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Sample records for washington state workers

  1. Device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation: examples from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G M; Lifka, J; Milstein, J

    1998-09-25

    Workers' compensation health benefits are broader than general health benefits and include payment for medical and rehabilitation costs, associated indemnity (lost time) costs, and vocational rehabilitation (return-to-work) costs. In addition, cost liability is for the life of the claim (injury), rather than for each plan year. We examined device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation over a 10-year period in Washington State. Most requests for device coverage in workers' compensation relate to the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of chronic musculoskeletal conditions. A number of specific problems have been recognized in making device coverage decisions within workers' compensation: (1) invasive devices with a high adverse event profile and history of poor outcomes could significantly increase both indemnity and medical costs; (2) many noninvasive devices, while having a low adverse event profile, have not proved effective for managing chronic musculoskeletal conditions relevant to injured workers; (3) some devices are marketed and billed as surrogate diagnostic tests for generally accepted, and more clearly proven, standard tests; (4) quality oversight of technology use among physicians may be inadequate; and (5) insurers' access to efficacy data adequate to make timely and appropriate coverage decisions in workers' compensation is often lacking. Emerging technology may substantially increase the costs of workers' compensation without significant evidence of health benefit for injured workers. To prevent ever-rising costs, we need to increase provider education and patient education and consent, involve the state medical society in coverage policy, and collect relevant outcomes data from healthcare providers.

  2. Use of attorneys and appeal filing in the Washington State workers' compensation program: does patient satisfaction matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Franklin, Gary; Turner, Judith; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Mootz, Robert; Smith-Weller, Terri

    2004-04-01

    Specify the frequency with which injured workers in Washington State's compensation system retained an attorney or filed an appeal, and the personal and job-related correlates of these actions. Analyze the relationship between workers' legal actions and their satisfaction in two domains: how well the claim was managed administratively, and how well the worker and claim manager communicated with one another. Characterize the relationship between retaining an attorney and long-term disability. Little is known about how often injured workers retain attorneys or file appeals in the workers' compensation system. We conducted a population-based study to examine the frequency of attorney retention and appeal filing in the Washington State workers' compensation program and the factors related to this event. Data for the study were provided by a survey conducted on 804 injured workers who were interviewed an average of 159 days after claim receipt. Attorney retention and appeal filing were examined up to 28 months later. Seven percent of the workers either retained an attorney or filed an appeal. Workers who were less satisfied with claims administration procedures were more likely to retain an attorney or file an appeal (Pclaim receipt to attorney retention (368 days) suggests that retaining an attorney is a correlate rather than a predictor of long-term disability.

  3. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  4. Characteristics of home care workers who leave their jobs: a cross-sectional study of job satisfaction and turnover in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Sahar; Jacoby, Daniel; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining a stable and motivated home care workforce has become a top policy priority. We surveyed 402 former home care workers in Washington State. We compared these "leavers" to current home care workers recently surveyed. Those who left the profession were more highly educated, had higher household income, and were more likely to be White. Those newly employed have better benefits, wages, hours, and career mobility than in their home care jobs. The low status and poor pay of home care workers may result in the inability of the profession to retain those who face better prospects.

  5. Workplace health and safety regulations: Impact of enforcement and consultation on workers' compensation claims rates in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggs, James; Silverstein, Barbara; Foley, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There has been considerable debate in the public policy arena about the appropriate mix of regulatory enforcement and consultation in achieving desired health and safety behavior across industries. Recently there has been a shift in federal policy toward voluntary approaches and constraining the scope of enforcement programs, although there is little evidence that this might improve health and safety outcomes. To address this, we examined changes in lost time workers compensation claims rates for Washington State employers who had (1) no OSHA State Plan (WISHA) activity, (2) enforcement, (3) consultation, and (4) both types of visits. Compensable claims rates, hours, and WISHA activity were determined for each employer account with a single business location that had payroll hours reported for every quarter from 1997-2000 and more than 10 employees. We used a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to Poisson regression to model the association between WISHA activity and claims rate controlling for other external factors. Controlling for previous claims rate and average size, claims rates for employers with WISHA enforcement activity declined 22.5% in fixed site industry SIC codes compared to 7% among employers with no WISHA activity (P 0.10). WISHA consultation activity was not associated with a greater decline in compensable claims rates (-2.3% for fixed sites and +3.5% for non-fixed sites). WISHA activity did not adversely affect worksite survivability through the study period. Enforcement inspections are significantly associated with decreasing compensable workers compensation claims rates especially for fixed site employers. We were unable to identify an association between consultation activities and decreasing claims rates. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Community Interagency Connections for Immigrant Worker Health Interventions, King County, Washington State, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chin; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2016-06-02

    Cross-sector community partnerships are a potentially powerful strategy to address population health problems, including health disparities. US immigrants - commonly employed in low-wage jobs that pose high risks to their health - experience such disparities because of hazardous exposures in the workplace. Hazardous exposures contribute to chronic health problems and complicate disease management. Moreover, prevention strategies such as worksite wellness programs are not effective for low-wage immigrant groups. The purpose of this article was to describe an innovative application of social network analysis to characterize interagency connections and knowledge needed to design and deliver a comprehensive community-based chronic disease prevention program for immigrant workers. Using iterative sample expansion, we identified 42 agencies representing diverse community sectors (service agencies, faith-based organizations, unions, nonprofits, government agencies) pertinent to the health of Chinese immigrant workers. To capture data on shared information, resources, and services as well as organizational characteristics, we jointly interviewed 2 representatives from each agency. We used social network analysis to describe interagency network structure and the positions of agencies within the networks. Agency interconnections were established primarily for information sharing. In the overall interagency network, a few service-oriented agencies held central or gatekeeper positions. Strong interconnectedness occurred predominately across service, public, and nonprofit sectors. The Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors showed the strongest interconnectedness. Network analysis yields critical understanding of community structural links and assets needed to inform decisions about actual and potential community collaborations. Alternative intervention strategies may be needed to address health disparities among immigrant workers.

  7. Characteristics of construction firms at risk for future workers' compensation claims using administrative data systems, Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Foley, Michael; Adams, Darrin; Bonauto, Dave

    2018-06-01

    Construction is high-hazard industry, and continually ranks among those with the highest workers' compensation (WC) claim rates in Washington State (WA). However, not all construction firms are at equal risk. We tested the ability to identify those construction firms most at risk for future claims using only administrative WC and unemployment insurance data. We collected information on construction firms with 10-50 average full time equivalent (FTE) employees from the WA unemployment insurance and WC data systems (n=1228). Negative binomial regression was used to test the ability of firm characteristics measured during 2011-2013 to predict time-loss claim rates in the following year, 2014. Claim rates in 2014 varied by construction industry groups, ranging from 0.7 (Land Subdivision) to 4.6 (Foundation, Structure, and Building Construction) claims per 100 FTE. Construction firms with higher average WC premium rates, a history of WC claims, increasing number of quarterly FTE, and lower average wage rates during 2011-2013 were predicted to have higher WC claim rates in 2014. We demonstrate the ability to leverage administrative data to identify construction firms predicted to have future WC claims. This study should be repeated to determine if these results are applicable to other high-hazard industries. Practical Applications: This study identified characteristics that may be used to further refine targeted outreach and prevention to construction firms at risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The persistent gap in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State: BRFSS, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z Joyce; Anderson, Naomi J; Foley, Michael; Rauser, Eddy; Silverstein, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    We examined the disparities in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State (WA) to provide support for possible policy decisions for uninsured workers. We examined data from the WA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2007 and compared workers aged 18-64 years of low income (annual household income income (annual household income ≥$35,000) on proportions and sources of health-care coverage. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses on factors that were associated with the uninsured. Of the 54,536 survey respondents who were working-age adults in WA, 13,922 (25.5%) were low-income workers. The proportions of uninsured were 38.2% for low-income workers and 6.3% for high-income workers. While employment-based health benefits remained a dominant source of health insurance coverage, they covered only 40.2% of low-income workers relative to 81.5% of high-income workers. Besides income, workers were more likely to be uninsured if they were younger; male; Hispanic; less educated; not married; current smokers; self-employed; or employed in agriculture/forestry/fisheries, construction, and retail. More low-income workers (28.7%) reported cost as an issue in paying for health services than did their high-income counterparts (6.7%). A persistent gap in health-care coverage exists between low- and high-income workers. The identified characteristics of these workers can be used to implement policies to expand health insurance coverage.

  9. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  10. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  11. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  12. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  13. Percutaneous injuries among dental professionals in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous exposure incidents facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV. This study was conducted to identify the circumstances and equipment related to percutaneous injuries among dental professionals. Methods We used workers' compensation claims submitted to the Department of Labor and Industries State Fund during a 7-year period (1995 through 2001 in Washington State for this study. We used the statement submitted by the injured worker on the workers' compensation claim form to determine the circumstances surrounding the injury including the type of activity and device involved. Results Of a total of 4,695 accepted State Fund percutaneous injury claims by health care workers (HCWs, 924 (20% were submitted by dental professionals. Out of 924 percutaneous injuries reported by dental professionals 894 (97% were among dental health care workers in non-hospital settings, including dentists (66, 7%, dental hygienists (61, 18% and dental assistants (667, 75%. The majority of those reporting were females (638, 71%. Most (781, 87% of the injuries involved syringes, dental instruments (77, 9%, and suture needles (23%. A large proportion (90% of injuries occurred in offices and clinics of dentists, while remainder occurred in offices of clinics and of doctors of medicine (9%, and a few in specialty outpatient facilities (1%. Of the 894 dental health care workers with percutaneous injuries, there was evidence of HBV in 6 persons, HCV in 30 persons, HIV in 3 persons and both HBV and HVC (n = 2 exposure. Conclusion Out of hospital percutaneous injuries are a substantial risk to dental health professionals in Washington State. Improved work practices and safer devices are needed to address this risk.

  14. 2015 State Geodatabase for Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. Fuel management at Washington State Ferries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.; Olds, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed Washington State Ferry (WSF) operations and provided details of a biodiesel research and demonstration project. Washington has the largest ferry system in the United States, with a total of 28 vessels that operate on 10 routes through 20 terminals. Routes vary by transit times, navigational challenges, and the proximity to population centres. WSF fuel and emissions management initiatives include exhaust emission studies, clean fuel initiatives, machinery upgrades, fuel conservation initiatives, and biodiesel testing. The organization is also using waste heat recovery and a positive restraint system. The WSF biodiesel pilot program was conducted using soy-derived fuels with a purifier disk stack. The program is in agreement with recent legislation requiring that 2 per cent of annual diesel fuel sales are from biodiesel fuels, and state legislation requiring that state agencies use a minimum of 20 per cent biodiesel blends in diesel-powered vessels and vehicles. Details of project partnerships were included. tabs., figs

  16. Ergonomics and regulatory politics: the Washington State case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Every year in the State of Washington more than 50,000 workers experience a work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD), making up more than 30% of all worker compensation cases. In 2000, the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) adopted a workplace ergonomics rule requiring employers to reduce worker exposure to hazards that cause or contribute to WMSDs. In 2003, the ergonomics rule was repealed by a margin of 53.5-46.5 in a statewide voter initiative. The official rulemaking record of approximately 100,000 pages, along with supplementary published and unpublished material, was reviewed. The relationship between scientific deliberation and the public policy process in adopting and repealing the ergonomics rule was assessed and described. The deliberative features of the regulatory, judicial, legislative, and ballot processes were compared. The ergonomics rule was successful in the regulatory and legal arenas where the process was most transparent and open to public involvement, differing views could be presented fully, and decision makers were expected to explain their decisions in light of the record. The rule fared most poorly in the legislature and at the ballot box when these features were lost and where considered deliberation was replaced by unconstrained political conflict. Additional checks and balances are needed.

  17. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  18. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  20. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  1. 75 FR 52023 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  2. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  3. Educator Supply and Demand in Washington State. 2004 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry; Maloney, Rick; Hathaway, Randy; Bryant, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the third Educator Supply and Demand Research study in the State of Washington. The intent of these Washington studies is to provide data to inform and shape decisions and activities in the following ways: (1) Provide useful information for educational policymakers, including the legislature, the State Board…

  4. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  5. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  6. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  7. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  8. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  9. Heat-related illness in Washington State agriculture and forestry sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K

    2014-08-01

    We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers' compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995-2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009-2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet's weather station network. There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biomarkers of Sensitivity and Exposure in Washington State Pesticide Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, M.C.; Checkoway, H.; De Roos, A.J.; Farin, F.M.; Fenske, R.A.; Richter, R.J.; van Belle, G.; Furlong, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are widely used in agriculture in the US and abroad. These compounds – which inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity – continue to be responsible for a high proportion of pesticide poisonings among US agricultural workers. It is possible that some individuals may be especially susceptible to health effects related to OP/CB exposure. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme metabolizes the highly toxic oxon forms of some OPs, and an individual's PON1 status may be an important determinant of his or her sensitivity to these chemicals. This chapter discusses methods used to characterize individual PON1 status and reviews previous epidemiologic studies that have evaluated PON1-related sensitivity to OPs in relation to various health endpoints. It also describes an ongoing longitudinal study among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers who are participating in a recently implemented cholinesterase monitoring program in Washington State. This study will evaluate handlers' PON1 status as a hypothesized determinant of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. Such studies will be useful to determine how regulatory risk assessments might account for differences in PON1-related OP sensitivity when characterizing inter-individual variability in risk related to OP exposure. Recent work assessing newer and more sensitive biomarkers of OP exposure is also discussed briefly in this chapter. PMID:20221867

  11. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... construction. Archaeologists working for the Washington Archaeological Research Center at Washington State... Reservation. Historical, ethnographic, linguistic, and archaeological information links the site to the...

  12. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... of human remains under the control of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum...

  13. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Washington. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  14. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  15. Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Baker, Bridget B.; Mayer, Karl A.; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Holahan, Paula M.; Thomas, Nancy J.; White, C. LeAnn

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

  16. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  17. 78 FR 13887 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by April 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia... contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  18. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O. Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650... it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks...

  19. 77 FR 61782 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by November 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Alicia... affiliated with the human remains should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation...

  20. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  1. The FLIP fuel experience at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    The Washington State University TRIGA-fueled modified G.E. reactor was refueled with a partial TRIGA-FLIP core in February, 1976. The final core loading consisted of 35 FLIP and 75 Standard TRIGA fuel rods and provided a core excess reactivity of $7.98. The observed performance of the reactor did not deviate significantly from the design predictions and specifications. Pulsing tests revealed a maximum power output of 1850 MW with a fuel temperature of 449 deg. C from a $2.50 pulse. Slight power fluctuations at 1 Megawatt steady-state operation and post-pulse power oscillations were observed. (author)

  2. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum. The human remains were removed from Island....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of...

  3. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum, Seattle, WA. The human....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of...

  4. 76 FR 58033 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  5. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  6. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  7. 76 FR 58039 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  8. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  9. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  10. Prevalence of corporal punishment among students in Washington State schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P

    1995-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.

  11. 78 FR 59964 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Washington (Burke Museum), and Central Washington University have completed an inventory of human remains, in...

  12. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-10823; 2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  13. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-12080;2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  14. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  15. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  16. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  17. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  18. Safety of union home care aides in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Phillips, Leslie E

    2017-09-01

    A rate-based understanding of home care aides' adverse occupational outcomes related to their work location and care tasks is lacking. Within a 30-month, dynamic cohort of 43 394 home care aides in Washington State, injury rates were calculated by aides' demographic and work characteristics. Injury narratives and focus groups provided contextual detail. Injury rates were higher for home care aides categorized as female, white, 50 to working through an agency (versus individual providers). In addition to direct occupational hazards, variability in workload, income, and supervisory/social support is of concern. Policies should address the roles and training of home care aides, consumers, and managers/supervisors. Home care aides' improved access to often-existing resources to identify, manage, and eliminate occupational hazards is called for to prevent injuries and address concerns related to the vulnerability of this needed workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of a clinic-based cholinesterase test kit for the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Carden, Angela; Fenske, Richard A; Ruark, Harold E; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-07-01

    The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program for pesticide handlers requires blood draws at local clinics, with samples tested at a central laboratory. At present, workers with inhibited cholinesterase activity may be re-exposed before they can be removed from work. In this study we explored the option of on-site testing at local clinics using the EQM Test-mate Kittrade mark, a portable cholinesterase test kit. Test kit cholinesterase activity measurements were performed on 50 blood samples by our research staff, and compared to measurements on the same samples by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory. Another set of samples was also analyzed with the test kit by medical staff at an eastern Washington clinic. Triplicate measurements with the test kit had a 3.3% average coefficient of variation (CV) for plasma cholinesterase (PChE), and a 3.5% average CV for erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) measurements. The kit's PChE measurements were similar to PHL measurements (average ratio of 0.98) when performed in the laboratory, but had a tendency to underestimate activity when used in the clinic setting (average ratio of 0.87). The kit systematically overestimated AChE activity by 42-48% relative to the PHL measurements, regardless of where the samples were analyzed. This easy-to-use test kit appeared to be a viable method for clinic-based PChE measurements, but was less consistent for AChE measurements performed in the clinic. Absolute measurements with the kit need to be evaluated carefully relative to standardized methods. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  1. The power professorship program at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, C.C.; Shamash, Y.

    1993-01-01

    As with most electric power programs, Washington State University's has existed since the beginning of the engineering program 100 years ago. It has grown and developed largely through the efforts of a few dedicated individuals. The Power Professorship Program has existed since 1972. The Power Professor has been Dr. Clifford C. Mosher until his recent semi-retirement. The Power Professorship was conceived of as an avenue for joint university-industry interaction. Considerable time and ingenuity by visionary engineers and others have resulted in development of a financial base for the Power Professorship Program. The program has been funded equally by public and investor-utility sectors. Following financial difficulties stemming from the Washington Public Power Supply System financial default on public utility bonds for several nuclear projects, funding for the program from the public sector was canceled. After several lean years, public-sector support was again restored by WSU's electrical engineering department offering a contract for services to the utilities in exchange for funding. This contract has been renewed annually, with costs and benefits firmly established through careful analysis and consultation. Problems facing the power industry in the early 1970s with regard to establishing a pipeline of future human resources, were almost identical with those of the present time: indifferent feelings about the industry in general, students being attracted to more glamorous disciplines, and a decline in educational opportunities available in the power area. A 1985 article in the IEEE Power Engineering Review describing today's declining enrollment in power engineering applies equally well to previous periods. A major driving force for initiating utility-industry participation in the Power Professorship Program was the concern for maintaining a source of entry-level engineers with a background in power engineering

  2. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an... University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, telephone (509) 335-4314. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  3. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an... objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. Repatriation of the human...

  4. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an... objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. Repatriation of the human...

  5. Unmet Student Financial Need in the State of Washington: A Study of the "Need Gap."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert; And Others

    A study of unmet student financial need in Washington State was conducted by the Washington Council for Postsecondary Education. "Unmet need" is the difference between need and the total amount of aid received by the student through federal, state, and institutional financial aid programs, privately funded scholarships, and nonsubsidized…

  6. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13770; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of..., Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

  7. 78 FR 50099 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... at the address in this notice by September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks... Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the Native... request Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  8. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given... written request with information in support of the request to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and...

  9. 78 FR 44594 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  10. Arab Gulf States : recruitment of Asian workers

    OpenAIRE

    JUREIDINI, Ray

    2014-01-01

    GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration This paper addresses a neglected area in studies of migrant labor in the Gulf States showing that exploitation of migrant workers occurs before deployment. Evidence from interviews conducted in the five major labour sending countries to Qatar (Philippines, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and India) suggests that the recruitment procedures and corrupt practices by recruitment agencies and employing company personnel in the receiving country place unski...

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in Washington state public high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Sheri; Quan, Linda

    2003-03-01

    To determine the best approaches for increasing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training opportunities for public high school students, we conducted a statewide survey of all 310 public high schools in Washington State. The findings describe CPR student training currently provided by high schools, barriers to providing, and strategies to increase CPR training of high school students. The response rate was 89% (276 schools) from a combination of mail and telephone surveys; 35% (n=97) reported that they did not provide any CPR student training. Of the 132 schools that provided CPR student training, 23% trained less than 10% of their students, and 39% trained more than 90% of their students. The majority of public high schools, 70%, did not have any teacher trained to teach CPR or had only one teacher with such training. Yet 80% of schools felt that CPR training is best provided in school settings. Schools perceived the greatest benefit of CPR training as providing students with the skill to save a life (43%). The most frequently identified barriers were logistical: limited time to teach the curriculum (24%), lack of funds (16%), and instructor scheduling difficulties (17%). Less than 5% of respondents voiced any opposition to CPR training, and that opposition was for logistical reasons. To increase CPR training, the single best strategies suggested were: increase funding, provide time in the curriculum, have more certified instructors, and make CPR student training a requirement.

  12. Seismic hazard assessment of the Hanford region, Eastern Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Power, M.S.; Swan, F.H. III

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was made for a site within the Hanford region of eastern Washington state, which is characterized as an intraplate region having a relatively low rate of seismic activity. Probabilistic procedures, such as logic trees, were utilized to account for the uncertainties in identifying and characterizing the potential seismic sources in the region. Logic trees provide a convenient, flexible means of assessing the values and relative likelihoods of input parameters to the hazard model that may be dependent upon each other. Uncertainties accounted for in this way include the tectonic model, segmentation, capability, fault geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, and earthquake recurrence rate. The computed hazard results are expressed as a distribution from which confidence levels are assessed. Analysis of the results show the contributions to the total hazard from various seismic sources and due to various earthquake magnitudes. In addition, the contributions of uncertainties in the various source parameters to the uncertainty in the computed hazard are assessed. For this study, the major contribution to uncertainty in the computed hazard are due to uncertainties in the applicable tectonic model and the earthquake recurrence rate. This analysis serves to illustrate some of the probabilistic tools that are available for conducting seismic hazard assessments and for analyzing the results of these studies. 5 references, 7 figures

  13. Effect of shift work on mental state of factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman.

  14. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  15. 78 FR 45958 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13406; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  16. 78 FR 44595 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13407; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  17. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, that meets the definition of..., a copper pendant was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended...

