilaton supergravity theory are exactly the same black holes of 2D bosonic dilaton gravity modulo supersymmetry transformations. This result is the bidimensional analogue of the no-hair theorem for supergravity. (authors). 28 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vadstrup, Kasper; Bendtsen, Flemming
2017-01-01
with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells. Activation of NKG2D triggers cellular proliferation, cytokine...... production, and target cell killing. Research into the NKG2D mechanism of action has primarily been focused on cancer and viral infections where cytotoxicity evasion is a concern. In human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) this system is less characterized, but the ligands have been shown to be highly...... expressed during intestinal inflammation and the following receptor activation may contribute to tissue degeneration. A recent phase II clinical trial showed that an antibody against NKG2D induced clinical remission of CD in some patients, suggesting NKG2D and its ligands to be of importance...
Real-time 3D imaging methods using 2D phased arrays based on synthetic focusing techniques.
Kim, Jung-Jun; Song, Tai-Kyong
2008-07-01
A fast 3D ultrasound imaging technique using a 2D phased array transducer based on the synthetic focusing method for nondestructive testing or medical imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, each column of a 2D array is fired successively to produce transverse fan beams focused at a fixed depth along a given longitudinal direction and the resulting pulse echoes are received at all elements of a 2D array used. After firing all column arrays, a frame of high-resolution image along a given longitudinal direction is obtained with dynamic focusing employed in the longitudinal direction on receive and in the transverse direction on both transmit and receive. The volume rate of the proposed method can be increased much higher than that of the conventional 2D array imaging by employing an efficient sparse array technique. A simple modification to the proposed method can further increase the volume scan rate significantly. The proposed methods are verified through computer simulations.
Buser, Thaddaeus J; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Summers, Adam P
2018-05-01
We contrast 2D vs. 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics in the fish subfamily Oligocottinae by using 3D landmarks from CT-generated models and comparing the morphospace of the 3D landmarks to one based on 2D landmarks from images. The 2D and 3D shape variables capture common patterns across taxa, such that the pairwise Procrustes distances among taxa correspond and the trends captured by principal component analysis are similar in the xy plane. We use the two sets of landmarks to test several ecomorphological hypotheses from the literature. Both 2D and 3D data reject the hypothesis that head shape correlates significantly with the depth at which a species is commonly found. However, in taxa where shape variation in the z-axis is high, the 2D shape variables show sufficiently strong distortion to influence the outcome of the hypothesis tests regarding the relationship between mouth size and feeding ecology. Only the 3D data support previous studies which showed that large mouth sizes correlate positively with high percentages of elusive prey in the diet. When used to test for morphological divergence, 3D data show no evidence of divergence, while 2D data show that one clade of oligocottines has diverged from all others. This clade shows the greatest degree of z-axis body depth within Oligocottinae, and we conclude that the inability of the 2D approach to capture this lateral body depth causes the incongruence between 2D and 3D analyses. Anat Rec, 301:806-818, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...
Synthesis, properties and applications of 2D non-graphene materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Wang, Fengmei; Yin, Lei; Xu, Kai; Huang, Yun; He, Jun
2015-01-01
As an emerging class of new materials, two-dimensional (2D) non-graphene materials, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, such as Si, Ge and III–V group materials, 2D materials show significant merits of ultrathin thickness, very high surface-to-volume ratio, and high compatibility with flexible devices. Owing to these unique properties, while scaling down to ultrathin thickness, devices based on these materials as well as artificially synthetic heterostructures exhibit novel and surprising functions and performances. In this review, we aim to provide a summary on the state-of-the-art research activities on 2D non-graphene materials. The scope of the review will cover the preparation of layered and non-layered 2D materials, construction of 2D vertical van der Waals and lateral ultrathin heterostructures, and especially focus on the applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. Moreover, the review is concluded with some perspectives on the future developments in this field. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Young Mee
2003-01-01
Principal component analysis based two-dimensional (PCA-2D) correlation analysis is applied to FTIR spectra of polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/toluene solution mixture during the solvent evaporation. Substantial amount of artificial noise were added to the experimental data to demonstrate the practical noise-suppressing benefit of PCA-2D technique. 2D correlation analysis of the reconstructed data matrix from PCA loading vectors and scores successfully extracted only the most important features of synchronicity and asynchronicity without interference from noise or insignificant minor components. 2D correlation spectra constructed with only one principal component yield strictly synchronous response with no discernible a asynchronous features, while those involving at least two or more principal components generated meaningful asynchronous 2D correlation spectra. Deliberate manipulation of the rank of the reconstructed data matrix, by choosing the appropriate number and type of PCs, yields potentially more refined 2D correlation spectra
Chrzastowski, Michael J.
1983-01-01
Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.
Structural Theory and Classification of 2D Adinkras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iga, Kevin; Zhang, Yan X.
2016-01-01
Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study (1-dimensional) supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2D Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2D Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. Hübsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of Hübsch’s even-split doubly even codes.
The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity
Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.
1999-01-01
Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a
2D gravity, random surfaces and all that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1990-11-01
I review the recent progress in 2d gravity and discuss the new numerical simulations for 2d gravity and for random surfaces in d>2. The random surface theories of interest in d>2 have extrinsic curvature terms, and for a finite value of the extrinsic curvature coupling there seems to be a second order phase transition where the string tension scales. (orig.)
Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby
2003-01-01
We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...
A large 2D PSD for thermal neutron detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knott, R.B.; Watt, G.; Boldeman, J.W. [Australian Nucl. Sci. and Tech. Organ., Menai, NSW (Australia). Phys. Div.; Smith, G.C. [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
1997-06-21
A 2D PSD based on a MWPC has been constructed for a small angle neutron scattering instrument. The active area of the detector was 640 x 640 mm{sup 2}. To meet the specifications for neutron detection efficiency and spatial resolution, and to minimise parallax, the gas mixture was 190 kPa {sup 3}He plus 100 kPa CF{sub 4}, and the active volume had a thickness of 30 mm. The design maximum neutron count rate of the detector was 10{sup 5} events per second. The (calculated) neutron detection efficiency was 60% for 2 A neutrons and the (measured) neutron energy resolution on the anode grid was typically 20% (fwhm). The location of a neutron detection event within the active area was determined using the wire-by-wire method: the spatial resolution (5 x 5 mm{sup 2}) was thereby defined by the wire geometry. A 16-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier/amplifier/comparator module has been developed with a channel sensitivity of 0.1 V/fC, noise line width of 0.4 fC (fwhm) and channel-to-channel cross-talk of less than 5%. The proportional counter operating system (PCOS III) (LeCroy Corp, USA) was used for event encoding. The ECL signals produced by the 16 channel modules were latched in PCOS III by a trigger pulse from the anode and the fast encoders produce a position and width for each event. The information was transferred to a UNIX workstation for accumulation and online display. (orig.).
A large 2D PSD for thermal neutron detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knott, R.B.; Watt, G.; Boldeman, J.W.; Smith, G.C.
1996-01-01
A 2D PSD based on a MWPC has been constructed for a small angle neutron scattering instrument. The active area of the detector was 640 x 640 mm 2 . To meet the specifications for neutron detection efficiency and spatial resolution, and to minimize parallax, the gas mixture was 190 kPa 3 He plus 100 kPa CF 4 and the active volume had a thickness of 30 mm. The design maximum neutron count-rate of the detector was 10 5 events per second. The (calculated) neutron detection efficiency was 60% for 2 angstrom neutrons and the (measured) neutron energy resolution on the anode grid was typically 20% (fwhm). The location of a neutron detection event within the active area was determined using the wire-by-wire method: the spatial resolution (5 x 5 mm 2 ) was thereby defined by the wire geometry. A 16 channel charge-sensitive preamplifier/amplifier/comparator module has been developed with a channel sensitivity of 0.1 V/fC, noise linewidth of 0.4 fC (fwhm) and channel-to-channel cross-talk of less than 5%. The Proportional Counter Operating System (PCOS III) (LeCroy Corp USA) was used for event encoding. The ECL signals produced by the 16 channel modules were latched in PCOS III by a trigger pulse from the anode and the fast encoders produce a position and width for each event. The information was transferred to a UNIX workstation for accumulation and online display
Synthesis and chemistry of elemental 2D materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannix, Andrew J.; Kiraly, Brian; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.
2017-01-25
2D materials have attracted considerable attention in the past decade for their superlative physical properties. These materials consist of atomically thin sheets exhibiting covalent in-plane bonding and weak interlayer and layer-substrate bonding. Following the example of graphene, most emerging 2D materials are derived from structures that can be isolated from bulk phases of layered materials, which form a limited library for new materials discovery. Entirely synthetic 2D materials provide access to a greater range of properties through the choice of constituent elements and substrates. Of particular interest are elemental 2D materials, because they provide the most chemically tractable case for synthetic exploration. In this Review, we explore the progress made in the synthesis and chemistry of synthetic elemental 2D materials, and offer perspectives and challenges for the future of this emerging field.
2D nanomaterials assembled from sequence-defined molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mu, Peng; State University of New York; Zhou, Guangwen; Chen, Chun-Long
2017-01-01
Two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted broad interest owing to their unique physical and chemical properties with potential applications in electronics, chemistry, biology, medicine and pharmaceutics. Due to the current limitations of traditional 2D nanomaterials (e.g., graphene and graphene oxide) in tuning surface chemistry and compositions, 2D nanomaterials assembled from sequence-defined molecules (e.g., DNAs, proteins, peptides and peptoids) have recently been developed. They represent an emerging class of 2D nanomaterials with attractive physical and chemical properties. Here, we summarize the recent progress in the synthesis and applications of this type of sequence-defined 2D nanomaterials. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities in this new field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adpakpang, Kanyaporn; Patil, Sharad B.; Oh, Seung Mi; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lacroix, Marc; Hwang, Seong-Ju
2016-01-01
Graphical abstract: Effective morphological control of porous silicon 2D nanoplate can be achieved by the magnesiothermically-induced phase transition of exfoliated silicate clay nanosheets. The promising lithium storage performance of the obtained silicon materials with huge capacity and excellent rate characteristics underscores the prime importance of porously 2D nanostructured morphology of silicon. - Highlights: • 2D nanostructured silicon electrode materials are successfully synthesized via the magnesiothermically-induced phase transition of exfoliated clay 2D nanosheets. • High discharge capacity and rate capability are achieved from the 2D nanoplates of silicon. • Silicon 2D nanoplates can enhance both Li"+ diffusion and charge-transfer kinetics. • 2D nanostructured silicon is beneficial for the cycling stability by minimizing the volume change during lithiation-delithiation. - Abstract: An efficient and economical route for the synthesis of porous two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates of silicon is developed via the magnesiothermically-induced phase transition of exfoliated clay 2D nanosheets. The magnesiothermic reaction of precursor clay nanosheets prepared by the exfoliation and restacking with Mg"2"+ cations yields porous 2D nanoplates of elemental silicon. The variation in the Mg:SiO_2 ratio has a significant effect on the porosity and connectivity of silicon nanoplates. The porous silicon nanoplates show a high discharge capacity of 2000 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles. Of prime importance is that this electrode material still retains a large discharge capacity at higher C-rates, which is unusual for the elemental silicon electrode. This is mainly attributed to the improved diffusion of lithium ions, charge-transfer kinetics, and the preservation of the electrical connection of the porous 2D plate-shaped morphology. This study highlights the usefulness of clay mineral as an economical and scalable precursor of high-performance silicon electrodes with
From 3 d duality to 2 d duality
Aharony, Ofer; Razamat, Shlomo S.; Willett, Brian
2017-11-01
In this paper we discuss 3 d N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories and their IR dualities when they are compactified on a circle of radius r, and when we take the 2 d limit in which r → 0. The 2 d limit depends on how the mass parameters are scaled as r → 0, and often vacua become infinitely distant in the 2 d limit, leading to a direct sum of different 2 d theories. For generic mass parameters, when we take the same limit on both sides of a duality, we obtain 2 d dualities (between gauge theories and/or Landau-Ginzburg theories) that pass all the usual tests. However, when there are non-compact branches the discussion is subtle because the metric on the moduli space, which is not controlled by supersymmetry, plays an important role in the low-energy dynamics after compactification. Generally speaking, for IR dualities of gauge theories, we conjecture that dualities involving non-compact Higgs branches survive. On the other hand when there is a non-compact Coulomb branch on at least one side of the duality, the duality fails already when the 3 d theories are compactified on a circle. Using the valid reductions we reproduce many known 2 d IR dualities, giving further evidence for their validity, and we also find new 2 d dualities.
Shin, Dongsuk; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Young Rae; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Park, Hayne Cho; Ahn, Curie
2014-08-01
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) volumetry is an important marker for evaluating the progression of disease. Three-dimensional (3D) volumetry is generally more timesaving than 2D volumetry, but its reliability and accuracy are uncertain. Small and large phantoms simulating polycystic kidneys and 20 patients with ADPKD underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry. We evaluated the total kidney volume (TKV) and total cyst volume (TCV) using a novel 3D volumetry program (XelisTM) and compared 3D volumetry data with the conventional 2D method (the reference volume values). After upload and threshold setting, the other organs surrounding the kidney were removed by picking and sculpting. The novel method involves drawing of the kidney or cyst and automatic measurement of kidney volume and cyst volume in 3D images. The 3D volume estimation of the small and large phantoms differed from the actual values by 6.9% and -8.2%, respectively, for TKV and by 2.1% and 1.4% for TCV. In ADPKD patients, the intra-reader reliability of 3D volumetry was 30 ± 180 mL (1.3 ± 10.3%) and 25 ± 113 mL (1.2 ± 9.4%), respectively, for TKV and TCV. Correlation between 3D volumetry and 2D volumetry of TKV and TCV resulted in a high correlation coefficient and a regression slope approaching 1.00 (r = 0.97 - 0.98). The mean of the volume percentage differences for 3D vs. 2D for TKV : TCV were -6.0 ± 8.9% : 2.0 ± 11.8% in large ADPKD and -16.1 ± 10.4% : 13.2 ± 21.9% in small ADPKD. Our study showed that 3D volumetry has reliability and accuracy compared with 2D volumetry in ADPKD. 3D volumetry is more accurate for TCV and large ADPKD.
Oil spill response issues in Washington State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lempriere, P.R.
1997-01-01
Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions
Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation
2013-09-01
Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)
Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun
2007-01-01
The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.
Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects
Doyeux , Vincent; Priem , Stephane; Jibuti , Levan; Farutin , Alexander; Ismail , Mourad; Peyla , Philippe
2016-01-01
International audience; We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. Thanks to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (th...
Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.
Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan
2018-05-08
Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.
Introduction to game physics with Box2D
Parberry, Ian
2013-01-01
Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro
2D and 3D modelling of magnetic and resistivity data from Aespoe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattsson, Haakan
2011-05-01
This report presents results from modelling of geophysical data. Ground magnetic and geo electric data were collected in 1988 as part of the pre-investigations carried out before the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The work presented in this report is an evaluation of the magnetic and geo electric data with the focus on estimating variations in geometry and dip of some of the possible deformation zones indicated in lineament interpretations presented earlier. This was done by 2D forward magnetic modelling, 2D forward resistivity modelling and 3D inversion of the magnetic data. The specific aims of this work are: 1. Produce magnetic 2D forward models across 12 selected linked lineaments. 2. Produce a 3D susceptibility model of the entire data set of Aespoe. 3. Use 2D forward resistivity modelling to produce electric anomaly response diagrams for a dipole-dipole survey across low resistivity zones with various dips. The results of the modelling work will mainly be used as supportive information for deterministic geological modelling of deformation zones and rock units in the vicinity of the Aespoe HRL. The results of the 2D forward modelling of magnetic data show geologically reasonable solutions, and in most cases it is possible to make reliable estimates of the width and orientation of the cause of the targeted lineament. The possible deformation zones generally dip steeply (80 deg-90 deg) and have a width of c. 30-50 m. In some cases the modelled lineament has a diffuse character with low amplitude, which makes the model solution uncertain. Two 3D susceptibility models were created by use of inversion of the ground magnetic data; one coarse model of the entire Island of Aespoe and one more detailed model of the south-eastern peninsula of the Island, covering the volume of the Aespoe HRL. The two models fit nicely to the measured data and they are geologically realistic. It is possible to identify well-defined bodies (rock volumes) of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.
2001-05-01
Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i
32 CFR 1639.4 - Exclusion from Class 2-D.
2010-07-01
... recognized; or (c) He ceases to be a full-time student; or (d) He fails to maintain satisfactory academic... Class 2-D when: (a) He fails to establish that the theological or divinity school is a recognized school...
Proteome analysis of human colorectal cancer tissue using 2-D ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2010-10-11
Oct 11, 2010 ... protein spots were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. The cDNA of the ..... sensitivity, dynamic range and reproducibility vs the conventional 2-D ... linkage, and also has molecular chaperones activity for inhibiting the ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0NXASM or const_2d_asm_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0FXCHM or const_2d_chm_Fx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native Fv resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...
Optical identification using imperfections in 2D materials
Cao, Yameng; Robson, Alexander J.; Alharbi, Abdullah; Roberts, Jonathan; Woodhead, Christopher S.; Noori, Yasir J.; Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón; Shahrjerdi, Davood; Roedig, Utz; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Young, Robert J.
2017-12-01
The ability to uniquely identify an object or device is important for authentication. Imperfections, locked into structures during fabrication, can be used to provide a fingerprint that is challenging to reproduce. In this paper, we propose a simple optical technique to read unique information from nanometer-scale defects in 2D materials. Imperfections created during crystal growth or fabrication lead to spatial variations in the bandgap of 2D materials that can be characterized through photoluminescence measurements. We show a simple setup involving an angle-adjustable transmission filter, simple optics and a CCD camera can capture spatially-dependent photoluminescence to produce complex maps of unique information from 2D monolayers. Atomic force microscopy is used to verify the origin of the optical signature measured, demonstrating that it results from nanometer-scale imperfections. This solution to optical identification with 2D materials could be employed as a robust security measure to prevent counterfeiting.
Soluble NKG2D ligands: prevalence, release, and functional impact.
Salih, Helmut Rainer; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Steinle, Alexander
2008-05-01
Natural Killer (NK) cells are capable to recognize and eliminate malignant cells. Anti-tumor responses of NK cells are promoted by the tumor-associated expression of cell stress-inducible ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D. Current evidence suggests that established tumors subvert NKG2D-mediated tumor immunosurveillance by releasing NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL). Release of NKG2DL has been observed in a broad variety of human tumor entities and is thought to interfere with NKG2D-mediated tumor immunity in several ways. Further, levels of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) were also found to be elevated under various non-malignant conditions, although the functional implications remain largely unclear. Here we review and discuss the available data on the prevalence, release, functional impact, and potential clinical value of sNKG2DL.
Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control
Pellenard, Bertrand; Alliez, Pierre; Morvan, Jean-Marie
2011-01-01
We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse
Excitons in atomically thin 2D semiconductors and their applications
Xiao, Jun; Zhao, Mervin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2017-06-01
The research on emerging layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), reveals unique optical properties generating significant interest. Experimentally, these materials were observed to host extremely strong light-matter interactions as a result of the enhanced excitonic effect in two dimensions. Thus, understanding and manipulating the excitons are crucial to unlocking the potential of 2D materials for future photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this review, we unravel the physical origin of the strong excitonic effect and unique optical selection rules in 2D semiconductors. In addition, control of these excitons by optical, electrical, as well as mechanical means is examined. Finally, the resultant devices such as excitonic light emitting diodes, lasers, optical modulators, and coupling in an optical cavity are overviewed, demonstrating how excitons can shape future 2D optoelectronics.
3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes.
Zhong, Zichun; Guo, Xiaohu; Cai, Yiqi; Yang, Yin; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Mao, Weihua
2016-01-01
By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs) are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.
3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zichun Zhong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.
Image-based RSA: Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis based on 2D-3D image registration.
de Bruin, P W; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Reiber, J H C; Rozing, P M; Valstar, E R
2008-01-01
Image-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (IBRSA) integrates 2D-3D image registration and conventional RSA. Instead of radiopaque RSA bone markers, IBRSA uses 3D CT data, from which digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated. Using 2D-3D image registration, the 3D pose of the CT is iteratively adjusted such that the generated DRRs resemble the 2D RSA images as closely as possible, according to an image matching metric. Effectively, by registering all 2D follow-up moments to the same 3D CT, the CT volume functions as common ground. In two experiments, using RSA and using a micromanipulator as gold standard, IBRSA has been validated on cadaveric and sawbone scapula radiographs, and good matching results have been achieved. The accuracy was: |mu |RSA but higher than in vivo standard RSA. Because IBRSA does not require radiopaque markers, it adds functionality to the RSA method by opening new directions and possibilities for research, such as dynamic analyses using fluoroscopy on subjects without markers and computer navigation applications.
Low-cost Volumetric Ultrasound by Augmentation of 2D Systems: Design and Prototype.
Herickhoff, Carl D; Morgan, Matthew R; Broder, Joshua S; Dahl, Jeremy J
2018-01-01
Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool in the hands of an experienced user, yet 2D ultrasound remains clinically underutilized and inherently incomplete, with output being very operator dependent. Volumetric ultrasound systems can more fully capture a three-dimensional (3D) region of interest, but current 3D systems require specialized transducers, are prohibitively expensive for many clinical departments, and do not register image orientation with respect to the patient; these systems are designed to provide improved workflow rather than operator independence. This work investigates whether it is possible to add volumetric 3D imaging capability to existing 2D ultrasound systems at minimal cost, providing a practical means of reducing operator dependence in ultrasound. In this paper, we present a low-cost method to make 2D ultrasound systems capable of quality volumetric image acquisition: we present the general system design and image acquisition method, including the use of a probe-mounted orientation sensor, a simple probe fixture prototype, and an offline volume reconstruction technique. We demonstrate initial results of the method, implemented using a Verasonics Vantage research scanner.
Tailored Assembly of 2D Heterostructures beyond Graphene
2017-05-11
attainable. Here we propose our synthetic approach to construct graphene-based 3D heterostructures composed of 2D layered materials with finely tunable...DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research ...Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Rapid progress in graphene research has attracted further research attentions for other 2D layered
Proteasome modulator 9 and macrovascular pathology of T2D
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gragnoli Claudia
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Aims Coronary artery disease (CAD and stroke share a major linkage at the chromosome 12q24 locus. The same chromosome region entails at least a major risk gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D within NIDDM2, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 locus. The gene of Proteasome Modulator 9 (PSMD9 lies in the NIDDM2 region and is implicated in diabetes in mice. PSMD9 mutations rarely cause T2D and common variants are linked to both late-onset T2D and maturity-onset-diabetes of the young (MODY3. In this study, we aimed at determining whether PSMD9 is linked to macrovascular pathology of T2D. Methods and Results In our 200 T2D families from Italy, we characterized the clinical phenotype of macrovascular pathology by defining the subjects for presence or absence of CAD, stroke and/or transitory ischemic attacks (TIA, plaques of the large arterial vessels (macro-vasculopathy and arterial angioplasty performance. We then screened 200 T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 +nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and performed a non-parametric linkage study to test for linkage for coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, macro-vasculopathy and macrovascular pathology of T2D. We performed 1,000 replicates to test the power of our significant results. Our results show a consistent significant LOD score in linkage with all the above-mentioned phenotypes. Our 1000 simulation analyses, performed for each single test, confirm that the results are not due to random chance. Conclusions In summary, the PSMD9 IVS3+nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G SNPs are linked to CAD, stroke/TIA and macrovascular pathology of T2D in Italians.
Photonics of 2D gold nanolayers on sapphire surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Nabatov, B. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Konovko, A. A.; Belov, I. V.; Gizetdinov, R. M.; Andreev, A. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Gold layers with thicknesses of up to several nanometers, including ordered and disordered 2D nanostructures of gold particles, have been formed on sapphire substrates; their morphology is described; and optical investigations are carried out. The possibility of increasing the accuracy of predicting the optical properties of gold layers and 2D nanostructures using quantum-mechanical models based on functional density theory calculation techniques is considered. The application potential of the obtained materials in photonics is estimated.
Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain
Cai, Jian-Feng
2017-06-20
We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.
Large scale 2D spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain
Cai, Jian-Feng; Xu, Weiyu; Yang, Yang
2017-01-01
We consider the problem of spectral compressed sensing in continuous domain, which aims to recover a 2-dimensional spectrally sparse signal from partially observed time samples. The signal is assumed to be a superposition of s complex sinusoids. We propose a semidefinite program for the 2D signal recovery problem. Our model is able to handle large scale 2D signals of size 500 × 500, whereas traditional approaches only handle signals of size around 20 × 20.
Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole
Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....
Benchmarking of FA2D/PARCS Code Package
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.
2006-01-01
FA2D/PARCS code package is used at Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), University of Zagreb, for static and dynamic reactor core analyses. It consists of two codes: FA2D and PARCS. FA2D is a multigroup two dimensional transport theory code for burn-up calculations based on collision probability method, developed at FER. It generates homogenised cross sections both of single pins and entire fuel assemblies. PARCS is an advanced nodal code developed at Purdue University for US NRC and it is based on neutron diffusion theory for three dimensional whole core static and dynamic calculations. It is modified at FER to enable internal 3D depletion calculation and usage of neutron cross section data in a format produced by FA2D and interface codes. The FA2D/PARCS code system has been validated on NPP Krsko operational data (Cycles 1 and 21). As we intend to use this code package for development of IRIS reactor loading patterns the first logical step was to validate the FA2D/PARCS code package on a set of IRIS benchmarks, starting from simple unit fuel cell, via fuel assembly, to full core benchmark. The IRIS 17x17 fuel with erbium burnable absorber was used in last full core benchmark. The results of modelling the IRIS full core benchmark using FA2D/PARCS code package have been compared with reference data showing the adequacy of FA2D/PARCS code package model for IRIS reactor core design.(author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Gyoung Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Hwang, Sung Il; Chin, Ho Jun
2011-01-01
We wanted to determine the correlation between the renal length as measured on two dimensional (2D) ultrasonography (US) and the renal parenchymal volume as measured with a new three-dimensional (3D) volume probe ultrasound system. We also wanted to determine the correlation between the renal length or renal parenchymal volume and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with glomerulopathy. From July 2007 to December 2007, 26 patients who were pathologically confirmed to have glomerulopathy by biopsy were enrolled. Renal length was measured with 2D US and the renal parenchymal volume was measured with 3D US just prior to biopsy. The GFR was obtained from the electronic medical records. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between the renal length and the renal parenchymal volume, the correlation between the renal length and the GFR and the correlation between the renal parenchymal volume and the GFR. The renal length and the renal parenchymal volume showed strong positive correlation (r = 0.850, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient between the renal length and the GFR was 0.623 (p = 0.0007) and the correlation coefficient between the renal volume and the GFR was 0.590 (p = 0.0015). Both the renal length and renal parenchymal volume showed apparently positive correlations with the GFR in glomerulopathy patients. The renal length showed strong positive correlations with the renal parenchymal volume. Both the renal length and the renal parenchymal volume showed apparently positive correlations with the GFR in glomerulopathy patients. In glomerulopathy patients, the renal dimensions measured by ultrasound can reflect the status of the GFR, and the measurement of the 2D renal length could be sufficient for follow up. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of 3D US for assessing patients with renal disease
CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.
Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin
2016-12-01
CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.
Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.
Owerre, S A
2017-07-31
In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX 3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM magnon edge modes.
Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-11-27
Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.
Giant Thermal Expansion in 2D and 3D Cellular Materials.
Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang; Peng, Qing; Zhang, Di
2018-03-25
When temperature increases, the volume of an object changes. This property was quantified as the coefficient of thermal expansion only a few hundred years ago. Part of the reason is that the change of volume due to the variation of temperature is in general extremely small and imperceptible. Here, abnormal giant linear thermal expansions in different types of two-ingredient microstructured hierarchical and self-similar cellular materials are reported. The cellular materials can be 2D or 3D, and isotropic or anisotropic, with a positive or negative thermal expansion due to the convex or/and concave shape in their representative volume elements respectively. The magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient can be several times larger than the highest value reported in the literature. This study suggests an innovative approach to develop temperature-sensitive functional materials and devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program
Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.
2012-12-01
Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.
Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlin, E.M.
1988-01-01
The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented
2013-03-08
...,372B] Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Longview, Washington; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On... Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington (TA-W-81...
Optimization of FIBMOS Through 2D Silvaco ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations
Kang, J.; He, X.; Vasileska, D.; Schroder, D. K.
2001-01-01
Focused Ion Beam MOSFETs (FIBMOS) demonstrate large enhancements in core device performance areas such as output resistance, hot electron reliability and voltage stability upon channel length or drain voltage variation. In this work, we describe an optimization technique for FIBMOS threshold voltage characterization using the 2D Silvaco ATLAS simulator. Both ATLAS and 2D Monte Carlo particle-based simulations were used to show that FIBMOS devices exhibit enhanced current drive ...
High performance shallow water kernels for parallel overland flow simulations based on FullSWOF2D
Wittmann, Roland; Bungartz, Hans-Joachim; Neumann, Philipp
2017-01-01
-by-step transformation of the second order finite volume scheme in FullSWOF2D towards MPI parallelization. Second, the computational kernels are optimized by the use of templates and a portable vectorization approach. We discuss the load imbalance of the flux computation
A 2D model of causal set quantum gravity: the emergence of the continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brightwell, Graham; Henson, Joe; Surya, Sumati
2008-01-01
Non-perturbative theories of quantum gravity inevitably include configurations that fail to resemble physically reasonable spacetimes at large scales. Often, these configurations are entropically dominant and pose an obstacle to obtaining the desired classical limit. We examine this 'entropy problem' in a model of causal set quantum gravity corresponding to a discretization of 2D spacetimes. Using results from the theory of partial orders we show that, in the large volume or continuum limit, its partition function is dominated by causal sets which approximate to a region of 2D Minkowski space. This model of causal set quantum gravity thus overcomes the entropy problem and predicts the emergence of a physically reasonable geometry
Automatic computation of 2D cardiac measurements from B-mode echocardiography
Park, JinHyeong; Feng, Shaolei; Zhou, S. Kevin
2012-03-01
We propose a robust and fully automatic algorithm which computes the 2D echocardiography measurements recommended by America Society of Echocardiography. The algorithm employs knowledge-based imaging technologies which can learn the expert's knowledge from the training images and expert's annotation. Based on the models constructed from the learning stage, the algorithm searches initial location of the landmark points for the measurements by utilizing heart structure of left ventricle including mitral valve aortic valve. It employs the pseudo anatomic M-mode image generated by accumulating the line images in 2D parasternal long axis view along the time to refine the measurement landmark points. The experiment results with large volume of data show that the algorithm runs fast and is robust comparable to expert.
CFD Analysis of 2D Unsteady Flow Past a Square Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Zhenquan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A study of the behaviour of flow past a square cylinder for Reynolds numbers 10 and 20 is presented. Open source software Navier2d in Matlab is used in this study. The investigation starts from a uniform initial mesh and then refine the initial mesh using a mesh refinement method which was proposed based on both qualitative theory of differential equations and the finite volume method implemented in Navier2d. The horizontal and vertical velocity component profiles and pressures are shown on the once refined meshes. The comparisons between the profiles and pressures are conducted to show the variations from Reynolds number 10 to 20. The twice refined meshes are also presented and these refined meshes provide the information where the behaviour of flow is complex.
Toward 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic nanoparticles using EPR measurements.
Coene, A; Crevecoeur, G; Leliaert, J; Dupré, L
2015-09-01
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an important asset in many biomedical applications. An effective working of these applications requires an accurate knowledge of the spatial MNP distribution. A promising, noninvasive, and sensitive technique to visualize MNP distributions in vivo is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Currently only 1D MNP distributions can be reconstructed. In this paper, the authors propose extending 1D EPR toward 2D and 3D using computer simulations to allow accurate imaging of MNP distributions. To find the MNP distribution belonging to EPR measurements, an inverse problem needs to be solved. The solution of this inverse problem highly depends on the stability of the inverse problem. The authors adapt 1D EPR imaging to realize the imaging of multidimensional MNP distributions. Furthermore, the authors introduce partial volume excitation in which only parts of the volume are imaged to increase stability of the inverse solution and to speed up the measurements. The authors simulate EPR measurements of different 2D and 3D MNP distributions and solve the inverse problem. The stability is evaluated by calculating the condition measure and by comparing the actual MNP distribution to the reconstructed MNP distribution. Based on these simulations, the authors define requirements for the EPR system to cope with the added dimensions. Moreover, the authors investigate how EPR measurements should be conducted to improve the stability of the associated inverse problem and to increase reconstruction quality. The approach used in 1D EPR can only be employed for the reconstruction of small volumes in 2D and 3D EPRs due to numerical instability of the inverse solution. The authors performed EPR measurements of increasing cylindrical volumes and evaluated the condition measure. This showed that a reduction of the inherent symmetry in the EPR methodology is necessary. By reducing the symmetry of the EPR setup, quantitative images of larger volumes can be
Toward 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic nanoparticles using EPR measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coene, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Leliaert, J.
2015-01-01
Purpose: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an important asset in many biomedical applications. An effective working of these applications requires an accurate knowledge of the spatial MNP distribution. A promising, noninvasive, and sensitive technique to visualize MNP distributions in vivo is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Currently only 1D MNP distributions can be reconstructed. In this paper, the authors propose extending 1D EPR toward 2D and 3D using computer simulations to allow accurate imaging of MNP distributions. Methods: To find the MNP distribution belonging to EPR measurements, an inverse problem needs to be solved. The solution of this inverse problem highly depends on the stability of the inverse problem. The authors adapt 1D EPR imaging to realize the imaging of multidimensional MNP distributions. Furthermore, the authors introduce partial volume excitation in which only parts of the volume are imaged to increase stability of the inverse solution and to speed up the measurements. The authors simulate EPR measurements of different 2D and 3D MNP distributions and solve the inverse problem. The stability is evaluated by calculating the condition measure and by comparing the actual MNP distribution to the reconstructed MNP distribution. Based on these simulations, the authors define requirements for the EPR system to cope with the added dimensions. Moreover, the authors investigate how EPR measurements should be conducted to improve the stability of the associated inverse problem and to increase reconstruction quality. Results: The approach used in 1D EPR can only be employed for the reconstruction of small volumes in 2D and 3D EPRs due to numerical instability of the inverse solution. The authors performed EPR measurements of increasing cylindrical volumes and evaluated the condition measure. This showed that a reduction of the inherent symmetry in the EPR methodology is necessary. By reducing the symmetry of the EPR setup, quantitative images of
Reconstruction of incomplete cell paths through a 3D-2D level set segmentation
Hariri, Maia; Wan, Justin W. L.
2012-02-01
Segmentation of fluorescent cell images has been a popular technique for tracking live cells. One challenge of segmenting cells from fluorescence microscopy is that cells in fluorescent images frequently disappear. When the images are stacked together to form a 3D image volume, the disappearance of the cells leads to broken cell paths. In this paper, we present a segmentation method that can reconstruct incomplete cell paths. The key idea of this model is to perform 2D segmentation in a 3D framework. The 2D segmentation captures the cells that appear in the image slices while the 3D segmentation connects the broken cell paths. The formulation is similar to the Chan-Vese level set segmentation which detects edges by comparing the intensity value at each voxel with the mean intensity values inside and outside of the level set surface. Our model, however, performs the comparison on each 2D slice with the means calculated by the 2D projected contour. The resulting effect is to segment the cells on each image slice. Unlike segmentation on each image frame individually, these 2D contours together form the 3D level set function. By enforcing minimum mean curvature on the level set surface, our segmentation model is able to extend the cell contours right before (and after) the cell disappears (and reappears) into the gaps, eventually connecting the broken paths. We will present segmentation results of C2C12 cells in fluorescent images to illustrate the effectiveness of our model qualitatively and quantitatively by different numerical examples.
2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Arabidopsis Seedlings
Wang, Hui; Li, Xugang; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Schüler, Oliver; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Kircher, Stefan; Lasok, Hanna; Haser, Thomas; Rapp, Katja; Schmidt, Jürgen; Yu, Xin; Pasternak, Taras; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Tietz, Olaf; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet
2016-04-01
Ground-based simulators of microgravity such as fast rotating 2-D clinostats are valuable tools to study gravity related processes. We describe here a versatile g-value-adjustable 2-D clinostat that is suitable for plant analysis. To avoid seedling adaptation to 1 g after clinorotation, we designed chambers that allow rapid fixation. A detailed protocol for fixation, RNA isolation and the analysis of selected genes is described. Using this clinostat we show that mRNA levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MIZU-KUSSEI 1 (MIZ1) and microRNA MIR163 are down-regulated in 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana roots after 3 min and 6 min of clinorotation using a maximal reduced g-force of 0.02 g, hence demonstrating that this 2-D clinostat enables the characterization of early transcriptomic events during root response to microgravity. We further show that this 2-D clinostat is able to compensate the action of gravitational force as both gravitropic-dependent statolith sedimentation and subsequent auxin redistribution (monitoring D R5 r e v :: G F P reporter) are abolished when plants are clinorotated. Our results demonstrate that 2-D clinostats equipped with interchangeable growth chambers and tunable rotation velocity are suitable for studying how plants perceive and respond to simulated microgravity.
Recent mathematical developments in 2D correlation spectroscopy
Noda, I.
2000-03-01
Recent mathematical developments in the field of 2D correlation spectroscopy, especially those related to the statistical theory, are reported. The notion of correlation phase angle is introduced. The significance of correlation phase angle between dynamic fluctuations of signals measured at two different spectral variables may be linked to more commonly known statistical concepts, such as coherence and correlation coefficient. This treatment provides the direct mathematical connection between the synchronous 2D correlation spectrum with a continuous form of the variance-covariance matrix. Moreover, it gives the background for the formal definition of the disrelation spectrum, which may be used as a heuristic substitution for the asynchronous 2D spectrum. The 2D correlation intensity may be separated into two independent factors representing the normalized extent of signal fluctuation coherence (i.e., correlation coefficient) and the magnitude of spectral intensity changes (i.e., variance). Such separation offers a convenient way to artificially enhance the discriminating power of 2D correlation spectra.
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino
2010-01-01
This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...
Approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, N.B.; Wolfgram, Peter
2006-01-01
We propose an approximate two-dimensional inversion procedure for transient electromagnetic data. The method is a two-stage procedure, where data are first inverted with 1D multi-layer models. The 1D model section is then considered as data for the next inversion stage that produces the 2D model...... section. For moving platform data there is translational invariance and the second part of the inversion becomes a deconvolution. The convolution kernels are computed by perturbing one model element in an otherwise homogeneous 2D section and calculating full nonlinear responses. These responses...... are then inverted with 1D models to produce a 1D model section. This section is the convolution kernel for the deconvolution. Within its limitations, the approximate 2D inversion performs well. Theoretical modeling shows that it delivers model sections that are a definite improvement over 1D model sections...
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-01-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed. (topical review)
Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects
Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad
2014-11-01
We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.
Theory of Magnetoelectric Properties of 2D Systems
Chen, S. C.; Wu, J. Y.; Lin, C. Y.; Lin, M. F.
2017-12-01
This book addresses important advances in diverse quantization phenomena. 'Theory of Magnetoelectric Properties of 2D Systems' develops the generalized tight-binding model in order to comprehend the rich quantization phenomena in 2D materials. The unusual effects, taken into consideration simultaneously, mainly come from the multi-orbital hybridization, the spin-orbital coupling, the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions, the layer number, the stacking configuration, the site-energy difference, the magnetic field, and the electric field. The origins of the phenomena are discussed in depth, particularly focusing on graphene, tinene, phosphorene and MoS2, with a broader model also drawn. This model could be further used to investigate electronic properties of 1D and 3D condensed-matter systems, and this book will prove to be a valuable resource to researchers and graduate students working in 2D materials science.
MESH2D Grid generator design and use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-10-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program originally designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). x-coordinates depending only on index i implies strictly vertical x-grid lines, whereas the y-grid lines can undulate. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. Since the original development effort, Mesh2d has been extended to more general two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i,j),(i,j)].
Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method
Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson
2017-07-01
Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.
Titan2D simulations of dome-collapse pyroclastic flows for crisis assessments on Montserrat
Widiwijayanti, C.; Voight, B.; Hidayat, D.; Patra, A.; Pitman, E.
2010-12-01
The Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, has experienced numerous episodes of lava dome collapses since 1995. Collapse volumes range from small rockfalls to major dome collapses (as much as ~200 M m3). Problems arise in hazards mitigation, particularly in zoning for populated areas. Determining the likely extent of flowage deposits in various scenarios is important for hazards zonation, provision of advice by scientists, and decision making by public officials. Towards resolution of this issue we have tested the TITAN2D code, calibrated parameters for an SHV database, and using updated topography have provided flowage maps for various scenarios and volume classes from SHV, for use in hazards assessments. TITAN2D is a map plane (depth averaged) simulator of granular flow and yields mass distributions over a DEM. Two Coulomb frictional parameters (basal and internal frictions) and initial source conditions (volume, source location, and source geometry) of single or multiple pulses in a dome-collapse type event control behavior of the flow. Flow kinematics are captured, so that the dynamics of flow can be examined spatially from frame to frame, or as a movie. Our hazard maps include not only the final deposit, but also areas inundated by moving debris prior to deposition. Simulations from TITAN2D were important for analysis of crises in the period 2007-2010. They showed that any very large mass released on the north slope would be strongly partitioned by local topography, and thus it was doubtful that flows of very large size (>20 M m3) could be generated in the Belham River drainage. This partitioning effect limited runout toward populated areas. These effects were interpreted to greatly reduce the down-valley risk of ash-cloud surges.
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pachón, Leonardo A. [Grupo de Física Atómica y Molecular, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Andrew H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oregon Center for Optics, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Aspuru-Guzik, Alán [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
2015-06-07
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-01-01
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed
Melting of 2D monatomic solids: Lennard-Jones system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, Y.M.; Guo, Z.C.
1987-09-01
The Lennard-Jones interaction has been introduced into the Collins mix lattice of 2D liquids. By means of rigorous calculation of the total potential and the free area, the Gibbs functions for 2D liquid and solid have been derived. The melting line obtained from the phase transition equation agrees quite well with the result of recent computer simulation experiments. The obtained reduced temperature of the triple point T* t =0.438 agrees with the data measured in experiments of some inert gas monolayers adsorbed on graphite as well as in computer simulation experiments. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs
EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubany, Adam; Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. → An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. → Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.
2-D emittance equation with acceleration and compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, K.D.; Smith, L.
1988-10-01
Since both acceleration and compression are required for an Inertial Fusion Driver, the understanding of their effect on the beam quality, emittance, is important. This report attempts to generalize the usual emittance formula for the drifting beam to include these effects. The derivation of the 2-D emittance equation is carried out and a comparison with the particle code results is given. The 2-D emittance at a given axial location is reasonable to consider for a long beam, particularly with velocity tilt; transverse emittance averaged over the entire bunch is not a useful quantity. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Real-time 2-D Phased Array Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holbek, Simon; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Fogh, Nikolaj
2018-01-01
Echocardiography examination of the blood flow is currently either restricted to 1-D techniques in real-time or experimental off-line 2-D methods. This paper presents an implementation of transverse oscillation for real-time 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) on a commercial BK Ultrasound scanner....... A large field-of-view (FOV) sequence for studying flow dynamics at 11 frames per second (fps) and a sequence for studying peak systolic velocities (PSV) with a narrow FOV at 36 fps were validated. The VFI sequences were validated in a flow-rig with continuous laminar parabolic flow and in a pulsating flow...
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-01-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. (paper)
EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubany, Adam, E-mail: adamku@bgu.ac.i [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2011-01-15
Research highlights: ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.
First Principles Calculations of Electronic Excitations in 2D Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Filip Anselm
electronic transport, optical and chemical properties. On the other hand it has shown to be a great starting point for a systematic pertubation theory approach to obtain the so-called quasiparticle spectrum. In the GW approximation one considers the considers the potential from a charged excitation...... as if it is being screened by the electrons in the material. This method has been very successful for calculating quasiparticle energies of bulk materials but results have been more varying for 2D materials. The reason is that the 2D confined electrons are less able to screen the added charge and some...
Design and production of a short 2D animated film
Prusnik, Petra
2014-01-01
Design and production of a short 2D animated film The thesis aims at analysing animation, the process of creating an ani- mated film with its technical and compositional details as well as show the process of making a short 2D animated movie with Toon Boom Studio. It is composed of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of this thesis consists of the definition of the term "animation", a quick overview of its history and evolution, and an in-depth look into var...
2D director calculation for liquid crystal optical phased array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, L; Zhang, J; Wu, L Y
2005-01-01
A practical numerical model for a liquid crystal cell is set up based on the geometrical structure of liquid crystal optical phased arrays. Model parameters include width and space of electrodes, thickness of liquid crystal layer, alignment layers and glass substrates, pre-tilted angles, dielectric constants, elastic constants and so on. According to electrostatic field theory and Frank-Oseen elastic continuum theory, 2D electric potential distribution and 2D director distribution are calculated by means of the finite difference method on non-uniform grids. The influence of cell sizes on director distribution is analyzed. The fringe field effect between electrodes is also discussed
Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.
Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M
2004-07-01
We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory.
Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control
Pellenard, Bertrand
2011-12-01
We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D...... Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils....
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils
Thermodynamics of an Attractive 2D Fermi Gas
Fenech, K.; Dyke, P.; Peppler, T.; Lingham, M. G.; Hoinka, S.; Hu, H.; Vale, C. J.
2016-01-01
Thermodynamic properties of matter are conveniently expressed as functional relations between variables known as equations of state. Here we experimentally determine the compressibility, density, and pressure equations of state for an attractive 2D Fermi gas in the normal phase as a function of temperature and interaction strength. In 2D, interacting gases exhibit qualitatively different features to those found in 3D. This is evident in the normalized density equation of state, which peaks at intermediate densities corresponding to the crossover from classical to quantum behavior.
A 3D freehand ultrasound system for multi-view reconstructions from sparse 2D scanning planes.
Yu, Honggang; Pattichis, Marios S; Agurto, Carla; Beth Goens, M
2011-01-20
A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes.For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions are found to be in better agreement with clinical
How Mucosal Epithelia Deal with Stress: Role of NKG2D/NKG2D Ligands during Inflammation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio Antonangeli
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Mucosal epithelia encounter both physicochemical and biological stress during their life and have evolved several mechanisms to deal with them, including regulation of immune cell functions. Stressed and damaged cells need to be cleared to control local inflammation and trigger tissue healing. Engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor is one of the most direct mechanisms involved in the recognition of stressed cells by the immune system. Indeed, injured cells promptly express NKG2D ligands that in turn mediate the activation of lymphocytes of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This review focuses on different conditions that are able to modulate NKG2D ligand expression on the epithelia. Special attention is given to the mechanisms of immunosurveillance mediated by natural killer cells, which are finely tuned by NKG2D. Different types of stress, including viral and bacterial infections, chronic inflammation, and cigarette smoke exposure, are discussed as paradigmatic conditions for NKG2D ligand modulation, and the implications for tissue homeostasis are discussed.
Father Secchi Goes to Washington
McCarthy, M. F.
1994-12-01
In 1848 a small group of Jesuit refugees arrived at Georgetown College near Washington, D.C. Among them was a young priest, Angelo Secchi, who had finished theology studies in Rome, but had not been able to complete his final examinations. This done successfully, Secchi turned to astronomy and the new facilities of the Georgetown College Observatory, directed by its founder, Fr. James Curley. During his two years in Washington, Secchi studied physics, wrote an article on Electrical Rheometry for the Smithsonian Institution, and formed a friendship with Matthew Fontaine Maury of the U.S. Navy, who headed the Chart Service and in 1844 was named superintendent of the National Observatory. This was later named the U.S. Naval Observatory. Secchi's friendships formed during the Washington visit proved most helpful for relations between European astronomers and U.S. colleagues. Secchi, after his return to Rome constructed the Observatory of the Collegio Romano atop the baroque Church of St. Ignatius in Rome and began his work in spectral classification of stars.
NASA-VOF2D: a computer program for incompressible flows with free surfaces
Torrey, M. D.; Cloutman, L. D.; Mjolsness, R. C.; Hirt, C. W.
1985-12-01
We present the NASA-VOF2D two-dimensional, transient, free-surface hydrodynamics program. It has a variety of options that provide capabilities for a wide range of applications, and it is designed to be relatively easy to use. It is based on the fractional volume-of-fluid method, and allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion. It also has a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. This report includes a discussion of the numerical method, a code listing, and a selection of sample problems.
A MATLAB Script for Solving 2D/3D Minimum Compliance Problems using Anisotropic Mesh Adaptation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg
2017-01-01
We present a pure MATLAB implementation for solving 2D/3D compliance minimization problems using the density method. A filtered design variable with a minimum length is computed using a Helmholtz-type differential equation. The optimality criteria is used as optimizer and to avoid local minima we...... apply continuation of an exponent that controls the stiffness associated with intermediate design variables. We constrain the volume from above and use the implementation to show that optimizations with dynamic meshes can save significant amounts of computational time compared to fixed meshes without...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lina Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.
The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George
2013-01-01
The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimension...
2-D fluid transport simulations of gaseous/radiative divertors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rognlien, T.D.; Brown, P.N.; Campbell, R.B.; Kaiser, T.B.; Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Smith, G.R.
1994-01-01
The features of the fully implicit 2-D fluid code UEDGE are described. The utility of the code is demonstrated by showing bifurcations or multiple solutions of the tokamak edge plasma for both deuterium and impurity injection in the divertor. (orig.)
2D Materials with Nanoconfined Fluids for Electrochemical Energy Storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Augustyn, Veronica [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Inst.
2017-10-11
In the quest to develop energy storage with both high power and high energy densities, and while maintaining high volumetric capacity, recent results show that a variety of 2D and layered materials exhibit rapid kinetics of ion transport by the incorporation of nanoconfined fluids.
Interactive exploratory visualization of 2D vector fields
Isenberg, Tobias; Everts, Maarten H.; Grubert, Jens; Carpendale, Sheelagh
In this paper we present several techniques to interactively explore representations of 2D vector fields. Through a set of simple hand postures used on large, touch-sensitive displays, our approach allows individuals to custom design glyphs (arrows, lines, etc.) that best reveal patterns of the
2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications
2017-03-01
2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications Philip M. Campbell, Christopher J. Perini, W. Jud Ready, and Eric M. Vogel...School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA 30332 Abstract: Vertical heterostructures...digital logic, signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, and high-frequency communications, vertical heterostructure tunneling devices have
2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munsat, T.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A.J.H.; Pol, M.J. van de
2004-01-01
By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented
2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual devices
Li, Zhongmin; Gao, Lu
2009-10-01
Generally, 2-D spatial data are divided as a series of tiles according to the plane grid. To satisfy the effect of vision, the tiles in the query window including the view point would be displayed quickly at the screen. Aiming at the performance difference of real storage devices, we propose a 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device. Firstly, we construct a group of virtual devices which have same storage performance and non-limited capacity, then distribute the tiles into M virtual devices according to the query window of 2-D tiles. Secondly, we equably map the tiles in M virtual devices into M equidistant intervals in [0, 1) using pseudo-random number generator. Finally, we devide [0, 1) into M intervals according to the tiles distribution percentage of every real storage device, and distribute the tiles in each interval in the corresponding real storage device. We have designed and realized a prototype GlobeSIGht, and give some related test results. The results show that the average response time of each tile in the query window including the view point using 2-D tiles declustering method based on virtual device is more efficient than using other methods.
2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.
Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei
2017-03-15
Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…
Validation and testing of the VAM2D computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S.
1991-10-01
This document describes two modeling studies conducted by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. for the US NRC under contract no. NRC-04089-090, entitled, ''Validation and Testing of the VAM2D Computer Code.'' VAM2D is a two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and transport code, with applications for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The computer code itself is documented in a separate NUREG document (NUREG/CR-5352, 1989). The studies presented in this report involve application of the VAM2D code to two diverse subsurface modeling problems. The first one involves modeling of infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes in an initially dry, heterogeneous field soil. This application involves detailed modeling over a relatively short, 9-month time period. The second problem pertains to the application of VAM2D to the modeling of a waste disposal facility in a fractured clay, over much larger space and time scales and with particular emphasis on the applicability and reliability of using equivalent porous medium approach for simulating flow and transport in fractured geologic media. Reflecting the separate and distinct nature of the two problems studied, this report is organized in two separate parts. 61 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)
US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...
Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions
Chiu, Ming-Hui
2016-09-20
It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Reorientation of magnetization with temperature in 2D ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fridman, Yu. A.; Spirin, D.V.; Klevets, Ph. N.
2002-01-01
We investigated 2D Heisenberg ferromagnet (monolayer) with the account of dipolar forces and uniaxial anisotropy and found a reorientation phase transition in temperature from out-of-plane to in-plane phase. This phase transition is of the first order with hysteresis. We estimated the temperatures of switching both analytically and numerically
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.
2016-01-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3...
Spontaneous bending of 2D molecular bottle-brush
Subbotin, A; Jong, J; ten Brinke, G
Using a scaling approach we consider a 2D comb copolymer brush under bending deformations. We show that the rectilinear brush is locally stable and can be characterized by a persistence length lambda increasing with the molecular weight of grafting side chains as lambda similar to M-3. A bending
Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.
2006-01-01
Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
Validation of minor species of the MIPAS2D database
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enzo Papandrea
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The MIPAS2D [Dinelli et al., 2010] database has been developed applying the tomographic analysis technique GMTR [Carlotti et al., 2001] to measurements acquired in the nominal observation mode of the complete MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding [Fischer et al., 2008] mission. […
2D MR angiography of the aortic aneurysm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amanuma, Makoto; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko
1992-01-01
2D time-of-flight MR angiography was performed in 6 cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Oblique saturation pulses were used to suppress the signals of the pulmonary artery and SVC, providing excellent selective MR aortograms. Three dimensional extension of the aneurysm and its relation with cervical branches were easily assessed. It could be possible to replace invasive aortography by this technique. (author)
2D Toda chain and associated commutator identity
Pogrebkov, A. K.
2007-01-01
Developing observation made in \\cite{commut} we show that simple identity of the commutator type on an associative algebra is in one-to-one correspondence to 2D (infinite) Toda chain. We introduce representation of elements of associative algebra that, under some generic conditions, enables derivation of the Toda chain equation and its Lax pair from the given commutator identity.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-01-01
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research
Research Studies Index. Authors and Subjects. Volume 1 through Volume 43 (1929-1975).
Drazan, Joseph, Comp.; Scott, Paula, Comp.
This volume contains author and subject indexes for volumes 1 through 43 (1929-1975) of "Research Studies," a scholarly, multi-disciplinary quarterly published at Washington State University. Each author index entry includes the title, volume, and inclusive pagination of the article. The subject index is a keyword-out-of-context…
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.
2016-08-01
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets
Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Tamoxifen-Treated Patients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahern, Thomas P; Hertz, Daniel L; Damkier, Per
2017-01-01
-infiltrated tissues, all of which showed excellent CYP2D6 genotype agreement. We applied these concordance data to a quantitative bias analysis of the subset of the 31 studies that were based on genotypes from tumor-infiltrated tissue to examine whether genotyping errors substantially biased estimates of association...... genotyped DNA from tumor-infiltrated tissues, and their results may have been susceptible to germline genotype misclassification from loss of heterozygosity at the CYP2D6 locus. We systematically reviewed 6 studies of concordance between genotypes obtained from paired nonneoplastic and breast tumor...
Flood hazard assessment using 1D and 2D approaches
Petaccia, Gabriella; Costabile, Pierfranco; Macchione, Francesco; Natale, Luigi
2013-04-01
The EU flood risk Directive (Directive 2007/60/EC) prescribes risk assessment and mapping to develop flood risk management plans. Flood hazard mapping may be carried out with mathematical models able to determine flood-prone areas once realistic conditions (in terms of discharge or water levels) are imposed at the boundaries of the case study. The deterministic models are mainly based on shallow water equations expressed in their 1D or 2D formulation. The 1D approach is widely used, especially in technical studies, due to its relative simplicity, its computational efficiency and also because it requires topographical data not as expensive as the ones needed by 2D models. Even if in a great number of practical situations, such as modeling in-channel flows and not too wide floodplains, the 1D approach may provide results close to the prediction of a more sophisticated 2D model, it must be pointed out that the correct use of a 1D model in practical situations is more complex than it may seem. The main issues to be correctly modeled in a 1D approach are the definition of hydraulic structures such as bridges and buildings interacting with the flow and the treatment of the tributaries. Clearly all these aspects have to be taken into account also in the 2D modeling, but with fewer difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to show how the above cited issues can be described using a 1D or 2D unsteady flow modeling. In particular the Authors will show the devices that have to be implemented in 1D modeling to get reliable predictions of water levels and discharges comparable to the ones obtained using a 2D model. Attention will be focused on an actual river (Crati river) located in the South of Italy. This case study is quite complicated since it deals with the simulation of channeled flows, overbank flows, interactions with buildings, bridges and tributaries. Accurate techniques, intentionally developed by the Authors to take into account all these peculiarities in 1D and 2
2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires
Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim
2014-11-01
The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-01
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-01-01
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C ) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d – p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. (paper)
The 2DX robot: a membrane protein 2D crystallization Swiss Army knife.
Iacovache, Ioan; Biasini, Marco; Kowal, Julia; Kukulski, Wanda; Chami, Mohamed; van der Goot, F Gisou; Engel, Andreas; Rémigy, Hervé-W
2010-03-01
Among the state-of-the-art techniques that provide experimental information at atomic scale for membrane proteins, electron crystallography, atomic force microscopy and solid state NMR make use of two-dimensional crystals. We present a cyclodextrin-driven method for detergent removal implemented in a fully automated robot. The kinetics of the reconstitution processes is precisely controlled, because the detergent complexation by cyclodextrin is of stoichiometric nature. The method requires smaller volumes and lower protein concentrations than established 2D crystallization methods, making it possible to explore more conditions with the same amount of protein. The method yielded highly ordered 2D crystals diffracting to high resolution from the pore-forming toxin Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin (2.9A), the plant aquaporin SoPIP2;1 (3.1A) and the human aquaporin-8 (hAQP8; 3.3A). This new method outperforms traditional 2D crystallization approaches in terms of accuracy, flexibility, throughput, and allows the usage of detergents having low critical micelle concentration (CMC), which stabilize the structure of membrane proteins in solution. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ion beam profiling from the interaction with a freestanding 2D layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Shorubalko
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Recent years have seen a great potential of the focused ion beam (FIB technology for the nanometer-scale patterning of a freestanding two-dimensional (2D layer. Experimentally determined sputtering yields of the perforation process can be quantitatively explained using the binary collision theory. The main peculiarity of the interaction between the ion beams and the suspended 2D material lies in the absence of collision cascades, featured by no interaction volume. Thus, the patterning resolution is directly set by the beam diameters. Here, we demonstrate pattern resolution beyond the beam size and precise profiling of the focused ion beams. We find out that FIB exposure time of individual pixels can influence the resultant pore diameter. In return, the pore dimension as a function of the exposure dose brings out the ion beam profiles. Using this method of determining an ion-beam point spread function, we verify a Gaussian profile of focused gallium ion beams. Graphene sputtering yield is extracted from the normalization of the measured Gaussian profiles, given a total beam current. Interestingly, profiling of unbeknown helium ion beams in this way results in asymmetry of the profile. Even triangular beam shapes are observed at certain helium FIB conditions, possibly attributable to the trimer nature of the beam source. Our method of profiling ion beams with 2D-layer perforation provides more information on ion beam profiles than the conventional sharp-edge scan method does.
Tello, Javier; Cubero, Sergio; Blasco, José; Tardaguila, Javier; Aleixos, Nuria; Ibáñez, Javier
2016-10-01
Grapevine cluster morphology influences the quality and commercial value of wine and table grapes. It is routinely evaluated by subjective and inaccurate methods that do not meet the requirements set by the food industry. Novel two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) machine vision technologies emerge as promising tools for its automatic and fast evaluation. The automatic evaluation of cluster length, width and elongation was successfully achieved by the analysis of 2D images, significant and strong correlations with the manual methods being found (r = 0.959, 0.861 and 0.852, respectively). The classification of clusters according to their shape can be achieved by evaluating their conicity in different sections of the cluster. The geometric reconstruction of the morphological volume of the cluster from 2D features worked better than the direct 3D laser scanning system, showing a high correlation (r = 0.956) with the manual approach (water displacement method). In addition, we constructed and validated a simple linear regression model for cluster compactness estimation. It showed a high predictive capacity for both the training and validation subsets of clusters (R(2) = 84.5 and 71.1%, respectively). The methodologies proposed in this work provide continuous and accurate data for the fast and objective characterisation of cluster morphology. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Utilizing of 2-D resistivity with geotechnical method for sediment mapping in Sungai Batu, Kedah
Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Mokhtar, S.
2017-07-01
Sungai Batu is Lembah Bujang subdistrict, located at northern region of Peninsular Malaysia, recognized as an international cultural and commercial crossroad for 2000 years ago, and recorded as the oldest archaeological site in southeast Asia. The discovering of iron smelting area (1st-4th century) shows the evidence of important iron industry in Malay Peninsular to others civilization. Nowadays, a lot of interdisciplinary research was conducted in this area including geophysical prospect to understand the subsurface profile for this locality. Geophysical approach such as 2-D resistivity was performed with the main objective is to identify sediment deposit for this area. Three 2-D resistivity survey lines were design across borehole and data acquired using ABEM SAS4000 system with Pole-dipole array using 2.5 m minimum electrode spacing. The data obtained was process using Res2Dinv software to produce inversion model and Surfer10 software used for interpretation and correlation with respective borehole record. The 2-D resistivity inversion model shows that, the area dominated by clay soil with resistivity values of values of >500 Ωm interpreted as hard layer. The saturated zone (25 m which consider large volume of soil deposit during sedimentation process. The correlation with the borehole record shows that clay profile distributed at depth of >20 m. The present of shale in certain borehole record indicate that the environment deposit is clam/stagnant water condition during the formation process which suspected controlled by the deposition process from the land deposit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y; Jacobs, P; Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N
2015-01-01
Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jacobs, P [MIM Software, Inc, Cleavland, Ohio (United States); Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N [IROC Philadelphia, RTQA Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance
Zieliński, Tomasz G.
2017-11-01
The paper proposes and investigates computationally-efficient microstructure representations for sound absorbing fibrous media. Three-dimensional volume elements involving non-trivial periodic arrangements of straight fibres are examined as well as simple two-dimensional cells. It has been found that a simple 2D quasi-representative cell can provide similar predictions as a volume element which is in general much more geometrically accurate for typical fibrous materials. The multiscale modelling allowed to determine the effective speeds and damping of acoustic waves propagating in such media, which brings up a discussion on the correlation between the speed, penetration range and attenuation of sound waves. Original experiments on manufactured copper-wire samples are presented and the microstructure-based calculations of acoustic absorption are compared with the corresponding experimental results. In fact, the comparison suggested the microstructure modifications leading to representations with non-uniformly distributed fibres.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaudeau, Y
2006-12-15
The huge amounts of volumetric data generated by current medical imaging techniques in the context of an increasing demand for long term archiving solutions, as well as the rapid development of distant radiology make the use of compression inevitable. Indeed, if the medical community has sided until now with compression without losses, most of applications suffer from compression ratios which are too low with this kind of compression. In this context, compression with acceptable losses could be the most appropriate answer. So, we propose a new loss coding scheme based on 3D (3 dimensional) Wavelet Transform and Dead Zone Lattice Vector Quantization 3D (DZLVQ) for medical images. Our algorithm has been evaluated on several computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image volumes. The main contribution of this work is the design of a multidimensional dead zone which enables to take into account correlations between neighbouring elementary volumes. At high compression ratios, we show that it can out-perform visually and numerically the best existing methods. These promising results are confirmed on head CT by two medical patricians. The second contribution of this document assesses the effect with-loss image compression on CAD (Computer-Aided Decision) detection performance of solid lung nodules. This work on 120 significant lungs images shows that detection did not suffer until 48:1 compression and still was robust at 96:1. The last contribution consists in the complexity reduction of our compression scheme. The first allocation dedicated to 2D DZLVQ uses an exponential of the rate-distortion (R-D) functions. The second allocation for 2D and 3D medical images is based on block statistical model to estimate the R-D curves. These R-D models are based on the joint distribution of wavelet vectors using a multidimensional mixture of generalized Gaussian (MMGG) densities. (author)
Water resources of King County, Washington
Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.
1968-01-01
sediment are transported by most streams in the county, except during short periods of heavy rain in the winter. The temperature and chemical quality of surface waters are well suited to the requirements of fisheries and for municipal, industrial, and domestic supplies. Little treatment is needed for most uses of surface water, except where the water is subject to pollution. Most recoverable ground water in the county occurs in the Puget Sound Lowland, where great volumes of unconsolidated sedimentary deposits were left by the continental glaciers of the Pleistocene Epoch. Bedrock, most of which is in the Cascade Range, contains very little ground water. Numerous springs, largely undeveloped, occur in several parts of the county. Most of the ground water is of good to excellent quality except for excessive iron, which in some places may require treatment of the water before it is suitable for domestic or industrial use. Excluding water used for hydroelectric-power, recreation, and fisheries, more than 80 percent of the water used in the county is provided by municipal-supply systems. Each of the major river basins includes municipal watersheds that provide large supplies of excellent water. By the 1980's, more than 90 percent of the county's population will probably be served by the Seattle municipal supply. With full development, Seattle's water system would have a capacity sufficient to supply more than 2 million people with 300 gallons per person per day. Most industrial and commercial establishments in the county obtain water from public supply systems. The most .serious water problem in the county at present (1965) is the threat of pollution in the densely populated areas. The immediate threat in the Seattle area is being reduced by the sewage-treatment program of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, which will eliminate the discharge of waste into Lake Washington. Expected increases in population and industry will introd
Farber, Nuri B; Nemmers, Brian; Noguchi, Kevin K
2006-09-15
Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, most likely by producing disinhibtion in complex circuits, acutely produce psychosis and cognitive disturbances in humans, and neurotoxicity in rodents. Studies examining NMDA Receptor Hypofunction (NRHypo) neurotoxicity in animals, therefore, may provide insights into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. Dopaminergic D2 and/or D3 agents can modify psychosis over days to weeks, suggesting involvement of these transmitter system(s). We studied the ability of D2/D3 agonists and antagonists to modify NRHypo neurotoxicity both after a one-time acute exposure and after chronic daily exposure. Here we report that D2/D3 dopamine agonists, probably via D3 receptors, prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely. The protective effect with D2/D3 agonists is not seen after chronic daily dosing. In contrast, the antipsychotic haloperidol does not affect NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely at D2/D3 doses. However, after chronic daily dosing of 1, 3, or 5 weeks, haloperidol does prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity with longer durations producing greater protection. Understanding the changes that occur in the NRHypo circuit after chronic exposure to dopaminergic agents could provide important clues into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.
Titan 2D: Understanding Titan’s Seasonal Atmospheric Cycles
Wong, Michael; Zhang, X.; Li, C.; Hu, R.; Shia, R.; Newman, C.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Yung, Y.
2013-10-01
In this study, we present results from a novel two-dimensional (2D) model that simulates the physics and chemistry of Titan’s atmosphere. Despite being an icy moon of Saturn, Titan is the only Solar System object aside from Earth that is sheathed by a thick nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. This vulnerable gaseous envelope—an embodiment of a delicate coupling between photochemistry, radiation, and dynamics—is Nature’s laboratory for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Titan’s large obliquity generates pronounced seasonal cycles in its atmosphere, and the Cassini spacecraft has been observing these variations since 2004. In particular, Cassini measurements show that the latitudinal distribution of Titan’s rich mélange of hydrocarbon species follows seasonal patterns. The mixing ratios of hydrocarbons increase with latitude towards the winter pole, suggesting a pole-to-pole circulation that reverses after equinox. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan’s atmosphere, we show that photochemistry alone cannot produce the observed meridional hydrocarbon distribution. This necessitates the employment of a 2D chemistry-transport model that includes meridional circulation as well as diffusive processes and photochemistry. Of additional concern, no previous 2D model of Titan extends beyond 500 km altitude—a critical limitation since the peak of methane photolysis is at 800 km. Our 2D model is the first to include Titan’s stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The meridional circulation in our 2D model is derived from the outputs of two general circulation models (GCMs): the TitanWRF GCM (Newman et al. 2011) covering the troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere, and a thermosphere general circulation model (TGCM) covering the remainder of the atmosphere through the thermosphere (Müller-Wodarg et al. 2003; 2008). This presentation will focus on the utilization of these advances applied to the 2D Caltech/JPL KINETICS model to
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker trademark, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m 2 of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However
Finite volume spectrum of 2D field theories from Hirota dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Vieira, Pedro; Univ. do Porto
2008-12-01
We propose, using the example of the O(4) sigma model, a general method for solving integrable two dimensional relativistic sigma models in a finite size periodic box. Our starting point is the so-called Y-system, which is equivalent to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations of Yang and Yang. It is derived from the Zamolodchikov scattering theory in the cross channel, for virtual particles along the non-compact direction of the space-time cylinder. The method is based on the integrable Hirota dynamics that follows from the Y-system. The outcome is a nonlinear integral equation for a single complex function, valid for an arbitrary quantum state and accompanied by the finite size analogue of Bethe equations. It is close in spirit to the Destri-deVega (DdV) equation. We present the numerical data for the energy of various states as a function of the size, and derive the general Luescher-type formulas for the finite size corrections. We also re-derive by our method the DdV equation for the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. (orig.)
MPEG-4-based 2D facial animation for mobile devices
Riegel, Thomas B.
2005-03-01
The enormous spread of mobile computing devices (e.g. PDA, cellular phone, palmtop, etc.) emphasizes scalable applications, since users like to run their favorite programs on the terminal they operate at that moment. Therefore appliances are of interest, which can be adapted to the hardware realities without loosing a lot of their functionalities. A good example for this is "Facial Animation," which offers an interesting way to achieve such "scalability." By employing MPEG-4, which provides an own profile for facial animation, a solution for low power terminals including mobile phones is demonstrated. From the generic 3D MPEG-4 face a specific 2D head model is derived, which consists primarily of a portrait image superposed by a suited warping mesh and adapted 2D animation rules. Thus the animation process of MPEG-4 need not be changed and standard compliant facial animation parameters can be used to displace the vertices of the mesh and warp the underlying image accordingly.
Cluster algebras in scattering amplitudes with special 2D kinematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres, Marcus A.C. [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2014-02-15
We study the cluster algebra of the kinematic configuration space Conf{sub n}(P{sup 3}P3) of an n-particle scattering amplitude restricted to the special 2D kinematics. We found that the n-point two-loop MHVremainder function in special 2D kinematics depends on a selection of the X-coordinates that are part of a special structure of the cluster algebra related to snake triangulations of polygons. This structure forms a necklace of hypercube beads in the corresponding Stasheff polytope. Furthermore at n = 12, the cluster algebra and the selection of theX-coordinates in special2Dkinematics replicates the cluster algebra and the selection of X-coordinates of the n = 6 two-loop MHV amplitude in 4D kinematics. (orig.)
2D-immunoblotting analysis of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Estela Ruiz-Baca
2011-03-01
Full Text Available We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting (2D-immunoblotting with anti-Sporothrix schenckii antibodies to identify antigenic proteins in cell wall preparations obtained from the mycelial and yeast-like morphologies of the fungus. Results showed that a 70-kDa glycoprotein (Gp70 was the major antigen detected in the cell wall of both morphologies and that a 60-kDa glycoprotein was present only in yeast-like cells. In addition to the Gp70, the wall from filament cells showed four proteins with molecular weights of 48, 55, 66 and 67 kDa, some of which exhibited several isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first 2D-immunoblotting analysis of the S. schenckii cell wall.
Room temperature Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes Using 2-D Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Serkiz, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Velten, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Xiao, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-09-28
Hydrogen isotope separation is critical to the DOE’s mission in environmental remediation and nuclear nonproliferation. Isotope separation is also a critical technology for the NNSA, and the ability to perform the separations at room temperature with a relatively small amount of power and space would be a major advancement for their respective missions. Recent work has shown that 2-D materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride can act as an isotopic sieve at room temperature; efficiently separating hydrogen isotopes in water with reported separation ratios of 10:1 for hydrogen: deuterium separation for a single pass. The work performed here suggests that this technique has merit, and furthermore, we are investigating optimization and scale up of the required 2-D material based membranes.
2D-grafiikan käyttö peliprojektissa
Reimi-Orsa, Anniina
2010-01-01
Opinnäytetyö on projektikuvaus, jossa on käsitelty kaksiulotteisen grafiikan käyttöä peliprojektissa toteutettujen töiden kautta. Työharjoittelussani tuotin materiaalia peliprojektiin, jonka maailma luotiin pääasiassa 2D-grafiikan avulla. Projektikuvauksessa on käyty läpi työn kulkua alkuvalmisteluista valmiiseen pelissä käytettävään grafiikkaan sekä käytäntöjä tämän tyyppisen 2D-grafiikan tuotannossa. Alussa peliprojektia on käsitelty yleisluontoisesti sekä avattu työssä käytettyjä ja p...
Two-particle microrheology of quasi-2D viscous systems.
Prasad, V; Koehler, S A; Weeks, Eric R
2006-10-27
We study the spatially correlated motions of colloidal particles in a quasi-2D system (human serum albumin protein molecules at an air-water interface) for different surface viscosities eta s. We observe a transition in the behavior of the correlated motion, from 2D interface dominated at high eta s to bulk fluid dependent at low eta s. The correlated motions can be scaled onto a master curve which captures the features of this transition. This master curve also characterizes the spatial dependence of the flow field of a viscous interface in response to a force. The scale factors used for the master curve allow for the calculation of the surface viscosity eta s that can be compared to one-particle measurements.
2D/3D Program work summary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-09-01
The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author).
2-D and 3-D computations of curved accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.R.
1991-01-01
In order to save computer memory, a long accelerator magnet may be computed by treating the long central region and the end regions separately. The dipole magnets for the injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), employ magnet iron consisting of parallel laminations, stacked with a uniform radius of curvature of 33.379 m. Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential has a different form for a straight magnet (x-y coordinates), a magnet with surfaces curved about a common center (r-θ coordinates), and a magnet with parallel laminations like the APS injector dipole. Yet pseudo 2-D computations for the three geometries give basically identical results, even for a much more strongly curved magnet. Hence 2-D (x-y) computations of the central region and 3-D computations of the end regions can be combined to determine the overall magnetic behavior of the magnets. 1 ref., 6 figs
2D/3D Program work summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-09-01
The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author)
The 2-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations
Avendaño, Martín E.; Davis, Jeremy J.; Mortari, Daniele
2013-08-01
The 2-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations, generalizing Harmonic Flower Constellations (the symmetric subset of Flower Constellations) as well as the Walker/ Mozhaev constellations, is presented here. This theory is a new general framework to design symmetric constellations using a 2× 2 lattice matrix of integers or by its minimal representation, the Hermite normal form. From a geometrical point of view, the phasing of satellites is represented by a regular pattern (lattice) on a two-Dimensional torus. The 2-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations does not require any compatibility condition and uses a minimum set of integer parameters whose meaning are explored throughout the paper. This general minimum-parametrization framework allows us to obtain all symmetric distribution of satellites. Due to the J_2 effect this design framework is meant for circular orbits and for elliptical orbits at critical inclination, or to design elliptical constellations for the unperturbed Keplerian case.
Beam test of the 2D position sensitive neutron detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Lichao; Chen Yuanbo; Sun Zhijia; Tang Bin; Zhou Jianrong; Qi Huirong; Liu Rongguang; Zhang Jian; Yang Guian; Xu Hong
2014-01-01
China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), one of the Major scientific apparatuses of the national Eleventh Five-Year Plane, is under construction and three spectrumeters will be constructed in the first phase of the project. A 2D position sensitive neutron detector has been constructed for the Multifunctional Reflect spectrumeter (MR) in Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The basic operation principle of the detector and the test on the residual stress diffractometer of Chinese Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is introduced in this paper. The results show that it has a good position resolution of l.18 mm (FWHM) for the neutrons of l.37 A and 2D imaging ability, which is consistent with the theory. It can satisfy the requirements of MR and lays the foundation for the construction of larger neutron detectors. (authors)
A 2-D nucleation-growth model of spheroidal graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lacaze, Jacques; Bourdie, Jacques; Castro-Román, Manuel Jesus
2017-01-01
Analysis of recent experimental investigations, in particular by transmission electron microscopy, suggests spheroidal graphite grows by 2-D nucleation of new graphite layers at the outer surface of the nodules. These layers spread over the surface along the prismatic direction of graphite which is the energetically preferred growth direction of graphite when the apparent growth direction of the nodules is along the basal direction of graphite. 2-D nucleation-growth models first developed for precipitation of pure substances are then adapted to graphite growth from the liquid in spheroidal graphite cast irons. Lateral extension of the new graphite layers is controlled by carbon diffusion in the liquid. This allows describing quantitatively previous experimental results giving strong support to this approach.
DEVELOPMENT OF 2D HUMAN BODY MODELING USING THINNING ALGORITHM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Srinivasan
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Monitoring the behavior and activities of people in Video surveillance has gained more applications in Computer vision. This paper proposes a new approach to model the human body in 2D view for the activity analysis using Thinning algorithm. The first step of this work is Background subtraction which is achieved by the frame differencing algorithm. Thinning algorithm has been used to find the skeleton of the human body. After thinning, the thirteen feature points like terminating points, intersecting points, shoulder, elbow, and knee points have been extracted. Here, this research work attempts to represent the body model in three different ways such as Stick figure model, Patch model and Rectangle body model. The activities of humans have been analyzed with the help of 2D model for the pre-defined poses from the monocular video data. Finally, the time consumption and efficiency of our proposed algorithm have been evaluated.