  18. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages WA FC program for ≥11 months (N = 10,177). Regression models were used to examine associations between utilization and expenditures and sex, race, age group, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (i.e., disability), substance abuse, behavior problems, placement setting (Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  20. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  1. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  2. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  3. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9682-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted regulations analogous to... of Health--Office of Drinking Water, [[Page 33457

  4. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  5. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park... possession of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, that meets the... notice. One lot of stone, bone, and glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington...

  6. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  7. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  8. The Path to Advanced Practice Licensure for Clinical Nurse Specialists in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Heather

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the history and process to obtaining advanced practice licensure for clinical nurse specialists in Washington State. Before 2016, Washington State licensed certified nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and certified nurse anesthetists under the designation of an advanced registered nurse practitioner; however, the state did not recognize clinical nurse specialists as advanced practice nurses. The work to drive the rule change began in 2007. The Washington Affiliate of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists used the Power Elite Theory to guide advocacy activities, building coalitions and support for the desired rule changes. On January 8, 2016, the Washington State Nursing Care Quality Assurance Commission voted to amend the state's advanced practice rules, including clinical nurse specialists in the designation of an advanced practice nurse. Since the rule revision, clinical nurse specialists in Washington State have been granted advanced registered nurse practitioner licenses. Driving changes in state regulatory rules requires diligent advocacy, partnership, and a deep understanding of the state's rule-making processes. To be successful in changing rules, clinical nurse specialists must build strong partnerships with key influencers and understand the steps in practice required to make the desired changes.

  9. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  10. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  11. Washington State Johnson-O'Malley Indian Education. 1971-72 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    The Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Act of 1934, amended in 1936, authorizes the Secretary of Interior to enter into a contract with any state which has legal authority and responsibility for the education of American Indian children residing there. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, State of Washington, is legally responsible for state schools and…

  12. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  13. Washington State Need Grant: Less-Than-Halftime Pilot Project (SHB 1345)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Washington State Legislature authorized, through Substitute House Bill 1345, a two-year pilot project allowing eligible students, who enroll for four or five credits in a term, to receive the State Need Grant (SNG). Several important policy considerations emerged during the pilot project. Board staff explored these issues with financial…

  14. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. Cyanotoxin bioaccumulation in freshwater fish, Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, F Joan; Johnson, Art; Hamel, Kathy; Preece, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Until recently, exposure pathways of concern for cyanotoxins have focused on recreational exposure, drinking water, and dermal contact. Exposure to cyanotoxins through fish consumption is a relatively new area of investigation. To address this concern, microcystins and other cyanotoxins were analyzed in fish collected from nine Washington lakes with recurrent toxic blooms using two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Microcystins or microcystin-like compounds were elevated in fish liver relative to muscle and other tissues (liver>gut>muscle). Microcystin concentrations in fish fillet samples using anti-Adda ELISA (range 6.3-11 μg/kg wet weight) were consistently higher in all fish species than concentrations using anti-microcystin (MC)-leucine-arginine (LR) ELISA (range 0.25-2.4 μg/kg wet weight). MC-leucine-alanine (LA) was the only variant detected in fish (2.5-12 μg/kg in four livers) among the nine variants analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Fish fillets showed no accumulation of the MCs targeted by LC-MS/MS. Other cyanotoxins analyzed (anatoxin-a, saxitoxin, domoic acid, and okadaic acid) were not detected in fish. Based on this and evidence from other studies, we believe that people can safely consume two 8-oz fish fillet meals per week from lakes with blooms producing MCs (clean the fish and discard viscera).

  16. Washington State Energy Use Profile, 1960--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1992-07-01

    This report is divided into three sections, each with data on energy consumption, prices, and expenditures. The first section presents an overview of statewide energy use trends. The second section presents energy use trends in four basic consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. The third section presents energy use trends in specific resource markets: natural gas, petroleum, electricity, coal, and wood. The appendixes contain information about data, sources, and a glossary. Data about Washington's energy resources are reported in two forms: in measures common to the fuel (kWh, barrels, etc.) and in the generic measure British thermal units (Btu). The common measures allow the reader to quickly grasp information in a familiar form. The generic measure allows the reader to compare energy resources. Conversion to Btu occasionally produces counter-intuitive results. For example, in different years, petroleum products have different average energy values, resulting in different conversion factors from barrels to Btu. A large amount of data contained in the Profile has been categorized and presented in a variety of ways. Understanding the meaning of categories is critical to understanding differences between the tables, especially those tables that present similar data. For example, petroleum trends are not the same as transportation trends, though they are similar because transportation is almost entirely dependent on petroleum. In another example, total end-use fuel energy consumption is not the same as total primary energy consumption. End-use fuel consumption does not include energy used for the generation of electricity. Counting both fuel used for electricity generation and electricity itself could result in double counting. Primary fuel consumption, on the other hand, does include energy used for the generation of electricity and is greater than total end-use consumption

  17. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-04-01

    Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention.

  18. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  19. A comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This project compares eight measures of performance related to transit service quality (e.g. trip reliability, on-time departures) and cost-efficiency (e.g. farebox recovery, subsidy per passenger) between Washington State Ferries (WSF) and 23 ferry ...

  20. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated... Commission, Olympia, WA that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... the site to the Eastern Washington State Historical Society (EWSHS), now known as the Northwest Museum...

  1. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Mary Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of... ethnographic collection from the Conner Museum to the Museum of Anthropology. In June of 2011, the curator of collections at the Conner Museum found four unassociated funerary items in the museum storage area and...

  2. Chapter 28A.85 RCW Monitoring Guide. Washington State's Anti-Sex Discrimination Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide was designed to assist in the assessment of the level of implementation of Washington State's anti-sex discrimination legislation in educational programs and activities. The monitoring guide contains two major sections: a monitoring standards check list and an on-site review packet. The check list provides an overview of the specific…

  3. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  4. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental... Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient... Rules.'' The updated PSCAA rules help implement the recommendations of the Tacoma-Pierce County Clean...

  5. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  6. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9247-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition of public water system, and has adopted regulations...

  7. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  8. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  9. 78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural... organization not identified in this notice that wish to claim these cultural items should submit a written....R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  10. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  11. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  12. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology at... Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation...

  13. Foreign-born care givers in Washington State nursing homes: characteristics, associations with quality of care, and views of administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Katherine; Pletz, Anna Maria; Katz, Aaron; Hagopian, Amy

    2015-06-01

    Following national trends, Washington State relies heavily on foreign-born workers to provide long-term care. Our study assesses state nursing facility characteristics, quality ratings, and the views of facility administrators about the implications of an increasing number of foreign-born employees. We used independently available data to supplement a survey of nursing home administrators. Nearly half of the administrators reported difficulty hiring U.S.-born job applicants. Three in four administrators reported problems related to language differences, and just more than a third reported challenges related to cultural and/or religious differences. Nonetheless, the proportion of foreign-born employees was positively associated with independent facility quality ratings. Almost half of the administrators reported discrimination by patients/clients toward their foreign-born workers. Quality ratings were negatively associated with for-profit, chain, or multi-ownership status. The proportion of foreign-born employees in nursing facilities may be associated with improved performance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Jonathan S.; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S.; Heiner, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. Methods A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Results Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient’s family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35% believed the initial additional security response would not be adequate, with 26% reporting no additional security would be available within 15 minutes. Conclusion Our study reveals the variability of ED security staffing and a heterogeneity of capabilities throughout Washington State. These deficiencies and vulnerabilities highlight the need for other EDs and regional emergency preparedness planners to conduct their own readiness assessments. PMID:28435498

  15. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  16. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  17. The Impact of Interstate Migration on Human Capital Development in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Washington State is a leader in the innovation economy largely due to the combination of aerospace, software, and biomedical industries centered in the greater Seattle area; and, the state's high level of international trade. Despite Washington's national ranking, the state is overly reliant on importing educated workers from other states and…

  18. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona

    2013-01-01

    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  19. Effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on carpenters' work-related injury rates, Washington State 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Sinyai, Clayton; Adams, Darrin

    2017-01-01

    Despite the size and breadth of OSHA's Outreach Training program for construction, information on its impact on work-related injury rates is limited. In a 9-year dynamic cohort of 17,106 union carpenters in Washington State, the effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on workers' compensation claims rate was explored. Injury rates were calculated by training status overall and by carpenters' demographic and work characteristics using Poisson regression. OSHA Outreach Training resulted in a 13% non-significant reduction in injury claims rates overall. The protective effect was more pronounced for carpenters in their apprenticeship years, drywall installers, and with increasing time since training. In line with these observed effects and prior research, it is unrealistic to expect OSHA Outreach Training alone to have large effects on union construction workers' injury rates. Standard construction industry practice should include hazard awareness and protection training, coupled with more efficient approaches to injury control. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:45-57, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  1. National Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1981. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 1662, October 31, 1981, Richland, Washington; November 9, 1981, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Hearings were held on October 31, 1981 in Richland, Washington and on November 9, 1981 in Washington, DC to discuss the effort in S. 1662 to establish a national policy and an environmentally acceptable program for managing nuclear wastes from domestic commercial activities. The Richland hearing was held in recognition that Washington State will bear the major impact of the legislation. Witnesses at the Washington, DC hearing included officials from states that are potential sites for radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities. The hearing record includes the testimony of 16 witnesses in Richland and seven in Washington, DC, followed by a reprint of S. 1662 and additional material submitted for the record

  2. Radiochemistry Education at Washington State University: Sustaining Academic Radiochemistry for the Nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.; Nash, Ken; Benny, Paul; Clark, Aurora; Wall, Nathalie; Wall, Don; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, Washington State University has been building radiochemistry as a component of its overall chemistry program. Using an aggressive hiring strategy and leveraged funds from the state of Washington and federal agencies, six radiochemistry faculty members have been added to give a total of seven radiochemists out of a department of twenty-five faculty members. These faculty members contribute to a diverse curriculum in radiochemistry, and the Chemistry Department now enjoys a significant increase in the number of trainees, the quantity of research expenditures, and the volume and quality of peer-reviewed scientific literature generated by the radiochemistry faculty and the trainees. These three factors are essential for sustaining the radiochemistry education and research program at any academic institution.

  3. Promoting accountability: hospital charity care in California, Washington state, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Debate as to whether private hospitals meet their charitable obligations is heated. This study examines how alternative state approaches for ensuring hospital accountability to the community affects charitable expenditures and potentially affects access to care for the uninsured. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare private California hospitals' charity care expenditures with those of hospitals in Texas and Washington state. The key finding from this study is that net of hospital characteristics, market characteristics and community need, Texas hospitals were estimated to provide over 3 times more charity care and Washington hospitals were estimated to provide 66% more charity care than California hospitals. This finding suggests that more prescriptive community benefit or charity care requirements may be necessary to ensure that private hospitals assume a larger role in the care of the uninsured.

  4. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  5. Electric and magnetic field reduction and research: A report to the Washington State Legislature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissinger, L.G.; Waller, P.; Chartier, V.L.; Olsen, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, citizens of Washington State are expressing their concerns about possible adverse health effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from electric utility power systems. A number of legislative proposals over the past several years have prompted governmental officials to evaluate available options for reducing electric and magnetic field strengths surrounding these systems (with a concentration on magnetic fields) or otherwise manage public exposure to power lines by increasing land use controls and setbacks for new development. Unsuccessful proposals brought before the Washington Legislature include 2 mG magnetic field limits for new transmission lines at the right-of-way edge; a temporary moratorium on transmission construction; requirements for providing public information on EMF; and expansion of the role of state governmental agencies in transmission siting and design. A successful Whatcom County initiative limits the voltage of new transmission to 115 kV in all but industrial land use zones, an action likely to have an unintended outcome of increasing magnetic fields in some areas. It is clear that better communication is needed about possible options for EMF management, costs and consequences, despite the fact scientific evidence on the existence of human health effects is inconclusive. This paper describes the work that Washington State undertook in 1990-92 in response to Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill 6771 establishing the Electric Transmission Research Needs Task Force. The Task Force was directed to report to the Legislature on possible exposure reduction methods; recommending engineering research that could lead to more effective approaches in the future

  6. Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally

    2015-11-01

    Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Negotiating Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Mapuche Workers in the Chilean State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Joo; Richards, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    A central component of neoliberal multiculturalism in contemporary Latin America is an increase in indigenous individuals who work for the state, implementing indigenous policy at the municipal, regional and national levels. We explore the consequences of the inclusion of these individuals by analyzing the experiences of Mapuche state workers in…

  8. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Peecook

    Full Text Available We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters. Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  9. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  10. Report of survey results for newly licensed registered nurses in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Current projections for the need for nurses in Washington state are based on an increase in the need for health care, the aging of the population, and the inability of the nursing educational institutions to supply adequate numbers of graduates. Yet many new graduates are providing anecdotal evidence that they cannot find a job in nursing. This study gathered information regarding the employment of newly licensed registered nurses in Washington between May 2009 and August 2010. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of 2,200 newly licensed nurses; 532 responses were returned. Nearly 81% reported current employment as a registered nurse and 69.5% reported that they were very or somewhat satisfied with their employment situation. The job search strategies, type of job sought, and factors contributing to their success are reported. Factors contributing to the success of their job search and to job dissatisfaction are explored. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Contents of risk assessments to support the retrieval and closure of tanks for the Washington State Department of Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Before the Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan can be performed, risk assessments of various options must be performed for ORP, DOE Headquarters, and the Washington State Dept. of Ecology. This document focuses on the risk assessments for Ecology

  12. School Social Workers Sanctioned by State Departments of Education and State Licensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…

  13. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Methods Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N = 4,101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Results Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%–67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%–81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months’ passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Conclusions Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. PMID:28448904

  14. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  16. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  17. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wemple, C.A.; Tripard, G.E.; Gavin, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    A new epithermal-neutron beam facility for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) research and boronated agent screening in animal models is in the final stages of construction at Washington State University (WSU). A key distinguishing feature of the design is the incorporation of a new, high-efficiency, neutron moderating and filtering material, Fluental, developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. An additional key feature is the provision for adjustable filter-moderator thickness to systematically explore the radiobiological consequences of increasing the fast-neutron contamination above the nominal value associated with the baseline system. (author)

  18. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  19. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  20. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form

  1. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  2. Strategy and field implementation for determining a dangerous waste mixture in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Steve; Foster, Rick; Wright, Jamie

    1992-01-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), states rather than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maybe authorized to implement RCRA regulations. Under RCRA, environmental regulations implemented by an authorized state must be at least as stringent as those contained in RCRA. Compared to RCRA, the corresponding regulations of the State of Washington regarding the determination of characteristic wastes are more stringent and complex. This paper discusses the complexities of the regulations and presents a strategy for successfully managing diverse waste streams. This strategy was used during the cleanup of contaminated areas and equipment at the Albany Research Center (ARC) in Albany, Oregon, which processed uranium and thorium for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the early days of the nation's atomic energy program. Wastes from the cleanup of ARC were shipped to the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Because the DOE Hanford Reservation is located in Washington, this paper should be of interest to DOE waste generators. (author)

  3. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  4. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  5. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  6. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  7. Marijuana Legalization and Parents' Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2016-10-01

    The recent legalization of nonmedical marijuana use in several U.S. states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents' reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult nonmedical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results showed (1) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of nonmedical marijuana use to be 18; (2) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (3) wide opposition to teen use and use around one's children; and (4) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. State safety oversight program : audit of the tri-state oversight committee and the Washington metropolitan area transit authority, final audit report, March 4, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) conducted an on-site audit of the safety program implemented by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and overseen by the Tri-State Oversight Committee (TOC) between December 14 and 17, 20...

  9. Effect of severity of illness on cesarean delivery rates in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Walker, Suzan; Benedetti, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Hospitals and providers are increasingly held accountable for their cesarean delivery rates. In the perinatal quality improvement arena, there is vigorous debate about whether all hospitals can be held to the same benchmark for an acceptable cesarean rate regardless of patient acuity. However, the causes of variation in hospital cesarean delivery rates are not well understood. We sought to evaluate the association and temporal trends between severity of illness at admission and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate among hospitals in Washington State. We hypothesized that hospitals with higher patient acuity would have higher cesarean delivery rates and that this pattern would persist over time. In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed aggregate hospital-level data for all nonmilitary hospitals in Washington State with ≥100 deliveries/y during federal fiscal years 2010 through 2014 (287,031 deliveries). Data were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System, which includes inpatient demographic, diagnosis, procedure, and discharge information derived from hospital billing systems. Age, admission diagnoses and procedure codes were converted to patient-level admission severity-of-illness scores using the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups classification system. This system is widely used throughout the United States to adjust hospital data for severity of illness. Mean admission hospital-level severity-of-illness scores were calculated for each fiscal year among the term singleton vertex population with no history of cesarean delivery. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between hospital admission severity of illness and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate, calculated Pearson correlation coefficients, and compared regression line slopes and 95% confidence intervals for each fiscal year. Hospitals were diverse with respect to delivery volume, level of care

  10. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates.

  11. 78 FR 15053 - Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...,372B] Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Longview, Washington; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On... Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington (TA-W-81...

  12. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  13. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  14. Relationship of infant and fetal mortality to operations at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Washington State, 1946-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, S.; Hansom, J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of infant and fetal mortality to numbers of nuclear reactors at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation was investigated. Mortality rates were obtained using 36 years of United States vital statistics data. Three different exposure groups were selected based on meteorologic studies of the Hanford area: group 1, counties downwind of Hanford all year; group 2, counties seasonally downwind; and group 3, counties not downwind. Washington state was used as an additional comparison group. Four periods of operation based on fluctuations in numbers of reactors were characterized. Log-linear analysis revealed that the three groups and Washington state had similar trends in infant mortality rates over the four time periods. On the other hand, the trend in fetal mortality rates for group 1 did differ significantly from trends for the two other groups and Washington state. The trends of fetal mortality rates for group 2, group 3, and Washington state were not statistically different. Fetal mortality rates in group 1, however, failed to decline from period 1 (1946-1954) to period 2 (1955-1964) as expected by the trends for the two groups and Washington state. During period 2, the greatest number of reactors were operating. County-specific analysis showed that, of the counties in group 1, the trend in fetal mortality for Benton County, where Hanford is located, was significantly different from that for Washington state. A possible link between Hanford and an excess in fetal deaths is suggested by the deviation in trend of group 1, which appears localized to Benton County and the period of peak activity at Hanford

  15. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  16. Field observations of the developing legal recreational cannabis economy in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric L; Roussell, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Washington State legalized the sale of recreational cannabis in 2012. This paper describes the unfolding of the market regulatory regime in an eastern portion of the state, including field descriptions to illustrate the setting. We made observations and conducted interviews of the local supply chain comprising a producer/processor, analytic facility, and retail establishments as well as querying the state director of the regulatory board. Interviews and observations of facilities suggest an overwhelming concern for black market diversion drives state regulatory efforts. The ongoing dialogue between market actors and the state has resulted in a more equitable distribution of profits at different stages in the process. State safety regulations have thus far been shifted to independent laboratories. Banks and insurance companies have slowly begun making inroads into the industry, despite federal prohibition. The law was conceived as a social justice remedy, but the bulk of the legal and regulatory activity surrounds cannabis marketplace management. This has been characterized by concerns for black market diversion, producer/processor profits, and a hands-off approach to safety regulation. Minor cannabis violations as a pathway to criminal justice system involvement have been reduced substantially but disproportionate enforcement upon racial/ethnic minorities continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Big data on a big new market: Insights from Washington State's legal cannabis market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Bao, Yilun; Davenport, Steve; Fahli, Imane; Guo, Yutian; Kinnard, Krista; Najewicz, Mary; Renaud, Lauren; Kilmer, Beau

    2018-07-01

    Voters in eight U.S. states have passed initiatives to legalize large-scale commercial production of cannabis for non-medical use. All plan or require some form of "seed-to-sale" tracking systems, which provide a view of cannabis market activity at a heretofore unimagined level of detail. Legal markets also create a range of new matters for policy makers to address. Publicly available data were obtained on approximately 45 million individually priced items purchased in the 35 million retail transactions that took place during the first two and a half years of Washington State's legal cannabis market. Records include product type (flower, extract, lotion, liquid edible, etc.), product name, price, and potency with respect to multiple cannabinoids, notably THC and CBD. Items sold can be traced back up the supply chain through the store to the processor and producer, to the level of identifying the specific production batch and mother plant, the firm that tested the product, and test results. Data visualization methods are employed to describe spatial-temporal patterns of multiple correlated attributes (e.g., price and potency) broken down by product. Text-analytic methods are used to subdivide the broad category of "extracts for inhalation" into more homogeneous sub-categories. To understand the competitiveness of the legal cannabis market in Washington we calculate the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) for processors and retailers. Cannabis prices fell steadily and proportionally at the processor and retailer levels. Retail and wholesale price maintained a roughly 3:1 ratio for multiple product types after some initial fluctuations. Although a wide range of edibles are sold, they account for a modest share of consumer spending; extracts for inhalation are a larger and heterogeneous market segment. The HHI indicates the cannabis market is highly competitive at the processor level, but less so for retail markets at the county level. Washington's state-legal cannabis

  18. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  19. Perceived impact and feasibility of strategies to improve access to healthy foods in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee L; Podrabsky, Mary; Beckwith-Stanley, Nadia; Chan, Nadine; Ellings, Amy; Kovacs, Tricia; Lane, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of each policy on a five-point scale using online surveys. Washington State policy process. Forty-nine content experts (national researchers and subject experts), forty policy experts (state elected officials or their staff, gubernatorial or legislative policy analysts) and forty-five other stakeholders (state-level advocates, programme administrators, food producers). In aggregate, respondents rated policy impact and implementation feasibility higher than political feasibility. Policy experts rated policy strategies as less politically feasible compared with content experts (P political and implementation feasibility. These included policies related to nutrition standards in schools and child-care facilities, food distribution systems, urban planning projects, water availability, joint use agreements and breast-feeding supports. Although they may be perceived as potentially impactful, some policies will be more difficult to enact than others. Information about the potential feasibility of policies to improve access to healthy foods can be used to focus limited policy process resources on strategies with the highest potential for enactment, implementation and impact.