The Ising model coupled to 2d orders
Glaser, Lisa
2018-04-01
In this article we make first steps in coupling matter to causal set theory in the path integral. We explore the case of the Ising model coupled to the 2d discrete Einstein Hilbert action, restricted to the 2d orders. We probe the phase diagram in terms of the Wick rotation parameter β and the Ising coupling j and find that the matter and the causal sets together give rise to an interesting phase structure. The couplings give rise to five different phases. The causal sets take on random or crystalline characteristics as described in Surya (2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 132001) and the Ising model can be correlated or uncorrelated on the random orders and correlated, uncorrelated or anti-correlated on the crystalline orders. We find that at least one new phase transition arises, in which the Ising spins push the causal set into the crystalline phase.
Electrical spin injection into high mobility 2D systems.
Oltscher, M; Ciorga, M; Utz, M; Schuh, D; Bougeard, D; Weiss, D
2014-12-05
We report on spin injection into a high mobility 2D electron system confined at an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs interface, using (Ga,Mn)As Esaki diode contacts as spin aligners. We measured a clear nonlocal spin valve signal, which varies nonmonotonically with the applied bias voltage. The magnitude of the signal cannot be described by the standard spin drift-diffusion model, because at maximum this would require the spin polarization of the injected current to be much larger than 100%, which is unphysical. A strong correlation of the spin signal with contact width and electron mean free path suggests that ballistic transport in the 2D region below ferromagnetic contacts should be taken into account to fully describe the results.
Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.
1980-06-01
Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)
Conformal field theory and 2D critical phenomena. Part 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1989-01-01
Review of the recent developments in the two-dimensional conformal field theory and especially its applications to the physics of 2D critical phenomena is given. It includes the Ising model, the Potts model. Minimal models, corresponding to theories invariant under higher symmetries, such as superconformal theories, parafermionic theories and theories with current and W-algebras are also discussed. Non-hamiltonian approach to two-dimensional field theory is formulated. 126 refs
Spontaneous compactification in 2D induced quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S.D.
1992-01-01
In this paper spontaneous compactification - on a R 1 x S 1 background - in 2D induced quantum gravity (considered as a toy model for more fundamental quantum gravity) is analyzed in the gauge-independent effective action formalism. It is shown that such compactification is stable, in contradistinction to multidimensional quantum gravity on a R degrees x S 1 (D-> 2) background - which is known to be one-loop unstable
The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data
Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard
2008-01-01
We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...
Report of the 1988 2-D Intercomparison Workshop, chapter 3
Jackman, Charles H.; Brasseur, Guy; Soloman, Susan; Guthrie, Paul D.; Garcia, Rolando; Yung, Yuk L.; Gray, Lesley J.; Tung, K. K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Isaken, Ivar
1989-01-01
Several factors contribute to the errors encountered. With the exception of the line-by-line model, all of the models employ simplifying assumptions that place fundamental limits on their accuracy and range of validity. For example, all 2-D modeling groups use the diffusivity factor approximation. This approximation produces little error in tropospheric H2O and CO2 cooling rates, but can produce significant errors in CO2 and O3 cooling rates at the stratopause. All models suffer from fundamental uncertainties in shapes and strengths of spectral lines. Thermal flux algorithms being used in 2-D tracer tranport models produce cooling rates that differ by as much as 40 percent for the same input model atmosphere. Disagreements of this magnitude are important since the thermal cooling rates must be subtracted from the almost-equal solar heating rates to derive the net radiative heating rates and the 2-D model diabatic circulation. For much of the annual cycle, the net radiative heating rates are comparable in magnitude to the cooling rate differences described. Many of the models underestimate the cooling rates in the middle and lower stratosphere. The consequences of these errors for the net heating rates and the diabatic circulation will depend on their meridional structure, which was not tested here. Other models underestimate the cooling near 1 mbar. Suchs errors pose potential problems for future interactive ozone assessment studies, since they could produce artificially-high temperatures and increased O3 destruction at these levels. These concerns suggest that a great deal of work is needed to improve the performance of thermal cooling rate algorithms used in the 2-D tracer transport models.
2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem
Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt
2011-01-01
When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…
Energy transfer mechanisms in layered 2D perovskites.
Williams, Olivia F; Guo, Zhenkun; Hu, Jun; Yan, Liang; You, Wei; Moran, Andrew M
2018-04-07
Two-dimensional (2D) perovskite quantum wells are generating broad scientific interest because of their potential for use in optoelectronic devices. Recently, it has been shown that layers of 2D perovskites can be grown in which the average thicknesses of the quantum wells increase from the back to the front of the film. This geometry carries implications for light harvesting applications because the bandgap of a quantum well decreases as its thickness increases. The general structural formula for the 2D perovskite systems under investigation in this work is (PEA) 2 (MA) n-1 [Pb n I 3n+1 ] (PEA = phenethyl ammonium, MA = methyl ammonium). Here, we examine two layered 2D perovskites with different distributions of quantum well thicknesses. Spectroscopic measurements and model calculations suggest that both systems funnel electronic excitations from the back to the front of the film through energy transfer mechanisms on the time scales of 100's of ps (i.e., energy transfer from thinner to thicker quantum wells). In addition, the model calculations demonstrate that the transient absorption spectra are composed of a progression of single exciton and biexciton resonances associated with the individual quantum wells. We find that exciton dissociation and/or charge transport dynamics make only minor contributions to the transient absorption spectra within the first 1 ns after photo-excitation. An analysis of the energy transfer kinetics indicates that the transitions occur primarily between quantum wells with values of n that differ by 1 because of the spectral overlap factor that governs the energy transfer rate. Two-dimensional transient absorption spectra reveal a pattern of resonances consistent with the dominance of sequential energy transfer dynamics.
Energy transfer mechanisms in layered 2D perovskites
Williams, Olivia F.; Guo, Zhenkun; Hu, Jun; Yan, Liang; You, Wei; Moran, Andrew M.
2018-04-01
Two-dimensional (2D) perovskite quantum wells are generating broad scientific interest because of their potential for use in optoelectronic devices. Recently, it has been shown that layers of 2D perovskites can be grown in which the average thicknesses of the quantum wells increase from the back to the front of the film. This geometry carries implications for light harvesting applications because the bandgap of a quantum well decreases as its thickness increases. The general structural formula for the 2D perovskite systems under investigation in this work is (PEA)2(MA)n-1[PbnI3n+1] (PEA = phenethyl ammonium, MA = methyl ammonium). Here, we examine two layered 2D perovskites with different distributions of quantum well thicknesses. Spectroscopic measurements and model calculations suggest that both systems funnel electronic excitations from the back to the front of the film through energy transfer mechanisms on the time scales of 100's of ps (i.e., energy transfer from thinner to thicker quantum wells). In addition, the model calculations demonstrate that the transient absorption spectra are composed of a progression of single exciton and biexciton resonances associated with the individual quantum wells. We find that exciton dissociation and/or charge transport dynamics make only minor contributions to the transient absorption spectra within the first 1 ns after photo-excitation. An analysis of the energy transfer kinetics indicates that the transitions occur primarily between quantum wells with values of n that differ by 1 because of the spectral overlap factor that governs the energy transfer rate. Two-dimensional transient absorption spectra reveal a pattern of resonances consistent with the dominance of sequential energy transfer dynamics.
EDGE2D Simulations of JET 13C Migration Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strachan, J.D.; Coad, J.P.; Corrigan, G.; Matthews, G.F.; Spence, J.
2004-01-01
Material migration has received renewed interest due to tritium retention associated with carbon transport to remote vessel locations. Those results influence the desirability of carbon usage on ITER. Subsequently, additional experiments have been performed, including tracer experiments attempting to identify material migration from specific locations. In this paper, EDGE2D models a well-diagnosed JET 13 C tracer migration experiment. The role of SOL flows upon the migration patterns is identified
Adaptyvaus 2d pozicionavimo metodo autonominiam robotui tyrimas
Senvaitis, Vytautas
2016-01-01
Overview SLAM algorithm, laser distance scanner working principle, EKF and UKF filters in analytical part. EKF mathematical models are implemented for autonomous robot whit two-wheel drive and for laser distance scanner. EKF and UKF filters are compared. 2D robot positioning with EKF filter are modeled and simulated in MATALB and STM32 microcontroller with DSP library. MATLAB and STM32 are compared in speed test. Analyzing EKF filter working. Design and construct autonomous robot experimental...
Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces
2007-01-01
Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.
MXene–2D layered electrode materials for energy storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Tang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available As promising candidates of power resources, electrochemical energy storage (EES devices have drawn more and more attention due to their ease of use, environmental friendliness, and high transformation efficiency. The performances of EES devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors, depend largely on the inherent properties of electrode materials. On account of the outstanding properties of graphene, a lot of studies have been carried out on two-dimensional (2D materials. Over the past few years, a new exfoliation method has been utilized to successfully prepare a new family of 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, termed MXene, from layered precursors. Moreover, some unique EES properties of MXene have been discovered. With rapid research progress on this field, a timely account about the applications of MXene in the EES fields is highly necessary. In this article, the research progress on the preparation, electrochemical performance, and mechanism analysis of MXene is summarized and discussed. We also propose some personal prospects for the further development of this field. Keywords: MXene, 2D materials, Electrochemistry, Battery, Supercapacitor
Exciton Dynamics of 2D Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystal
Guo, Rui; Zhu, Zhuan; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Xiao, Kai; Bao, Jiming; Yao, Yan; Li, Wenzhi
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as promising materials for applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Among the perovskites, two dimensional (2D) perovskites are of great interests due to their remarkable optical and electrical properties as well as the flexibility of material selection for the organic and inorganic moieties. In this study, we demonstrate the solution-phase growth of large square-shaped single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 with a few unit cells thickness. Compared to the bulk crystal, a band gap shift and new photoluminescence (PL) peak are observed from the hybrid perovskite sheets. Color of the 2D crystals can be tuned by adjusting the sheet thickness. Pump-probe spectroscopy is used to investigate the exciton dynamics and exhibits a biexponential decay with an amplitude-weighted lifetime of 16.7 ps. Such high-quality (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 sheets are expected to have high PL quantum efficiency which can be adopted for light-emitting devices. National Science Foundation (Grant No. CMMI-1334417 and DMR-1506640).
Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication
Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya
2017-02-01
It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.
F-theory and 2d (0,2) theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-05-11
F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0,2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.
Paganelli, Chiara; Lee, Danny; Kipritidis, John; Whelan, Brendan; Greer, Peter B; Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco; Keall, Paul
2018-02-11
In-room MRI is a promising image guidance strategy in external beam radiotherapy to acquire volumetric information for moving targets. However, limitations in spatio-temporal resolution led several authors to use 2D orthogonal images for guidance. The aim of this work is to present a method to concurrently compensate for non-rigid tumour motion and provide an approach for 3D reconstruction from 2D orthogonal cine-MRI slices for MRI-guided treatments. Free-breathing sagittal/coronal interleaved 2D cine-MRI were acquired in addition to a pre-treatment 3D volume in two patients. We performed deformable image registration (DIR) between cine-MRI slices and corresponding slices in the pre-treatment 3D volume. Based on an extrapolation of the interleaved 2D motion fields, the 3D motion field was estimated and used to warp the pre-treatment volume. Due to the lack of a ground truth for patients, the method was validated on a digital 4D lung phantom. On the phantom, the 3D reconstruction method was able to compensate for tumour motion and compared favourably to the results of previously adopted strategies. The difference in the 3D motion fields between the phantom and the extrapolated motion was 0.4 ± 0.3 mm for tumour and 0.8 ± 1.5 mm for whole anatomy, demonstrating feasibility of performing a 3D volumetric reconstruction directly from 2D orthogonal cine-MRI slices. Application of the method to patient data confirmed the feasibility of utilizing this method in real world scenarios. Preliminary results on phantom and patient cases confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach in an MRI-guided scenario, especially for non-rigid tumour motion compensation. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.
Landslides and engineering geology of the Seattle, Washington, area
Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Highland, Lynn M.
2008-01-01
This volume brings together case studies and summary papers describing the application of state-of-the-art engineering geologic methods to landslide hazard analysis for the Seattle, Washington, area. An introductory chapter provides a thorough description of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of Seattle. Nine additional chapters review the history of landslide mapping in Seattle, present case studies of individual landslides, describe the results of spatial assessments of landslide hazard, discuss hydrologic controls on landsliding, and outline an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides.
Surficial geology map of the Great Heath, Washington County, Maine
Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.
1983-01-01
The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.
Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, H.H.; Wildrick, L.
1978-07-01
This bibliography is part of the hydrologic data compilation effort of the Columbia Plateau Hydrology Study, Rockwell Hanford Operations' Waste Isolation Program. It includes references on both surface and subsurface hydrology directly or indirectly related to the Washington State portion of the Columbia River basalts. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell Hanford Operations under the Pasco Basin Hydrology Study. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume
ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data
Akca Irfan
2016-01-01
ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole invers...
Chen, Xihui; Sun, Zhigang; Sun, Jianfen; Song, Yingdong
2017-12-01
In this paper, a numerical model which incorporates the oxidation damage model and the finite element model of 2D plain woven composites is presented for simulation of the oxidation behaviors of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite under preloading oxidation atmosphere. The equal proportional reduction method is firstly proposed to calculate the residual moduli and strength of unidirectional C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is developed to simulate the residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is able to accurately predict the residual elastic modulus and strength of the composite. Besides, the simulated residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites under preloading oxidation atmosphere show good agreements with experimental results. Furthermore, the preload, oxidation time, temperature and fiber volume fractions of the composite are investigated to show their influences upon the residual elastic modulus and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites.
Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.
Jackson, Sally; And Others
Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…
Drunk Driving. Surgeon General's Workshop. Proceedings (Washington, D.C., December 14-16, 1988).
Janus Associates.
This volume presents solutions, recommendations, and strategies in eleven interrelated areas considered at the Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving held in Washington, D.C. in December of 1988. Lists of the members of the Workshop Planning Committee and members of the federal advisory group on follow-up activities for the workshop are…
Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson
1995-01-01
Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these...
Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015
2015-01-01
The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…
Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
2014-01-01
Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…
2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes
2014-09-30
In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made
Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3PC [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
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Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3PA [Confc[Archive
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Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3PB [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
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Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3RA [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
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Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3RC [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
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Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3RD [Confc[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
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2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware
Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli
2015-02-01
Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D fracture networks
Zou, L.; Håkansson, U.; Cvetkovic, V.
2017-12-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian fluid (e.g., drilling fluids and cement grouts) flow in fractured rocks is of interest in many geophysical and industrial practices, such as drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery and rock grouting. In fractured rock masses, the flow paths are dominated by fractures, which are often represented as discrete fracture networks (DFN). In the literature, many studies have been devoted to Newtonian fluid (e.g., groundwater) flow in fractured rock using the DFN concept, but few works are dedicated to non-Newtonian fluids.In this study, a generalized flow equation for common non-Newtonian fluids (such as Bingham, power-law and Herschel-Bulkley) in a single fracture is obtained from the analytical solutions for non-Newtonian fluid discharge between smooth parallel plates. Using Monte Carlo sampling based on site characterization data for the distribution of geometrical features (e.g., density, length, aperture and orientations) in crystalline fractured rock, a two dimensional (2D) DFN model is constructed for generic flow simulations. Due to complex properties of non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship between fluid discharge and the pressure gradient is nonlinear. A Galerkin finite element method solver is developed to iteratively solve the obtained nonlinear governing equations for the 2D DFN model. Using DFN realizations, simulation results for different geometrical distributions of the fracture network and different non-Newtonian fluid properties are presented to illustrate the spatial discharge distributions. The impact of geometrical structures and the fluid properties on the non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D DFN is examined statistically. The results generally show that modeling non-Newtonian fluid flow in fractured rock as a DFN is feasible, and that the discharge distribution may be significantly affected by the geometrical structures as well as by the fluid constitutive properties.
2D Electrostatic Potential Solver for Hall Thruster Simulation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Koo, Justin W
2006-01-01
...) for Hall thruster simulation. It is based on a finite volume discretization of a current conservation equation where the electron current density is described by a Generalized Ohm's law description...
Novel 2D representation of vibration for local damage detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grzegorz Żak
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new 2D representation for local damage detection is presented. It is based on a vibration time series analysis. A raw vibration signal is decomposed via short-time Fourier transform and new time series for each frequency bin are differentiated to decorrelate them. For each time series, autocorrelation function is calculated. In the next step ACF maps are constructed. For healthy bearing ACF map should not have visible horizontal lines indicating damage. The method is illustrated by analysis of real data containing signals from damaged bearing and healthy for comparison.
Deep Cuboid Detection: Beyond 2D Bounding Boxes
Dwibedi, Debidatta; Malisiewicz, Tomasz; Badrinarayanan, Vijay; Rabinovich, Andrew
2016-01-01
We present a Deep Cuboid Detector which takes a consumer-quality RGB image of a cluttered scene and localizes all 3D cuboids (box-like objects). Contrary to classical approaches which fit a 3D model from low-level cues like corners, edges, and vanishing points, we propose an end-to-end deep learning system to detect cuboids across many semantic categories (e.g., ovens, shipping boxes, and furniture). We localize cuboids with a 2D bounding box, and simultaneously localize the cuboid's corners,...
A new 2-d approach to iterative , learning control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashraf, S.; Muhammad, E.; Tasleem, M.
2004-01-01
The well known two-dimensional system theory is used to analyze and develop a class of learning control system. In this paper we first explore and test a method given by ZHENG and JAMSHIDI. In that paper all the input samples are treated at once. In comparison our paper presents a scheme in which one sample at a time is treated. The 2- D state-space model of proposed learning control scheme is given. An important consequence of the proposed scheme is that given the right choice of gain matrix and sampling time the system's output can be made to converge to any degree of accuracy. (author)
Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.
Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues
2014-02-01
We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.
2D Inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM)
Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Luís Porsani, Jorge; Acácio Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando
2017-04-01
A new methodology was developed for 2D inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM). The methodology consists in the elaboration of a set of routines in Matlab code for modeling and inversion of TEM data and the determination of the most efficient field array for the problem. In this research, the 2D TEM modeling uses the finite differences discretization. To solve the inversion problem, were applied an algorithm based on Marquardt technique, also known as Ridge Regression. The algorithm is stable and efficient and it is widely used in geoelectrical inversion problems. The main advantage of 1D survey is the rapid data acquisition in a large area, but in regions with two-dimensional structures or that need more details, is essential to use two-dimensional interpretation methodologies. For an efficient field acquisition we used in an innovative form the fixed-loop array, with a square transmitter loop (200m x 200m) and 25m spacing between the sounding points. The TEM surveys were conducted only inside the transmitter loop, in order to not deal with negative apparent resistivity values. Although it is possible to model the negative values, it makes the inversion convergence more difficult. Therefore the methodology described above has been developed in order to achieve maximum optimization of data acquisition. Since it is necessary only one transmitter loop disposition in the surface for each series of soundings inside the loop. The algorithms were tested with synthetic data and the results were essential to the interpretation of the results with real data and will be useful in future situations. With the inversion of the real data acquired over the Paraná Sedimentary Basin (PSB) was successful realized a 2D TEM inversion. The results indicate a robust geoelectrical characterization for the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the PSB. Therefore, using a new and relevant approach for 2D TEM inversion, this research effectively contributed to map the most
The multicomponent 2D Toda hierarchy: dispersionless limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mañas, Manuel; Alonso, Luis Martínez
2009-01-01
The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov–Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit
Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres
Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.
2017-03-01
The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.
Rotational Invariance of the 2d Spin - Spin Correlation Function
Pinson, Haru
2012-09-01
At the critical temperature in the 2d Ising model on the square lattice, we establish the rotational invariance of the spin-spin correlation function using the asymptotics of the spin-spin correlation function along special directions (McCoy and Wu in the two dimensional Ising model. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1973) and the finite difference Hirota equation for which the spin-spin correlation function is shown to satisfy (Perk in Phys Lett A 79:3-5, 1980; Perk in Proceedings of III international symposium on selected topics in statistical mechanics, Dubna, August 22-26, 1984, JINR, vol II, pp 138-151, 1985).
Hybrid animation integrating 2D and 3D assets
O'Hailey, Tina
2010-01-01
Artist imaginations continue to grow and stretch the boundaries of traditional animation. Successful animators adept and highly skilled in traditional animation mediums are branching out beyond traditional animation workflows and will often use multiple forms of animation in a single project. With the knowledge of 3D and 2D assets and the integration of multiple animation mediums into a single project, animators have a wealth of creative resources available for a project that is not limited to a specific animation medium, software package or workflow processs. Enhance a poignant scene by choos
A generalized 2-D Poincaré inequality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crisciani Fulvio
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Two 1-D Poincaré-like inequalities are proved under the mild assumption that the integrand function is zero at just one point. These results are used to derive a 2-D generalized Poincare inequality in which the integrand function is zero on a suitable arc contained in the domain (instead of the whole boundary. As an application, it is shown that a set of boundary conditions for the quasi geostrophic equation of order four are compatible with general physical constraints dictated by the dissipation of kinetic energy.
DESAIN KOMUNIKASI DAKWAH VISUAL ANIMASI 2D UNTUK ANAK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mokhamad Mahfud
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Dakwah activities as a communication process of delivering the teachings of Islam's ideal has no power to change people for the better. There are many causal factors, one of them is because of propagandas that has been done tends to be cold, impersonal, and is only informative sheer, yet using less effective communication ethics. A visual cultural revolution is now growing rapidly, unfortunately its dominated by capitalists and worshipers of lust. For example, nearly all visual ads is using the interest of sensuality and lust to lure customers. On the billboards, media newspapers, magazines, television and other media, visual communication seemed to be a valuable garbage, and this is very dangerous, especially if in the consumption of children who are mentally and immature psyche. The Effects of visual "value-free" communication can damage the sense of children as the next generation, we are slowly showed on-aurast which makes Muslims become stupid. This study aims to provide a creative space to explore the lives of children for the purpose of providing religious materials in SDN Monggang Pendowoharjo Sewon Bantul. 2D animation design is expected to give a message to children that religious material is not complicated but enjoyable. And the use of cartoon animation techniques in the making is in fact, expecting the material to be delivered to children to be light for their minds and appropriate with their entertainment media which is television. This research Visual Communication Design using 2d Animation For Children is using descriptive study which is a qualitative research method that analyze the words or sentences and separate it by category for the conclusion. Qualitative research aims to explain the phenomenon in detail and in-depth data collection that focuses on quality rather than the quantity of data. The results of this study is that the creation of 2D animation is effective to be a dakwah media for children that will be made with a
Resolving power test of 2-D K+ K+ interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padula, Sandra S.; Roldao, Christiane G.
1999-01-01
Adopting a procedure previously proposed to quantitatively study pion interferometry 1 , an equivalent 2-D X 2 analysis was performed to test the resolving power of that method when applied to less favorable conditions, when no significant contribution from long lived resonances is expected, as in kaon interferometry. For that purpose, use is made of the preliminary E859 K + K + interferometry data from Si+Au collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c. Less sensitivity is achieved in the present case, although it is shown that it is still possible to distinguish two distinct decoupling geometries. (author)
Survey of 1 1/2D transport codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grad, H.
1978-10-01
A survey is given of a family of classical transport codes, recently termed ''1 1/2D'', which efficiently and accurately follow the evolution of plasma configurations on a long time scale, following coupled changes in plasma shape and topology with transport (but not wave motion). Codes have been constructed and operated (since 1974) which include various combinations of finite beta, general plasma cross-section and aspect, various topologies (Doublet, tearing, reversed-field mirror) including time dependent transitions in topology resulting from external coil variation and plasma transport, with models including (classical) tensor resistivity and heat flow as well as the adiabatic limiting case
Conformal field theory and 2D quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Distler, J.; Kawai, Hikaru
1989-01-01
Inspired by the recent work of Knizhnik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov on the solution of 2D quantum gravity in the 'light cone' gauge, we present a proposal for solving the theory in the usual conformal gauge. Our results for the critical exponents of the theory agree with the genus-zero results of KPZ. Since our formalism naturally generalizes to higher-genus Riemann surfaces, we obtain the critical exponents for all genera. The corresponding results for the supersymmetric case are presented. We also show how to calculate correlation functions in these theories. (orig.)
Microscopy of 2D Fermi gases. Exploring excitations and thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgener, Kai Henning
2014-12-08
This thesis presents experiments on three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultracold fermionic {sup 6}Li gases providing local access to microscopic quantum many-body physics. A broad magnetic Feshbach resonance is used to tune the interparticle interaction strength freely to address the entire crossover between the Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. We map out the critical velocity in the crossover from BEC to BCS superfluidity by moving a small attractive potential through the 3D cloud. We compare the results with theoretical predictions and achieve quantitative understanding in the BEC regime by performing numerical simulations. Of particular interest is the regime of strong correlations, where no theoretical predictions exist. In the BEC regime, the critical velocity should be closely related to the speed of sound, according to the Landau criterion and Bogolyubov theory. We measure the sound velocity by exciting a density wave and tracking its propagation. The focus of this thesis is on our first experiments on general properties of quasi-2D Fermi gases. We realize strong vertical confinement by generating a 1D optical lattice by intersecting two blue-detuned laser beams under a steep angle. The large resulting lattice spacing enables us to prepare a single planar quantum gas deeply in the 2D regime. The first measurements of the speed of sound in quasi-2D gases in the BEC-BCS crossover are presented. In addition, we present preliminary results on the pressure equation of state, which is extracted from in-situ density profiles. Since the sound velocity is directly connected to the equation of state, the results provide a crosscheck of the speed of sound. Moreover, we benchmark the derived sound from available equation of state predictions, find very good agreement with recent numerical calculations, and disprove a sophisticated mean field approach. These studies are carried out with a novel apparatus which has
Integer channels in nonuniform non-equilibrium 2D systems
Shikin, V.
2018-01-01
We discuss the non-equilibrium properties of integer channels in nonuniform 2D electron (hole) systems in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The results are applied to a qualitative explanation of the Corbino disk current-voltage characteristics (IVC) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. Special consideration is paid to the so-called "QHE breakdown" effect, which is readily observed in both the Hall bar and Corbino geometries of the tested cells. The QHE breakdown is especially evident in the Corbino samples, allowing for a more in-depth study of these effects.
Washington State biomass data book
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.
1991-07-01
This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs
Deformable 3D–2D registration for CT and its application to low dose tomographic fluoroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc
2014-01-01
Many applications in medical imaging include image registration for matching of images from the same or different modalities. In the case of full data sampling, the respective reconstructed images are usually of such a good image quality that standard deformable volume-to-volume (3D–3D) registration approaches can be applied. But research in temporal-correlated image reconstruction and dose reductions increases the number of cases where rawdata are available from only few projection angles. Here, deteriorated image quality leads to non-acceptable deformable volume-to-volume registration results. Therefore a registration approach is required that is robust against a decreasing number of projections defining the target position. We propose a deformable volume-to-rawdata (3D–2D) registration method that aims at finding a displacement vector field maximizing the alignment of a CT volume and the acquired rawdata based on the sum of squared differences in rawdata domain. The registration is constrained by a regularization term in accordance with a fluid-based diffusion. Both cost function components, the rawdata fidelity and the regularization term, are optimized in an alternating manner. The matching criterion is optimized by a conjugate gradient descent for nonlinear functions, while the regularization is realized by convolution of the vector fields with Gaussian kernels. We validate the proposed method and compare it to the demons algorithm, a well-known 3D–3D registration method. The comparison is done for a range of 4–60 target projections using datasets from low dose tomographic fluoroscopy as an application example. The results show a high correlation to the ground truth target position without introducing artifacts even in the case of very few projections. In particular the matching in the rawdata domain is improved compared to the 3D–3D registration for the investigated range. The proposed volume-to-rawdata registration increases the robustness
Kozinszky, Zoltan; Surányi, Andrea; Péics, Hajnalka; Molnár, András; Pál, Attila
2015-08-01
The aim of this study was to determine the utility of a new mathematical model in volumetric assessment of the placenta using 2-D ultrasound. Placental volumetry was performed in a prospective cross-sectional survey by virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) with the help of a shell-off method in 346 uncomplicated pregnancies according to STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines. Furthermore, placental thickness, length and height were measured with the 2-D technique to estimate placental volume based on the mathematical formula for the volume of "the shell of the spherical sector." Fetal size was also assessed by 2-D sonography. The placental volumes measured by 2-D and 3-D techniques had a correlation of 0.86. In the first trimester, the correlation was 0.82, and later during pregnancy, it was 0.86. Placental volumetry using "the circle-shaped shell of the spherical sector" mathematical model with 2-D ultrasound technique may be introduced into everyday practice to screen for placental volume deviations associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2D arc-PIC code description: methods and documentation
Timko, Helga
2011-01-01
Vacuum discharges are one of the main limiting factors for future linear collider designs such as that of the Compact LInear Collider. To optimize machine efficiency, maintaining the highest feasible accelerating gradient below a certain breakdown rate is desirable; understanding breakdowns can therefore help us to achieve this goal. As a part of ongoing theoretical research on vacuum discharges at the Helsinki Institute of Physics, the build-up of plasma can be investigated through the particle-in-cell method. For this purpose, we have developed the 2D Arc-PIC code introduced here. We present an exhaustive description of the 2D Arc-PIC code in two parts. In the first part, we introduce the particle-in-cell method in general and detail the techniques used in the code. In the second part, we provide a documentation and derivation of the key equations occurring in the code. The code is original work of the author, written in 2010, and is therefore under the copyright of the author. The development of the code h...
2-D Fractal Carpet Antenna Design and Performance
Barton, C. C.; Tebbens, S. F.; Ewing, J. J.; Peterman, D. J.; Rizki, M. M.
2017-12-01
A 2-D fractal carpet antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its perimeter by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation within its perimeter-bounded surface area. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (infinite iterations) have an infinite perimeter bounding a finite surface area. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling and lacunarity which quantifies the size and spatial distribution of open space bounded by a fractal shape. A key aspect of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that are very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna operates at higher and higher frequencies. Manifestly different from traditional antenna designs, a fractal antenna can operate at multiple frequencies simultaneously. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of Sierpinski carpet fractal antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, number of iterations, and lacunarities have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance
2-D Fractal Wire Antenna Design and Performance
Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Peterman, D. J.; Ewing, J. J.; Abbott, C. S.; Rizki, M. M.
2017-12-01
A 2-D fractal wire antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its length by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (of infinite iterations) have an infinite length. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling. A fundamental property of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that can be very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna tends to have additional frequencies that minimize far field return loss. This differs from traditional antenna designs in that a single fractal antenna can operate well at multiple frequencies. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of fractal wire antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, and number of iterations have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance.
The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nink, Andreas; Reuter, Martin [Institute of Physics, PRISMA & MITP, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)
2016-02-25
Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in d>2 dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge c=25. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a complete quenching of the a priori expected Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ) scaling. A possible connection of this prediction to Monte Carlo results obtained in the discrete approach to 2D quantum gravity based upon causal dynamical triangulations is mentioned. Similarities of the fixed point theory to, and differences from, non-critical string theory are also described. On the technical side, we provide a detailed analysis of an intriguing connection between the Einstein-Hilbert action in d>2 dimensions and Polyakov’s induced gravity action in two dimensions.
Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.
Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L
2016-01-01
In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.
Syndrome identification based on 2D analysis software.
Boehringer, Stefan; Vollmar, Tobias; Tasse, Christiane; Wurtz, Rolf P; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar
2006-10-01
Clinical evaluation of children with developmental delay continues to present a challenge to the clinicians. In many cases, the face provides important information to diagnose a condition. However, database support with respect to facial traits is limited at present. Computer-based analyses of 2D and 3D representations of faces have been developed, but it is unclear how well a larger number of conditions can be handled by such systems. We have therefore analysed 2D pictures of patients each being affected with one of 10 syndromes (fragile X syndrome; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; Williams-Beuren syndrome; Prader-Willi syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type III; Cri-du-chat syndrome; Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome; Sotos syndrome; Microdeletion 22q11.2; Noonan syndrome). We can show that a classification accuracy of >75% can be achieved for a computer-based diagnosis among the 10 syndromes, which is about the same accuracy achieved for five syndromes in a previous study. Pairwise discrimination of syndromes ranges from 80 to 99%. Furthermore, we can demonstrate that the criteria used by the computer decisions match clinical observations in many cases. These findings indicate that computer-based picture analysis might be a helpful addition to existing database systems, which are meant to assist in syndrome diagnosis, especially as data acquisition is straightforward and involves off-the-shelf digital camera equipment.
Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains
Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.
2017-09-01
The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.
Predicting non-square 2D dice probabilities
Pender, G. A. T.; Uhrin, M.
2014-07-01
The prediction of the final state probabilities of a general cuboid randomly thrown onto a surface is a problem that naturally arises in the minds of men and women familiar with regular cubic dice and the basic concepts of probability. Indeed, it was considered by Newton in 1664 (Newton 1967 The Mathematical Papers of Issac Newton vol I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 60-1). In this paper we make progress on the 2D problem (which can be realized in 3D by considering a long cuboid, or alternatively a rectangular cross-sectioned dreidel). For the two-dimensional case we suggest that the ratio of the probabilities of landing on each of the two sides is given by \\frac{\\sqrt{{{k}^{2}}+{{l}^{2}}}-k}{\\sqrt{{{k}^{2}}+{{l}^{2}}}-l}\\frac{arctan \\frac{l}{k}}{arctan \\frac{k}{l}} where k and l are the lengths of the two sides. We test this theory both experimentally and computationally, and find good agreement between our theory, experimental and computational results. Our theory is known, from its derivation, to be an approximation for particularly bouncy or ‘grippy’ surfaces where the die rolls through many revolutions before settling. On real surfaces we would expect (and we observe) that the true probability ratio for a 2D die is a somewhat closer to unity than predicted by our theory. This problem may also have wider relevance in the testing of physics engines.
Joint Secrecy for D2D Communications Underlying Cellular Networks
Hyadi, Amal
2018-01-15
In this work, we investigate the ergodic secrecy rate region of a block-fading spectrum-sharing system, where a D2D communication is underlying a cellular channel. We consider that both the primary and the secondary transmissions require their respective transmitted messages to be kept secret from a common eavesdropper under a joint secrecy constraint. The presented results are for three different scenarios, each corresponding to a particular requirement of the cellular system. First, we consider the case of a fair cellular system, and we show that the impact of jointly securing the transmissions can be balanced between the primary and the secondary systems. The second scenario examines the case when the primary network is demanding and requires the secondary transmission to be at a rate that is decodable by the primary receiver, while the last scenario assumes a joint transmission of artificial noise by the primary and the secondary transmitters. For each scenario, we present an achievable ergodic secrecy rate region that can be used as an indicator for the cellular and the D2D systems to agree under which terms the spectrum will be shared.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006. The......-shaped access platforms on piles. The Model tests include mainly regular waves and a few irregular wave tests. These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. November, 2006 to 17. November, 2006.......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. The starting point for the present report is the previously carried out run-up tests described in Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006....... The objective of the tests was to investigate the impact pressures generated on a horizontal platform and a cone platform for selected sea states calibrated by Lykke Andersen & Frigaard, 2006. The measurements should be used for assessment of slamming coefficients for the design of horizontal and cone...
New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasell, Douglas K.
2011-01-01
Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to ∼50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.
DNN-state identification of 2D distributed parameter systems
Chairez, I.; Fuentes, R.; Poznyak, A.; Poznyak, T.; Escudero, M.; Viana, L.
2012-02-01
There are many examples in science and engineering which are reduced to a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) through a process of mathematical modelling. Nevertheless there exist many sources of uncertainties around the aforementioned mathematical representation. Moreover, to find exact solutions of those PDEs is not a trivial task especially if the PDE is described in two or more dimensions. It is well known that neural networks can approximate a large set of continuous functions defined on a compact set to an arbitrary accuracy. In this article, a strategy based on the differential neural network (DNN) for the non-parametric identification of a mathematical model described by a class of two-dimensional (2D) PDEs is proposed. The adaptive laws for weights ensure the 'practical stability' of the DNN-trajectories to the parabolic 2D-PDE states. To verify the qualitative behaviour of the suggested methodology, here a non-parametric modelling problem for a distributed parameter plant is analysed.
The Usage of 2D Codes in Marketing Practices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toni Podmanicki
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Barcodes, which are used for the labelling and identification of products, have been used as the foundation for the development of new symbols, two-dimensional barcodes (usually called 2D codes. These codes are capable of receiving large amounts of data in a small area, and data stored in them can be read by means of mobile devices. They usually contain information such as web addresses, text, contacts and similar data that encourage users to interact in order to obtain the desired information, entertainment, discount, reservation, and even do their shopping. The possibility of connecting the physical and digital world by means of 2D codes has led marketing professionals to face new challenges in the development of strategies in mobile marketing. Many companies recognized the potential of the above technology very early, in its initial phase, and they use it now in their activities. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of knowing this technology and its advantages by providing examples in marketing practices.
Soft tubular microfluidics for 2D and 3D applications
Xi, Wang; Kong, Fang; Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Longteng; Sonam, Surabhi; Dao, Ming; Gong, Xiaobo; Teck Lim, Chwee
2017-10-01
Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps. In addition, we demonstrate how microtubes with channels of various lengths and cross-sections can be attached modularly into 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for functional applications. We introduce a facile method of fabricating elastomeric microtubes as the basic building blocks for microfluidic devices. These microtubes are transparent, biocompatible, highly deformable, and customizable to various sizes and cross-sectional geometries. By configuring the microtubes into deterministic geometry, we enable rapid, low-cost formation of microfluidic assemblies without compromising their precision and functionality. We demonstrate configurable 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for applications in different domains. These include microparticle sorting, microdroplet generation, biocatalytic micromotor, triboelectric sensor, and even wearable sensing. Our approach, termed soft tubular microfluidics, provides a simple, cheaper, and faster solution for users lacking proficiency and access to cleanroom facilities to design and rapidly construct microfluidic devices for their various applications and needs.
Magnetic gating of a 2D topological insulator
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2016-09-01
Deterministic control of transport properties through manipulation of spin states is one of the paradigms of spintronics. Topological insulators offer a new playground for exploring interesting spin-dependent phenomena. Here, we consider a ferromagnetic ‘gate’ representing a magnetic adatom coupled to the topologically protected edge state of a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator to modulate the electron transmission of the edge state. Due to the locked spin and wave vector of the transport electrons the transmission across the magnetic gate depends on the mutual orientation of the adatom magnetic moment and the current. If the Fermi energy matches an exchange-split bound state of the adatom, the electron transmission can be blocked due to the full back scattering of the incident wave. This antiresonance behavior is controlled by the adatom magnetic moment orientation so that the transmission of the edge state can be changed from 1 to 0. Expanding this consideration to a ferromagnetic gate representing a 1D chain of atoms shows a possibility to control the spin-dependent current of a strip of a 2D topological insulator by magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic gate.
On the resolving power of 2-D interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padula, Sandra S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
1996-12-31
A resonance gas model previously proposed is here briefly reviewed in order to illustrate some of the geometrical and dynamical effects that could distort the behavior of the two pion correlation function. The main of these effects - the resonance decaying into pions - has earlier been conceived as a possible means to probe resonance abundances at different energy ranges. However, reinforcing previous studies, we show here that the conventional 1-D projection of the correlation function does not allow for clear conclusions. Instead, we propose to use the 2-D projection associated to a 2-D {sub X}{sup 2} analysis, which substantially enhances the resolving power of interferometry to differentiate decoupling geometries of distinct dynamical models. This result is achieved by studying the variation of the mean {sub X}{sup 2} per degrees of freedom with respect to the range of the analysis in the ({sub qT}, {sub qL}) plane. The preliminary E802 data on Si + Au at 14.6 A GeV/c, used here for illustrating the method, seem to rule out dynamical models with high {omega}, {eta} resonance formation yields. (author) 24 refs., 5 figs.
On the resolving power of 2-D interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padula, Sandra S.
1996-01-01
A resonance gas model previously proposed is here briefly reviewed in order to illustrate some of the geometrical and dynamical effects that could distort the behavior of the two pion correlation function. The main of these effects - the resonance decaying into pions - has earlier been conceived as a possible means to probe resonance abundances at different energy ranges. However, reinforcing previous studies, we show here that the conventional 1-D projection of the correlation function does not allow for clear conclusions. Instead, we propose to use the 2-D projection associated to a 2-D X 2 analysis, which substantially enhances the resolving power of interferometry to differentiate decoupling geometries of distinct dynamical models. This result is achieved by studying the variation of the mean X 2 per degrees of freedom with respect to the range of the analysis in the ( qT , qL ) plane. The preliminary E802 data on Si + Au at 14.6 A GeV/c, used here for illustrating the method, seem to rule out dynamical models with high ω, η resonance formation yields. (author)
2D mesoscale colloidal crystal patterns on polymer substrates
Bredikhin, Vladimir; Bityurin, Nikita
2018-05-01
The development of nanosphere lithography relies on the ability of depositing 2D colloidal crystals comprising micro- and nano-size elements on substrates of different materials. One of the most difficult problems here is deposition of coatings on hydrophobic substrates, e.g. polymers, from aqueous colloidal solutions. We use UV photooxidation for substrate hydrophilization. We demonstrate a new method of producing a two-dimensional ordered array of polymer microparticles (polystyrene microspheres ∼1 μm in diameter) on a polymer substrate (PMMA). We show that implementation of the new deposition technique for directed self-assembly of microspheres on an UV irradiated surface provides an opportunity to obtain coatings on a hydrophilized PMMA surface of large area (∼5 cm2). UV irradiation of the surface through masks allows creating 2D patterns consisting of mesoscale elements formed by the deposited self-assembled microparticles owing to the fact that the colloidal particles are deposited only on the irradiated area leaving the non-irradiated sections intact.
2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan; Alper, Mursel
2017-01-01
The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co"2"+ in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M_p(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co"2"+ in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A_0 and A_2_n) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A_0 and an obvious decrease in A_2_n (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.
Electrically tunable polarizer based on 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials
Shen, Xin-Wei; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang
2018-03-01
The concept of ferrovalley materials has been proposed very recently. The existence of spontaneous valley polarization, resulting from ferromagnetism, in such hexagonal 2D materials makes nonvolatile valleytronic applications realizable. Here, we introduce a new member of ferrovalley family with orthorhombic lattice, i.e. monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GIVMs), in which the intrinsic valley polarization originates from ferroelectricity, instead of ferromagnetism. Combining the group theory analysis and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that, different from the valley-selective circular dichroism in hexagonal lattice, linearly polarized optical selectivity for valleys exists in the new type of ferrovalley materials. On account of the distinctive property, a prototype of electrically tunable polarizer is realized. In the ferrovalley-based polarizer, a laser beam can be optionally polarized in x- or y-direction, depending on the ferrovalley state controlled by external electric fields. Such a device can be further optimized to emit circularly polarized radiation with specific chirality and to realize the tunability for operating wavelength. Therefore, we show that 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials are the promising candidates to provide an advantageous platform to realize the polarizer driven by electric means, which is of great importance in extending the practical applications of valleytronics.
Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eppley, K.R.
1993-03-01
In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field ( port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.
Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eppley, K.R.
1993-03-01
In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT`S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (``port approximation``). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.
Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eppley, K.R.
1993-03-01
In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (''port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation
2D CFT partition functions at late times
Dyer, Ethan; Gur-Ari, Guy
2017-08-01
We consider the late time behavior of the analytically continued partition function Z( β + it) Z( β - it) in holographic 2 d CFTs. This is a probe of information loss in such theories and in their holographic duals. We show that each Virasoro character decays in time, and so information is not restored at the level of individual characters. We identify a universal decaying contribution at late times, and conjecture that it describes the behavior of generic chaotic 2 d CFTs out to times that are exponentially large in the central charge. It was recently suggested that at sufficiently late times one expects a crossover to random matrix behavior. We estimate an upper bound on the crossover time, which suggests that the decay is followed by a parametrically long period of late time growth. Finally, we discuss gravitationally-motivated integrable theories and show how information is restored at late times by a series of characters. This hints at a possible bulk mechanism, where information is restored by an infinite sum over non-perturbative saddles.
A 2d Block Model For Landslide Simulation: An Application To The 1963 Vajont Case
Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Manucci, A.; Bortolucci, E.
A 2D block model to study the motion of a sliding mass is presented. The slide is par- titioned into a matrix of blocks the basis of which are quadrilaterals. The blocks move on a specified sliding surface and follow a trajectory that is computed by the model. The forces acting on the blocks are gravity, basal friction, buoyancy in case of under- water motion, and interaction with neighbouring blocks. At any time step, the position of the blocks on the sliding surface is determined in curvilinear (local) co-ordinates by computing the position of the vertices of the quadrilaterals and the position of the block centre of mass. Mathematically, the topology of the system is invariant during the motion, which means that the number of blocks is constant and that each block has always the same neighbours. Physically, this means that blocks are allowed to change form, but not to penetrate into each other, not to coalesce, not to split. The change of form is compensated by the change of height, under the computational assumption that the block volume is constant during motion: consequently lateral expansion or contraction yield respectively height reduction or increment of the blocks. This model is superior to the analogous 1D model where the mass is partitioned into a chain of interacting blocks. 1D models require the a-priori specification of the sliding path, that is of the trajectory of the blocks, which the 2D block model supplies as one of its output. In continuation of previous studies on the catastrophic slide of Vajont that occurred in 1963 in northern Italy and caused more than 2000 victims, the 2D block model has been applied to the Vajont case. The results are compared to the outcome of the 1D model, and more importantly to the observational data concerning the deposit position and morphology. The agreement between simulation and data is found to be quite good.
GPU accelerated generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs for 2-D/3-D image registration.
Dorgham, Osama M; Laycock, Stephen D; Fisher, Mark H
2012-09-01
Recent advances in programming languages for graphics processing units (GPUs) provide developers with a convenient way of implementing applications which can be executed on the CPU and GPU interchangeably. GPUs are becoming relatively cheap, powerful, and widely available hardware components, which can be used to perform intensive calculations. The last decade of hardware performance developments shows that GPU-based computation is progressing significantly faster than CPU-based computation, particularly if one considers the execution of highly parallelisable algorithms. Future predictions illustrate that this trend is likely to continue. In this paper, we introduce a way of accelerating 2-D/3-D image registration by developing a hybrid system which executes on the CPU and utilizes the GPU for parallelizing the generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Based on the advancements of the GPU over the CPU, it is timely to exploit the benefits of many-core GPU technology by developing algorithms for DRR generation. Although some previous work has investigated the rendering of DRRs using the GPU, this paper investigates approximations which reduce the computational overhead while still maintaining a quality consistent with that needed for 2-D/3-D registration with sufficient accuracy to be clinically acceptable in certain applications of radiation oncology. Furthermore, by comparing implementations of 2-D/3-D registration on the CPU and GPU, we investigate current performance and propose an optimal framework for PC implementations addressing the rigid registration problem. Using this framework, we are able to render DRR images from a 256×256×133 CT volume in ~24 ms using an NVidia GeForce 8800 GTX and in ~2 ms using NVidia GeForce GTX 580. In addition to applications requiring fast automatic patient setup, these levels of performance suggest image-guided radiation therapy at video frame rates is technically feasible using relatively low cost PC
Differences in 3D vs. 2D analysis in lumbar spinal fusion simulations.
Hsu, Hung-Wei; Bashkuev, Maxim; Pumberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Hendrik
2018-04-27
Lumbar interbody fusion is currently the gold standard in treating patients with disc degeneration or segmental instability. Despite it having been used for several decades, the non-union rate remains high. A failed fusion is frequently attributed to an inadequate mechanical environment after instrumentation. Finite element (FE) models can provide insights into the mechanics of the fusion process. Previous fusion simulations using FE models showed that the geometries and material of the cage can greatly influence the fusion outcome. However, these studies used axisymmetric models which lacked realistic spinal geometries. Therefore, different modeling approaches were evaluated to understand the bone-formation process. Three FE models of the lumbar motion segment (L4-L5) were developed: 2D, Sym-3D and Nonsym-3D. The fusion process based on existing mechano-regulation algorithms using the FE simulations to evaluate the mechanical environment was then integrated into these models. In addition, the influence of different lordotic angles (5, 10 and 15°) was investigated. The volume of newly formed bone, the axial stiffness of the whole segment and bone distribution inside and surrounding the cage were evaluated. In contrast to the Nonsym-3D, the 2D and Sym-3D models predicted excessive bone formation prior to bridging (peak values with 36 and 9% higher than in equilibrium, respectively). The 3D models predicted a more uniform bone distribution compared to the 2D model. The current results demonstrate the crucial role of the realistic 3D geometry of the lumbar motion segment in predicting bone formation after lumbar spinal fusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henneman, Maureen M.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Holman, Eduard R.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Jukema, J.W.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Stokkel, Marcel P.M.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Roos, Albert de
2006-01-01
Global and regional left ventricular (LV) function are important indicators of the cardiac status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Therapy and prognosis are to a large extent dependent on LV function. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has already earned its place as an imaging modality for non-invasive assessment of the coronary arteries, but since retrospective gating to the patient's ECG is performed, information on LV function can be derived. In 49 patients with known or suspected CAD, coronary angiography with MSCT imaging was performed, in addition to gated SPECT and 2D echocardiography. LV end-diastolic and LV end-systolic volumes and LV ejection fraction were analysed with dedicated software (CMR Analytical Software System, Medis, Leiden, The Netherlands for MSCT; gated SPECT by QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA), and by the biplane Simpson's rule for 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated according to a 17-segment model and a three-point score system. Correlations were fairly good between gated SPECT and MSCT (LVEDV: r=0.65; LVESV: r=0.63; LVEF: r=0.60), and excellent between 2D echocardiography and MSCT (LVEDV: r=0.92; LVESV: r=0.93; LVEF: r=0.80). Agreement for regional wall motion was 95% (κ=0.66) between gated SPECT and MSCT, and 96% (κ=0.73) between 2D echocardiography and MSCT. Global and regional LV function and LV volumes can be adequately assessed with MSCT. Correlations with 2D echocardiography are stronger than with gated SPECT. (orig.)
Monitoring tumor motion by real time 2D/3D registration during radiotherapy.
Gendrin, Christelle; Furtado, Hugo; Weber, Christoph; Bloch, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Bergmann, Helmar; Stock, Markus; Fichtinger, Gabor; Georg, Dietmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang
2012-02-01
In this paper, we investigate the possibility to use X-ray based real time 2D/3D registration for non-invasive tumor motion monitoring during radiotherapy. The 2D/3D registration scheme is implemented using general purpose computation on graphics hardware (GPGPU) programming techniques and several algorithmic refinements in the registration process. Validation is conducted off-line using a phantom and five clinical patient data sets. The registration is performed on a region of interest (ROI) centered around the planned target volume (PTV). The phantom motion is measured with an rms error of 2.56 mm. For the patient data sets, a sinusoidal movement that clearly correlates to the breathing cycle is shown. Videos show a good match between X-ray and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) displacement. Mean registration time is 0.5 s. We have demonstrated that real-time organ motion monitoring using image based markerless registration is feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stochastic analysis of 1D and 2D surface topography of x-ray mirrors
Tyurina, Anastasia Y.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.
2017-08-01
The design and evaluation of the expected performance of new optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography for planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially complex in the case of x-ray optics, particularly for the X-ray Surveyor under development and other missions. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics with unprecedented quality (surface slope accuracy quality optics. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors makes the fabrication extremely time consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We discuss improvements in metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical analysis of a compact volume of metrology data. The data is considered stochastic and a new statistical model called Invertible Time Invariant Linear Filter (InTILF) is developed now for 2D surface profiles to provide compact description of the 2D data additionally to 1D data treated so far. The model captures faint patterns in the data and serves as a quality metric and feedback to polishing processes, avoiding high resolution metrology measurements over the entire optical surface. The modeling, implemented in our Beatmark software, allows simulating metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data is vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, to be exactly adequate for the required system performance.