  20. Outreach at Washington State University: a case study in costs and attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth A.; Bollen, Viktor; Bersano, Thomas M.; Mossman, Sean M.

    2016-09-01

    Making effective and efficient use of outreach resources can be difficult for student groups in smaller rural communities. Washington State University's OSA/SPIE student chapter desires well attended yet cost-effective ways to educate and inform the public. We designed outreach activities focused on three different funding levels: low upfront cost, moderate continuing costs, and high upfront cost with low continuing costs. By featuring our activities at well attended events, such as a pre-football game event, or by advertising a headlining activity, such as a laser maze, we take advantage of large crowds to create a relaxed learning atmosphere. Moreover, participants enjoy casual learning while waiting for a main event. Choosing a particular funding level and associating with well-attended events makes outreach easier. While there are still many challenges to outreach, such as motivating volunteers or designing outreach programs, we hope overcoming two large obstacles will lead to future outreach success.

  1. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  2. Rapid deterioration of sediment surface habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, as indicated by benthic foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Elizabeth A; Martin, Ruth A; Martin, David E; Apple, Jude

    2015-08-15

    Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause. Thus, the metrics of contamination alone do not adequately characterize habitat viability, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide insight into the health of coastal ecosystems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Firearm Ownership, Storage Practices, and Suicide Risk Factors in Washington State, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin Renee; Gomez, Anthony; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2018-05-17

    To characterize firearm ownership and storage practices in Washington State and assess their relationship with suicide risk factors. Using Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 2013 to 2016, we conducted survey-weighted multivariable Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Of 34 884 adult respondents, 34.3% (95% CI = 33.7%, 35.0%) reported a firearm in their household, among whom 36.6% (95% CI = 35.4%, 37.7%) stored their firearm locked and unloaded. There were no differences in mental health indicators by firearm ownership or storage practice status. Binge and chronic alcohol use were somewhat more prevalent among adults from firearm-owning households (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.3; PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4, respectively) and among those living in households not practicing safe storage (PR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7; PR = 1.9; 1.5, 2.3, respectively). Variability in mental health does not explain the substantial increased suicide risk among individuals in firearm-owning households. Greater prevalence of alcohol misuse among adults in firearm-owning households not practicing safe storage highlights the need for suicide prevention interventions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 17, 2018: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304403).

  4. Modeling the impact of a carbon tax: A trial analysis for Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keibun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy policy makers have proposed a carbon tax as an economy-wide policy tool to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The quantification of its impact on GHG emissions has relied on an energy-economy model, whose complexity often makes it difficult to comprehend how it simulates the interaction of a carbon tax and energy demand. This study therefore aims at developing an alternative model called the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM). The elasticity-based approach used in C-TAM is less sophisticated than an equilibrium-based approach used in an energy-economy model, but C-TAM is designed to maximize its predictive capabilities by using a wide range of elasticities for each sector and fuel use, accounting for likely changes in fuel mix for electricity generation, and addressing the model's sensitivity to elasticity estimates with Monte Carlo simulation. The trial analysis in this study evaluates a potential carbon tax in Washington State, suggesting a carbon tax at US$30 per metric ton of CO 2 (tCO 2 ) lowers GHG emissions by 8.4% from the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in 2035. The study concludes that C-TAM can provide meaningful policy implications by forecasting detailed impact on revenues and energy demand for each sector and fuel use. - Highlights: ► An elasticity-based model is developed to forecast the impact of a carbon tax. ► This model can show detailed impacts on each sector and fuel use. ► Extensive literature review and sensitivity analyses cover the model's weakness. ► A carbon tax is effective in curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Washington State. ► A carbon tax is however more effective if implemented nationwide.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Washington. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  6. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Washington State is to improve intercity passenger rail service by reducing travel times, achieving greater... intercity travel demand. To achieve these goals WSDOT applied for federal funding through the High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program (HSIPR Program) administered by the FRA and funded by the American Recovery...

  7. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  8. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  9. An exploratory study of boarding home sanctions and compliance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Schaffner, Mindy L

    2011-01-01

    States vary in enforcement systems that monitor the quality of care in residential boarding homes. The growing number of people seeking long-term care services in boarding homes requires regulatory systems that are effective in quality assurance enforcement. This 6 year retrospective study describes the characteristics of 601 sanctioned and nonsanctioned homes in the state of Washington and evaluates the effectiveness of enforcement actions such as intermediate sanctions on future boarding home compliance. The intermediate sanctions evaluated are stop placement of admissions, civil fines, and conditions placed on licenses. Boarding homes that were sanctioned tended to be homes that were for-profit and had governmental contracts for Medicaid services. Homes that remained sanctioned throughout the 6 year study tended to be homes that were individual ownership corporations, had smaller numbers of licensed beds, and did not provide nursing services. Intermediate sanctions were found to vary in effectiveness. Conditions placed on licenses were the most effective intermediate sanction, and civil fines the least effective. Higher citation numbers and the most severe level of complaint types were found to be predictors of becoming a sanctioned boarding home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Promoting Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Practices: A Washington State Learning Collaborative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, Emily; Johnson, Donna; Knox, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Hospital breastfeeding support practices can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Learning collaboratives are an increasingly common strategy to improve practices in health care and have been applied to breastfeeding in many cases. The aims of this study of the Evidence-Based Hospital Breastfeeding Support Learning Collaborative (EBBS LC) were to describe the perceptions of participants regarding the process and effectiveness of the EBBS LC, describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and identify additional actions and resources needed in future learning collaboratives. Qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 key staff who represented 16 of the 18 participating hospitals. The learning collaborative was perceived positively by participants, meeting the expectations of 9 and exceeding the expectations of 4 persons interviewed. The most beneficial aspect of the program was its collaborative nature, and the most difficult aspect was the time required to participate as well as technological difficulties. The key barriers were staff time, staff changes, cost, and the difficulty of changing the existing practices of hospitals and communities. The key facilitating factors were supportive management, participation in multiple breastfeeding quality improvement projects, collecting data on breastfeeding outcomes, tangible resources regarding the Ten Steps, and positive community response. Participants in the EBBS LC stated that they would like to see the Washington State Department of Health create a resource-rich, centralized source of information for participants. This learning collaborative approach was valued by participants. Future efforts can be guided by these evaluation findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Location, location, location: Assessing the spatial patterning between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets and neighborhood characteristics within Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Loni Philip; Fillmore, Christina; Melly, Steven

    2018-04-01

    The availability of marijuana products is becoming increasingly prevalent across the United States (US), many states are allowing for the production, processing, and retailing of these products for medical and/or recreational use. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the spatial patterning of marijuana licenses, and (2) examine the impact of alcohol outlets in addition to other neighborhood characteristics on marijuana licenses within the state of Washington. This cross-sectional observational study examined 1458 census tracts in Washington state from 2017, using marijuana and alcohol data from the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board as well as neighborhood characteristics data from the American Community Survey 2011-2015 5-year estimates. We used exploratory and formal spatial regression methods, including integrated nested Laplace approximation within a Bayesian statistical framework, to address the study aims. Our results indicate there is significant spatial patterning of marijuana producers and processors across the state. We also found that all marijuana licenses are located in poorer census tracts, and marijuana retailers are co-located in census tracts with off-premises alcohol outlets. Our study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets, and neighborhood characteristics, and has important implications for policymakers in other states currently considering legalizing marijuana-products for medical and/or recreational use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  13. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  14. Quality of life among female workers in edo state: consideration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of age, marital status and job-type on quality of Life amonge female workers in Edo State (N =188). Results from t-test revealed that female teachers reported better quality of life than female police officer, married female workers reported better quality of life than single female workers, while ...

  15. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... bone handle. The funerary objects were removed from the area surrounding Lake Washington primarily on... the 1870s, as the City of Seattle developed, the Lake people were pushed out to other areas, including...

  16. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility... Reservation, Washington) that this notice has been published. Dated: August 20, 2013. Sherry Hutt, Manager...

  17. Smoke-free law associated with higher-than-expected taxable retail sales for bars and taverns in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Dilley, Julia; Maher, Julie E; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry

    2010-07-01

    Continued progress in implementing smoke-free laws throughout the United States would benefit from documenting positive economic effects, particularly for the hospitality industry. This study describes changes in sales revenue in bars and taverns since December 2005, when a statewide smoke-free law in Washington State went into effect. Using 24 quarters of inflation-adjusted taxable retail sales data from 2002 through 2007, we fitted a regression model to estimate the effect of the smoke-free law on sales revenue, controlling for seasonality and other economic factors. We found no immediate change in bar revenues in the first quarter of 2006, but taxable retail sales grew significantly through the fourth quarter of 2007. In the 2 years after the smoke-free law was implemented, sales revenues were $105.5 million higher than expected for bars and taverns in Washington State. The higher-than-expected revenue from taxable sales in bars and taverns after the implementation of smoke-free laws in Washington State provided extra funds to the state general fund. Potential increases in revenue in other jurisdictions that implement smoke-free indoor air policies could provide funds to benefit residents of those jurisdictions.

  18. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  19. Parental Country of Birth and Childhood Vaccination Uptake in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Tasslimi, Azadeh; Matheson, Jasmine; DeBolt, Chas

    2016-07-01

    Underimmunization of certain immigrant populations can place them at high risk of experiencing vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between January 1, 2008, and May 1, 2013, among children included in the Washington State Immunization Information System. We assessed receipt of 1 or more doses of measles-containing, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-containing vaccines between 12 and 23 months of age. We compared children with 1 or more parents born in Somalia, Ukraine, Russia, Mexico, or India to children with 2 parents born in the United States. Poisson regression models with robust SEs were used to provide prevalence ratios adjusted for maternal education and number of prenatal visits. We identified 277 098 children, including 65 466 with foreign-born parents. Children of Somali-born parents were less likely to be immunized against measles than children of US-born parents (prevalence ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.84); this decrease became more pronounced over time (P < .01). No such disparity between these groups was observed with other vaccines. Compared with children of US-born parents, children of Ukrainian-born and Russian-born parents were less likely to be immunized, whereas children of Mexican-born and Indian-born parents were more likely to be immunized with any of the specified vaccines. We found country-specific patterns of immunization that may reflect underlying cultural or other beliefs. Certain immigrant communities with higher rates of immunization refusal may be at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases and require new forms of public health outreach. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Practice patterns among male and female general dentists in a Washington State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D

    2005-06-01

    Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.

  1. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  2. Program and curriculum development in radiochemistry at Washington State University to educate the next generation of radiochemists in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.B.; Nash, K.; Benny, P.; Elliston, J.; Buckely, P.

    2005-01-01

    Washington State University (WSU) has -been the recipient of grant funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Science and Technology to enhance its curriculum and service activities in radiochemistry. These funds have been used to hire new faculty, redesign undergraduate and graduate courses in radiochemistry, and initiate summer programs in radiochemistry for regional college faculty and high school teachers. The funds received from the federal government were matched by investments from the state of Washington. These investments have resulted in many positive changes in the Chemistry Department and the Nuclear Radiation Center at WSU. The number of students graduating from our radiochemistry programs has increased markedly, and the level of additional extra mural funding for our programs has also increased. These activities will be described, and feedback from employers of our radiochemistry graduates will be provided. Plans for future radiochemistry program development will also be discussed.

  3. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Padua Inventory: Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR)

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Giti; Kaviani, Hosein; Esmaili, Yaghob; Ebrahimkhani, Narges; Manesh, Alireza Amin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Persian Padua Inventory Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR), a measure of obsessive- compulsive phenomena, was examined in a non-clinical sample of 348 Iranian university students. Method The PI-WSUR was translated into Persian, and its back translation was controlled by the author inventory. A pilot study based on cultural differences was carried out on twenty students. The study subjects consisted of 348 university...

  5. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  6. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  7. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  8. Nitrogen deposition effects on diatom communities in lakes from three National Parks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.

  9. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p landslide volume and mean annual precipitation, with 98% of landslide volume occurring along the windward, high-precipitation side of the range during the 25-year interval. Normalized to area, this volume yields a basin-wide erosion rate of 0.28 ± 0.11 mm yr- 1, which is similar to previous time-variable estimates of erosion throughout the Olympic Mountains, including those from river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  10. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Shaogang; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Drouillard, Ken G.; Haffner, G. Douglas; Letcher, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. - Osprey eggs from the Puget Sound area contain the herbicide dacthal and its analogue

  11. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  13. 75 FR 34674 - Washington: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information....gov or in hard copy. You may view and copy the Washington application, during normal business hours...(7)(c) Clarify that 261/5(c) Intro. counting exclusion applies to permit- by-rule (PBR), not to...

  14. Travel costs associated with flood closures of state highways near Centralia/Chehalis, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report discusses the travel costs associated with the closure of roads in the greater : Centralia/Chehalis, Washington region due to 100-year flood conditions starting on the Chehalis River. The costs : were computed for roadway closures on I-5,...

  15. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  16. 75 FR 12718 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Puget Sound, Naval Station Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: david.b.olson@usace.army.mil . Include the..., Attn: CECW-CO (David B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier... copy form. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Olson, Headquarters, Operations and Regulatory...

  17. 78 FR 14951 - State of Washington; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm or the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Agency, Region 10, Library, 10th Floor, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101. The Library is open from 9... telephone number for the Library is (206) 553-1289. (2) Washington Department of Ecology, Water Quality...

  18. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NODC Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  19. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  20. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the Washington State University TRIGA reactor. Docket No. 50-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Washington State University (WSU) for a renewal of operating license number R-76 to continue to operate a research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Washington State University and is located on the WSU campus in Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by WSU without endangering the health and safety of the public

  2. Alternative medicine, worker health, and absenteeism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Health related absenteeism costs an estimated $153 billion annually in the United States (Witters and Agrawal, 2011). 1 Chronic conditions (major contributors to absenteeism) are often successfully managed by Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). As CAM becomes an increasingly visible component of healthcare, firms may wish to consider whether CAM therapies can help reduce illness-related absenteeism. This paper aims to extend the literature on healthcare utilization and absenteeism by exploring whether CAM treatment is associated with fewer workdays missed due to illness. Using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and propensity score matching (PSM), this study estimates the relationship between visits to CAM practitioners, health, and illness-related absenteeism. In a sample of 8820 workers, the average annual number of workdays lost due to illness is 3.69. Visiting an acupuncturist correlates with lower absenteeism among men (1.182 fewer workdays missed, pabsenteeism, and many correlate with improved health. Two limitations of this study are worth noting. First, a small proportion of the sample uses CAM, limiting the generalizability of results. Second, if health conscious individuals are more likely to use CAM, then health attitudes may be contributing to lower absenteeism among the treated. Further research is needed to identify a causal relationship between CAM treatment, health, and absenteeism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-07-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the

  4. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaDou Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

  5. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  6. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The New Nomads: Art Life, and Lore of Migrant Workers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Mary Arnold, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Migrant farm workers are the concern and theme of this special serial issue. Migrant farm workers arrange much of their social and economic life around seasonal changes as they follow jobs up the eastern migrant stream to its northenmost part in New York state, then south to Florida. The education, health, and folk arts program at the Board of…

  8. Results from a National Study of Social Workers Sanctioned by State Licensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Prom, Kim W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a descriptive study, synthesizing the reports of 27 state regulatory boards about their actions against certified and licensed social workers (N = 874) during the period of 1999 to 2004. The purpose of this study was to examine the unprofessional behavior of certified and licensed social workers, the results of…

  9. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationships between the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning in the State of Washington. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joireman, Jeff; Abbott, Martin L.

    This report examines the overlap between student test results on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The two tests were compared and contrasted in terms of content and measurement philosophy, and analyses studied the statistical relationship between the ITBS and the WASL. The ITBS assesses…

  11. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  12. Perceptions of working conditions amongst health workers in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though salaries were important, presence of conflict at work, freedom of expression, managerial support for staff welfare, managerial support for staff career development, availability of tools and consumables in the workplace and progress towards personal professional goals appear to play a role in worker motivation.

  13. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Kerr, William C; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Ye, Yu

    2017-11-27

    In 2012 Washington State ended a wholesale/retail monopoly on liquor, permitting sale of spirits in stores with > 10,000 square feet. Implementation resulted in average price increases, but also five times the stores selling liquor. As part of a privatization evaluation, we studied pre-post and between-store-type purchase experiences. A 2010 Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) survey of liquor purchasers (n = 599), and the 2014 baseline of a repeated telephone survey (1,202 residents; n = 465 purchasers), each included 10 LCB questions on satisfaction with purchase experiences, each attribute with graded response scale A = 4 to D = 1 and F (0 = fail). Analyses used t-tests for satisfaction differences by time and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 2014 between-store satisfaction-level differences. Five purchase features were rated more favorably after privatization (ps convenience, store hours, and prices (though price rated lowest both times); selection offered, courtesy, and checkout speed were unaltered, and number of staff and staff knowledge declined (both p convenience favored grocery and drug stores, and price satisfaction favored wholesale (Costco) stores, with staff knowledge highest at liquor stores. Satisfaction with liquor purchases increased after privatization for half the consumer experiences. Availability (location convenience and store hours) was important to liquor purchasers. Such results are relevant to sustained support for the policy of privatizing spirits retail monopolies.

  14. [Changes in functional state during occupational activities in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied functional state before and after the working shift in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction, analyzed changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics parameters, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, stabilographic and psychophysiologic values.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness/Cost-Benefit Analysis of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Thompson, John D; Kobrynski, Lisa; Ojodu, Jelili; Zarbalian, Guisou; Grosse, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the expected cost-effectiveness and net benefit of the recent implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Washington State. We constructed a decision analysis model to estimate the costs and benefits of NBS in an annual birth cohort of 86 600 infants based on projections of avoided infant deaths. Point estimates and ranges for input variables, including the birth prevalence of SCID, proportion detected asymptomatically without screening through family history, screening test characteristics, survival rates, and costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment were derived from published estimates, expert opinion, and the Washington NBS program. We estimated treatment costs stratified by age of identification and SCID type (with or without adenosine deaminase deficiency). Economic benefit was estimated using values of $4.2 and $9.0 million per death averted. We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the influence of key variables on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of net direct cost per life-year saved. Our model predicts an additional 1.19 newborn infants with SCID detected preclinically through screening, in addition to those who would have been detected early through family history, and 0.40 deaths averted annually. Our base-case model suggests an ICER of $35 311 per life-year saved, and a benefit-cost ratio of either 5.31 or 2.71. Sensitivity analyses found ICER values <$100 000 and positive net benefit for plausible assumptions on all variables. Our model suggests that NBS for SCID in Washington is likely to be cost-effective and to show positive net economic benefit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting

  17. Information Needs Assessment for K-12 School Nurses in Rural Eastern Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    School nurses are an often-overlooked population of health care professionals who have great importance in rural communities where access to health care is limited. In order to better serve school nurses in rural eastern Washington, an assessment was conducted to determine their information needs, behaviors, and perceptions. Results indicated this population of school nurses searches for multiple types of health information on a daily basis and navigates obstacles to information access using a variety of resources. While largely confident in their searching ability, they are open to learning more about how to find reliable health information to support their daily responsibilities. These results will guide the development of a workshop for school nurses about using reliable health information resources to improve health care in their rural communities.

  18. Industrial radiography in the State of Bahia, Brazil: The health protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Emilia Oliveira de

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the Regulatory and Inspection Authority for actions developed by industrial radiography enterprises in the State of Bahia, Brazil, concerning health protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in industry. Institutions which legislate about this matter at international, national and State level were identified. These legislations were analysed according to recommendations by the Basic Safety Standards from the Atomic Energy International Agency. Medical Supervision is proposed as a factor to warrant protection to worker's health. This is a service evaluation study, encompassing results, processes and structural components. Emphasis is given to the process component which investigated the adequacy of which is performed by employees and workers. Five enterprises which provide industrial radiography services in the State of Bahia were identified, employing forty workers on a temporary basis. This study also observed: intense workforce, a complete process of contracting out in the sector; inadequate conditions of work organization (long work journey, night work, lack of days-off schedule); inefficiency of medical services responsible by worker's protection concerning radiation specific risks as well as other occupational risks, unrelated to main activity. There is a legal basis for Authorities actions, although it has not been completely implemented. These findings embased the elaboration of a proposal of a Surveillance Program for the Worker Exposed to Industrial Radiation, which includes the setting of safety standards and monitoring of workers exposed to ionization radiation in the occupational environment, accident prevention in this activity and the specialized health care to those affected by radio accidents. (author)

  19. Innovative States: Emerging Family Support and Education Programs. Arkansas, Iowa, Oregon, Vermont, Washington. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, MA.

    The five states featured in this second edition of "Innovative States" were chosen because they reflect crucial elements in an emerging understanding of state policy making in family support and education. Creative state partnerships involving program development and funding are a key ingredient to successful endeavors. States rely on…

  20. Mortality studies among cohorts of nuclear industry workers in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragle, D.L.; Fry, S.A.; Dupree, E.A.; Groer, P.G.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Shy, C.M.; Watson, J.E.; Frome, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Health and mortality studies of nuclear workers of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been ongoing for more than 20 y. To date, reports have been published for eight populations of active or formerly employed workers at DOE or DOE contractor sites. Many of these sites have employed workers since the 1940s, affording long periods of observation for large numbers of workers. The published studies have identified increases in deaths related to radiation exposure only for multiple myeloma in the population of workers at the Hanford facility. This finding has not been replicated among the populations that we have studied with similar radiation exposure levels. Increases in lung cancer, brain cancer, and leukemia deaths among two of the populations do not appear to be related to increasing levels of either internal or external radiation dose. Follow-up of these eight populations is continuing, and we anticipate publishing reports for four more populations in the next 2 y

  1. Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Rosanna; Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau; Davenport, Steven; Midgette, Greg

    2017-12-01

    To (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower. Secondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis traceability system spanning 7 July 2014 to 30 September 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation. Washington State, USA. (1) A total of 44 482 176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31 052 123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers. Primary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type and (2) excise tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC and CBD. Traditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now comprising 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.013] and CBD (coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015-0.019). The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 (CI = -0.07 to -0.05). In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but

  2. Transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia using a Markov chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate the transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia who contribute to the Employment Injury Scheme under the Social Security Organization Malaysia using the Markov chain model. Our study uses four states of health (active, temporary disability, permanent disability and death) based on the data collected from the longitudinal studies of workers in Malaysia for 5 years. The transition probabilities vary by health state, age and gender. The results show that men employees are more likely to have higher transition probabilities to any health state compared to women employees. The transition probabilities can be used to predict the future health of workers in terms of a function of current age, gender and health state.

  3. [Study on the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia; Zhan, Chenglie; Zhao, Xiaoguo

    2002-02-01

    To study the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers. 1,230 oil workers in 122 work types of oil industry were selected and written occupational stress questionary(OSQ) and symptom check list (SCL-90). Petroleum workers' psychological health states were poor with increasing occupational stress degree. The scores in physical symptoms(1.87 +/- 0.80, 1.72 +/- 0.70), depression(1.74 +/- 0.76, 1.62 +/- 0.67), horror(1.48 +/- 0.65, 1.39 +/- 0.55) in the high and medium stress group were obviously higher than those in low stress group(1.55 +/- 0.61, 1.43 +/- 0.54, 1.28 +/- 0.46, respectively, P < 0.05). The score of mood state in the high and medium stress group was obviously higher than that in low stress group(P < 0.05). Psychological health states and mood state in the petroleum workers with short service length are significantly poorer than that with long service length(P < 0.01). Occupational stress should affect psychological health state of petroleum workers.

  4. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  5. DISTRIBUTION OF FATAL ACCIDENT TRANSPORT BETWEEN STATE WORKERS OF BAHIA AND BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica de Jesus dos Santos; Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the situation of mortality from traffic accidents among workers are still insufficient. This study aimed to describe the mortality rates for traffic accidents / path between state workers of Bahia and Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive study of fatal work accidents related to traffic accidents / path with the Mortality Information System data in the period from 2009 to 2011. The results show 317 reported deaths from traffic accidents in Bahia and...

  6. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  7. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets

  8. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  9. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  10. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  11. A Brief History of the Resting State: the Washington University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a history of the concepts and developments that have led us to focus on the resting state as an object of study. We then discuss resting state research performed in our laboratory since 2005 with an emphasis on papers of particular interest. PMID:22266172

  12. Washington state--British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) : ITS-CVO border crossing deployment, evaluation draft report : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Washington state-British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) ITS-CVO Border Crossing Deployment is allowing for the completion of a bi-national freight border crossing ITS system at the border, and is a follow-on effort t...

  13. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  14. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Laurel... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AO-370-A8; AMS..., Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  15. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  16. Maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, 1992-2014: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Julianne; Vora, Manali V; Fuller, Mackenzie S; Phipps, Amanda I; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2018-05-01

    Women in veterinary occupations are routinely exposed to potential reproductive hazards, yet research into their birth outcomes is limited. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of the association between maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. Using Washington State birth certificate, fetal death certificate and hospital discharge data from 1992 to 2014, we compared birth outcomes of mothers in veterinary professions (n=2662) with those in mothers in dental professions (n=10 653) and other employed mothers (n=8082). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using log binomial regression. Outcomes studied were premature birth (veterinary support staff separately. While no statistically significant associations were found, we noted a trend for SGA births in all veterinary mothers compared with dental mothers (RR=1.16, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.36) and in veterinarians compared with other employed mothers (RR=1.37, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.96). Positive but non-significant association was found for malformations among children of veterinary support staff. These results support the need for further study of the association between veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Washington State Retail Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Preferences for Marijuana Messages in a Sample of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve

    2018-03-01

    As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.

  18. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  19. GED Test Changes and Attainment: Overview of 2014 GED Test Changes and Attainment in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kara; Gaeta, Cristina; Sager, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In January 2014, the GED Testing Service significantly redesigned the GED test to incorporate the Common Core State Standards and the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the significant changes made to the test in 2014, examine the impact of the changes on Washingtonians, and make…

  20. Epidemiology of Infectious Disease-Related Death After Release from Prison, Washington State, United States, and Queensland, Australia: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Blatchford, Patrick J; Forsyth, Simon J; Stern, Marc F; Kinner, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    People in prison may be at high risk for infectious diseases and have an elevated risk of death immediately after release compared with later; their risk of death is elevated for at least a decade after release. We compared rates, characteristics, and prison-related risk factors for infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, and Washington State, United States, regions with analogous available data. We analyzed data from retrospective cohort studies of people released from prison in Queensland (1997-2007, n=37,180) and Washington State (1999-2009, n=76,208) and linked identifiers from each cohort to its respective national death index. We estimated infectious disease-related mortality rates (deaths per person-years in community) and examined associations using Cox proportional hazard models. The most frequent infectious disease-related underlying cause of death after release from prison was pneumonia (43%, 23/54 deaths) in the Australian cohort and viral hepatitis (40%, 69/171 deaths) in the U.S. cohort. The infectious disease-related mortality rate was significantly higher in the U.S. cohort than in the Australian cohort (51.2 vs. 26.5 deaths per 100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.42, 2.62). In both cohorts, increasing age was strongly associated with mortality from infectious diseases. Differences in the epidemiology of infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prison may reflect differences in patterns of community health service delivery in each region. These findings highlight the importance of preventing and treating hepatitis C and other infectious diseases during the transition from prison to the community.

  1. Statement at NRC International Regulators Conference on Nuclear Security, 4 December 2012, Washington, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    I would like to begin by thanking NRC Chairman Allison Macfarlane for hosting this first regulatory Conference on nuclear security involving regulators, law enforcement agencies and the IAEA. The United States has been a very important partner in the IAEA's nuclear security activities right from the start. It is by far the largest donor to our Nuclear Security Fund. It has actively supported our programmes and has been generous in providing funding, equipment and training to other Member States. When President Obama hosted the first Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010, he said it was important that that event should be part of a ''serious and sustained effort'' to improve nuclear security throughout the world. Since then, a growing number of governments have given high-level attention to this vitally important issue. This is very encouraging. Today, I am especially pleased to see regulators coming together to focus on this subject. I am confident that your meeting will make a valuable contribution to strengthening global nuclear security. I would like to share with you some important recent milestones in the IAEA's nuclear security work. As you know, primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments. However, governments have recognized that international cooperation is vital. Terrorists and other criminals do not respect international borders and no country can respond effectively on its own to the threat which they pose. In September, our Member States - there are now 158 - reaffirmed the central role of the IAEA in e nsuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique expertise and our long experience of providing technical assistance and specialist, practical guidance to countries. To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other

  2. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  3. Estimation of hand index for male industrial workers of Haryana State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand index derived from measured hand dimensions can be used to estimate differences related to sex, age and race in forensic and legal sciences. It has been calculated as percentage of hand breadth over the hand length; which suggests that the male industrial workers population of state belong to mesocheir group of ...

  4. Notes About State Violence Against Workers Movements Rural

    OpenAIRE

    Preussler, Gustavo de Souza

    2016-01-01

    The presente article make a study about the structural violence of State and the economic power while instruments of oppression and propellant of land conflicts. The general objective is  make  clear  on  what  consists  structural  violence  on  contemporary  Brazil  and  its implications on land conflicts. As specifics objectives, aims to outline the performance of economics instrument of oppression, expose the class division on rural areas, the economic violence and its reflex in instituci...

  5. Groundwater remediation of hexavalent chromium along the Columbia River at the Hanford site in Washington state, USA - 59030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, Dyan L.; Charboneau, Briant L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, formerly used for nuclear weapons production, encompasses 1500 square kilometers in southeast Washington State along the Columbia River. A principle threat to the river are the groundwater plumes of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which affect approximately 9.8 square kilometers, and 4.1 kilometers of shoreline. Cleanup goals are to stop Cr(VI) from entering the river by the end of 2012 and remediate the groundwater plumes to the drinking water standards by the end of 2020. Five groundwater pump-and-treat systems are currently in operation for the remediation of Cr(VI). Since the 1990's, over 13.6 billion L of groundwater have been treated; over 1, 435 kg of Cr(VI) have been removed. This paper describes the unique aspects of the site, its environmental setting, hydrogeology, groundwater-river interface, riverine hydraulic effects, remediation activities completed to date, a summary of the current and proposed pump-and-treat operations, the in situ redox manipulation barrier, and the effectiveness of passive barriers, resins, and treatability testing results of calcium polysulfide, bio-stimulation, and electrocoagulation, currently under evaluation. (authors)

  6. Going from Microbial Ecology to Genome Data and Back: Studies on a Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Mormile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (~pH 9.8 and saline (~14 to 140 g liter-1 lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years and the extremely high sulfide level (~140 mM in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. H. hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment.

  7. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-376-2018, US Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, C.M.; Klein, M.K.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from the United States Marshals Service (SIC-9221) in Washington, D.C. for assistance in testing the effect of renovations to the ventilation system of their indoor firing range, lead (7439921) exposures were measured during handgun qualifying sessions. Each qualifying session of firing consisted of 60 rounds fired in 10 to 12 minutes. Personal breathing zone air samples were taken from three shooters and the range officer. Lead exposure concentrations measured were 2073, 1786, 172, and 142 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (microg/cu m). Eight hour time weighted average concentrations were calculated to be 194, 167, 101, and 13microg/cu m, respectively. The three shooters were therefore overexposed to lead. Bulk sampling of the sand from the bullet trap indicated it to be contaminated, containing 41% lead by weight. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed from exposure to lead. The authors recommended changes to improve the ventilation system. Following modification of the system, tests were again conducted and 11 of the 12 samples taken were below the limits of detection for the method used. The authors conclude that after modification, a hazard did not exist during qualifying sessions. The authors recommend specific measures to protect personnel from exposure to lead.

  8. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  9. New records of nematomorph parasites (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.

  10. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Ko, Cynthia W; Saha, Somnath; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789). We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. RESULTS: Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  11. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  12. Reduced sleep duration and history of work-related injuries among Washington State adolescents with a history of working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Miller, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between sleep and occupational injury risk has not been adequately explored for working adolescents. Data were analyzed from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade public school students. Teens reported average school and weekend night sleep hours and history of work-related injury that received medical treatment. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between sleep duration and occupational injury. Of 4,144 working teens, 6.4% reported ever having an occupational injury. Teens who sleep ≤5 hr/school night had greater odds of a history of occupational injury than those sleeping 8 hr (OR:2.91, 95% CI:1.85-4.57). No significant association was observed for weekend night sleep duration. Reduced school night sleep was associated with increased odds of work-related injury in adolescents. Long hours and late night schedules may contribute to decreased sleep time and potentially have other health and developmental impacts for youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  14. Basalt alteration and basalt-waste interaction in the Pasco Basin of Washington State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Carnahan, C.L.; Apps, J.A.; Mouton, C.A.; Corrigan, D.J.; Frisch, C.J.; Shomura, L.K.

    1978-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the nature of the minerals which coat vesicle and fracture surfaces in the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation, simulate the mass transfer which led to their precipitation, and predict the mass transfer associated with the dissolution of spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), petrographic, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe (EMP) analyses have been made on a series of samples taken from 1100 ft (335.3 m) of core from core hole DC2. Preliminary simulations of the mass transfer associated with basalt dissolution in a thermodynamically closed system have been accomplished. In addition two mass transfer codes have been modified to facilitate data base changes. Thermochemical data for uranium and plutonium have been collected and converted to standard state conditions. These data will be critically evaluated and input to the mass transfer data base in the near future

  15. Building a human rights framework for workers' compensation in the United States: opening the debate on first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Jeffrey A

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of human rights to the topic of workers' compensation in the United States. It discusses what constitutes a human rights approach and explains how this approach conflicts with those policy ideas that have provided the foundation historically for workers' compensation in the United States. Using legal and historical research, key international labor and human rights standards on employment injury benefits and influential writings in the development of the U.S. workers' compensation system are cited. Workers' injury and illness compensation in the United States does not conform to basic international human rights norms. A comprehensive review of the U.S. workers' compensation system under international human rights standards is needed. Examples of policy changes are highlighted that would begin the process of moving workers' compensation into conformity with human rights standards. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  17. Occupational radiation exposure of Kolar mining workers in Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Umesh; Prasad, Vishva Linga; Ningappa, C.; Sannappa, J.

    2011-01-01

    Radon and its short lived decay products in dwellings and in atmosphere represent the main source of public exposure from the natural radiation. Radon, thoron and their progeny present in air contribute to nearly 50% of the average effective dose received by human beings from the natural radiation environment. Radon is a radioactive noble gas produced by the decay of uranium and thorium bearing minerals in rocks, soils and building materials having half life 3.82 days. UNSCEAR reported recently indicates that there is a remarkable coherence between the risk estimates developed from epidemiological studies from miners and residential case-control radon studies. The study area is around BGML at K.G.F. The study on the natural background radiation levels from the natural sources is important to evaluate the distribution of terrestrial radionuclides and radiation doses received by the population inhabitating around the study area. The data obtained from such study may be used locally to establish it and where the controls are needed. In the present study the most accurate Solid State Track Detector (SSNTD) method is used to determine the concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny. The maximum concentration of radon of 116.4 Bq.m -3 and gamma exposure rate of 765 n Gyh -1 have been observed in the dwellings at Champion place. The low concentration of radon and gamma exposure have been observed at Robersonpet and BGML nagar. (author)

  18. Collaborative effort in Washington state slashes non-essential use of the ED by Medicaid patients, delivering millions in projected savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Early data suggest a coordinated, state-wide effort has reduced non-essential use of the ED by 10% among Medicaid recipients in Washington state, and is projected to save the state an estimated $31 million in the first year of the approach. The effort includes the adoption of seven best practices by hospitals across the state.These include the creation of an Emergency Department Information Exchange, so that EDs can immediately access a patient's utilization history, strict narcotic prescribing guidelines, and regular feedback reports to hospitals regarding ED utilization patterns. The effort was prompted by threats by the state legislature to limit Medicaid payments for ED visits deemed not medically necessary in the emergency setting. The legislature backed down when emergency physicians in the state countered with their own proposal to reduce nonessential use of the ED. They worked with other health care groups in the state to develop the plan. Data on the first six months of the effort are included in a report to the state legislature by the Washington State Health Care Authority. Among the findings are a 23% reduction in ED visits among Medicaid recipients with five or more visits, a 250% increase in providers who have registered with the state's Prescription Monitoring Program, aimed at identifying patients with narcotic-seeking behavior, and a doubling in the number of shared care plans, intended to improve care coordination. Emergency providers say big challenges remain, including a need for more resources for patients with mental health and dental care needs.

  19. Noise-induced hearing loss and associated factors among vector control workers in a Malaysian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamani, Retneswari; Rasib, Abdul; Darus, Azlan; Ting, Anselm Su

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among vector control workers in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted on 181 vector control workers who were working in district health offices in a state in Malaysia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and audiometry. Prevalence of NIHL was 26% among this group of workers. NIHL was significantly associated with the age-group of 40 years and older, length of service of 10 or more years, current occupational noise exposure, listening to loud music, history of firearms use, and history of mumps/measles infection. Following logistic regression, age of more than 40 years and noise exposure in current occupation were associated with NIHL with an odds ratio of 3.45 (95% confidence interval = 1.68-7.07) and 6.87 (95% confidence interval = 1.54-30.69), respectively, among this group of vector control workers. © 2012 APJPH.

  20. Second-hand smoke exposure among workers of restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Lagos State Regulation of Smoking Law was passed in February 2014 and stipulates the total restriction of tobacco smoking in listed public places. Workers in hospitality venues are at a high risk of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS. Therefore, their awareness of the health risks, attitudes toward SHS and their reported levels of exposure may play a crucial role in developing an effective monitoring, implementation, and enforcement mechanism. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs registered with the Lagos State Ministry of Tourism in the second quarter of the year 2014. We used a multistage sampling technique to select one respondent each from the 300 centers randomly selected to participate in the survey. Data were collected using a modified version of the World Health Organization Global tobacco surveillance system tools. Univariate and bivariate analysis were carried out. Exposure to SHS in the workplace and in other public places was treated as the outcome variable in the bivariate analysis. Results: Majority (75.3% of the respondents were aged between 21 and 40 years with a mean age of 27.7 + 8.6 years. Many (66% were waiters/waitresses and spent more than 8 h a day. Most (60.6% of the venues were indoor only establishments, and 26.8% had no form of smoking restrictions. Majority of the respondents were exposed to SHS at work, and this was higher in bars and nightclubs. A bivariate analysis of results showed that workers were exposed to SHS at work irrespective of workplace smoking restrictions or respondents smoking status. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that second-hand smoke exposure is very high (65% in smokers; 65.6% in nonsmokers among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State. We are therefore of the opinion that strict enforcement of law would ensure the protection of these workers.

  1. Partners in immunization: 2010 survey examining differences among H1N1 vaccine providers in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Katherine; Gleason, Cindy; Richards, Jennifer L; Chamberlain, Allison; Andrews, Tracey; Watson, Lin; Whitney, Ellen; Hinman, Alan R; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Emergency response involving mass vaccination requires the involvement of traditional vaccine providers as well as other health-care providers, including pharmacists, obstetricians, and health-care providers at correctional facilities. We explored differences in provider experiences administering pandemic vaccine during a public health emergency. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of H1N1 vaccine providers in Washington State, examining topics regarding pandemic vaccine administration, participation in preparedness activities, and communication with public health agencies. We also examined differences among provider types in responses received (n=619, 80.9% response rate). Compared with other types of vaccine providers (e.g., family practitioners, obstetricians, and specialists), pharmacists reported higher patient volumes as well as higher patient-to-practitioner ratios, indicating a broad capacity for community reach. Pharmacists and correctional health-care providers reported lower staff coverage with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines. Compared with other vaccine providers, pharmacists were also more likely to report relying on public health information from federal sources. They were less likely to report relying on local health departments (LHDs) for pandemic-related information, but indicated a desire to be included in LHD communications and plans. While all provider types indicated a high willingness to respond to a public health emergency, pharmacists were less likely to have participated in training, actual emergency response, or surge capacity initiatives. No obstetricians reported participating in surge capacity initiatives. Results from this survey suggest that efforts to increase communication and interaction between public health agencies and pharmacy, obstetric, and correctional health-care vaccine providers may improve future preparedness and emergency response capability and reach.

  2. Using the global positioning system in support of environmental characterization at the Hanford Site in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.B.; Tzemos, S.; Dietz, L.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's 1,450 km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State accumulated hazardous wastes for more than 50 years. To support the Site's mission of environmental restoration and cleanup, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to verify waste site locations and provide location information for field samples. Collected GPS data are stored for use in the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). The NAVSTAR GPS is a space-based electronic navigation and positioning system designed and operated by the US Department of Defense (DOD). The system consists of three major components: (1) the space segment, comprising 24 earth-orbiting satellites; (2) the control segment, made up of 5 control and monitoring stations placed around the globe; and (3) the user segment, which includes users worldwide. When declared fully operational by the DOD, the NAVSTAR GPS will allow users to identify their geographical position anywhere on earth at any time. There are no user fees for the service and anyone with a GPS receiver may use the system worldwide. The one major hindrance to the system is the DOD policy concerning a security option called Selective Availability (SA). Selective Availability affects the usability of the system by intentional manipulation of the GPS signals to degrade the accuracy of the user's positions. The period and magnitude of degradation is solely a DOD privilege. The DOD policy on SA is to vary the error in position calculated from the Standard Positioning Service code to approximately 100 m root-mean squared (RMS). With SA on and other possible errors included, users may know their location to within a few hundred meters. While this accuracy is good for many applications, it is too inaccurate for others

  3. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Prescribing Among Washington State Medical Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.

  5. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  6. Impacts of Landuse Management and Climate Change on Landslides Susceptibility over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, M. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The commercial forests on the western side of the Olympic Mountains in Washington State are a region of steep slopes and high annual rainfall (2500-6000 mm/year) and are therefore highly susceptible to landslides. Potential climatic change (more intense and frequent winter storms) may exacerbate landslide susceptibility unless forest management practices are changed. As this area is a critical habitat for numerous organisms, including salmon, this may result in potentially severe consequences to riparian habitat due to increased sediment loads. Therefore, there is a need to investigate potential forest management plans to promote the economic viability of timber extraction while protecting the natural habitat, particularly in riparian areas. The objective of this study is to predict the long term effects of forest management decisions under projected climate change on slope stability. We applied the physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with its sediment module to simulate mass wasting and sediment delivery under different vegetation and climate scenarios. Sub-basins were selected and classified according to elevation, slope, land cover and soil type. Various land management practices (such as clear-cutting in riparian areas, logging under short rotations, varying amount of timbers left intact in riparian areas) were applied to each of the selected sub-basins. DHSVM was used to simulate landslide volume, frequency, and sediment loads for each of the land cover applications under various future climate scenarios. We comment on the suitability of various harvesting techniques for different parts of the forest to minimize landslide-induced sediment loading to streams in an altered climate. This approach can be developed as a decision making tool that can be used by forest managers to make long-term planning decisions.