Image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing
Zhou, Nanrun; Pan, Shumin; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Zhihong
2016-08-01
Most image encryption algorithms based on low-dimensional chaos systems bear security risks and suffer encryption data expansion when adopting nonlinear transformation directly. To overcome these weaknesses and reduce the possible transmission burden, an efficient image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing is proposed. The original image is measured by the measurement matrices in two directions to achieve compression and encryption simultaneously, and then the resulting image is re-encrypted by the cycle shift operation controlled by a hyper-chaotic system. Cycle shift operation can change the values of the pixels efficiently. The proposed cryptosystem decreases the volume of data to be transmitted and simplifies the keys distribution simultaneously as a nonlinear encryption system. Simulation results verify the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm with acceptable compression and security performance.
RiverFlow2D numerical simulation of flood mitigation solutions in the Ebro River
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Echeverribar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A study of measures oriented to flood mitigation in the mid reach of the Ebro river is presented: elimination of vegetation in the riverbed, use of controlled flooding areas and construction or re-adaptation of levees. The software used is RiverFlow2D which solves the conservative free-surface flow equations with a finite volume method running on GPU. The results are compared with measurements at gauge stations and aerial views. The most effective measure has turned out to be the elimination of vegetation in the riverbed. It is demonstrated that not only the maximum flooded area is narrower but also it reduces the water depth up to 1 m. The other measures have local consequences when the peak discharge is relatively high although they could be useful in case the discharge is lower.
Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian
2013-01-01
This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3...... dopamine receptor antagonist [(11)C]raclopride at varying specific activities to anesthetized nonhuman primates, we mapped associations between changes in receptor occupancy and hemodynamics [cerebral blood volume (CBV)] in the domains of space, time, and dose. Mass doses of raclopride above tracer levels...... caused increases in CBV and reductions in binding potential that were localized to the dopamine-rich striatum. Moreover, similar temporal profiles were observed for specific binding estimates and changes in CBV. Injection of graded raclopride mass doses revealed a monotonic coupling between neurovascular...
A software tool for automatic classification and segmentation of 2D/3D medical images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strzelecki, Michal; Szczypinski, Piotr; Materka, Andrzej; Klepaczko, Artur
2013-01-01
Modern medical diagnosis utilizes techniques of visualization of human internal organs (CT, MRI) or of its metabolism (PET). However, evaluation of acquired images made by human experts is usually subjective and qualitative only. Quantitative analysis of MR data, including tissue classification and segmentation, is necessary to perform e.g. attenuation compensation, motion detection, and correction of partial volume effect in PET images, acquired with PET/MR scanners. This article presents briefly a MaZda software package, which supports 2D and 3D medical image analysis aiming at quantification of image texture. MaZda implements procedures for evaluation, selection and extraction of highly discriminative texture attributes combined with various classification, visualization and segmentation tools. Examples of MaZda application in medical studies are also provided
A software tool for automatic classification and segmentation of 2D/3D medical images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strzelecki, Michal, E-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl [Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 211/215, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szczypinski, Piotr; Materka, Andrzej; Klepaczko, Artur [Institute of Electronics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 211/215, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)
2013-02-21
Modern medical diagnosis utilizes techniques of visualization of human internal organs (CT, MRI) or of its metabolism (PET). However, evaluation of acquired images made by human experts is usually subjective and qualitative only. Quantitative analysis of MR data, including tissue classification and segmentation, is necessary to perform e.g. attenuation compensation, motion detection, and correction of partial volume effect in PET images, acquired with PET/MR scanners. This article presents briefly a MaZda software package, which supports 2D and 3D medical image analysis aiming at quantification of image texture. MaZda implements procedures for evaluation, selection and extraction of highly discriminative texture attributes combined with various classification, visualization and segmentation tools. Examples of MaZda application in medical studies are also provided.
Space-Time Foam in 2D and the Sum Over Topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loll, R.; Westra, W.
2003-01-01
It is well-known that the sum over topologies in quantum gravity is ill-defined, due to a super-exponential growth of the number of geometries as a function of the space-time volume, leading to a badly divergent gravitational path integral. Not even in dimension 2, where a non-perturbative quantum gravity theory can be constructed explicitly from a (regularized) path integral, has this problem found a satisfactory solution. In the present work, we extend a previous 2d Lorentzian path integral, regulated in terms of Lorentzian random triangulations, to include space-times with an arbitrary number of handles. We show that after the imposition of physically motivated causality constraints, the combined sum over geometries and topologies is well-defined and possesses a continuum limit which yields a concrete model of space-time foam in two dimensions. (author)
Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns
Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2017-04-01
In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.
Neutron diffraction study of the β1-β2 transformation in Ta2D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, H.; Kajitani, T.; Hirabayashi, M.
1984-01-01
The β 1 -β 2 phase transformation in Ta 2 D was studied by neutron diffraction using the pulsed source at the Tohoku Linac and the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National Laboratory. It was found that the hhO reflections almost disappear in the β 2 phase, whereas the 00l reflections are the same as those in the β 1 phase. The diffraction data show that the β 2 phase has an orthorhombic unit cell which is identical with that of the β 1 phase and contains four tantalum and two deuterium atoms in a volume which is approximately 2sup(1/2) X 1 X 2sup(1/2) that of the b.c.c. host lattice. The deuterium atoms fractionally occupy the tetrahedral sites in alternate (002)sub(orth) planes. (Auth.)
On choosing a nonlinear initial iterate for solving the 2-D 3-T heat conduction equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An Hengbin; Mo Zeyao; Xu Xiaowen; Liu Xu
2009-01-01
The 2-D 3-T heat conduction equations can be used to approximately describe the energy broadcast in materials and the energy swapping between electron and photon or ion. To solve the equations, a fully implicit finite volume scheme is often used as the discretization method. Because the energy diffusion and swapping coefficients have a strongly nonlinear dependence on the temperature, and some physical parameters are discontinuous across the interfaces between the materials, it is a challenge to solve the discretized nonlinear algebraic equations. Particularly, as time advances, the temperature varies so greatly in the front of energy that it is difficult to choose an effective initial iterate when the nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by an iterative method. In this paper, a method of choosing a nonlinear initial iterate is proposed for iterative solving this kind of nonlinear algebraic equations. Numerical results show the proposed initial iterate can improve the computational efficiency, and also the convergence behavior of the nonlinear iteration.
Optimized designs for 2D and 3D thermoelastic structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2011-01-01
. This is proved for thermoelastic structures by compliance sensitivity analysis that return localized determination of sensitivities.The compliance is not identical to the total elastic energy (twice strain energy). An explicit formula for the difference is derived and numerically illustrated with examples....... In compliance minimization it may be advantageous to decrease the total volume, but for strength maximization it is argued to keep the total permissible volume. For direct strength maximization the sensitivity analysis of local von Mises stresses is demanding. A simple recursive procedure to obtain uniform...
The Role of screening in the strongly correlated 2D systems
Hwang, E H
2003-01-01
We investigate recently observed experiments in the strongly correlated 2D systems (r sub s >> 1) (low-density 2D plasmons, metallic behaviour of 2D systems and frictional drag resistivity between two 2D hole layers). We compare them with our theoretical results calculated within a conventional Fermi liquid theory with RPA screening.
Cutting an NKG2D Ligand Short: Cellular Processing of the Peculiar Human NKG2D Ligand ULBP4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Zöller
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Stress-induced cell surface expression of MHC class I-related glycoproteins of the MIC and ULBP families allows for immune recognition of dangerous “self cells” by human cytotoxic lymphocytes via the NKG2D receptor. With two MIC molecules (MICA and MICB and six ULBP molecules (ULBP1–6, there are a total of eight human NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL. Since the discovery of the NKG2D–NKG2DL system, the cause for both redundancy and diversity of NKG2DL has been a major and ongoing matter of debate. NKG2DL diversity has been attributed, among others, to the selective pressure by viral immunoevasins, to diverse regulation of expression, to differential tissue expression as well as to variations in receptor interactions. Here, we critically review the current state of knowledge on the poorly studied human NKG2DL ULBP4. Summarizing available facts and previous studies, we picture ULBP4 as a peculiar ULBP family member distinct from other ULBP family members by various aspects. In addition, we provide novel experimental evidence suggesting that cellular processing gives rise to mature ULBP4 glycoproteins different to previous reports. Finally, we report on the proteolytic release of soluble ULBP4 and discuss these results in the light of known mechanisms for generation of soluble NKG2DL.
Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.
Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing
2016-06-28
Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface.
Pfeifer, Philippe; Tüscher, Oliver; Buchholz, Hans Georg; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo; Paulzen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Maus, Stephan; Lieb, Klaus; Eggermann, Thomas; Fehr, Christoph; Schreckenberger, Mathias
2017-09-01
Investigations on the acute effects of alcohol in the human mesolimbic dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor system have yielded conflicting results. With respect to the effects of alcohol on extrastriatal D 2 /D 3 dopamine receptors no investigations have been reported yet. Therefore we applied PET imaging using the postsynaptic dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor ligand [ 18 F]fallypride addressing the question, whether intravenously applied alcohol stimulates the extrastriatal and striatal dopamine system. We measured subjective effects of alcohol and made correlation analyses with the striatal and extrastriatal D 2 /D 3 binding potential. Twenty-four healthy male μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1)118G allele carriers underwent a standardized intravenous and placebo alcohol administration. The subjective effects of alcohol were measured with a visual analogue scale. For the evaluation of the dopamine response we calculated the binding potential (BP ND ) by using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). In addition, we calculated distribution volumes (target and reference regions) in 10 subjects for which metabolite corrected arterial samples were available. In the alcohol condition no significant dopamine response in terms of a reduction of BP ND was observed in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. We found a positive correlation for 'liking' alcohol and the BP ND in extrastriatal brain regions (Inferior frontal cortex (IFC) (r = 0.533, p = 0.007), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (r = 0.416, p = 0.043) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r = 0.625, p = 0.001)). The acute alcohol effects on the D 2 /D 3 dopamine receptor binding potential of the striatal and extrastriatal system in our experiment were insignificant. A positive correlation of the subjective effect of 'liking' alcohol with cortical D 2 /D 3 receptors may hint at an addiction relevant trait. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shcherbakov, A.A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A.V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.
2017-01-01
The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality. - Highlights: • High quality silica microsphere monolayer was fabricated. • Accurate measurements of diffraction efficiency angular dependencies. • Rigorous diffraction simulation of both ideal hexagonal and realistic microsphere arrangements. • Qualitative rationalization of the obtained results and the observed differences between the experiment and the theory.
Persistent spin helices in 2D electron systems
Kozulin, A. S.; Malyshev, A. I.; Konakov, A. A.
2017-03-01
We present a theoretical investigation of persistent spin helices in two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit coupling. For this purpose, we consider a single-particle effective mass Hamiltonian with a generalized linear-in- k spin-orbit coupling term corresponding to a quantum well grown in an arbitrary crystallographic direction, and derive the general condition for the formation of the persistent spin helix. This condition applied for the Hamiltonians describing quantum wells with different growth directions indicates the possibility of existence of the persistent spin helix in a wide class of 2D systems apart from the [001] model with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling strengths and the [110] Dresselhaus model.
2D supergravity and its connection to integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaudov, L.N.; Prodanov, E.M.; Rashkov, R.C.
1993-05-01
In the recent work two different approaches for obtaining the covariant W 2 -action of 2-d quantum supergravity are considered. The first one is based on Hamiltonian reduction of flat Osp(2/1) connection in holomorphic polarization. Adding extra degrees of freedom with the help of gauging procedure the W 2 -action and the superconformal identities are obtained. It is shown that the super Virasoro transformations preserve the form of the Lax connection and therefore are symmetries of the sKdV equations. In the second approach starting with Chern-Simons theory and using non-canonical polarization the zero-curvature condition entails the same results. (author). 7 refs
2D quantum gravity at three loops: A counterterm investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lætitia Leduc
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We analyze the divergences of the three-loop partition function at fixed area in 2D quantum gravity. Considering the Liouville action in the Kähler formalism, we extract the coefficient of the leading divergence ∼AΛ2(lnAΛ22. This coefficient is non-vanishing. We discuss the counterterms one can and must add and compute their precise contribution to the partition function. This allows us to conclude that every local and non-local divergence in the partition function can be balanced by local counterterms, with the only exception of the maximally non-local divergence (lnAΛ23. Yet, this latter is computed and does cancel between the different three-loop diagrams. Thus, requiring locality of the counterterms is enough to renormalize the partition function. Finally, the structure of the new counterterms strongly suggests that they can be understood as a renormalization of the measure action.
Electronic Properties of Curved and Defective 2-D BN Nanostructures
Beach, Kory; Terrones, Humberto; Raeliarijaona, Aldo; Siegel, Ross; Florio, Fred
Density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA) pseudopotentials is used to calculate the band structure and density of states of various novel 2-D BN nanostructures. Three types of systems are studied: Schwarzites, a Haeckelite, and an h-BN monolayer. Schwarzites are negatively curved structures in which the curvature is due to the introduction of octagonal rings of alternating boron and nitrogen atoms. In particular, three families of Schwarzites are analyzed: P, G and IWP. The Haeckelites on the other hand, are flat layers composed of squares and octagons of BN. It is found that all these BN allotropes are metastable in which the band gap is direct and smaller than the most stable system, h-BN. National Science Foundation (EFRI-1433311).
Solution structure of d-GAATTCGAATTC by 2D NMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosur, R.V.; Ravikumar, M.; Chary, K.V.R.; Sheth, A.; Govil, G.
1986-01-01
A new approach based on the correlated spectroscopy (COSY) in 2D NMR has been described for determination of sugar geometries in oligonucleotides. Under the usual low resolution conditions employed in COSY, the intensities of cross peaks depend on the magnitudes of coupling constants. There are five vicinal coupling constants in a deoxyribose ring which are sensitive to the sugar geometry. The presence, absence and rough comparison of relative intensities of COSY cross peaks arising from such coupling constants enable one to fix the sugar conformation to a fair degree of precision. The methodology has been applied to d-GAATTCGAATTC. It is observed that ten out of the twelve nucleotide units in this sequence exhibit a rare O1'-endo geometry. The EcoRI cleavage sites in the dodecanucleotide show an interesting variation in the conformation with the two sugars attached to the Gs acquiring a geometry between C2'-endo and C4'-endo. (Auth.)
Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI
Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.
2013-01-01
Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669
A reusable OSL-film for 2D radiotherapy dosimetry
Wouter, Crijns; Dirk, Vandenbroucke; Paul, Leblans; Tom, Depuydt
2017-11-01
Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N.V. produced a new experimental OSL-film for RT dosimetry. This film had a lower effective atomic number compared to the films used in radiology. Typical 2D dosimeter requirements such as uniformity, dose response, signal stability with time, and angular dependence were evaluated. Additionally, the impact of a possible residual energy dependence was assessed for the infield as well as the out-of-field region of both static beams and standard intensity modulated patterns (chair and pyramid). The OSL-film’s reusable nature allowed for a film specific absolute and linear calibration including a flood-field uniformity correction. The OSL-film was scanned with a CR-15X engine based reader using a strict timing (i.e. 4 min after ‘beam on’ or as soon as possible) to account for spontaneous recombination. The OSL-film had good basic response properties: non-uniformities ⩽2.6%, a linear dose response (0-32 Gy), a linear signal decay (0.5% min-1) over the 20 min measured, and limited angular dependence ⩽2.6%. Due to variations of the energy spectrum, larger dose differences were noted outside the central region of the homogenous phantom and outside both static and IMRT fields. However, the OSL-film’s measured dose differences of the IMRT patterns were lower than those of Gafchromic EBT measurements ([-1.6%, 2.1%] versus [-2.9%, 3.6%]). The current OSL-film could be used as a reusable high resolution dosimeter with read-out immediately after
Aerodynamic shape optimization of Airfoils in 2-D incompressible flow
Rangasamy, Srinivethan; Upadhyay, Harshal; Somasekaran, Sandeep; Raghunath, Sreekanth
2010-11-01
An optimization framework was developed for maximizing the region of 2-D airfoil immersed in laminar flow with enhanced aerodynamic performance. It uses genetic algorithm over a population of 125, across 1000 generations, to optimize the airfoil. On a stand-alone computer, a run takes about an hour to obtain a converged solution. The airfoil geometry was generated using two Bezier curves; one to represent the thickness and the other the camber of the airfoil. The airfoil profile was generated by adding and subtracting the thickness curve from the camber curve. The coefficient of lift and drag was computed using potential velocity distribution obtained from panel code, and boundary layer transition prediction code was used to predict the location of onset of transition. The objective function of a particular design is evaluated as the weighted-average of aerodynamic characteristics at various angles of attacks. Optimization was carried out for several objective functions and the airfoil designs obtained were analyzed.
Charge Transport in 2D DNA Tunnel Junction Diodes
Yoon, Minho
2017-11-06
Recently, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is studied for electronics due to its intrinsic benefits such as its natural plenitude, biodegradability, biofunctionality, and low-cost. However, its applications are limited to passive components because of inherent insulating properties. In this report, a metal-insulator-metal tunnel diode with Au/DNA/NiOx junctions is presented. Through the self-aligning process of DNA molecules, a 2D DNA nanosheet is synthesized and used as a tunneling barrier, and semitransparent conducting oxide (NiOx ) is applied as a top electrode for resolving metal penetration issues. This molecular device successfully operates as a nonresonant tunneling diode, and temperature-variable current-voltage analysis proves that Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is a dominant conduction mechanism at the junctions. DNA-based tunneling devices appear to be promising prototypes for nanoelectronics using biomolecules.
Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Reino, Marta; Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.
2005-01-01
An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N 2 D2-branes and N 6 D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N 2 ) gauge theory with N 6 fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N 2 3/2 N 6 1/2 T H 2 , is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N 2 similar to N 6
2-D tomography with bolometry in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonard, A.W.; Meyer, W.H.; Geer, B.; Behne, D.M.; Hill, D.N.
1994-07-01
We have installed a 48-channel platinum-foil bolometer system on DIII-D achieve better spatial and temporal resolution of the radiated power in diverted discharges. Two 24-channel arrays provide complete plasma coverage with optimized views of the divertor. We have measured the divertor radiation profile for a series of radiative divertor and power balance experiments. We observe a rapid change in the magnitude and distribution of divertor radiation with heavy gas puffing. Unfolding the radiation profile with only two views requires us to treat the core and divertor radiation separately. The core radiation is fitted to a function of magnetic flux and is then subtracted from the divertor viewing chords. The divertor profile is then fit to a 2-D spline as a function of magnetic flux and poloidal angle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To investigate the combined influence of the pile diameter to water depth ratio and the wave height to water...... depth ratio on wave run-up of piles. The measurements should be used to design access platforms on piles. The Model tests include: Calibration of regular and irregular sea states at the location of the pile (without structure in place). Measurement of wave run-up for the calibrated sea states...... on the front side of the pile (0 to 90 degrees). These tests have been conducted at Aalborg University from 9. October, 2006 to 8. November, 2006. Unless otherwise mentioned, all values given in this report are in model scale....
The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.
Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard
2008-01-01
We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.
Izrada 2D video igre za iOS platformu
Kampuš, Dominik
2016-01-01
Tema ovog završnog rada temelji se na izradi 2D video igre za iOS mobilni uređaj te njezinoj demonstraciji na istom. Kroz rad su opisane sve bitne funkcije GameSalad Creator-a koje su potrebne kod izrade igre bazirane na 2 dimenzije. Također se prolazi kroz iOS operativni sustav, što je on i kako se razvijao. Spominje se i tema koja govori općenito o igrama na mobilnim uređajima. U završnom dijelu rada prikazan je postupak izrade, koje funkcije programa se točno koriste i kako se igra može te...
Symmetries of the 2D magnetic particle imaging system matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, A; Knopp, T
2015-01-01
In magnetic particle imaging (MPI), the relation between the particle distribution and the measurement signal can be described by a linear system of equations. For 1D imaging, it can be shown that the system matrix can be expressed as a product of a convolution matrix and a Chebyshev transformation matrix. For multidimensional imaging, the structure of the MPI system matrix is not yet fully explored as the sampling trajectory complicates the physical model. It has been experimentally found that the MPI system matrix rows have symmetries and look similar to the tensor products of Chebyshev polynomials. In this work we will mathematically prove that the 2D MPI system matrix has symmetries that can be used for matrix compression. (paper)
First investigation of a novel 2D position-sensitive
Bassignana, D; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I
2012-01-01
This paper presents a first study of the performance of a novel 2D position-sensitive microstrip detector, where the resistive charge division method was implemented by replacing the metallic electrodes with resistive electrodes made of polycrystalline silicon. A characterization of two proof-of-concept prototypes with different values of the electrode resistivity was carried out using a pulsed Near Infra-Red laser. The experimental data were compared with the electrical simulation of the sensor equivalent circuit coupled to simple electronics readout circuits. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results establishes the soundness of resistive charge division method in silicon microstrip sensors and validates the developed simulation as a tool for the optimization of future sensor prototypes. Spatial resolution in the strip length direction depends on the ionizing event position. The average value obtained from the protype analysis is close to 1.2% of the strip length for a 6 MIP signal.
2D-RBUC for efficient parallel compression of residuals
Đurđević, Đorđe M.; Tartalja, Igor I.
2018-02-01
In this paper, we present a method for lossless compression of residuals with an efficient SIMD parallel decompression. The residuals originate from lossy or near lossless compression of height fields, which are commonly used to represent models of terrains. The algorithm is founded on the existing RBUC method for compression of non-uniform data sources. We have adapted the method to capture 2D spatial locality of height fields, and developed the data decompression algorithm for modern GPU architectures already present even in home computers. In combination with the point-level SIMD-parallel lossless/lossy high field compression method HFPaC, characterized by fast progressive decompression and seamlessly reconstructed surface, the newly proposed method trades off small efficiency degradation for a non negligible compression ratio (measured up to 91%) benefit.
Currency verification by a 2D infrared barcode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla
2010-01-01
Nowadays all the National Central Banks are continuously studying innovative anti-counterfeiting systems for banknotes. In this note, an innovative solution is proposed, which combines the potentiality of a hylemetric approach (methodology conceptually similar to biometry), based on notes' intrinsic characteristics, with a well-known and consolidated 2D barcode identification system. In particular, in this note we propose to extract from the banknotes a univocal binary control sequence (template) and insert an encrypted version of it in a barcode printed on the same banknote. For a more acceptable look and feel of a banknote, the superposed barcode can be stamped using IR ink that is visible to near-IR image sensors. This makes the banknote verification simpler. (technical design note)
Quality control in PET systems employing 2-D modular detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daghighian, F.; Hoffman, E.J.; Huang, S.C.
1989-01-01
Many new PET scanner designs employ 2-D detector modules to cost effectively achieve higher image and axial resolution. These systems are potentially less stable than older designs and the loss of a single photomultiplier can disable a large section of a multislice PET system. Because of these factors, it is now necessary to develop more sophisticated quality control procedures that are designed to detect problems as early as possible. The authors have developed and put into operation three automated quality control procedure that are designed to detect problems quickly with a minimum effort on the part of the user. These tests check: (1) stability of the detector modules in terms of efficiency, (2) resolution and its uniformity, (3) the reproducibility of the data
Advecting Procedural Textures for 2D Flow Animation
Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper proposes the use of specially generated 3D procedural textures for visualizing steady state 2D flow fields. We use the flow field to advect and animate the texture over time. However, using standard texture advection techniques and arbitrary textures will introduce some undesirable effects such as: (a) expanding texture from a critical source point, (b) streaking pattern from the boundary of the flowfield, (c) crowding of advected textures near an attracting spiral or sink, and (d) absent or lack of textures in some regions of the flow. This paper proposes a number of strategies to solve these problems. We demonstrate how the technique works using both synthetic data and computational fluid dynamics data.
2D discontinuous piecewise linear map: Emergence of fashion cycles.
Gardini, L; Sushko, I; Matsuyama, K
2018-05-01
We consider a discrete-time version of the continuous-time fashion cycle model introduced in Matsuyama, 1992. Its dynamics are defined by a 2D discontinuous piecewise linear map depending on three parameters. In the parameter space of the map periodicity, regions associated with attracting cycles of different periods are organized in the period adding and period incrementing bifurcation structures. The boundaries of all the periodicity regions related to border collision bifurcations are obtained analytically in explicit form. We show the existence of several partially overlapping period incrementing structures, that is, a novelty for the considered class of maps. Moreover, we show that if the time-delay in the discrete time formulation of the model shrinks to zero, the number of period incrementing structures tends to infinity and the dynamics of the discrete time fashion cycle model converges to those of continuous-time fashion cycle model.
Relativistic energy-dispersion relations of 2D rectangular lattices
Ata, Engin; Demirhan, Doğan; Büyükkılıç, Fevzi
2017-04-01
An exactly solvable relativistic approach based on inseparable periodic well potentials is developed to obtain energy-dispersion relations of spin states of a single-electron in two-dimensional (2D) rectangular lattices. Commutation of axes transfer matrices is exploited to find energy dependencies of the wave vector components. From the trace of the lattice transfer matrix, energy-dispersion relations of conductance and valence states are obtained in transcendental form. Graphical solutions of relativistic and nonrelativistic transcendental energy-dispersion relations are plotted to compare how lattice parameters V0, core and interstitial size of the rectangular lattice affects to the energy-band structures in a situation core and interstitial diagonals are of equal slope.
TRANSITION FROM 2D TO 3D WITH GEOGEBRA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MARIA MIHAILOVA
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This article presents the definition of projection plane, its importance for the geometry constructions used in civil engineering and comparative analysis of three opportunities for creating a three dimensional basis, used in drawing such a plane. First method consists of transforming affine and orthonormal coordinates and its application in GeoGebra is presented. Second method, using combination of spherical and polar coordinates in space, is introduced. The third suggested method is an application of descriptive geometry for transforming 2D to 3D and a new method of forming a plane of projection, which will be used later in the reviewed example below. The example shows how GeoGebra software can be used in technical drawing used in civil engineering.