  7. Marine vessel air emissions in B.C. and Washington State outside the GVRD and FVRD for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, R.G.; Trask, T.C.; Cheng, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    Emissions inventories are used by government agencies as a tool for policy development and air quality management. Marine vessels have been identified as a major source of anthropogenic pollution in British Columbia. This report presents estimates of emissions from marine vessels in coastal areas in British Columbia outside of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD), and in Washington State for the year 2000. The project includes an update of emission estimates for each marine vessel category and an update of emission estimates for pollutants of interest, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), sulphur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as inhalable fine particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia. This report presented emissions results for both the Canadian and U.S. portions. It also includes both spatial and temporal allocation of emissions. Results indicate that ocean-going vessels are the major contributor to emissions of NOx, SOx, PM and greenhouse gases, accounting for 56, 93, 83, and 51 per cent of the total marine vessel emissions respectively. They also contribute 30 and 33 per cent to the marine totals for CO and VOCs. Harbour vessels contribute 22 and 24 per cent of NOx and greenhouse gases and 17 per cent of both CO and VOCs. Ferries contribute between 15 per cent and 23 per cent for CO, VOC, NOx and GHGs, but less than 9 per cent for SOx and PM. Fishing vessels contribute 1 per cent or less of all contaminants. Although recreational vessels are major contributors for CO and VOC, they contribute less than 2 per cent for all other contaminants. A comparison of 1995 and 2000 marine vessel inventory for British Columbia was presented and recommendations for improvements were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Promoting Employee Health Through an American Cancer Society Program, The CEOs Challenge, Washington State, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Parrish, Amanda T; Kohn, Marlana; Hammerback, Kristen; McMillan, Becca; Hannon, Peggy A

    2015-12-17

    Evidence-based practices in the workplace can increase levels of healthy eating, cancer screening, physical activity, and tobacco cessation but are underused, even in large workplaces. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of The CEOs Challenge, a program developed by the American Cancer Society to promote implementation and maintenance of health-promoting, evidence-based workplace practices by large companies. Use of 17 evidence-based practices by 17 companies in the Washington State Chapter of the American Cancer Society's CEOs Against Cancer network was assessed via survey and scored from 0 to 100. Companies received a written report of their baseline performance, followed by at least quarterly consultations with American Cancer Society staff members trained to assist in implementation of these practices. Follow-up performance was measured at 1 year. At baseline, implementation scores were 54.8 for cancer screening, 46.5 for healthy eating, 59.8 for physical activity, and 68.2 for tobacco cessation. At follow-up, scores increased by 19.6 for cancer screening, 19.4 for healthy eating, 16.0 for physical activity, and 9.4 points for tobacco cessation. The CEOs Challenge is a promising approach to chronic disease prevention via the workplace. It brings together one of the nation's largest health-promoting voluntary agencies with the nation's largest employers to promote evidence-based practices targeted at the most common causes of disease and death. The program increased the adoption of these practices and was well-accepted.

  9. Double jeopardy: the impact of neoliberalism on care workers in the United States and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Zelnick, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers have explored how neoliberal restructuring of the workplace has reduced the standard of living and increased workplace stress among private sector employees. However, few have focused on how neoliberal restructuring of public policy has had similar effects on the public sector workforce. Using original case study research, the authors examine how two iconic pieces of neoliberal policy--the 1996 welfare reform bill in the United States and the GEAR macroeconomic policy in South Africa--affected public/nonprofit human service workers in New York City, United States, and public sector nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The authors argue that in both situations, despite national differences, these policies created a "double jeopardy," in which patients/clients and care workers are adversely affected by neoliberal public policy. This "double jeopardy" creates significant hardship, but also the opportunity for new social movements.

  10. Radiation monitoring and dose distribution of medical workers in A.P. state 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.R.; Reddy, K.S.; Kamble, M.K.; Roy, Madhumita

    2001-01-01

    Individual monitoring for external ionizing radiation is being conducted for all radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh State by TLD Unit located in Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad.The Unit comes under Personnel Monitoring Section of Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai. The aim of monitoring is to confirm that the radiation safety standards are strictly adhered in the institutions and also to investigate excessive exposures, if any. Personnel monitoring also provides data for epidemiological studies. In view of ICRP/AERB recommendations of 100 mSv dose limit for the five years block of 1994-98, the dose distribution among radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh State is analyzed for the period 1994-98. In continuation of above work, we have analyzed the data for the year 1999-2000 for various medical diagnostic procedures and these are presented

  11. Regional socioeconomic disparities in outcomes for workers with low back pain in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraim, Mujahed; Cifuentes, Manuel; Willetts, Joanna L; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Pransky, Glenn

    2017-05-01

    Although regional socioeconomic (SE) factors have been associated with worse health outcomes, prior studies have not addressed important confounders or work disability. A national sample of 59 360 workers' compensation (WC) cases to evaluate impact of regional SE factors on medical costs and length of disability (LOD) in occupational low back pain (LBP). Lower neighborhood median household incomes (MHI) and higher state unemployment rates were associated with longer LOD. Medical costs were lower in states with more workers receiving Social Security Disability, and in areas with lower MHI, but this varied in magnitude and direction among neighborhoods. Medical costs were higher in more urban, more racially diverse, and lower education neighborhoods. Regional SE disparities in medical costs and LOD occur even when health insurance, health care availability, and indemnity benefits are similar. Results suggest opportunities to improve care and disability outcomes through targeted health care and disability interventions. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David H; Chakraborty, Subrata; Mahapatra, Prasanta; Steinhardt, Laura

    2010-11-25

    Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in

  13. Hearing Impairment Among Noise-Exposed Workers - United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Bushnell, P Timothy; Themann, Christa L; Morata, Thais C

    2016-04-22

    Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the United States, and is more prevalent than diabetes or cancer (1). Occupational hearing loss, primarily caused by high noise exposure, is the most common U.S. work-related illness (2). Approximately 22 million U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous occupational noise (3). CDC compared the prevalence of hearing impairment within nine U.S. industry sectors using 1,413,789 noise-exposed worker audiograms from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Project (4). CDC estimated the prevalence at six hearing impairment levels, measured in the better ear, and the impact on quality of life expressed as annual disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as defined by the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study (5). The mining sector had the highest prevalence of workers with any hearing impairment, and with moderate or worse impairment, followed by the construction and manufacturing sectors. Hearing loss prevention, and early detection and intervention to avoid additional hearing loss, are critical to preserve worker quality of life.

  14. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  15. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  16. 20 CFR 631.30 - Designation or creation and functions of a State dislocated worker unit or office, and rapid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provision of early intervention services and other appropriate forms of immediate assistance in response to... Governor and the State Council to assist in providing an adequate information base for effective program... workers under the NAFTA Worker Security Act for which the Governor has made a finding under § 631.3(j...

  17. Influence of Health Behaviors and Occupational Stress on Prediabetic State among Male Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Moon, Jihyeon; Jung, Jiyeon

    2018-06-14

    This study examined the influence of health behaviors and occupational stress on the prediabetic state of male office workers, and identified related risks and influencing factors. The study used a cross-sectional design and performed an integrative analysis on data from regular health checkups, health questionnaires, and a health behavior-related survey of employees of a company, using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed significant relationships of prediabetic state with health behaviors and occupational stress. Among health behaviors, a diet without vegetables and fruits (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.74, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.93⁻7.66) was associated with a high risk of prediabetic state. In the subscales on occupational stress, organizational system in the 4th quartile (OR = 4.83, 95% CI = 2.40⁻9.70) was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of prediabetic state. To identify influencing factors of prediabetic state, the multiple logistic regression was performed using regression models. The results showed that dietary habits (β = 1.20, p = 0.002), total occupational stress score (β = 1.33, p = 0.024), and organizational system (β = 1.13, p = 0.009) were significant influencing factors. The present findings indicate that active interventions are needed at workplace for the systematic and comprehensive management of health behaviors and occupational stress that influence prediabetic state of office workers.

  18. Fatal injuries among grounds maintenance workers: United States, 2003--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    A total of 1,142 grounds maintenance workers (GMWs) were fatally injured at work during 2003--2008, an average of 190 each year. GMWs accounted for 3.4% of all occupational fatalities, and 31% of those GMWs were Hispanic or Latino. Approximately 83% of the Hispanic or Latino GMWs who died were born outside the United States. In 2008, approximately 1.52 million persons were employed as GMWs, constituting 1.0% of the U.S. workforce. During 2003--2007, an average of 13.3 per 100,000 employed GMWs died each year, compared with an overall rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 U.S. workers. The rate of on-the-job fatal injuries among GMWs has remained elevated relative to other workers for >20 years. This report characterizes events leading to GMW fatalities and differences in fatality characteristics across demographic groups among GMWs, based on an evaluation of 2003--2008 data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. The report also identifies workplace interventions that might reduce the incidence of fatal injuries. Major events leading to GMW occupational fatalities included transportation incidents (31%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), falls (23%), and traumatic acute exposures to harmful substances or environments (e.g., electrocution and drowning) (16%). To reduce the incidence of such fatalities, employers, trade and worker associations, and policy makers should focus on effective, targeted workplace safety interventions such as frequent hazard identification and training for specific hazards. Diversity among the populations of workers requires use of culture- and language-appropriate training techniques as part of comprehensive injury and illness prevention programs.

  19. Adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyomi F. Bamiselu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Results Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001. Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 % compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000. Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 % compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = <0.0001. The main reason for non-usage of mRDT among private healthcare workers was its perceived unreliability of mRDT (40.9 %. Monotherapy including artesunate (58.3 % vs 12.5 %, amodiaquine (38.9 % vs 8.3 % and chloroquine (26.4 % vs 4.2 % were significantly more available in private than public health facilities, respectively. Adherence to guidelines was significantly higher among public

  20. Differing HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in a high HIV burden Indian state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Mamulwar

    Full Text Available The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010-11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India's National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra.Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010-11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression.While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77

  1. Differing HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in a high HIV burden Indian state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Sheela; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kamble, Pranil; Dulhani, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh; Kadu, Chitra; Kumar, Pradeep; Lalikar, Shivraj; Acharya, Shrikala; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Risbud, Arun; Venkatesh, Srinivas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010–11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India’s National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra. Material and methods Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010–11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression. Results While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77

  2. Differing HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in a high HIV burden Indian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamulwar, Megha; Godbole, Sheela; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kamble, Pranil; Dulhani, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh; Kadu, Chitra; Kumar, Pradeep; Lalikar, Shivraj; Acharya, Shrikala; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Risbud, Arun; Venkatesh, Srinivas

    2018-01-01

    The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010-11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India's National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra. Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010-11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression. While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77

  3. Association of Pre-pregnancy BMI and Postpartum Weight Retention Before Second Pregnancy, Washington State, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, Tyler G; Dundas, Nicolas J; Roncaioli, Steven A; Littman, Alyson J; Phipps, Amanda I

    2018-03-06

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity is one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions associated with adverse birth outcomes. Smaller studies have suggested that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with postpartum weight retention. Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI status and maternal weight retention. Study design We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data from 2003-2013. We included women who had two sequential births during this time period, with the second birth occurring within 18-36 months of the first singleton delivery date. BMI before a women's first pregnancy ("pre-pregnancy BMI") was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) and overweight/obese (25-40 kg/m 2 ). Women were classified as having returned to first pre-pregnancy BMI if their BMI before their second pregnancy was no more than 1 kg/m 2 more compared to their BMI before their first pregnancy. Analyses were stratified by gestational weight gain during the first pregnancy (below, met, exceeded recommended gestational weight gain). Results A total of 49,132 mothers were included in the study. Among women who met their recommended gestational weight gain, compared to mothers with a normal BMI, obese/overweight mothers were less likely to return to their pre-pregnancy BMI (76.5 vs 72.3%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85-0.92). A similar pattern was observed among women who exceeded their recommended gestational weight gain (62.6 vs 53.2%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.78-0.80). Conclusion Pre-pregnancy BMI in the overweight/obese range is associated with a decreased likelihood of returning to pre-pregnancy BMI. Further research to support women during and after their pregnancy to promote behavior changes that prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention after birth is needed.

  4. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  5. Immune state of patients of vegeto-vascular dystonia, clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhno, T.A.; Davydova, T.I.; Bazika, D.A.; Chumak, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Immune state of 272 clean-up workers, participants of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, suffering from vegeto-vascular dystonia is studied. Comparison groups were formed by 20 healthy clean-up workers, 25 vegeto-vascular dystonia patients non-participating in the clean-up works, and 60 healthy donors. Immune state disturbances in the vegeto-vascular dystonia patients have unidirectional changing but among the clear-up workers their expression was much significant coinciding with the more severe clinical courses of disease comparing to the patients non-participating in the clean-up works

  6. Assessment of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba south local government area, Abia state, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguwa, E N; Nduka, I; Arinze-Onyia, S U

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba South Local Government Area in Abia State. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out in 2013 among health workers and bankers in Aba metropolis. By multistage sampling method, proportionate number of the health workers and bankers were selected. The study instrument was Freudenberger Burnout Scale. A total of 327 health workers and bankers were studied: 253 (77.4%) were health workers while 74 (22.6%) were bankers. The age range was 21 to 59 years, and 229 (70.0%) were females. Most (48.3%) had worked for 5 years or less and had burnout scores within 0-25. There was significant difference between gender ( P = 0.017), level of education ( P = 0.038), and type of occupation ( P = 0.002) to burnout score. Age ( P = 0.956), marital status ( P = 0.461), and years of work ( P = 0.247) did not significantly affect burnout score. Female health workers were significantly more at risk of burning out compared to their male counterparts. Among bankers, however, though females were more at risk, this was not significant. Sex, level of education and type of work were the greatest contributors to burnout score. The prevalence of burnout risk among health workers and bankers is high. More female health workers are at risk of burnout than male health workers. There should be policies aimed at identifying those most at risk and reducing the prevalence.

  7. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  8. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

  9. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  10. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  11. Pulmonary Problems among Quarry Workers of Stone Crushing Industrial Site at Umuoghara, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Nwibo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory problem is one of the major health hazards in dust-exposed workers; it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory problems and lung function impairment among quarry workers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methods: Respiratory problems and lung function were studied in 403 quarry workers aged 10–60 years. Respiratory problems were investigated with a questionnaire based on international models adapted for the study population. Lung function was assessed by spirometry and chest roentgenography. Results: The respiratory problems found were chest pain (47.6%, occasional cough (40.7%, occasional shortness of breath (6.5% and wheezing (5.2%. The mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values were significantly decreased with length of exposure—respectively, 3.52±0.77 and 3.91±0.72 L for 10 years of exposure. Moreover, the mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values of smoker (3.37±0.81 and 3.56±1.02 L, respectively were significantly (p<0.05 lower than that of non-smokers (3.68±1.02 and 3.89±0.99 L, respectively working in the quarry site. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to dust due to stone quarrying may increase the risk of respiratory problems and impaired lung function—cigarette smokers are at higher risk.

  12. The impact of state certification of community health workers on team climate among registered nurses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, Mark; Shuster, Geoff; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-04-01

    A number of states have adopted certification programs for community health workers (CHWs) to improve recognition of CHWs as members of health care teams, increase oversight, and to provide sustainable funding. There has been little research into the impact of state CHW certification on the diffusion and adoption of CHWs into existing health care systems. This study examined the impact of state CHW certification on the perceptions of team climate among registered nurses (RNs) who work with CHWs in states with and without CHW certification programs. The study recruited RNs using a purposeful sampling method and used an online survey, which included the Team Climate Inventory (TCI), and compared the perceptions of team climate between the two groups. The study found no significant differences in the overall mean TCI score or TCI subscale scores between RNs who work in states with CHW certification programs (n = 81) and those who work in states without CHW certification programs (n = 115). There was a statistically significant difference on one survey question regarding whether RNs believe state certification of CHWs improved the ability of their health care team to deliver quality care. More research is needed to assess impact of state certification of CHWs and other factors that influence the diffusion and adoption of CHWs into the current health care system.

  13. Information behaviour of migrant Hispanic farm workers and their families in the Pacific Northwest Information grounds, Information behaviour, Behavior, Washington, Immigrants, Information habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants are generally perceived to be information poor, meaning they face major challenges with finding and using greatly needed everyday information. However, little research exists from an information behaviour perspective as differences in language, culture, and other factors such as access make immigrants a difficult population to study. We explored the everyday information behaviour and information grounds of migrant Hispanic farm workers through field observation and interviews with users, non-users, and staff of community technology centres in a major agricultural area. Findings suggest that personal networks having various levels of credibility were used more readily than any other type of information source. Credibility and use of various sources seemed to relate to personal status as well as interest in information.

  14. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  15. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  16. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  17. Are Swine Workers in the United States at Increased Risk of Infection with Zoonotic Influenza Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Capuano, Ana W.; Donham, Kelley J.; Thacker, Eileen L.; Merchant, James A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. Methods We performed controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among 111 farmers, 97 meat processing workers, 65 veterinarians, and 79 control subjects using serum samples collected during the period of 2002–2004. Serum samples were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against the following 6 influenza A virus isolates collected recently from pigs and humans: A/Swine/WI/238/97 (H1N1), A/Swine/WI/R33F/01 (H1N2), A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (H3N2), A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2). Results Using multivariable proportional odds modeling, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Farmers had the strongest indication of exposure to swine H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR], 35.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7–161.8), followed by veterinarians (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 3.8–82.7), and meat processing workers (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4–29.5). Similarly, farmers had the highest odds for exposure to swine H1N2 virus (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 5.4–35.4), followed by veterinarians (OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6–24.6) and meat processing workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.7). Conclusions Occupational exposure to pigs greatly increases workers' risk of swine influenza virus infection. Swine workers should be included in pandemic surveillance and in antiviral and immunization strategies. PMID:16323086

  18. Geomorphic response of the North Fork Stillaguamish River to the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott W.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mastin, Mark C.; Foreman, James R.

    2017-08-03

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington mobilized 8 million cubic meters of unconsolidated Pleistocene material, creating a valley‑spanning deposit that fully impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River. The river overtopped the 8-meter high debris impoundment within 25 hours and began steadily incising a new channel through the center of the deposit. Repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport measurements, bedload transport models, and observations of downstream channel change were used to document the establishment of that new channel through the landslide and assess the potential for downstream aggradation or channel change that might increase downstream flood hazards.Efficient erosion of the landslide deposit, associated with the steep knickzone formed by the downstream edge of the deposit, resulted in the re-establishment of a 20–40 meters wide, deeply inset channel through the entire deposit by May 2014, 2 months after the landslide. The mean water-surface elevation of the channel through the landslide decreased 7 meters during that 2-month period, and was about 1 meter above the pre-landslide profile in July 2014. The 2014–15 flood season, which included flows near the 0.5 annual exceedance probability discharge (2-year flood), widened the channel tens of meters, and further lowered the water-surface profile 0.5 meter. The planform position evolved slowly as a result of 5–20-meter high banks predominantly composed of clay-rich, cohesive lacustrine material. Erosion of the landslide deposit delivered a total of 820 thousand metric tons of sediment to the North Fork Stillaguamish River over the 18 months following the landslide. The sediment delivery from the deposit was predominantly fine grained: 77 percent (by mass) of the eroded material was silt or clay (less than 0.063 millimeter [mm]), 19 percent sand (0.063–2 mm), and 4 percent pebbles and cobbles (greater than 2 mm).Over the 18 months following the

  19. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  20. Community Health Workers in the United States: Challenges in Identifying, Surveying, and Supporting the Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Allen, Caitlin G; Sutkowi, Katherine; Wennerstrom, Ashley

    2017-12-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a growing profession in the United States. Studying this dynamic labor force is challenging, in part because its members have more than 100 different job titles. The demand for timely, accurate information about CHWs is increasing as the profession gains recognition for its ability to improve health outcomes and reduce costs. Although numerous surveys of CHWs have been conducted, the field lacks well-delineated methods for gaining access to this hard-to-identify workforce. We outline methods for surveying CHWs and promising approaches to engage the workforce and other stakeholders in conducting local, state, and national studies. We also highlight successful strategies to overcome challenges in CHW surveys and future directions for surveying the field.

  1. Area Factor Determinations for an Industrial Worker Exposed to a Concrete Slab End-State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G. Timothy; Lee, Patricia L.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Roach, Jesse L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m 2 . During deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with 1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM, 2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance, and 3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual. The purpose of this site-specific assessment is to determine if any of the recommended area factors provided in the guidance documents could be utilized at SRS for field applications of the industrial worker DCGLs. Results show the area factors that were determined for an SRS industrial worker exposed to concrete slab end-states for the common radionuclides provided in the referenced guidance documents. In addition to the SRS site-specific area factors, the following area factors are provided for comparison: - Illustrative examples of outdoor area dose factors (MARSSIM); - Area correction factors as a function of source area (Soil Screening Guidance). Note: the area correction factors were inverted to correspond to a DCGL area factor. - Recommended area correction factors as a function of source area (Soil Screening Guidance); - Ranges for hot spot multiplication factors (RESRAD). As it can be seen

  2. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... prevailing piece rate, the agreed-upon collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate...-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural... the new 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates (AEWRs) and the 2010 maximum allowable meal and travel...

  3. Washington Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference was held in Washington from 11-13 March. It was the ninth in the series of meetings organized in the USA which differ from the 'International' meetings in their coverage of the full range of accelerator engineering and technology, including applications outside e field of high energy physics. The Conference took place under the cloud of further budget cuts for Fiscal Year 1982 in the USA which the Department of Energy has applied in line with the financial policy of the new administration. Coming on top of many years of budget trimming which have reduced the number of high energy physics Laboratories funded by the DOE to three (Brookhaven, Fermilab, Stanford - Cornell is funded by the National Science Foundation) and reduced the exploitation of these Laboratories to less than half of their potential, the new cuts did not exactly help to boost morale. Nevertheless, the huge amount of tailed work in accelerator physics and technology which was presented at the Conference showed how alive the field is

  4. Expanded public notice: Washington State notice of intent for corrective action management unit, Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document is to serve notice of the intent to operate an Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), adjacent to the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington, as a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 264.552. The ERDF CAMU will serve as a management unit for the majority of waste (primarily soil) excavated during remediation of waste management sites on the Hanford Facility. Only waste that originates from the Hanford Facility can be accepted in this ERDF CAMU. The waste is expected to consist of dangerous waste, radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Mixed waste contains radioactive and dangerous components. The primary features of the ERDF could include the following: one or more trenches, rail and tractor/trailer container handling capability, railroads, an inventory control system, a decontamination building, and operational offices

  5. Workplace psychosocial and organizational factors for neck pain in workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Data used for this study come from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors, including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs, and long work hours. Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:549-560, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury-Quandt, Alice E.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Marín, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This paper examines golf course superintendents’ and Latino grounds maintenance workers’ pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Methods In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten golf course superintendents in five states and with sixteen Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. Results Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Conclusions More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary. PMID:21360723

  7. 75 FR 16000 - Temporary Employment of Foreign Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... out the policies of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), that a nonimmigrant alien worker not be admitted to fill a particular temporary job opportunity unless no qualifed U.S. worker is available to fill the job opportunity, and unless the employment of the foreign worker in the job opportunity will not...