An improved multicrystal 2-D BGO detector for PET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, J.G.; Taylor, A.J.; Rahimi, M.F.; Nutt, R.; Andreaco, M.; Williams, C.W.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors evaluate and compare two new 2-D array detectors for PET. Both consist of an 8 x 8 array of small BGO crystals coupled to a 2 x 2 array of photomultiplier tubes. The depth of the crystals is 3 cm in one detector and 2 cm in the other. The 2 cm detector is obviously superior in terms of material costs, but is also superior in energy resolution per crystal, and in its ability to clearly identify the crystal containing the primary interaction. The authors present a flexible and robust algorithm for crystal identification in such array detectors. The prospect of obtaining still better spatial resolution from such block detectors, with increased numbers of crystals, is discussed
Charge Transport in 2D DNA Tunnel Junction Diodes
Yoon, Minho; Min, Sung-Wook; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Lee, Yong Uk; Oh, Min Suk; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Park, Sung Ha; Im, Seongil
2017-01-01
Recently, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is studied for electronics due to its intrinsic benefits such as its natural plenitude, biodegradability, biofunctionality, and low-cost. However, its applications are limited to passive components because of inherent insulating properties. In this report, a metal-insulator-metal tunnel diode with Au/DNA/NiOx junctions is presented. Through the self-aligning process of DNA molecules, a 2D DNA nanosheet is synthesized and used as a tunneling barrier, and semitransparent conducting oxide (NiOx ) is applied as a top electrode for resolving metal penetration issues. This molecular device successfully operates as a nonresonant tunneling diode, and temperature-variable current-voltage analysis proves that Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is a dominant conduction mechanism at the junctions. DNA-based tunneling devices appear to be promising prototypes for nanoelectronics using biomolecules.
Die Moran, Andres; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Tassi, Pablo; Herouvet, Jean-Michel
2014-05-01
Bank erosion is a key process that may cause a large number of economic and environmental problems (e.g. land loss, damage to structures and aquatic habitat). Stream bank erosion (toe erosion and mass failure) represents an important form of channel morphology changes and a significant source of sediment. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2-D) numerical models have become valuable tools for investigating flow and sediment transport in open channels at large temporal and spatial scales. However, the implementation of mass failure process in 2D numerical models is still a challenging task. In this paper, a simple, innovative algorithm is implemented in the Telemac-Mascaret modeling platform to handle bank failure: failure occurs whether the actual slope of one given bed element is higher than the internal friction angle. The unstable bed elements are rotated around an appropriate axis, ensuring mass conservation. Mass failure of a bank due to slope instability is applied at the end of each sediment transport evolution iteration, once the bed evolution due to bed load (and/or suspended load) has been computed, but before the global sediment mass balance is verified. This bank failure algorithm is successfully tested using two laboratory experimental cases. Then, bank failure in a 1:40 scale physical model of the Rhine River composed of non-uniform material is simulated. The main features of the bank erosion and failure are correctly reproduced in the numerical simulations, namely the mass wasting at the bank toe, followed by failure at the bank head, and subsequent transport of the mobilised material in an aggradation front. Volumes of eroded material obtained are of the same order of magnitude as the volumes measured during the laboratory tests.
Contributions in compression of 3D medical images and 2D images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaudeau, Y.
2006-12-01
The huge amounts of volumetric data generated by current medical imaging techniques in the context of an increasing demand for long term archiving solutions, as well as the rapid development of distant radiology make the use of compression inevitable. Indeed, if the medical community has sided until now with compression without losses, most of applications suffer from compression ratios which are too low with this kind of compression. In this context, compression with acceptable losses could be the most appropriate answer. So, we propose a new loss coding scheme based on 3D (3 dimensional) Wavelet Transform and Dead Zone Lattice Vector Quantization 3D (DZLVQ) for medical images. Our algorithm has been evaluated on several computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image volumes. The main contribution of this work is the design of a multidimensional dead zone which enables to take into account correlations between neighbouring elementary volumes. At high compression ratios, we show that it can out-perform visually and numerically the best existing methods. These promising results are confirmed on head CT by two medical patricians. The second contribution of this document assesses the effect with-loss image compression on CAD (Computer-Aided Decision) detection performance of solid lung nodules. This work on 120 significant lungs images shows that detection did not suffer until 48:1 compression and still was robust at 96:1. The last contribution consists in the complexity reduction of our compression scheme. The first allocation dedicated to 2D DZLVQ uses an exponential of the rate-distortion (R-D) functions. The second allocation for 2D and 3D medical images is based on block statistical model to estimate the R-D curves. These R-D models are based on the joint distribution of wavelet vectors using a multidimensional mixture of generalized Gaussian (MMGG) densities. (author)
2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Alper, Mursel [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Physics Dept.
2017-08-01
The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M{sub p}(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A{sub 0} and A{sub 2n}) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A{sub 0} and an obvious decrease in A{sub 2n} (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.
2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs
Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.
Cell Migration in 1D and 2D Nanofiber Microenvironments.
Estabridis, Horacio M; Jana, Aniket; Nain, Amrinder; Odde, David J
2018-03-01
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers. Cells were classified based on the local fiber geometry and cell migration dynamics observed by light microscopy. Cells were found in three distinct geometries: adhering two a single fiber, adhering to two parallel fibers, and adhering to a network of orthogonal fibers. Cells adhering to a single fiber or two parallel fibers can only move in one dimension along the fiber axis, whereas cells on a network of orthogonal fibers can move in two dimensions. We found that cells move faster and more persistently in 1D geometries than in 2D, with cell migration being faster on parallel fibers than on single fibers. To explain these behaviors mechanistically, we simulated cell migration in the three different geometries using a motor-clutch based model for cell traction forces. Using nearly identical parameter sets for each of the three cases, we found that the simulated cells naturally replicated the reduced migration in 2D relative to 1D geometries. In addition, the modestly faster 1D migration on parallel fibers relative to single fibers was captured using a correspondingly modest increase in the number of clutches to reflect increased surface area of adhesion on parallel fibers. Overall, the integrated modeling and experimental analysis shows that cell migration in response to varying fibrous geometries can be explained by a simple mechanical readout of geometry via a motor-clutch mechanism.
2D Dust Clusters in Theory and Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsytovich, V.N.; Gousein-zade, N.G.; Morfill, G.E.
2005-01-01
The theory is applied for more detail analysis of existing experiments of 2D dust clusters with parabolic confinement. It is shown that the equilibrium condition and the frequency of one of the modes of the cluster determines all dimensionless parameters of the cluster allowing to predict the value of other modes and compare them with existing experimental data. This comparison depends on the shielding model, the calculations starting with N = 4 cluster breathing mode predict for Debye shielding model without attraction the frequency of the antisymmetric mode in disagreement with the observed value about 6 standard deviations, while the same calculations for the non-linear screening model gives disagreement about 1 standard deviation. Including the attraction provides an agrement with observations only for non-linear screening model showing the sensitivity of cluster structure to dust attraction. The value of the obtained attractions coefficient is in reasonable agreement with the theoretically expected value. It is shown theoretically that in absence of external parabolic confinement a weak shadow attraction can provide an existence of equilibria for 2D clusters. The equilibrium radius is rapidly decreasing with an increase of the attraction coefficient and with number of grains N in a cluster. The energies of one shell clusters with different N and the energies of N - 1 grain clusters with additional grain in the center of the shell are calculated as functions of attraction coefficient. It is demonstrated that a dissociation of cluster in several smaller clusters needs less energy than a removal of one grain from the cluster. The calculations were performed for Yukawa screening and for non-linear screening and demonstrate the sensitivity of cluster structures to the screening. Frequencies of all modes are calculated up to N = 7 for one shell structure. Stable and unstable modes as well as universal magic numbers are found
Comparison of 2D and 3D Experiments for IVR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Hae Kyun; Kim, Su Hyeon; Chung Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The integrity of reactor vessel is one of the prime concern in a severe accident condition. When the InVessel core melts Retention by External Reactor Vessel Cooling (IVR-ERVC) strategy is adopted as the design concept, the local heat load imposed on the reactor vessel should be identified in order to confirm the integrity of the reactor vessel. There are several studies simulating the natural convection of the oxide pool experimentally. In them, modified Ra (Ra') substitutes conventional Ra in order to represents decay heat of the core melts, due to the self-exothermic condition of the oxide pool. Difficulties in those experiments were the realization of the homogeneous self-exothermic volumetric heat sources. For this reason, the experiments using semicircular facility were also carried out instead of those of hemisphere facility [5-8]. The mean and local Nu of the lower head and the top plate were measured and correlations of the mean Nu were developed in existing studies. However, the comparisons between 2D and 3D results and phenomenological analyses have not been sufficiently performed. In this study we measured and compared the mean and local Nu using 2D and 3D Mass Transfer Experimental Rig for Oxide Pool (MassTER-OP). The experiments were carried out using cupric acid copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer system. The Pr was 2,014 and Ra'H were varied from 7.15X10{sup 12} to 3.05X10{sup 15}.
Imaging the motion of electrons in 2D semiconductor heterostructures
Dani, Keshav
Technological progress since the late 20th century has centered on semiconductor devices, such as transistors, diodes, and solar cells. At the heart of these devices, is the internal motion of electrons through semiconductor materials due to applied electric fields or by the excitation of photocarriers. Imaging the motion of these electrons would provide unprecedented insight into this important phenomenon, but requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Current studies of electron dynamics in semiconductors are generally limited by the spatial resolution of optical probes, or by the temporal resolution of electronic probes. In this talk, we combine femtosecond pump-probe techniques with spectroscopic photoemission electron microscopy to image the motion of photoexcited electrons from high-energy to low-energy states in a 2D InSe/GaAs heterostructure exhibiting a type-II band alignment. At the instant of photoexcitation, energy-resolved photoelectron images reveal a highly non-equilibrium distribution of photocarriers in space and energy. Thereafter, in response to the out-of-equilibrium photocarriers, we observe the spatial redistribution of charges, thus forming internal electric fields, bending the semiconductor bands, and finally impeding further charge transfer. By assembling images taken at different time-delays, we make a movie lasting a few tens of picoseconds of the electron transfer process in the photoexcited type-II heterostructure - a fundamental phenomenon in semiconductor devices like solar cells. Quantitative analysis and theoretical modeling of spatial variations in the video provide insight into future solar cells, electron dynamics in 2D materials, and other semiconductor devices.
2D phase field modeling of sintering of silver nanoparticles
Chockalingam, K.; Kouznetsova, V.; van der Sluis, O.; Geers, M.G.D.
2016-01-01
The sintering mechanism of silver nanoparticles is modelled by incorporating surface, volume and grain boundary diffusion in a phase field model. A direction-dependent tensorial mobility formulation is adopted, capturing the fact that diffusion mainly occurs along the directions tangential to the
Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984
1984-10-01
This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...
Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...
Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...
Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...
Southwestern Washington 6 arc-second DEM
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...
NSA Diana Wueger Published in Washington Quarterly
Grant, Catherine L.
2016-01-01
National Security Affairs (NSA) News NSA Faculty Associate for Research Diana Wueger has recently had an article titled “India’s Nuclear-Armed Submarines: Deterrence or Danger?” published in the Washington Quarterly.
Ma, Zhizhen; Hemnani, Rohit; Bartels, Ludwig; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.
2018-02-01
Here we discuss the physics of electro-optic modulators deploying 2D materials. We include a scaling laws analysis and show how energy-efficiency and speed change for three underlying cavity systems as a function of critical device length scaling. A key result is that the energy-per-bit of the modulator is proportional to the volume of the device, thus making the case for submicron-scale modulators possible deploying a plasmonic optical mode. We then show how Graphene's Pauli-blocking modulation mechanism is sensitive to the device operation temperature, whereby a reduction of the temperature enables a 10× reduction in modulator energy efficiency. Furthermore, we show how the high-index tunability of graphene is able to compensate for the small optical overlap factor of 2D-based material modulators, which is unlike classical silicon-based dispersion devices. Lastly, we demonstrate a novel method towards a 2D material printer suitable for cross-contamination free and on-demand printing. The latter paves the way to integrate 2D materials seamlessly into taped-out photonic chips.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tominaga, Satoru; Seo, Toru; Ishikura, Reiichi; Nakao, Norio; Tabuchi, Yukiko.
1996-01-01
Quantative measurements of blood flow in the vertebral and basilar arteries were obtained by the 2D phase contrast (2D PC) technique. In phantom study, flow velocity measured with 2D PC correlated well with actual flow velocity. Sixty-six patients were neurologically normal and 20 had positional vertigo due to vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Mean velocities (MV) were measured by using a transverse plane in the vertebral arteries at the level of C3 and in the basilar arteries at the level of the sella floor. Volume flow rates (VFR) were calculated as the product of MV and the area of the arteries whose diameters were measured on the basis of pixel counting in the histogram of the signal intensity profile. In the normal group, MV of the left vertebral artery and MV and VFR of the basilar artery showed significant declines as age progressed. In the vertigo group, MV and VFR of the basilar artery were significantly lower than in the normal group. It is concluded that 2D PC technique appears to be fast and easy to handle without cardiac gating to assess blood flow in vessels surrounded by bone tissues. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tominaga, Satoru; Seo, Toru; Ishikura, Reiichi; Nakao, Norio [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Tabuchi, Yukiko
1996-04-01
Quantative measurements of blood flow in the vertebral and basilar arteries were obtained by the 2D phase contrast (2D PC) technique. In phantom study, flow velocity measured with 2D PC correlated well with actual flow velocity. Sixty-six patients were neurologically normal and 20 had positional vertigo due to vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Mean velocities (MV) were measured by using a transverse plane in the vertebral arteries at the level of C3 and in the basilar arteries at the level of the sella floor. Volume flow rates (VFR) were calculated as the product of MV and the area of the arteries whose diameters were measured on the basis of pixel counting in the histogram of the signal intensity profile. In the normal group, MV of the left vertebral artery and MV and VFR of the basilar artery showed significant declines as age progressed. In the vertigo group, MV and VFR of the basilar artery were significantly lower than in the normal group. It is concluded that 2D PC technique appears to be fast and easy to handle without cardiac gating to assess blood flow in vessels surrounded by bone tissues. (author).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Peltier
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toda Tosifusa
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the post-genome era, most research scientists working in the field of proteomics are confronted with difficulties in management of large volumes of data, which they are required to keep in formats suitable for subsequent data mining. Therefore, a well-developed open source laboratory information management system (LIMS should be available for their proteomics research studies. Results We developed an open source LIMS appropriately customized for 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics workflow. The main features of its design are compactness, flexibility and connectivity to public databases. It supports the handling of data imported from mass spectrometry software and 2-D gel image analysis software. The LIMS is equipped with the same input interface for 2-D gel information as a clickable map on public 2DPAGE databases. The LIMS allows researchers to follow their own experimental procedures by reviewing the illustrations of 2-D gel maps and well layouts on the digestion plates and MS sample plates. Conclusion Our new open source LIMS is now available as a basic model for proteome informatics, and is accessible for further improvement. We hope that many research scientists working in the field of proteomics will evaluate our LIMS and suggest ways in which it can be improved.
ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data
Akca, Irfan
2016-04-01
ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discre-tized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.
Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling
Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick
2015-04-01
Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schraube, P.; Spahn, U.; Oetzel, D.; Wannenmacher, M.
2000-01-01
Background: The effect of 3D radiotherapy planning (3D RTP) in comparison to 2D radiotherapy planning (2D RTP) was evaluated in a usually practiced treatment schedule (starting by v./d. opposing portals, continued with computer-planned portals) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer the computer-planned part of the treatment schedule was calculated 2- and 3-dimensionally. Target volume were the primary tumor, the involved and the electively irradiated mediastinal lymph nodes. The results of the 2D RTP were recalculated 3-dimensionally and the mean doses to target volume and organs at risk were defined. Further, the normal tissue complications were calculated. Results: Under the prerequisite of 44 Gy maximally allowed to the spinal cord and a dose to the reference point of 50 Gy a small, but significant advantage with 2.1 Gy to the target (p=0.004) and a reduction of 3.6 Gy to the heart (p=0.05) was achievable for 3D RTP. The dose to the lungs did not differ significantly (19.7 Gy for 2D RTP, 20.3 Gy for 3D RTP). The dose to the heart was not estimated critical by NTCP (normal tissue complication probability). The NTCP for the ipsilateral lung was 16.1 and 18.7% for 2D RTP and 3D RTP, respectively. Regarding the simulator-planned ap/pa fields at the start of the radiotherapy the advantage of 3D RTP was further reduced but remained significant. Favorable with respect to the mean lung dose and the NTCP (18.7% NTCP ipsilateral lung for early onset of 3D planned radiotherapy vs 31.7% for late onset of 3D planned radiotherapy) but not significantly measurable is the early start of the treatment by computerized RTP. Conclusion: The main advantage of 3D RTP in treatment of advanced lung cancer is the better coverage of the target volume. A reduction of the mean lung dose cannot be expected. A dose escalation by 3D RTP to target volumes as described here seems not to be possible because of
Pareto joint inversion of 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data
Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek
2015-04-01
In this contribution, the first results of the "Innovative technology of petrophysical parameters estimation of geological media using joint inversion algorithms" project were described. At this stage of the development, Pareto joint inversion scheme for 2D MT and gravity data was used. Additionally, seismic data were provided to set some constrains for the inversion. Sharp Boundary Interface(SBI) approach and description model with set of polygons were used to limit the dimensionality of the solution space. The main engine was based on modified Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO). This algorithm was properly adapted to handle two or more target function at once. Additional algorithm was used to eliminate non- realistic solution proposals. Because PSO is a method of stochastic global optimization, it requires a lot of proposals to be evaluated to find a single Pareto solution and then compose a Pareto front. To optimize this stage parallel computing was used for both inversion engine and 2D MT forward solver. There are many advantages of proposed solution of joint inversion problems. First of all, Pareto scheme eliminates cumbersome rescaling of the target functions, that can highly affect the final solution. Secondly, the whole set of solution is created in one optimization run, providing a choice of the final solution. This choice can be based off qualitative data, that are usually very hard to be incorporated into the regular inversion schema. SBI parameterisation not only limits the problem of dimensionality, but also makes constraining of the solution easier. At this stage of work, decision to test the approach using MT and gravity data was made, because this combination is often used in practice. It is important to mention, that the general solution is not limited to this two methods and it is flexible enough to be used with more than two sources of data. Presented results were obtained for synthetic models, imitating real geological conditions, where
2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast
Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria
2006-01-01
A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems
Theory of small atomic-like 2D dust clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amiranashvili, Sh.G.; Gousein-zade, N.G.; Tsytovich, V.N.
2002-01-01
In several experiments atom-like dust clusters with parabolic confining potential were observed [1-3]. Here we present a general theory of 2D clusters confined by (1/2)m dω 0 2 r2 potential with arbitrary pair interaction potential depending on the inter-dust distance. It describes the equilibrium conditions, normal modes, their frequencies and possible instabilities of clusters with arbitrary N number of grains. The mono-layer clusters can have 2N frequencies of oscillations in the cluster plane among which 3 modes are trivial (ω = 0 and double degenerate frequency of oscillation in the potential well). The 2N - 3 non-trivial modes are considered. For example, for square dust cluster with potential V(r) the equilibrium is described by ω 0 2 = -(4/m) [V'(√(2)R) + V'(2R)], the frequency of radial oscillations is ω2 = (16R2/m) [V''(√(2)R) + 2V''(2R)], the two single modes frequencies are ω2 (32R2/m)V''(2R); ω2 = (16R2/m)V''(√(2)r) and one double degenerated mode frequency is ω2 = (1/m) [V'√(2)R) - V'(2R) + 4R2V''(√(2)R)] where ' corresponds to the differentiation of the potential V(r) with respect to √(r). The general stability criterion was found and investigated for N ≥ 4. The pair interaction potential V(r) is considered as a sum of different attraction and repulsion terms , including that which describe the non-screened collective and non collective attraction, the screened non-Coulomb interaction and the non-screened repulsion. The collective non-screened potential causes the absence of equilibria at certain dust cluster sizes. For screened Coulomb potential Vc(r) = (Z d 2 e2αscr/r)exp(-r/λscr) the clusters with the size R are considered. The pentagon cluster is found to be stable for R < 3.3λscr and the clusters with N ≥ 6 are found to be always unstable. The measurements of the frequencies of the cluster modes, the thresholds of cluster equilibria and the stability of the clusters can be used for detection of the dust
FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.
1989-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters
Projection-slice theorem based 2D-3D registration
van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Homan, R.; Timmer, J.; Bartels, L. W.
2007-03-01
In X-ray guided procedures, the surgeon or interventionalist is dependent on his or her knowledge of the patient's specific anatomy and the projection images acquired during the procedure by a rotational X-ray source. Unfortunately, these X-ray projections fail to give information on the patient's anatomy in the dimension along the projection axis. It would be very profitable to provide the surgeon or interventionalist with a 3D insight of the patient's anatomy that is directly linked to the X-ray images acquired during the procedure. In this paper we present a new robust 2D-3D registration method based on the Projection-Slice Theorem. This theorem gives us a relation between the pre-operative 3D data set and the interventional projection images. Registration is performed by minimizing a translation invariant similarity measure that is applied to the Fourier transforms of the images. The method was tested by performing multiple exhaustive searches on phantom data of the Circle of Willis and on a post-mortem human skull. Validation was performed visually by comparing the test projections to the ones that corresponded to the minimal value of the similarity measure. The Projection-Slice Theorem Based method was shown to be very effective and robust, and provides capture ranges up to 62 degrees. Experiments have shown that the method is capable of retrieving similar results when translations are applied to the projection images.
Turbulent Dynamics of Partially-Ionized Fluids in 2D
Benavides, S.; Flierl, G.
2017-12-01
Ionization occurs in the upper atmospheres of Hot Jupiters, as well asthe interiors of Gas Giants, leading to Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effectswhich can significantly alter the flow. The interactions of these MHDregions with the non-ionized atmosphere will occur in transitionregions where only a fraction of the fluid is ionized. We areexploring the dynamics of Partially-Ionized MHD (PIMHD) using a twofluid model - one neutral and one ionized and subject to MHD -coupled by a collision, or Joule heating, term proportional to thedifference in velocities. By varying both the ionization fraction aswell as the collision frequency (coupling), we examine the parameterspace of 2D PIMHD turbulence in hopes of better understanding itscharacteristics in certain, possibly realistic, regimes. We payparticular attention to the Joule heating term and its role indissipation and energy exchange between the two species. Thisknowledge will serve as the basis to further studies in which we lookat, in a more realistic setting, the PIMHD dynamics in Gas Giant orHot Jupiter atmospheres.
Entanglement entropy for descendent local operators in 2D CFTs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Bin; Guo, Wu-Zhong; He, Song; Wu, Jie-qiang
2015-01-01
We mainly study the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy of the states locally excited by the descendent operators in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs). In rational CFTs, we prove that the increase of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy for a class of descendent operators, which are generated by L"("−")L̄"("−") onto the primary operator, always coincide with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the corresponding primary operator. That means the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy for these descendent operators are the same as the ones of their corresponding primary operator. For 2D rational CFTs with a boundary, we confirm that the Rényi entropy always coincides with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the primary operator during some periods of the evolution. Furthermore, we consider more general descendent operators generated by ∑d_{_n__i_}_{_n__j_}(∏_iL_−_n__i∏_jL̄_−_n__j) on the primary operator. For these operators, the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy get additional corrections, as the mixing of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic Virasoro generators enhance the entanglement. Finally, we employ perturbative CFT techniques to evaluate the Rényi entropy of the excited operators in deformed CFT. The Rényi and entanglement entropies are increased, and get contributions not only from local excited operators but also from global deformation of the theory.
Topological Toughening of graphene and other 2D materials
Gao, Huajian
It has been claimed that graphene, with the elastic modulus of 1TPa and theoretical strength as high as 130 GPa, is the strongest material. However, from an engineering point of view, it is the fracture toughness that determines the actual strength of materials, as crack-like flaws (i.e., cracks, holes, notches, corners, etc.) are inevitable in the design, fabrication, and operation of practical devices and systems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that graphene has very low fracture toughness, in fact close to that of ideally brittle solids. These findings have raised sharp questions and are calling for efforts to explore effective methods to toughen graphene. Recently, we have been exploring the potential use of topological effects to enhance the fracture toughness of graphene. For example, it has been shown that a sinusoidal graphene containing periodically distributed disclination quadrupoles can achieve a mode I fracture toughness nearly twice that of pristine graphene. Here we report working progresses on further studies of topological toughening of graphene and other 2D materials. A phase field crystal method is adopted to generate the atomic coordinates of material with specific topological patterns. We then perform molecular dynamics simulations of fracture in the designed samples, and observe a variety of toughening mechanisms, including crack tip blunting, crack trapping, ligament bridging, crack deflection and daughter crack initiation and coalescence.
2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage
Anasori, Babak; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-01-01
The family of 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (collectively referred to as MXenes) has expanded rapidly since the discovery of Ti3C2 in 2011. The materials reported so far always have surface terminations, such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine, which impart hydrophilicity to their surfaces. About 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, and the structures and properties of dozens more have been theoretically predicted. The availability of solid solutions, the control of surface terminations and a recent discovery of multi-transition-metal layered MXenes offer the potential for synthesis of many new structures. The versatile chemistry of MXenes allows the tuning of properties for applications including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, reinforcement for composites, water purification, gas- and biosensors, lubrication, and photo-, electro- and chemical catalysis. Attractive electronic, optical, plasmonic and thermoelectric properties have also been shown. In this Review, we present the synthesis, structure and properties of MXenes, as well as their energy storage and related applications, and an outlook for future research.
BFV-BRST quantization of 2D supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, T.; Igarashi, Y.; Kuriki, R.; Tabei, T.
1995-02-01
Two-dimensional supergravity theory is quantized as an anomalous gauge theory. In the Batalin-Fradkin (BF) formalism, the anomaly-canceling super-Liouville fields are introduced to identify the original second-class constrained system with a gauge-fixed version of a first-class system. The BFV-BRST quantization applies to formulate the theory in the most general class of gauges. A local effective action constructed in the configuration space contains two super-Liouville actions; one is a noncovariant but local functional written only in terms of 2D supergravity fields, and the other contains the super-Liouville fields canceling the super-Weyl anomaly. Auxiliary fields for the Liouville and the gravity super-multiplets are introduced to make the BRST algebra close off-shell. Inclusion of them turns out to be essentially important especially in the super-lightcone gauge-fixing, where the super-curvature equations (δ - 3 g ++ =δ - 2 χ ++ =0) are obtained as a result of BRST invariance of the theory. Our approach reveals the origin of the OSp (1,2) current algebra symmetry in a transparent manner. (author)
Dynamics and Chemistry in Jovian Atmospheres: 2D Hydrodynamical Simulations
Bordwell, B. R.; Brown, B. P.; Oishi, J.
2016-12-01
A key component of our understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems is chemical composition. Problematically, however, in the atmospheres of cooler gas giants, dynamics on the same timescale as chemical reactions pull molecular abundances out of thermochemical equilibrium. These disequilibrium abundances are treated using what is known as the "quench" approximation, based upon the mixing length theory of convection. The validity of this approximation is questionable, though, as the atmospheres of gas giants encompass two distinct dynamic regimes: convective and radiative. To resolve this issue, we conduct 2D hydrodynamical simulations using the state-of-the-art pseudospectral simulation framework Dedalus. In these simulations, we solve the fully compressible equations of fluid motion in a local slab geometry that mimics the structure of a planetary atmosphere (convective zone underlying a radiative zone). Through the inclusion of passive tracers, we explore the transport properties of both regimes, and assess the validity of the classical eddy diffusion parameterization. With the addition of active tracers, we examine the interactions between dynamical and chemical processes, and generate prescriptions for the observational community. By providing insight into mixing and feedback mechanisms in Jovian atmospheres, this research lays a solid foundation for future global simulations and the construction of physically-sound models for current and future observations.
Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: marta@brandeis.edu; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail: naculich@bowdoin.edu; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: schnitzer@brandeis.edu
2005-05-02
An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.
Automated human skull landmarking with 2D Gabor wavelets
de Jong, Markus A.; Gül, Atilla; de Gijt, Jan Pieter; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Kayser, Manfred; Wolvius, Eppo B.; Böhringer, Stefan
2018-05-01
Landmarking of CT scans is an important step in the alignment of skulls that is key in surgery planning, pre-/post-surgery comparisons, and morphometric studies. We present a novel method for automatically locating anatomical landmarks on the surface of cone beam CT-based image models of human skulls using 2D Gabor wavelets and ensemble learning. The algorithm is validated via human inter- and intra-rater comparisons on a set of 39 scans and a skull superimposition experiment with an established surgery planning software (Maxilim). Automatic landmarking results in an accuracy of 1–2 mm for a subset of landmarks around the nose area as compared to a gold standard derived from human raters. These landmarks are located in eye sockets and lower jaw, which is competitive with or surpasses inter-rater variability. The well-performing landmark subsets allow for the automation of skull superimposition in clinical applications. Our approach delivers accurate results, has modest training requirements (training set size of 30–40 items) and is generic, so that landmark sets can be easily expanded or modified to accommodate shifting landmark interests, which are important requirements for the landmarking of larger cohorts.
2D deblending using the multi-scale shaping scheme
Li, Qun; Ban, Xingan; Gong, Renbin; Li, Jinnuo; Ge, Qiang; Zu, Shaohuan
2018-01-01
Deblending can be posed as an inversion problem, which is ill-posed and requires constraint to obtain unique and stable solution. In blended record, signal is coherent, whereas interference is incoherent in some domains (e.g., common receiver domain and common offset domain). Due to the different sparsity, coefficients of signal and interference locate in different curvelet scale domains and have different amplitudes. Take into account the two differences, we propose a 2D multi-scale shaping scheme to constrain the sparsity to separate the blended record. In the domain where signal concentrates, the multi-scale scheme passes all the coefficients representing signal, while, in the domain where interference focuses, the multi-scale scheme suppresses the coefficients representing interference. Because the interference is suppressed evidently at each iteration, the constraint of multi-scale shaping operator in all scale domains are weak to guarantee the convergence of algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the multi-scale shaping scheme and the traditional global shaping scheme by using two synthetic and one field data examples.
VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huyakorn, P.S.; Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S.
1991-10-01
This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs
Functionalization of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides for biomedical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zibiao; Wong, Swee Liang
2017-01-01
Recent research has revealed a gamut of interesting properties present in layered two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as photoluminescence, comparatively high electron mobility, flexibility, mechanical strength and relatively low toxicity. The large surface to area ratio inherent in these materials also allows easy functionalization and maximal interaction with the external environment. Due to its unique physical and chemical properties, much work has been done in tailoring TMDCs through chemical functionalization for use in a diverse range of biomedical applications as biosensors, drug delivery carriers or even as therapeutic agents. In this review, current progress on the different types of TMDC functionalization for various biological applications will be presented and its future outlook will be discussed. - Highlights: • The different functionalization strategies and approaches of transition metal dichalcogenides are reviewed. • Properties of transition metal dichalcogenides useful for biomedical usage and their methods of synthesis are introduced. • Functionalization approaches are presented according to material type and their different application purpose is discussed.
Random 2D Composites and the Generalized Method of Schwarz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Mityushev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Two-phase composites with nonoverlapping inclusions randomly embedded in matrix are investigated. A straightforward approach is applied to estimate the effective properties of random 2D composites. First, deterministic boundary value problems are solved for all locations of inclusions, that is, for all events of the considered probabilistic space C by the generalized method of Schwarz. Second, the effective properties are calculated in analytical form and averaged over C. This method is related to the traditional method based on the average probabilistic values involving the n-point correlation functions. However, we avoid computation of the correlation functions and compute their weighted moments of high orders by an indirect method which does not address the correlation functions. The effective properties are exactly expressed through these moments. It is proved that the generalized method of Schwarz converges for an arbitrary multiply connected doubly periodic domain and for an arbitrary contrast parameter. The proposed method yields an algorithm which can be applied with symbolic computations. The Torquato-Milton parameter ζ1 is exactly written for circular inclusions.
The future of 2D metrology for display manufacturing
Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin
2016-10-01
The race to 800 PPI and higher in mobile devices and the transition to OLED displays are driving a dramatic development of mask quality: resolution, CDU, registration, and complexity. 2D metrology for large area masks is necessary and must follow the roadmap. Driving forces in the market place point to continued development of even more dense displays. State-of-the-art metrology has proven itself capable of overlay below 40 nm and registration below 65 nm for G6 masks. Future developments include incoming and recurrent measurements of pellicalized masks at the panel maker's factory site. Standardization of coordinate systems across supplier networks is feasible. This will enable better yield and production economy for both mask and panel maker. Better distortion correction methods will give better registration on the panels and relax the flatness requirements of the mask blanks. If panels are measured together with masks and the results are used to characterize the aligners, further quality and yield improvements are possible. Possible future developments include in-cell metrology and integration with other instruments in the same platform.
2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage
Anasori, Babak
2017-01-17
The family of 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (collectively referred to as MXenes) has expanded rapidly since the discovery of Ti3C2 in 2011. The materials reported so far always have surface terminations, such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine, which impart hydrophilicity to their surfaces. About 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, and the structures and properties of dozens more have been theoretically predicted. The availability of solid solutions, the control of surface terminations and a recent discovery of multi-transition-metal layered MXenes offer the potential for synthesis of many new structures. The versatile chemistry of MXenes allows the tuning of properties for applications including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, reinforcement for composites, water purification, gas- and biosensors, lubrication, and photo-, electro- and chemical catalysis. Attractive electronic, optical, plasmonic and thermoelectric properties have also been shown. In this Review, we present the synthesis, structure and properties of MXenes, as well as their energy storage and related applications, and an outlook for future research.
A 2D nonlinear inversion of well-seismic data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Métivier, Ludovic; Lailly, Patrick; Delprat-Jannaud, Florence; Halpern, Laurence
2011-01-01
Well-seismic data such as vertical seismic profiles are supposed to provide detailed information about the elastic properties of the subsurface at the vicinity of the well. Heterogeneity of sedimentary terrains can lead to far from negligible multiple scattering, one of the manifestations of the nonlinearity involved in the mapping between elastic parameters and seismic data. We present a 2D extension of an existing 1D nonlinear inversion technique in the context of acoustic wave propagation. In the case of a subsurface with gentle lateral variations, we propose a regularization technique which aims at ensuring the stability of the inversion in a context where the recorded seismic waves provide a very poor illumination of the subsurface. We deal with a huge size inverse problem. Special care has been taken for its numerical solution, regarding both the choice of the algorithms and the implementation on a cluster-based supercomputer. Our tests on synthetic data show the effectiveness of our regularization. They also show that our efforts in accounting for the nonlinearities are rewarded by an exceptional seismic resolution at distances of about 100 m from the well. They also show that the result is not very sensitive to errors in the estimation of the velocity distribution, as far as these errors remain realistic in the context of a medium with gentle lateral variations
Detection of circular telomeric DNA without 2D gel electrophoresis.
Dlaska, Margit; Anderl, Conrad; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Bechter, Oliver E
2008-09-01
The end of linear chromosomes forms a lasso-like structure called the t-loop. Such t-loops resemble a DNA recombination intermediate, where the single-stranded 3' overhang is arrested in a stretch of duplex DNA. Presumably, such a t-loop can also be deleted via a recombination process. This would result in the occurrence of circular extrachromosomal telomeric DNA (t-circles), which are known to be abundantly present in immortal cells engaging the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT pathway). Little is known about the basic mechanism of telomeric recombination in these cells and what ultimately causes the generation of such t-circles. Current standard procedures for detecting these molecules involve 2D gel electrophoresis or electron microscopy. However, both methods are labor intense and sophisticated to perform. Here, we present a simpler, faster, and equally sensitive method for detecting t-circles. Our approach is a telomere restriction fragment assay that involves the enzymatic preservation of circular DNA with Klenow enzyme followed by Bal31 degradation of the remaining linear DNA molecules. We show that with this approach t-circles can be detected in ALT cell lines, whereas no t-circles are present in telomerase-positive cell lines. We consider our approach a valid method in which t-circle generation is the experimental readout.
Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.cossi@uniupo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica (DISIT), Università del Piemonte Orientale, via T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria (Italy)
2016-04-28
A number of 2D layered perovskites A{sub 2}PbI{sub 4} and BPbI{sub 4}, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another’s place.
2D modelling and its applications in engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altinbalik, M. Tahir; İRSEL, Gürkan
2013-01-01
A model, in computer aided engineering applications, may be created by either using a two- dimensional or a three-dimensional design depending on the purpose of design. What matters most in this regard is the selection of a right method to meet system solution requirements in the most economical way. Manufacturability of a design that is developed by utilising computer aided engineering is important, but usability of the data obtained in the course of design works in the production is also equally important. In the applications consisting of such production operations as CNC or plasma cutting, two-dimensional designs can be directly used in production. These machines are equipped with interfaces which converts two-dimensional drawings into codes. In this way, a design can be directly transferred to production, and any arrangements during production process can be synchronously evaluated. As a result of this, investment expenses will be lowered, and thus the costs can be reduced to some extent. In the presented study, we have studied two-dimensional design applications and requirements. We created a two-dimensional design for a part for which a three-dimensional model have previously been generated, and then, we transferred this design to plasma cutting machine, and thus, the operation has been realized experimentally. Key words: Plasma Cutting, 2D modelling, flexibility
Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition
Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.
2013-05-01
Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.
2D Semiconductors for Valley-Polarized LEDs and Photodetectors
Yu, Ting
The recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as transitional-metal-dichalcogenide monolayers, have aroused great interest due to the underlying quantum physics and the appealing optoelectronic applications like atomically thin light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors. On the one hand, valley-polarized electroluminescence and photocurrent from such monolayers have not caused enough attention but highly demanded as building blocks for the new generation valleytronic applications. On the other hand, most reports on these devices are based on the mechanically exfoliated small samples. Considering real applications, a strategy which could offer mass-product and high compatibility to the current planar processes is greatly demanded. Large-area samples prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) are perfect candidates towards such a goal. Here, we report electrically tunable valley-polarized electroluminescence and the selective spin-valley-coupled photocurrent in optoelectronic devices based on monolayer WS2 and MoS2 grown by CVD, exhibiting large electroluminescence and photocurrent dichroisms of 81% and 60%, respectively. The controllable valley polarization and emission components of the electroluminescence have been realized by varying electrical injection of carriers. For the observed helicity-dependent photocurrent, the circular photogalvanic effect at resonant excitations has been found to take the dominant responsibility.
2D electron systems viewed through an RF spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrei, E.Y.
1994-01-01
Electrons trapped at the liquid helium-vacuum interface are an almost ideal realization of a 2D electron system. I will describe experiments probing the in-plane as well as the out-of-plane motion of the electrons. The former have emphasized the dynamics and thermodynamics of the electronic motion within the plane to understand the nature of the liquid-solid transition and to outline its phase boundary. The latter have studied the escape out of the electron layer and provided an opportunity to observe tunneling in a clean and well-characterized system as well as to measure the effects of correlations on the tunneling process. More recently experiments in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the direction of tunneling have revealed several novel phenomena associated with the magnetic coupling between the in-plane and the out-of-plane electronic motions. Together, these experiments helped uncover the multi-faceted physics that can be found in this system. (orig.)
Structure of solid H2-D2 mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krupskij, I.N.; Kovalenko, S.I.; Krajnyukova, N.V.
1978-01-01
The structure of vapor deposited H 2 -D 2 solid mixtures is investigated. The electron-diffraction examination has been carried out in the temperature range from 2.3K up to the sample sublimation temperature, taking place in case of H 2 at T approximately 5K and D 2 -at T approximately 7K. On the basis of the difractogramm obtained it is shown that in solid films of pure components a FCC structure with parameters asub(Hsub(2))=5.310+-0.01A and asub(Osub(2))=5.100+-0.005A is realized, the structure being metastable in the temperature range. The existence of non-limitted solubility in solid two-component condensates is stated. The decay absence at T approximately 5K, when molecula mobility is enough for the transition of metastable FCC structure into HCP, is in good agreement with the results of experimental and theoretical estimations, according to which the decay critical temperature should not exceed 4K. The existance of the continuous series of solutions at lower temperatures is explained by a small coefficient value of a volumetric and surface diffusion of molecula as well
2D modelling and its applications in engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altinbalik, M. Tahir; İRSEL, Gürkan [Trakya University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Mechanical Engineering Department, Edİrne (Turkey)
2013-07-01
A model, in computer aided engineering applications, may be created by either using a two- dimensional or a three-dimensional design depending on the purpose of design. What matters most in this regard is the selection of a right method to meet system solution requirements in the most economical way. Manufacturability of a design that is developed by utilising computer aided engineering is important, but usability of the data obtained in the course of design works in the production is also equally important. In the applications consisting of such production operations as CNC or plasma cutting, two-dimensional designs can be directly used in production. These machines are equipped with interfaces which converts two-dimensional drawings into codes. In this way, a design can be directly transferred to production, and any arrangements during production process can be synchronously evaluated. As a result of this, investment expenses will be lowered, and thus the costs can be reduced to some extent. In the presented study, we have studied two-dimensional design applications and requirements. We created a two-dimensional design for a part for which a three-dimensional model have previously been generated, and then, we transferred this design to plasma cutting machine, and thus, the operation has been realized experimentally. Key words: Plasma Cutting, 2D modelling, flexibility.
Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woldemichael, D E; Rani, A M Abdul; Lemma, T A; Altaf, K
2015-01-01
In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force. (paper)
Tracking plastics in the Mediterranean: 2D Lagrangian model.
Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Clementi, E
2018-04-01
Drift of floating debris is studied with a 2D Lagrangian model with stochastic beaching and sedimentation of plastics. An ensemble of >10 10 virtual particles is tracked from anthropogenic sources (coastal human populations, rivers, shipping lanes) to environmental destinations (sea surface, coastlines, seabed). Daily analyses of ocean currents and waves provided by CMEMS at a horizontal resolution of 1/16° are used to force the plastics. High spatio-temporal variability in sea-surface plastic concentrations without any stable long-term accumulations is found. Substantial accumulation of plastics is detected on coastlines and the sea bottom. The most contaminated areas are in the Cilician subbasin, Catalan Sea, and near the Po River Delta. Also, highly polluted local patches in the vicinity of sources with limited circulation are identified. An inverse problem solution, used to quantify the origins of plastics, shows that plastic pollution of every Mediterranean country is caused primarily by its own terrestrial sources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of Froude number and geometry on water entry of a 2-D ellipse
Zhang, Xu; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-lin; Wang, Rui; Agarwal, Ramesh K.
2018-05-01
By using the finite volume method with volume of fluid model and global dynamic mesh technique, the effects of Froude number and geometry on the water entry process of a 2-D ellipse are investigated numerically. For the time history of the vertical force, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results match the experimental data much better than the classical potential-flow theories due to the consideration of the viscosity, turbulence, surface tension, gravity, and compressibility. The results show that the position of peak pressure on ellipse shifts from the spray root to the bottom of ellipse at a critical time. The critical time changes with the geometry and Froude number. By studying the vertical force, the ellipse water entry process can be divided into the initial and late stages based on the critical dimensionless time of about 0.1. The geometry of the ellipse plays a dominant role in the initial stage, while the Froude number is more important in the late stage of entry. The classical Wagner theory is extended to the ellipse water entry, and the predicted maximum value of vertical force coefficient in the initial stage is 4πa/b that matches the CFD results very well, where a and b are the horizontal axis and vertical axis of the ellipse parallel and perpendicular to the initial calm water surface, respectively.
Nylander, Malin; Frøssing, Signe; Bjerre, Anne H; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Clausen, Helle V; Faber, Jens; Skouby, Sven O
2017-08-01
Background Due to improved ultrasound scanners, new three-dimensional (3D) modalities, and novel Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-assays, the ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovarian morphology are under debate and the appropriate thresholds are often requested. Purpose To quantify the differences in estimates of ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods A cross-sectional study on 66 overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to Rotterdam criteria. Ovarian volume and AFC were estimated from MRI, 2D TVUS, and 3D TVUS, and serum AMH levels were assessed. Bland-Altman statistics were used for comparison. Results Participants had a median age of 29 years (age range, 19-44 years) with a mean BMI of 32.7 kg/m 2 (SD 4.5). Ovarian volume from 2D TVUS was 1.48 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-2.03; P ovarian volume and AFC as compared with 3D TVUS and MRI. Serum AMH correlated best with AFC from 3D TVUS, followed by MRI and 2D TVUS. The advantage of 3D TVUS might be of minor clinical importance when diagnosing PCOS, but useful when the actual AFC are of interest, e.g. in fertility counseling and research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brohi Ali Anwar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The entropy production in 2-D heat transfer system has been analyzed systematically by using the finite volume method, to develop new criteria for the numerical simulation in case of multidimensional systems, with the aid of the CFD codes. The steady-state heat conduction problem has been investigated for entropy production, and the entropy production profile has been calculated based upon the current approach. From results for 2-D heat conduction, it can be found that the stability of entropy production profile exhibits a better agreement with the exact solution accordingly, and the current approach is effective for measuring the accuracy and stability of numerical simulations for heat transfer problems.
High performance shallow water kernels for parallel overland flow simulations based on FullSWOF2D
Wittmann, Roland
2017-01-25
We describe code optimization and parallelization procedures applied to the sequential overland flow solver FullSWOF2D. Major difficulties when simulating overland flows comprise dealing with high resolution datasets of large scale areas which either cannot be computed on a single node either due to limited amount of memory or due to too many (time step) iterations resulting from the CFL condition. We address these issues in terms of two major contributions. First, we demonstrate a generic step-by-step transformation of the second order finite volume scheme in FullSWOF2D towards MPI parallelization. Second, the computational kernels are optimized by the use of templates and a portable vectorization approach. We discuss the load imbalance of the flux computation due to dry and wet cells and propose a solution using an efficient cell counting approach. Finally, scalability results are shown for different test scenarios along with a flood simulation benchmark using the Shaheen II supercomputer.
Extremes of 2d Coulomb gas: universal intermediate deviation regime
Lacroix-A-Chez-Toine, Bertrand; Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study the extreme statistics in the complex Ginibre ensemble of N × N random matrices with complex Gaussian entries, but with no other symmetries. All the N eigenvalues are complex random variables and their joint distribution can be interpreted as a 2d Coulomb gas with a logarithmic repulsion between any pair of particles and in presence of a confining harmonic potential v(r) \\propto r2 . We study the statistics of the eigenvalue with the largest modulus r\\max in the complex plane. The typical and large fluctuations of r\\max around its mean had been studied before, and they match smoothly to the right of the mean. However, it remained a puzzle to understand why the large and typical fluctuations to the left of the mean did not match. In this paper, we show that there is indeed an intermediate fluctuation regime that interpolates smoothly between the large and the typical fluctuations to the left of the mean. Moreover, we compute explicitly this ‘intermediate deviation function’ (IDF) and show that it is universal, i.e. independent of the confining potential v(r) as long as it is spherically symmetric and increases faster than \\ln r2 for large r with an unbounded support. If the confining potential v(r) has a finite support, i.e. becomes infinite beyond a finite radius, we show via explicit computation that the corresponding IDF is different. Interestingly, in the borderline case where the confining potential grows very slowly as v(r) ∼ \\ln r2 for r \\gg 1 with an unbounded support, the intermediate regime disappears and there is a smooth matching between the central part and the left large deviation regime.
Self-leveling 2D DPN probe arrays
Haaheim, Jason R.; Val, Vadim; Solheim, Ed; Bussan, John; Fragala, J.; Nelson, Mike
2010-02-01
Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is a direct write scanning probe-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement to advance nanoscale technology in commercial applications, and tailoring chemical composition and surface structure on the sub-100 nm scale benefits researchers in areas ranging from cell adhesion to cell-signaling and biomimetic membranes. These capabilities naturally suggest a "Desktop Nanofab" concept - a turnkey system that allows a non-expert user to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. In turn, this system is fundamentally supported by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray™, making DPN a high-throughput (>3×107 μm2 per hour), flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. However, cm2 arrays of nanoscopic tips introduce the nontrivial problem of getting them all evenly touching the surface to ensure homogeneous deposition; this requires extremely precise leveling of the array. Herein, we describe how we have made the process simple by way of a selfleveling gimbal attachment, coupled with semi-automated software leveling routines which bring the cm^2 chip to within 0.002 degrees of co-planarity. This excellent co-planarity yields highly homogeneous features across a square centimeter, with <6% feature size standard deviation. We have engineered the devices to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with both of our patterning tools: the DPN 5000, and the NLP 2000.
Better Jobs, Brighter Futures, a Stronger Washington. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015
2015-01-01
The world is changing rapidly. With changes in technology, demographics, and workforce trends, Washington needs colleges to not only keep pace, but lead the way. Washington's 34 community and technical colleges answer that call. The community and technical colleges have proven uniquely positioned to adapt to, embrace, and ignite change. Community…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordi Llop
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Canopy characterization is essential for pesticide dosage adjustment according to vegetation volume and density. It is especially important for fresh exportable vegetables like greenhouse tomatoes. These plants are thin and tall and are planted in pairs, which makes their characterization with electronic methods difficult. Therefore, the accuracy of the terrestrial 2D LiDAR sensor is evaluated for determining canopy parameters related to volume and density and established useful correlations between manual and electronic parameters for leaf area estimation. Experiments were performed in three commercial tomato greenhouses with a paired plantation system. In the electronic characterization, a LiDAR sensor scanned the plant pairs from both sides. The canopy height, canopy width, canopy volume, and leaf area were obtained. From these, other important parameters were calculated, like the tree row volume, leaf wall area, leaf area index, and leaf area density. Manual measurements were found to overestimate the parameters compared with the LiDAR sensor. The canopy volume estimated with the scanner was found to be reliable for estimating the canopy height, volume, and density. Moreover, the LiDAR scanner could assess the high variability in canopy density along rows and hence is an important tool for generating canopy maps.
Automated fetal brain segmentation from 2D MRI slices for motion correction.
Keraudren, K; Kuklisova-Murgasova, M; Kyriakopoulou, V; Malamateniou, C; Rutherford, M A; Kainz, B; Hajnal, J V; Rueckert, D
2014-11-01
Motion correction is a key element for imaging the fetal brain in-utero using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Maternal breathing can introduce motion, but a larger effect is frequently due to fetal movement within the womb. Consequently, imaging is frequently performed slice-by-slice using single shot techniques, which are then combined into volumetric images using slice-to-volume reconstruction methods (SVR). For successful SVR, a key preprocessing step is to isolate fetal brain tissues from maternal anatomy before correcting for the motion of the fetal head. This has hitherto been a manual or semi-automatic procedure. We propose an automatic method to localize and segment the brain of the fetus when the image data is acquired as stacks of 2D slices with anatomy misaligned due to fetal motion. We combine this segmentation process with a robust motion correction method, enabling the segmentation to be refined as the reconstruction proceeds. The fetal brain localization process uses Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER), which are classified using a Bag-of-Words model with Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. The segmentation process is a patch-based propagation of the MSER regions selected during detection, combined with a Conditional Random Field (CRF). The gestational age (GA) is used to incorporate prior knowledge about the size and volume of the fetal brain into the detection and segmentation process. The method was tested in a ten-fold cross-validation experiment on 66 datasets of healthy fetuses whose GA ranged from 22 to 39 weeks. In 85% of the tested cases, our proposed method produced a motion corrected volume of a relevant quality for clinical diagnosis, thus removing the need for manually delineating the contours of the brain before motion correction. Our method automatically generated as a side-product a segmentation of the reconstructed fetal brain with a mean Dice score of 93%, which can be used for further processing. Copyright
Scanning laser beam displays based on a 2D MEMS
Niesten, Maarten; Masood, Taha; Miller, Josh; Tauscher, Jason
2010-05-01
The combination of laser light sources and MEMS technology enables a range of display systems such as ultra small projectors for mobile devices, head-up displays for vehicles, wearable near-eye displays and projection systems for 3D imaging. Images are created by scanning red, green and blue lasers horizontally and vertically with a single two-dimensional MEMS. Due to the excellent beam quality of laser beams, the optical designs are efficient and compact. In addition, the laser illumination enables saturated display colors that are desirable for augmented reality applications where a virtual image is used. With this technology, the smallest projector engine for high volume manufacturing to date has been developed. This projector module has a height of 7 mm and a volume of 5 cc. The resolution of this projector is WVGA. No additional projection optics is required, resulting in an infinite focus depth. Unlike with micro-display projection displays, an increase in resolution will not lead to an increase in size or a decrease in efficiency. Therefore future projectors can be developed that combine a higher resolution in an even smaller and thinner form factor with increased efficiencies that will lead to lower power consumption.