  8. Spinal and temporo-mandibular disorders in male workers of the State Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Capozzella, Assunta; Di Famiani, Manuela; Samperi, Ilaria; Scala, Barbara; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of disorders of the lumbar region and the temporo-mandibular district co-morbidity in drivers and workers of the State Police employed for different office activities. The study population included 103 drivers as cases and 100 police officers as controls. The study was carried out through questionnaire and clinical evaluation of the spine and temporo-mandibular region. At clinical examination, the drivers were found to have a higher prevalence (p temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ), when compared with the controls. The results also showed a higher prevalence (p < 0.05) of co-morbidity in the two districts among the drivers, when compared with the controls. These results confirm that morbidity related to back and TMJ and increase in co-morbidity between the two districts are higher in professional drivers.

  9. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  10. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Marijuana and Other Substances Among Pregnant and Parenting Women With Substance Use Disorders: Changes in Washington State After Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Therese M; Graham, J Christopher; Carlini, Beatriz H; Ernst, Cara C; Brown, Natalie Novick

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization. Most study participants reported complete abstinence from alcohol and nonprescription drugs at program exit. Among those who were still using substances, women who completed the intervention after marijuana legalization were significantly more likely to report marijuana use at program exit compared with women who completed the intervention before marijuana legalization. Across both cohorts (pre- and post-legalization), we found a positive association of exit marijuana use with alcohol, illegal methadone, other opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use; even when we controlled for historical period, the association with some of these substances with marijuana use remained evident. Independent of marijuana use, we saw increased use during the post-legalization period of alcohol, illicit methadone, and other opioids. Marijuana use at exit from the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) increased significantly after marijuana legalization in the state. Women who were not abstinent from marijuana at program exit were likely to report use of other substances as well. Our study design demonstrates an association but does not allow us to conclude that marijuana use leads to other substance use among this sample of women with a history of polysubstance use.

  12. Performance of office workers under various enclosure conditions in state-of-the-art open workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heakyung Cecilia

    The objective of this thesis is to more firmly establish the importance of physical attributes of workstations on the performance of workers undertaking a range of complex tasks while subjected to the visual and noise distractions prevalent in state-of-the-art North American office settings. This study investigates objective and subjective evaluations of noise and performance given a range of current physical work environments. The study provides criteria for architects, interior designers and managers, to select distraction-free office environments to deliver better performance. The concluding chapter helps to establish the importance of designing more acoustically responsible work settings in state-of-the-art office projects. With 102 subjects (23 native speakers of English per each of three workstation types), controlled experiments were completed over a six month testing period in three different work settings---four foot partitions on two sides, seated privacy with six foot partitions on three sides, and a closed office with eight foot partitions, a door and a ceiling, with two acoustic environments (office sounds with and without speech at a controlled 45 dBA level at the receiver), the experimental results were statistically significant. Another finding was the lack of a significant effect of background sound variations on simple or complex task performance. That implies the current acoustical evaluation tool, the Articulation Index, may not be an appropriate tool to adequately and conclusively assess the acoustic impact of open workplaces on individual performance. Concerning the impact of acoustic conditions on occupant performance from the experiments, Articulation Index values do not reflect the potential relation of workstation designs and subjects' performance and moods. However, NIC connected with speech privacy rating has the potential to be a better evaluation tool than AI for open workplaces. From the results of this thesis, it is predicted that

  13. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State... Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... Anthropology, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7544, telephone (509) 963-2671 or Dr. Peter...

  14. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  15. 76 FR 377 - Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... State of Washington by Auditor's File Nos. G 450664 and G 147358. Parcel II That portion of the... thereof acquired by the State of Washington by deed recorded under Auditor's File Nos. G 140380 and D... recorded under Auditor's File No. F 38759, records of Clark County, Washington, described as follows...

  16. Epidemiological study of cumulative trauma disorder in Kerman\\'s state office workers in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saberi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupational diseases are consequences of various workplace hazards. Cumulative trauma disorder or repetitive strain injury indicates the effect of repeated physical movements and partial pressure on muscles, tendons and other soft tissues of body. This is the most common disease caused by work. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study performed on state office workers in Kerman city in 2007. Data was collected using examination and three questionnaires about work-related diseases, job satisfaction and job stress. After completion of the questionnaires, a trained researcher analyzed the collected data by SPSS 13 and Chi square test. A level of P≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: Data analysis showed that factors such as repeated writing, typing, using computers at work, repeated lifting objects at the table level, traffic through the steps, traffic through the office corridor, reach of foot to the ground when sitting on the chair, using footrests under desk, using chair cushions, using lumber pillows, or swivel chair were not the cause of cumulative trauma disorder. Repetitive bending and refusal to lean against the seat when sitting were effective in causing the disease. Other findings of our research were employees’ ergonomic awareness status, job satisfaction and job stress being calculated according to the median scores for all three factors as average. Conclusion: Repetitive bending and avoidance from leaning against the chair were significant factors causing high rates of cumulative trauma disorder in office workers of Kerman city. Modification of these factors or even using lumbar supportive equipment may reduce the high prevalence of this disease. Cumulative trauma disorder was found less in employees under the age of thirty and the rates increased with age and work history, linearly.

  17. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  18. Producing a satellite-derived map and modelling Spartina alterniflora expansion for Willapa Bay in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Cynthia Jane

    1998-12-01

    This research addresses the identification of the areal extent of the intertidal wetlands of Willapa Bay, Washington, and the evaluation of the potential for exotic Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) expansion in the bay using a spatial geographic approach. It is hoped that the results will address not only the management needs of the study area but provide a research design that may be applied to studies of other coastal wetlands. Four satellite images, three Landsat Multi-Spectral (MSS) and one Thematic Mapper (TM), are used to derive a map showing areas of water, low, middle and high intertidal, and upland. Two multi-date remote sensing mapping techniques are assessed: a supervised classification using density-slicing and an unsupervised classification using an ISODATA algorithm. Statistical comparisons are made between the resultant derived maps and the U.S.G.S. topographic maps for the Willapa Bay area. The potential for Spartina expansion in the bay is assessed using a sigmoidal (logistic) growth model and a spatial modelling procedure for four possible growth scenarios: without management controls (Business-as-Usual), with moderate management controls (e.g. harvesting to eliminate seed setting), under a hypothetical increase in the growth rate that may reflect favorable environmental changes, and under a hypothetical decrease in the growth rate that may reflect aggressive management controls. Comparisons for the statistics of the two mapping techniques suggest that although the unsupervised classification method performed satisfactorily, the supervised classification (density-slicing) method provided more satisfactory results. Results from the modelling of potential Spartina expansion suggest that Spartina expansion will proceed rapidly for the Business-as-Usual and hypothetical increase in the growth rate scenario, and at a slower rate for the elimination of seed setting and hypothetical decrease in the growth rate scenarios, until all potential

  19. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity.The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts.This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  20. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A; Tezak, Eugene P

    2013-01-01

    Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  1. Identification of the Skills Needed by Workers in Various Segments of the Mountain States Graphic Communications Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharavath, H. Naik

    The skills needed now and 5 years from now by workers in the graphic communications industry in New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming were identified through a mail survey of mountain states printing companies. Of the 478 companies to which surveys were mailed, 64 were returned (response rate, 13.40%). A paired t-test was conducted to identify…

  2. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  3. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: −1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  4. Federal/State cooperation in the licensing of a nuclear power project. A joint licensing process between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents a joint environmental review and licensing process established between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) in 1980-1983 for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project (S/HNP). It documents the agreements made between the agencies to prepare a joint environmental impact statement responsive to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act. These agreements also established protocol to conduct joint public evidentiary hearings on matters of mutual jurisdiction, thereby reducing the duplication of effort and increasing the efficiency of the use of resources of federal and state governments and other entities involved in the process. This report may provide guidance and rationale to licensing bodies that may wish to adopt some of the procedures discussed in the report in the event that they become involved in the licensing of a nuclear power plant project. The history of the S/HNP and of the agreement processes are discussed. Discussions are provided on implementing the joint review process. A separate section is included which presents independent evaluations of the process by the applicant, NRC, and EFSEC

  5. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  6. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  7. Speaking of sex workers: How suppression of research has distorted the United States' domestic HIV response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Sex workers remain a vulnerable population at risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. Research suggests that interventions at the individual level, such as condom distribution, are less effective in preventing HIV among sex workers than structural changes such as allowing safer work settings and reducing the harassment and abuse of sex workers by clients and police. In the US, HIV incidence has not declined in the last decade. This may be due in part to its policy of wilful ignorance about sex work, but the data to resolve the question simply do not exist. Political actions such as PEPFAR's prostitution pledge and a congressional campaign against "waste, fraud and abuse" in research are products of an ideological environment that suppresses research on HIV prevention and treatment needs of sex workers. Even basic prevalence data are missing because there is no "sex worker" category in the US National HIV Behavior Surveillance System. However, international efforts are taking a public health approach and are calling for decriminalization of sex work, as the most effective public health strategy for reducing HIV incidence among sex workers. Although such an approach is not yet politically feasible in the US, some urgent practical policy changes can be implemented to improve data collection and generation of evidence to support HIV prevention and treatment programs targeting sex workers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  9. A complex approach to the health states of pitch coking plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandus, J.

    1976-01-01

    206 workers of three pitch coking plants, who had been exposed for an average of 4 years to fumes containing 3,4 benzopyrene, were examined. No occupational carcinoma or precancerous foci were detected. The only statistically significant findings were chronic atrophic inflammations of upper respiratory pathways (26%). This investigation is the initial stage in a long-term study of this group of workers. A plan for preventive examinations (including specialized ones), contraindications applicable for this type of job, methods for epidemiological investigations and the follow-up of workers after leaving this work, are described in detail.

  10. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  11. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of... Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of a... have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding...

  12. Career Anchors of United States Air Force Information Systems Workers: A Turnover Predictor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynne, Lee

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the work of Schein (1987) to measure the career anchors, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of AF IS workers to determine if those whose job type and career anchor match report higher satisfaction and lower turnover...

  13. Estimation of hand index for male industrial workers of Haryana State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology .... workers' upper limb such as compression of nerves, deformation of tissues or decreased circulation (Martin et al., 1996). ..... Workshops IEEE Computer Society Conference 1-7.

  14. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  15. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  19. [Training health workers to deal with sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse.

  20. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ≥2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region.

  1. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent variables. Econometrica 68 (4), 839–874] conditional maximum likelihood estimator to allow for the presence of individual-specific effects. A limited information test is suggested to test for selection issues in non-experimental data. The specification tests indicate that the (conditional on the set of the confounding variables considered) assumptions of no selection due to unobservables and/or no unobserved individual-specific effects are not violated. Our findings indicate that the first job search service does have positive and significant impacts on the employment rate. However, providing repeated JSS to the same client has no significant impact. Further, we find that there are significant experience-enhancing effects. These findings suggest that providing one job search services training to individuals may have a lasting impact on raising their employment rates. PMID:26052178

  3. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  4. Is the State of Indonesia In Charge to Provide Law Protection to the Indonesian Migrant Workers ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, D.

    2018-01-01

    Right to work is assured in the regulation of 1945 Constitution (amendment) Article 28 D Clause (2) mandating that every person deserves to work and in return they get wages, fair and proper treatment in the relation of employment. Working as migrant worker is accessible job opportunity, especially to people who have low education and skill with promising income. Many case facedto the migrant worker. It is necessary to analyze how the state’s position in providing protection to its citizens experiencing problems overseas. Country has the right to protect its citizens overseas and to intervene diplomatically. It cannot provide direct protection because if there is a criminal act committed by Migrant Worker of Indonesia, then the applicable law is the law of country where the Migrant Worker works. The actual protection is to make bilateral agreements with the destination country. Law No 39 Year 2004. Article 77 regulates the right to obtain protection from pre-placement, placement period to post-placement. Employment or the right to work is one of human rights that is the right to social freedom, namely the right to meet the basic needs. Regarding the legal protection for women migrant workers, the relevant human rights theory used is the natural rights theory because the right to work in this case is the right that every human being possesses

  5. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  6. Immigrant workers in the United States: recent trends, vulnerable populations, and challenges for occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Linda A

    2005-07-01

    Immigrant workers are a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. work force, and these increasing numbers have resulted in a different ethnic mix in the work force than in previous decades. Immigrant workers are not a homogenous group, but are over-represented in low-paying occupations. Their diversity and vulnerability present distinct challenges for occupational health nurses. High-risk occupations in which a large proportion of immigrant workers are hired include agriculture, sweatshops, day laborers, and construction. Initiatives needed to improve the working conditions of this vulnerable population include improved surveillance and research, culturally competent care providers, improved health care access, advocacy, and changes in immigration and health policy.

  7. Physical Activity Practices, Policies and Environments in Washington State Child Care Settings: Results of a Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Walters, Kelly M; Igoe, Bridget M; Payne, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Donna B

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Child care is an important setting for the promotion of physical activity (PA) in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between specific PA environments and recommended practices in child care settings as well as the degree to which child care settings met recommended standards for total PA time. Methods In 2013, all programs licensed to care for children ages 2-5 in WA state were surveyed about their PA related practices. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time and PA. Results The response rate was 45.8 % from centers (692/1511) and 32.1 % from homes (1281/3991). Few programs reported meeting best-practice standards for the amount of time children spend being physically active (centers: 12.1 %, homes: 20.1 %) and outdoor time (centers: 21.8 %, homes: 21.7 %). Programs where children go outside regardless of weather and those reporting more adult-led PA had higher odds of meeting best-practice standards for both PA and outdoor time. Meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time was the strongest predictor of meeting best-practice standards for total PA time [centers: OR 15.9 (9.3-27.2), homes: OR 5.2 (3.8-7.1)]. Conclusions for Practice There is considerable room for improvement in licensed child care settings in WA to meet best-practice standards for young children's outdoor and PA time. Initiatives that create policies and environments encouraging outdoor play and adult-led PA in child care have the potential to increase physical activity in substantial numbers of young children.

  8. Perceptions of the hospital ethical environment among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Hospital social workers are in a unique context of practice, and one where the ethical environment has a profound influence on the ethical behavior. This study determined the ratings of ethical environment by hospital social workers in large nationwide sample. Correlates suggest by and compared to studies of ethical environment with nurses are explored. Positive ratings of the ethical environment are primarily associated with job satisfaction, as well as working in a centralized social work department and for a non-profit hospital. Religiosity and MSW education were not predictive. Implications and suggestions for managing the hospital ethical environment are provided.

  9. Auditing Access to Outpatient Rehabilitation Services for Children With Traumatic Brain Injury and Public Insurance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Molly M; Thompson, Leah; Quistberg, D Alex; Haaland, Wren L; Rhodes, Karin; Kartin, Deborah; Kerfeld, Cheryl; Apkon, Susan; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-09-01

    To identify insurance-based disparities in access to outpatient pediatric neurorehabilitation services. Audit study with paired calls, where callers posed as a mother seeking services for a simulated child with history of severe traumatic brain injury and public or private insurance. Outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Sample of rehabilitation clinics (N=287): 195 physical therapy (PT) clinics, 109 occupational therapy (OT) clinics, 102 speech therapy (ST) clinics, and 11 rehabilitation medicine clinics. Not applicable. Acceptance of public insurance and the number of business days until the next available appointment. Therapy clinics were more likely to accept private insurance than public insurance (relative risk [RR] for PT clinics, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; RR for OT clinics, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.57; and RR for ST clinics, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.62), with no significant difference for rehabilitation medicine clinics (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.34). The difference in median wait time between clinics that accepted public insurance and those accepting only private insurance was 4 business days for PT clinics and 15 days for ST clinics (P≤.001), but the median wait time was not significantly different for OT clinics or rehabilitation medicine clinics. When adjusting for urban and multidisciplinary clinic statuses, the wait time at clinics accepting public insurance was 59% longer for PT (95% CI, 39%-81%), 18% longer for OT (95% CI, 7%-30%), and 107% longer for ST (95% CI, 87%-130%) than that at clinics accepting only private insurance. Distance to clinics varied by discipline and area within the state. Therapy clinics were less likely to accept public insurance than private insurance. Therapy clinics accepting public insurance had longer wait times than did clinics that accepted only private insurance. Rehabilitation professionals should attempt to implement policy and practice changes to promote equitable access to care. Copyright © 2017

  10. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ORGANISM OF WORKERS OF THE ROLLING PRODUCTION IN THE COURSE OF EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тулеген Нургалиевич Хамитов

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work – the work is devoted to the physiological assessment of the functional state of organism of workers of the rolling production in the course of employment, depending on occupational category. Methods. Objects of research: performance of rolling production of JSC «Arcelor Mittal – Temirtau». Research methods: physiological and statistical. Results. The results of the study allowed to conclude that the negative effects of rolling operations on the body of the workers, thus, despite indications of adaptation of the organism to the production activity, the individual functional systems, a decrease in reserve capacity. The severity level of functional tension of organism depends on the duration of contact with harmful factors and the degree of direct participation in the management and maintenance of the main technological process of the rolling production.

  12. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amoran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  13. Heat illness and death among workers - United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Jacklitsch, Brenda; Farquah, Opeyemi; Hodgson, Michael; Lamson, Glenn; Martin, Heather; Profitt, Audrey

    2014-08-08

    Exposure to heat and hot environments puts workers at risk for heat stress, which can result in heat illnesses and death. This report describes findings from a review of 2012‒2013 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) federal enforcement cases (i.e., inspections) resulting in citations under paragraph 5(a)(1), the "general duty clause" of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. That clause requires that each employer "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees". Because OSHA has not issued a heat standard, it must use 5(a)(1) citations in cases of heat illness or death to enforce employers' obligations to provide a safe and healthy workplace. During the 2-year period reviewed, 20 cases of heat illness or death were cited for federal enforcement under paragraph 5(a)(1) among 18 private employers and two federal agencies. In 13 cases, a worker died from heat exposure, and in seven cases, two or more employees experienced symptoms of heat illness. Most of the affected employees worked outdoors, and all performed heavy or moderate work, as defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Nine of the deaths occurred in the first 3 days of working on the job, four of them occurring on the worker's first day. Heat illness prevention programs at these workplaces were found to be incomplete or absent, and no provision was made for the acclimatization of new workers. Acclimatization is the result of beneficial physiologic adaptations (e.g., increased sweating efficiency and stabilization of circulation) that occur after gradually increased exposure to heat or a hot environment. Whenever a potential exists for workers to be exposed to heat or hot environments, employers should implement heat illness prevention programs (including acclimatization requirements) at their

  14. Continuing study of mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-10-01

    The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined

  15. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  16. A model for incorporating patient and stakeholder voices in a learning health care network: Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Edwards, Todd C; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Kessler, Larry; Lavallee, Danielle C; Patrick, Donald L; Sullivan, Sean D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Yanez, N David; Flum, David R

    2013-08-01

    To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive with noninvasive treatments for peripheral artery disease, and to focus on the patient centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual framework for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). The peripheral artery disease study was selected because of clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient centeredness is achieved through the "Patient Voices Project," a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the study. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms, the latter developed with input from the patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3-6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, thereby returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. The CERTAIN's inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a learning health care network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction between aggrading geomorphic surfaces and the formation of a late pleistocene paleosol in the palouse loess of eastern Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eric V.; Busacca, Alan J.

    1990-09-01

    Variable rates of loess deposition contributed to dramatic regional variation in a soil-stratigraphic unit, the Washtucna Soil, in the Palouse loess deposits in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington state. Throughout most of the Channeled Scabland, the morphology of the Washtucna Soil is that of a single buried soil, but it bifurcates into two well-developed and pedologically distinct buried soils in areas immediately downwind of the major source of loessial sediment. Regional loess stratigraphy confirms that the two well-developed soils formed during the same interval of time during which only one soil formed in areas that are distal to loess source areas. The variable and perhaps rapid rates of soil formation suggested by the stratigraphy resulted from an interaction between variable rates of loess deposition and the formation of superimposed calcic soils. Petrocalcic horizons with weak Stage IV morphology formed as the zone of carbonate accumulation moved up into former A and cambic horizons that had been profusely burrowed by cicadas. The development of cicada burrows in one phase of soil development that were subsequently engulfed by pedogenic carbonate under a rising land surface seems to have greatly accelerated the development of the petrocalcic horizons. Accelerated rates of formation of the petrocalcic horizons occurred when extrinsic (pulses of loess deposition) and intrinsic (engulfment of burrowed horizons) thresholds were exceeded. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the soil formation that accompanied the rise in the land surface due to additional loess deposition may have occurred during the late Wisconsin glaciation when giant glacial outburst floods in the channeled Scabland triggered a new cycle of loess deposition.

  18. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  19. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  20. Beyond Economic Interests: Attitudes Toward Foreign Workers in Australia, the United States and East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Chang Tsai; Rueyling Tzeng

    2014-01-01

    We compare attitudes toward foreign workers between two wealthy Western and four developing East Asian countries, using data from the 2006 and 2008 Asian Barometer surveys to test hypotheses on economic interests, cultural supremacy, and global exposure. Respondent majorities in all six countries expressed high levels of restrictivism. Regression model results indicate a consistent cultural superiority influence across the six countries, but only minor effects from economic interest factors. ...

  1. Being a Modern Christian and Worker in the Czechoslovak National State (1918–1938)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jemelka, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 97-113 ISSN 0353-0329 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04364S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Czechoslovak Church, 1918-1938 * workers Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  2. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  3. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head

    1983-01-01

    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...

  4. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  5. Facilities for Study and Research in the Offices of the United States Government at Washington. Bulletin, 1909, No. 1. Whole Number 398

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Arthur Twining

    1909-01-01

    This bulletin contains a report prepared by President Hadley of Yale University on the facilities for advanced study and research in the offices of the National Government at Washington. Especial interest attaches to this publication. It sets forth, in compact form, information which has frequently been sought by institutions and individuals…

  6. Performance of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Amhara and Oromia States, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-04-07

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76% of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 at different public health facilities in selected eight zones in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain representative samples. High and low endemic zones for leprosy were included in the study in both regional states. Data were collected from general health workers through a structured self-administered questionnaire and at on-site assessment of their performance. Baseline socio-demographic data, health workers' attitude towards leprosy and their knowledge and skill in the management of leprosy were assessed. Bloom's cut off point was used to describe the knowledge and practical skills of the respondents while Likert's scale was used for attitude assessment. A total of 601 general health workers responsible for leprosy control activities at public health facilities were included in knowledge and attitude assessment and 83 of them were subjected to practical evaluation, with on-site observation of how they handle leprosy patients. These included medical doctors (4%), health officers and nurses with Bachelor degree in Science (27%), clinical nurses with diploma (66%) and health assistants (2.8%). The median age of the respondents was 26.0 years and females made up of 45%. Generally the knowledge and skills of the respondents were found to be poor while attitude

  7. The United States transuranium and uranium registries (USTUR). Learning from plutonium and uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Brooks, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960's with the mission of acquiring and providing precise information about the effects of plutonium and other transuranic elements in man, the USTUR has followed up to 'old age' almost 500 volunteer Registrants who worked at weapons sites and received measurable internal doses. While failing (despite careful life-time follow-up) to demonstrate deleterious health effects attributable to transuranic elements, USTUR research, based on these real human data from DOE workers, continues its contributions to the development of the biokinetic models used internationally to assess intakes from bioassay data and predict tissue doses. There is still much to learn from the Registries '370 deceased tissue donors and the 110 still-living Registrants, whose average age is now about 76 years (youngest 95 y). This paper illustrates USTUR's current 5-y research program, including the application of registrant case data to (i) quantify the variability in behavior of transuranic materials among individuals; (ii) validate new methodologies used at DOE sites for assessing 'realistic' tissue doses in individual cases; and (iii) model the effectiveness of chelation therapy. These data can also be used to examine the adequacy of protection standards utilized for plutonium workers in the early years of the nuclear industry. (author)

  8. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  9. State of radioactive waste management is power reactor facilities and state of radiation exposure of workers who engaged in radiation works in fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the summary of the reports on radiation control and others submitted by those who installed practical power reactor facilities based on the relevant law in fiscal 1993. The amounts of release of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes were sufficiently smaller than the target value of the yearly release control for attaining the target value of dose that the public around the facilities receive. As to the state of control of radioactive solid waste, the amount of drum generation tended to decrease year by year, and the cumulative amount to be preserved tended to level off. The dose equivalent that the individuals who engaged in radiation works received was smaller than the limit value in all nuclear power stations. The total dose equivalent for those workers in fiscal 1993 was 86.65 man Sv. Hereafter, the automation and remote operation of works, the water quality control for reducing crud and so on will be promoted to reduce radiation exposure. The reference data on the state of control of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes, and the state of control of radiation exposure of workers are attached. (K.I.)

  10. [The role of the state in the migration of workers and economic diversification in the countries of the Arab Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, G

    1985-01-01

    This work argues that analyses of the contribution of foreign workers to economic diversification of the Gulf states should begin with a study of the structure of petroleum income and the social relations of each country. This hypothesis is in contrast to those which regard the labor market or the low activity rates of Gulf countries as the principle impetus for labor migrations in the Middle East. Although the labor importing countries differ in their degrees of development, size, existing infrastructure, agricultural development, and other key aspects, they have some important features in common. Recourse to foreign labor developed in all the countries during the early 1970s as a result of the increase in petroleum prices. Until the late 1960s, the petroleum producing countries had seen the bulk of the petroleum revenues go to the large oil companies and the consuming countries. The legitimacy of their governments rested on the support of the oil companies and on a system of internal alliances among clans in which the paramount clan redistributed the income receive from the petroleum companies. The redistributed value did not strictly speaking represent the profit but only a fraction of the world petroleum profit divided up by the oil companies. The structure of the state and the relations which attached it to the civil society continue to constitute an effective and durable block to mobilization of an internal labor force. The state, becaue of its relations to the oil companies, had no need of investments. The internal economies of gulf oil producing states were weakly diversified before the 1970s, the state was highly influential, capital as a particular aspect of wealth was poorly developed or undeveloped except in enclaves with foreign capital, internal consumption was largely imported, and no mechanism existed to break the ties of the individual clans or tribes with the state. After 1974 the large oil states undertook a sustained process of productive

  11. Update on worker mortality data at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the Hanford plant. The Hanford plant, which is located in southeastern Washington State, was established in the early forties as an installation for plutonium production. Many workers employed by the various contractors hold jobs involving some exposure to radiation. Yearly records of this exposure, obtained from dosimeter readings, as well as occupational data, are maintained for all employees. Mortality data are obtained by having the Social Security Administration periodically search their records for deaths of persons identified in the personnel rosters of Hanford contractors. Published analyses of worker mortality at Hanford have included workers initially employed before 1965 and mortality up to April 1, 1974. In this paper, the mortality data are updated to include deaths up to May 1, 1977, workers employed 1965 and later, and the most recent exposure data. In addition to updating results of earlier analyses, this paper provides a discussion of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting occupational exposure and mortality data. For a more detailed discussion of these problems the reader is referred to the papers noted above

  12. 78 FR 74163 - Harrison Medical Center, a Subsidiary of Franciscan Health System Bremerton, Washington; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-83,070] Harrison Medical Center, a Subsidiary of Franciscan Health System Bremerton, Washington; Notice of Negative Determination... workers of Harrison Medical Center, a subsidiary of Franciscan Health System, Bremerton, Washington...

  13. 76 FR 16450 - Management Resources Group, Inc., Including Workers in the States of Georgia and New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...) there has been a shift by the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles or supply...) there has been an acquisition from a foreign country by the workers' firm of articles/services that are.... Further, the Department determined that workers in the Inventory Services Group, which performs activities...

  14. Plasma Science and Innovation Center at Washington, Wisconsin, and Utah State: Final Scientific Report for the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison component of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) contributed to modeling capabilities and algorithmic efficiency of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation (NIMROD) Code, which is widely used to model macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma. It also contributed to the understanding of direct-current (DC) injection of electrical current for initiating and sustaining plasma in three spherical torus experiments: the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II), the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The effort was funded through the PSI Center's cooperative agreement with the University of Washington and Utah State University over the period of March 1, 2005 - August 31, 2016. In addition to the computational and physics accomplishments, the Wisconsin effort contributed to the professional education of four graduate students and two postdoctoral research associates. The modeling for HIT-II and Pegasus was directly supported by the cooperative agreement, and contributions to the NSTX modeling were in support of work by Dr. Bickford Hooper, who was funded through a separate grant. Our primary contribution to model development is the implementation of detailed closure relations for collisional plasma. Postdoctoral associate Adam Bayliss implemented the temperature-dependent effects of Braginskii's parallel collisional ion viscosity. As a graduate student, John O'Bryan added runtime options for Braginskii's models and Ji's K2 models of thermal conduction with magnetization effects and thermal equilibration. As a postdoctoral associate, O'Bryan added the magnetization effects for ion viscosity. Another area of model development completed through the PSI-Center is the implementation of Chodura's phenomenological resistivity model. Finally, we investigated and tested linear electron parallel viscosity, leveraged by support from

  15. Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Christine; Monto, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Recent research has provided increased information about the clients of sex workers; however, little is known about the population of older male customers who contract for heterosexual services online. Clients (N = 208) between 60 and 84 years of age were obtained through sex work review sites and online discussion forums. Participants completed a 129-item questionnaire focusing on physical health, sexual and non-sexual behaviors with sex providers, and the qualities sought in the same. More than half reported having visited sex providers between 13 and 24 times or more during the past 12 months. Participants' advancing age was positively associated with frequency of paid sex. Most frequent sexual activities with providers were fellatio without a condom, followed by penile-vaginal sex with a condom. Analyses also examine the relationship between aging and buying sex. Those with higher incomes and without spouses or partners were more likely to report non-sexual activities with providers, and many participants sought a "GFE" or girlfriend experience, in which paid sexual exchanges are part of a relationship that mirrors conventional non-remunerative relationships.

  16. Factors associated with good TB infection control practices among primary healthcare workers in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Michelle; Janse van Rensburg, André; Kigozi, Gladys; van Rensburg, Hcj Dingie

    2016-11-04

    Despite the availability of TB infection control guidelines, and good levels of healthcare worker knowledge about infection control, often these measures are not well implemented. This study sought to determine the factors associated with healthcare workers' good TB infection control practices in primary health care facilities in the Free State Province, South Africa. A cross-sectional self-administered survey among nurses (n = 202) and facility-based community healthcare workers (n = 34) as well as facility observations were undertaken at all 41 primary health care facilities in a selected district of the Free State Province. The majority of respondents were female (n = 200; 87.7 %) and the average age was 44.19 years (standard deviation ±10.82). Good levels of knowledge were recorded, with 42.8 % (n = 101) having an average score (i.e. 65-79 %) and 31.8 % (n = 75) a good score (i.e. ≥ 80 %). Most respondents (n = 189; 80.4 %) had positive attitudes towards TB infection control practices (i.e. ≥ 80 %). While good TB infection control practices were reported by 72.9 % (n = 161) of the respondents (i.e. ≥75 %), observations revealed this to not necessarily be the case. For every unit increase in attitudes, good practices increased 1.090 times (CI:1.016-1.169). Respondents with high levels of knowledge (≥80 %) were 4.029 (CI: 1.550-10.469) times more likely to have good practices when compared to respondents with poor levels of knowledge (control were the main factors associated with good infection control practices. Although many respondents reported good infection control practices - which was somewhat countered by the observations - there are areas that require attention, particularly those related to administrative controls and the use of personal protective equipment.

  17. Association between long work hours and depressive state: a pilot study of propensity score matched Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Morita, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Although long work hours have been associated with various physical health problems, studies of their association with mental health have yielded inconsistent results, due to differences in study settings, study outcome and/or unmeasured background factors. In this study, we used a propensity score method to evaluate the association between work hours and depressive state. A total of 467 Japanese white-collar workers were surveyed and divided into long and regular work hour groups according to overtime work records. Propensity score matching was performed based on 32 individual background and workplace factors, yielding 74 pairs of propensity-matched subjects. CES-D score, an indicator of depressive state, did not differ significantly among the two groups (p=0.203). However, work motivation, work control, social support and emotional stability correlated with CES-D score. These findings suggest that work control and social support factors are more associated with depressive state than control of work hours. These results also suggest that it is possible to use propensity score matching to evaluate the association between work hours and mental health in occupational study settings. Further studies, in larger populations, are required to determine the association between work hours and mental health parameters.

  18. 75 FR 76040 - Weyerhaeuser Company Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Assistance on June 2, 2010, applicable to workers of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters, including... Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings, the... the Federal Way, Washington location of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters. The amended...

  19. 77 FR 37317 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ..., 2012. The deviation allows the floating draw span of the SR 520 Lake Washington Bridge to remain in the... schedule that governs the State Route 520 (SR 520) Bridge across Lake Washington at Seattle, WA. This... allows the bridge to remain in the closed position to allow safe movement of event participants. DATES...

  20. 75 FR 71139 - Land Acquisitions; Puyallup Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Auditor, in Pierce County, Washington. Except that portion of Lot 3 conveyed to the State of Washington by Deeds recorded under Auditor's file number 689865 and 689858. Together with the East half of the... amendment of Short Plat Nos. 8502210395 and 8403080186, filed with the Pierce County Auditor, in Pierce...

  1. Domestic Worker, Transnational Advocacy and the State of Exception: A Case Study on The Advocacy of Domestic Worker’s Rights in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Ramadhan Bastari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why domestic workers (PRT remain not considered as formal workers in Indonesia. This problem becomes very urgent as PRT covers 76% of the national labor population and there has been considerable pressure from transnational community. This question is answered by applying  Agamben's theory of state of exception. This paper deploysdiscourse analysis method to examine a number of texts related to the Government of Indonesian's stance and the advocacy for PRT’s rights in Indonesia. This study finds that the Government of Indonesia has established a state of exception allowing to ignore PRT’s rights as workers under existing law. The study, then, concludes that the Government of Indonesian cannot be expected to meet PRT’s rights. Consequently, the strategy of advocacy should be directed to encourage other countries to push Indonesia so as to meet PRT’s rights.

  2. The deportation continuum: convergences between state agents and NGO workers in the Dutch deportation field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalir, B.; Wissink, L.

    2016-01-01

    The social field in which deportations of illegalized migrants are operationalized is often perceived to be comprised of two opposing sides that together form a deportation regime: on the one side, street-level state agents, on the other side, civil-society actors. Focusing ethnographically on

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Occupational Risk Factors Among Health Care Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Oluwole Ojo; Ohunakin, Afolabi; Oluyide, Peter Olumuyiwa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is contracted from blood and other body fluid making healthcare workers (HCW) prone to the infection especially in the developing world. Though it is a vaccine preventable disease, the level of awareness and universal precaution among HCW is low in sub-Saharan African and Asia. Aim The study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and occupational risk factors among health care workers at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti. Materials and Methods One hundred and eighty-seven (187) blood samples were collected from volunteer subjects who comprised of medical doctors, nurses, health attendants, and porters who are in regular contact with blood, body fluids and patients after informed consent. Well detailed and structured questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and other relevant data from the subjects. Blood samples were tested by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis B surface antigen. Results Out of the 187 HCWs there were 91 males (48.7%) and 96 (51.3%) females. Only 2 participants tested positive to hepatitis B surface antigen with a prevalence of 1.1%. Also, only 30 (16.0%) of the participants had been fully vaccinated against the infection while the remaining 157(84.0%) had no adult vaccination. Conclusion It is obvious that the awareness of the infection is low among the HCWs studied thus the need to incorporate screening for HbsAg and vaccination against HBV into the periodic/pre-employment health intervention programmes by employers to help in the protection of HCWs and control the spread of the virus. PMID:27042489

  4. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Occupational Risk Factors Among Health Care Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Oluwole Ojo; Alese, Margaret Olutayo; Ohunakin, Afolabi; Oluyide, Peter Olumuyiwa

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is contracted from blood and other body fluid making healthcare workers (HCW) prone to the infection especially in the developing world. Though it is a vaccine preventable disease, the level of awareness and universal precaution among HCW is low in sub-Saharan African and Asia. The study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and occupational risk factors among health care workers at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti. One hundred and eighty-seven (187) blood samples were collected from volunteer subjects who comprised of medical doctors, nurses, health attendants, and porters who are in regular contact with blood, body fluids and patients after informed consent. Well detailed and structured questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and other relevant data from the subjects. Blood samples were tested by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis B surface antigen. Out of the 187 HCWs there were 91 males (48.7%) and 96 (51.3%) females. Only 2 participants tested positive to hepatitis B surface antigen with a prevalence of 1.1%. Also, only 30 (16.0%) of the participants had been fully vaccinated against the infection while the remaining 157(84.0%) had no adult vaccination. It is obvious that the awareness of the infection is low among the HCWs studied thus the need to incorporate screening for HbsAg and vaccination against HBV into the periodic/pre-employment health intervention programmes by employers to help in the protection of HCWs and control the spread of the virus.

  5. The effect of state of health on organ distribution and excretion of systemic plutonium in the Mayak workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, K.G.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Nifatov, A.P.; Sokolova, A.B.; Kudryavtzeva, T.I.; Miller, S.C.; Krahenbuhl, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The extrapulmonary distribution of plutonium in 20 organs (excluding the respiratory tract) was studied in workers who chronically inhaled plutonium at the radiochemical plants of the Mayak Production Association (Ozyorsk, Russia). The data were obtained by radiochemical analysis of soft tissue and bones samples collected at autopsy of 591 workers. The systemic plutonium distribution was determined in healthy individuals as well as in those with health impairment, specifically for those with liver diseases. Twenty-five years after the beginning of inhalation, systemic fractions in the liver and skeleton of individuals who were healthy at the time of death approximate the ratio 45%:45% proposed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30. Pathological process in the liver, accompanied by fatty dystrophy of hepatocytes, increased plutonium clearance from the liver. There was a considerable shift of the plutonium from the liver to the skeleton in individuals who died from liver disease. The average fractions of systemic plutonium in the liver and skeleton of those individuals were 14% and 78% respectively, which did not correspond to ICRP models, indicating a significant effect of disease conditions. Plutonium that was not redistributed was excreted. The urinary excretion rate of plutonium also correlated with state of health. The observed excretion as a fraction of systemic content was 1.64 x 10 -5 d -1 for individuals of good health and 2.34 x 10 -5 d -1 for individuals with various chronic diseases. The current models do not account for the influence of different pathological processes in the body on plutonium distribution and retention in systemic organs. This could have significant consequences for dosimetry calculations and risk estimations. (author)

  6. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    on the rail system, and recommended improvements to improve the safety of the Metrorail system. These three influences show a holistic view of the...due to special events in the area to include Washington Redskins football , Washington National baseball, and other events held in the Washington, D.C...Station in Washington, DC. The accident resulted in nine people including the train operator were killed. Emergency response agencies reported

  7. Washington Schools Learn from Value Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleae, Michael L.; Childs, Harvey C.

    1983-01-01

    Results of two value engineering studies have shown that a review early in the design process can help save costs in school construction, maintenance, operation, and replacement. The value engineering concepts and technical manual are being presented throughout the state of Washington. (MLF)

  8. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  9. Loving and Leaving Public Health: Predictors of Intentions to Quit Among State Health Agency Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    State health agencies play a critical role in protecting and promoting the health and well-being of the people they serve. To be effective, they must maintain a highly skilled, diverse workforce of sufficient size and with proper training. The goal of this study was to examine demographics, job and workplace environment characteristics, job satisfaction, and reasons for initially joining the public health workforce as predictors of an employee's intentions to leave an organization within the next year. This study used a cross-sectional design. Respondents were selected on the basis of a stratified sampling approach, with 5 geographic (paired Health and Human Services [HHS] regions) as the primary strata. Balanced repeated replication was used as a resampling method for variance estimation. A logistic regression model was used to examine the correlates of intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. The independent variables included several measures of satisfaction, perceptions about the workplace environment, initial reasons for joining public health, gender, age, education, salary, supervisory status, program area, and paired HHS region. The sample for this study consisted of 10,246 permanently employed state health agency central office employees who responded to the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Considering leaving one's organization within the next year. Being a person of color, living in the West (HHS regions 9 and 10), and shorter tenure in one's current position were all associated with higher odds of intentions to leave an organization within the next year. Conversely, greater employee engagement, organizational support, job satisfaction, organization satisfaction, and pay satisfaction were all significant predictors of lower intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. Results from this study suggest several variables related to demographics, job characteristics, workplace environment, and

  10. Migration and Freedom of Movement of Workers: EU Law, Crisis and the Cypriot States of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Trimikliniotis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the authoritarian immigration policy of the Republic of Cyprus (RoC, which often results in the denial of the rights of migrants, TCNs, and EUNs. It examines how the mode of immigration control is connected to the particular state of exception in Cyprus known as ‘the doctrine of necessity’. It focuses particularly the issue of criminalizing, detention and expulsion of migrants, both TCNs and EUNs and the denial of residency rights for TCNs. The paper introduces the basic components towards an analytical frame for understanding and critiquing the current legal framework. Repressive migration control is a manifestation of an ill-construed conception of ‘sovereignty’ in a divided country, which the State seeks to justify on the grounds of ‘necessity’ and ‘exception’. In addition, the RoC is currently facing the banking/economic crisis and mass unemployment, which has provided a fertile ground for racism and xenophobia. The paper concludes with some ideas about the alternative policies ahead. Important for this paper are the current global and European debates around the ‘states of exception’, ‘emergency’, ‘necessity’, and ‘sovereignty’ in the context of the dissensus or fundamental disagreement over the issue migration and the racialization of subaltern migrants. The case of Cyprus is discussed, in part as an exception, but also as a particular instance of a broader global and European issue.

  11. Association between long work hours and poor self-reported general health among Latin American immigrant and native workers in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sadie H; Cayuela, Ana; Delclos, George L; Pompeii, Lisa A; Ronda, Elena

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hours worked per week and self-reported general health (SRGH) has not been assessed in Latin American immigrant and native workers across host countries. Cross-sectional study of the association between long work hours (LWH) (i.e., >51 hr per week) and poor SRGH using data from 2,626 workers in the United States (immigrants = 10.4%) and 8,306 workers in Spain (immigrants = 4.1%). Both countries' natives working >51 hr per week had increased odds of reporting poor SRGH compared to those working fewer hours (U.S.: OR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.01-2.49; Spain: OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.71-2.75); when stratified by sex, increased odds also were observed among immigrant female workers in Spain (OR = 3.47; 95%CI = 1.15-10.5). LWH were associated with differential health outcomes in populations of native and Latin American immigrant workers in the United States and Spain, which may reflect social or occupational inequalities in general or resulting from the 2008 financial crisis. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1105-1111, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impact of In-Service Training and Staff Development on Workers' Job Performance and Optimal Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejoh, Johnson; Faniran, Victoria Loveth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of in-service training and staff development on workers' job performance and optimal productivity in public secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post-facto research design. Three research questions and three hypotheses were generated and tested using questionnaire items adapted from…

  13. Preparedness of frontline health workers for tobacco cessation: An exploratory study from two states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 5As approach is a clinic-based approach and has been developed for primary health care providers who are uniquely positioned to interact with tobacco users. The 5As stands for: Ask about tobacco use at every visit, advise tobacco users to quit, assess readiness to quit, assist quit attempts through counseling and pharmacotherapy and arrange follow-up to prevent relapse. The present study explores whether auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs adhere to the 3As from the recommended 5As model for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 501 ANMs in the state of Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test were employed to test the differences in knowledge levels and practices of ANMs. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between each predictor variable separately and the outcome variables after adjusting for age and location. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 software. Results: Majority of ANMs reported that they were aware of respiratory illnesses, tuberculosis, lung and oral cancer as conditions caused due to tobacco consumption. Awareness of adverse reproductive and child health effects associated with tobacco use was very low. Only about one third of respondents informed all patients about harmful effects. Only 16% of ANMs reported having ever received any on-job training related to tobacco control. ANMs who reported receiving training in tobacco control were about two times more likely to provide information on health effects of tobacco as compared to those who reported not being trained in tobacco control in the state of Gujarat. Conclusions: A majority of ANMs ask patients about tobacco use but provide advice only to patients suffering from specific diseases. A context-specific capacity building package needs to be designed to equip ANMs in recommended 5As approach in tobacco cessation.

  14. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  15. 78 FR 53235 - 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom By the President of the United States of America A... waters of the reflecting pool, to the proud base of the Washington Monument. They were men and women..., and justice for all. The March on Washington capped off a summer of discontent, a time when the...

  16. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    November was a quiet month in Washington. Although Congress has recessed until 1991, the Senate filled vacancies in party leadership positions created by November's elections. The House is expected to proceed with its changes in early December. The Nuclear Energy Forum was held in Washington, DC on November 11-14 to discuss the status of the nuclear industry in the USA. The Forum, held in conjunction with the American Nuclear Society's annual meeting, assembled a large number of CEO's from US, European, and Far Eastern utilities and vendors. The meeting concluded with an announcement by Philip Bayne, President of NYPA and chairman of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), of the results of a year-long NPOC study entitled a open-quotes Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes

  17. Primary health care workers' views of motivating factors at individual, community and organizational levels: a qualitative study from Nasarawa and Ondo states, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Gupta, Shivam; Alonge, Olakunle; George, Asha S

    2017-04-01

    Current efforts to motivate primary health workers in Nigeria focus on better financial incentives, and the role of other motivating factors has received less attention. The aim of this study is to explore individual and organizational determinants, their interactions and effects on motivation. Exploratory qualitative research, involving semi-structured interviews with 29 primary health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and community health workers), was conducted in Nasarawa and Ondo states in Nigeria. Nine key informant interviews were conducted with government officials. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify common themes, as well as unique narratives. Results from this study suggest that health workers are motivated by individual (vocation, religion, humanity and self-efficacy) and organizational (monetary incentives, good working environment) factors and community recognition. Supervision and leadership provided by the officer in charge as compared with that by external agencies appeared to have a positive effect on motivation. Policy makers and donor agencies should take into account a broader range of factors while designing strategies to motivate the health workforce. The study also underscores how officer in charges with enhanced skills are likely to motivate health workers by creating a more supportive environment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Costs by industry and diagnosis among musculoskeletal claims in a state workers compensation system: 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Kari K; Davis, Kermit G; Cook, Chad; Kotowski, Susan E; Hamrick, Chris; Jewell, Gregory; Lockey, James

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a tremendous burden on industry in the United States. However, there is limited understanding of the unique issues relating to specific industry sectors, specifically the frequency and costs of different MSDs. Claim data from 1999 to 2004 from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation were analyzed as a function of industry sector (NAICS industry-sector categories) and anatomical region (ICD-9 codes). Almost 50% of the claims were lumbar spine (26.9%) or hand/wrist (21.7%). The majority of claims were from manufacturing (25.1%) and service (32.8%) industries. The industries with the highest average costs per claim were transportation, warehouse, and utilities and construction. Across industries, the highest costs per claim were consistently for the lumbar spine, shoulder, and cervical spine body regions. This study provides insight into the severity (i.e., medical and indemnity costs) of MSDs across multiple industries, providing data for prioritizing of resources for research and interventions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Nail gun injuries among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas

    2003-05-01

    Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data

  20. Seismic imaging beneath an InSAR anomaly in eastern Washington State: Shallow faulting associated with an earthquake swarm in a low-hazard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Wicks, Chuck; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five‐month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ∼3  km of high‐resolution seismic‐reflection profiles to image the upper‐source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west‐dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.

  1. Comparison of under-pressure and over-pressure pulse tests conducted in low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Over-pressure pulse tests (pressurized slug tests have been widely used by others for hydraulic characterization of low-permeability ( -8 m/sec) rock formations. Recent field studies of low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington, indicate that the under-pressure pulse technique is also a viable test method for hydraulic characterization studies. For over-pressure pulse tests, fluid within the test system is rapidly pressurized and the associated pressure decay is monitored as compressed fluid within the test system expands and flows into the test formation. Under-pressure pulse tests are conducted in a similar manner by abruptly decreasing the pressure of fluid within the test system, and monitoring the associated increase in pressure as fluid flows from the formation into the test system. Both pulse test methods have been used in conjunction with other types of tests to determine the hydraulic properties of selected low-permeability basalt horizons at Hanford test sites. Results from both pulse test methods generally provide comparable estimates of hydraulic properties and are in good agreement with those from other tests

  2. Analysis of the reduction in waste volumes received for disposal at the low-level radioactive waste site in the State of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal site at Richland, Washington has been receiving waste from generators nationwide since 1965 and is one of the three sites in the nation currently receiving commercial LLRW for disposal. In the past, volumes of LLRW have been increasing steadily, however, this trend has reversed since 1986. This paper addresses waste volume and activity of the waste disposed, factors which have caused this dramatic reduction in LLRW volume, and regulatory concerns regarding environmental protection, and public and occupational health and safety. Future volumes of LLRW that are disposed at the Richland site depend on economic, technological, political and regulatory variables. Provided there is a continual increase in industrial growth, and a demand for medical research and diagnosis, the volume of LLRW increases. However, this volume also offsets by an increase in demand for volume reduction due to economic and institutional pressures. Yet, if all generators continue to volume reduce their LLRW, some time in future, a limit will be reached when the facility site operator needs to increase the unit disposal cost to cover the fixed cost and maintain a profit margin in order to operate the site

  3. A research note on the relationship between long working hours and weight gain for older workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Murat Anil

    2014-09-01

    Working long hours may be related to obesity in older adults. No studies have focused on older workers and long work hours, although the risk of obesity is high among this population group. This study is the first attempt to investigate the relationship between obesity and the older workforce. Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study are examined using Cox regression techniques. We found that older workers who work more than 59 hr a week are more likely to gain weight than older workers who work less than 59 hr per week. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Stigmatising Attitudes Towards Co-workers with HIV in the Workplace of a Metropolitan State, Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Utuk, Idongesit Godwin; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Obembe, Taiwo Akinyode; Adewole, David Ayobami; Oladoyin, Victoria Oluwabunmi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite demonstrating global concerns about infection in the workplace, very little research has explored how co-workers react to those living with HIV in the workplace in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the level of stigmatising attitude towards co-workers living with HIV in the workplace. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 403 respondents. They were recruited from selected companies through a multistage sampling technique. Survey...

  5. Black Carbon, Dust and Organic Matter at South Cascade Glacier in Washington State, USA: A Comprehensive Characterization of Temporal (1865-2014) and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, S.; Pittenger, D.; Swick, M.; Skiles, M.; Perez, A.; Sethi, H.; Sevier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rising temperatures are a widely recognized cause of glacial retreat in Washington, however light absorbing aerosols (LAA, including black carbon (BC), dust and organic matter) can also contribute to increased melt by reducing snow albedo. We present updated results of BC and dust variability at South Cascade (SOCAS) glacier spanning 1865-1994 using a 158 m ice core. Peak BC deposition occurred between 1940-1958, when median BC concentrations were 25 times higher than background levels. Post 1958 BC concentrations decrease, followed by an increase post 1980 associated with melt consolidation and/or trans-Pacific aerosol transport. Dust deposition at SOCAS is dominated by local sources. Albedo reductions from LAA are dominated by dust deposition, except during high BC deposition events from wildfires, and during the 1940-1958 period when BC contributes equally to albedo reductions. Results from a 2014 field campaign that included collection of 3 shallow ice cores, surface snow, and snow albedo measurements allow the 1865-1994 ice core record to be extended toward present, and spatial variability in LAA to be characterized. Snow albedo transects were measured using a spectrometer. BC concentrations were measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Gravimetric filtration was used to determine the total LAA, and a thermal gravimetric technique was used to partition the LAA between dust and organic matter. The organic matter was partitioned into organic and elemental carbon using a thermal optical method. These methods allow LAA abundances be measured, but to partition the contribution of the LAA to albedo reductions requires characterization of LAA optical properties. This was accomplished using a Hyperspectral Imaging Microscope Spectrometer method that allows particle reflectance to be measured at 138 nm2 pixel resolution. By combining these methods, we provide a comprehensive characterization of spatial and temporal LAA variability at SOCAS.

  6. Attitudes of Primary Care Health Workers Towards Mental Health Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole S; Wallymahmed, Akhtar H

    2017-02-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of mental health services into primary health services; however attitude of primary health care workers is one barrier to this. A cross sectional survey using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) was done. One hundred and twenty primary care workers were randomly selected from three local government areas. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyses. The results showed that most primary health care workers hold a benevolent (mean = 2.47, SD = 0.52) attitude towards the mentally ill. Workers with 10 years or more experience tend to have less authoritarian (t = 3.19, p = 0.01) and less social restrictive (t = 3.90, p = 0.01) attitudes towards the mentally ill. There were no significant differences in attitude by gender, marital status, or designation of health care workers. The study showed that primary care workers have attitudes similar to that seen in the general population.

  7. The characteristics of psychological demands of the large state-owned enterprises workers and its relationship between it and the worker’s turnover intention and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-ning KONG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, the article to investigate the worker’s psychological needs in a large state-owned enterprises. It analyzed workers of different ages , different education level, and their differences in psychological needs structure characteristics and strength.The subjective turnover intention and job satisfaction are correlative of psychological needs. The article proposed the suitable management strategies of the worker’s psychological needs.

  8. The characteristics of psychological demands of the large state-owned enterprises workers and its relationship between it and the worker’s turnover intention and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ning-ning KONG; Ying LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, the article to investigate the worker’s psychological needs in a large state-owned enterprises. It analyzed workers of different ages , different education level, and their differences in psychological needs structure characteristics and strength.The subjective turnover intention and job satisfaction are correlative of psychological needs. The article proposed the suitable management strategies of the worker’s psychological needs.

  9. Stigmatising Attitudes Towards Co-workers with HIV in the Workplace of a Metropolitan State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utuk, Idongesit Godwin; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Obembe, Taiwo Akinyode; Adewole, David Ayobami; Oladoyin, Victoria Oluwabunmi

    2017-01-01

    Despite demonstrating global concerns about infection in the workplace, very little research has explored how co-workers react to those living with HIV in the workplace in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the level of stigmatising attitude towards co-workers living with HIV in the workplace. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 403 respondents. They were recruited from selected companies through a multistage sampling technique. Survey was carried out using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables at 5% level of significance. Logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors at 95% confidence intervals. Mean age of respondents was 32.9 ± 9.4 years with 86.1% being females. Overall, slightly below two-third (63.0%) had good knowledge on transmission of HIV/AIDS while 218 (54.1%) respondents had a high stigmatising attitude towards co-workers with HIV in the workplace. More female respondents (69.6%) demonstrated high stigmatising attitudes towards co-workers with HIV in the workplace (p = 0.012). Female workers were twice more likely to have high stigmatising attitudes towards co-worker with HIV [OR 2.1 (95% CI: 1.13 - 3.83)]. Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDs is still very persistent in different settings. Good knowledge amongst our participants about HIV/AIDs did not translate to low stigmatising attitudes among workers. Concerted efforts and trainings on the transmission of HIV/AIDs are essential to reduce stigma that is still very prevalent in workplace settings.

  10. Applying WHO's 'workforce indicators of staffing need' (WISN) method to calculate the health worker requirements for India's maternal and child health service guarantees in Orissa State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Amy; Mohanty, Manmath K; Das, Abhijit; House, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    In one district of Orissa state, we used the World Health Organization's Workforce Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method to calculate the number of health workers required to achieve the maternal and child health 'service guarantees' of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). We measured the difference between this ideal number and current staffing levels. We collected census data, routine health information data and government reports to calculate demand for maternal and child health services. By conducting 54 interviews with physicians and midwives, and six focus groups, we were able to calculate the time required to perform necessary health care tasks. We also interviewed 10 new mothers to cross-check these estimates at a global level and get assessments of quality of care. For 18 service centres of Ganjam District, we found 357 health workers in our six cadre categories, to serve a population of 1.02 million. Total demand for the MCH services guaranteed under India's NRHM outpaced supply for every category of health worker but one. To properly serve the study population, the health workforce supply should be enhanced by 43 additional physicians, 15 nurses and 80 nurse midwives. Those numbers probably under-estimate the need, as they assume away geographic barriers. Our study established time standards in minutes for each MCH activity promised by the NRHM, which could be applied elsewhere in India by government planners and civil society advocates. Our calculations indicate significant numbers of new health workers are required to deliver the services promised by the NRHM.

  11. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS, and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n = 107 reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6% were non-injecting and 24 (22.4% were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%, active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4% and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9% compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies

  12. Characteristic of the immunological state of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers in a late period after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Zvagule, T.; Curbakova, E.; Bruvere, R.; Romanova, T.; Sitova, O; Hagina, E.; Socnevs, A.

    2001-01-01

    No differences in the number of immunologically competent cells and other immunological variables were found among the clean-up workers, depending on the time they were in Chernobyl. However, a statistically significant reduction in the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD16+ and CD19+, decrease in the levels of IgG and suppression of APH and the phagocytic activity of neutrophils with a simultaneous increase in the levels of IgA and C3d was found in all clean-up workers when compared to controls. In a small group of clean-up workers, the levels of some plasma cytokines were detected. A statistically significant increase in IL-6 levels was found in the clean-up workers when compared to controls. The irradiation received by the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers was large enough to cause disturbances in the function of cells and organ systems through immune system disorders with a resultant weakening of the body response and adaptation mechanisms. (authors)

  13. [Working conditions and common mental disorders among primary health care workers from Botucatu, São Paulo State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ludmila Candida de; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de; Binder, Maria Cecília Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) present high prevalence among general populations and workers with important individual and social consequences. This cross-sectional and descriptive study explores the relationship between psychological job demands, job control degree and job support and prevalence of CMD among primary health care workers of Botucatu - SP. The data collection was carried out using an unidentified self-administered questionnaire, with emphasis on items relating to demand-control-support situation and occurrence of CMD (Self Reporting Questionnaire, SRQ-20). The data were stored using the software Excel / Office XP 2003, and the statistical analyses were performed in SAS system. It was evidenced that 42.6% of primary health care workers presented CMD. The observed association - high prevalence of CMD with high-strain job (Karasek model) and low prevalence of CMD with low-strain job - indicates that, in the studied city, primary health care work conditions are contributive factors to workers' illness. The survey reveals the need of interventions aiming at caring the workers and also gets better work conditions and increase social support at work.

  14. Whole genome sequencing analyses of Listeria monocytogenes that persisted in a milkshake machine for a year and caused illnesses in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen; P?rez-Osorio, Ailyn; Wang, Yu; Eckmann, Kaye; Glover, William A.; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; Chen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2015, in addition to a United States multistate outbreak linked to contaminated ice cream, another outbreak linked to ice cream was reported in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It was a hospital-acquired outbreak linked to milkshakes, made from contaminated ice cream mixes and milkshake maker, served to patients. Here we performed multiple analyses on isolates associated with this outbreak: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole genome single nucleotide polymo...

  15. The Cafeteria Workers' Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Miriam

    A program was conducted by the Food and Beverage Workers Union in Washington, D.C., to provide workplace literacy classes for food service workers in the city's government agencies, universities, and museums. A curriculum for workplace literacy skills was developed, sites were selected, and students were recruited. From a target audience of…

  16. Awareness and knowledge of disease surveillance and notification by health-care workers and availability of facility records in Anambra state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnebue, Chinomnso C.; Onwasigwe, Chika N.; Adogu, Prosper O. U; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disease surveillance and notification (DSN) is part of the Health Management Information System (HMIS) which comprises databases, personnel, and materials that are organized to collect data which are utilized for informed decision making. The knowledge about DSN is very important for the reporting of notifiable diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the awareness and knowledge of health-care workers about DSN, and availability of facility records in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in which relevant data were collected from health-care workers selected by a multistage sampling technique. Qualitative information was also elicited by key informant interviews, whereas an observational checklist, preceded by a desk review was used to examine the availability of facility records. Results: Although 89.8% of the health-care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the specific uses of forms IDSR 001, IDSR 002, and IDSR 003 (IDSR: Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response), respectively. Knowledge of use of the various forms at the facility and local government area (LGA) levels were generally low, although the observational checklist revealed that IDSR 001 and IDSR 002 forms were predominantly found in primary health-care facilities. HMIS forms were less likely to be available in secondary health-care facilities (χ2=7.67, P=0.005). Conclusions: Regular training and retraining of concerned health-care workers on DSN at the LGA level is recommended. This should run concurrently with adequate and regular provision of IDSR forms, copies of the standard case definitions, and other necessary logistics to the health-care facilities by the local and state governments. PMID:23661882

  17. Congress in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Over 1200 accelerator physicists and engineers gathered in Washington mid-May for the 15th in the series of biennial Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) - the major US forum for accelerator physics and technology. For the first time since their inception, actual attendance declined, however the number of contributed papers stayed around 1500. CERN Director General designate Chris Llewellyn Smith spelled out the challenges with an opening talk underlining the deficiencies in today's Standard Model. From many directions comes the message that collision in the 1 TeV range must tell us something new - wherefore art thou SSC and LHC? The secondary shock waves of last year's (fortunately overturned) bid to cancel the SSC Superconducting Supercollider project still ripple around the USA, while progress towards authorization of CERN's LHC Large Hadron Collider has been slower than initially hoped. The new US administration has indicated a constant rate of SSC funding over the next four years; the figure is higher than the present budget but considerably below the originally proposed budget profile, implying that completion will be retarded by some three years beyond the end of the decade. The SSC Laboratory will clearly have problems to fight increased overall cost and sustain enthusiasm. CERN hopes for LHC blessing in time to allow machine completion by the year 2000. Pride of place at Washington went to DESY's HERA electron-proton collider - the major new facility since the previous PAC. Commissioning has been impressive and physics is well underway, with luminosity climbing towards the design figure. The varied user community of the ubiquitous synchrotron radiation facilities is now considerably larger than that of particle physics and has extensive industrial involvement. Three such machines have come into operation since the previous PAC - the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Grenoble, the 1.5 GeV Advanced Light Source

  18. Worker radiation doses in the United States at the dawn of the atomic era (1940--1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Smith, M.H.; Swinth, K.L.; Pettengill, H.J.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation doses to workers at the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sites due to external irradiation during 1940--1960 are reviewed. Categorized radiation dose data were available from AEC annual reports for some years. Annual individual radiation dose data for ten MED/AEC sites for all years were available from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR). These data are combined to produce an estimate of external collective dose equivalent to 172,000 person-rems (1720 person-Sv) for 1940--1960. During this period there were 41 overexposures, 19 criticality incidents, and 3 deaths due to acute radiation syndrome among several hundred thousand workers

  19. Frequency and cost of claims by injury type from a state workers' compensation fund from 1998 through 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Tracy M; Carlini, Anthony R; Archer, Kristin R; Wegener, Stephen T; Hoolachan, Jordan I; Stiers, William; Shore, Rebecca A; Castillo, Renan C

    2014-06-01

    To determine which work-related injuries are the most frequent and costly. Secondary analysis of workers' compensation claims data. Data were provided by a large, Maryland workers' compensation insurer from 1998 through 2008. Not applicable. None. For 45 injury types, the number of claims and compensation amount was calculated for total compensation and for medical and indemnity compensation separately. Back and knee injuries were the most frequently occurring single injury types, whereas heart attack and occupational disease were the most expensive in terms of mean compensation. When taking into account both the frequency and cost of injury (mean cost × number occurrences), back, knee, and shoulder injuries were the most expensive single injury types. Successful prevention and management of back, knee, and shoulder injuries could lead to a substantial reduction in the burden associated with work-related injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Work-related stress perception and hypertension amongst health workers of a mission hospital in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwumi O. Owolabi

    2012-04-01

    Objective: This study was a work site cross-sectional descriptive study carried out amongst the health workers at the Baptist Medical Centre Ogbomoso, Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. The aim of the study was to discern the prevalence of perceived work stress and to explore the relationship between perceived work stress and the presence of hypertension. Methods: A total of 324 consenting health workers of the institution were administered the job demand-control questionnaire to assess work stress. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and other personal data. Measurements of blood pressure, weight and height were carried out and body mass indices were calculated. Results: More than a quarter (26.2% of the subjects perceived themself as stressed at work. The single largest group of hypertensive subjects was seen amongst subjects with work stress. Conclusion: A significant number of health workers in this study is afflicted by work-related stress and perceived work stress was found to be significantly associated with higher hypertension prevalence.

  1. [The state of hygienic training of the workers occupied in the area of public catering: a sociological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesskiĭ, V A; Krasil'shchikov, M I; Osipova, E M; Potemkin, E L; Tsymbalova, T V; Kutumova, O Iu; Nemets, M G

    2010-01-01

    The outcomes of a survey research completed in the workers of public catering facilities in two large cities of the Russian Federation are presented which show that the system of hygienic training for this occupational group of the population needs updating. This includes improving the programs and teaching and learning materials, as well as developing criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of educational activities in the field of occupational hygienic education and training.

  2. Washington Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped

  3. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs

  4. Washington Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-09-15

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped.

  5. A Partnership for Modeling the Marine Environment of Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, a joint University of Washington - Oregon State project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. e. A... Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), a joint Washington - Oregon State project to investigate extraction of wave and tidal energy sponsored by

  6. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  7. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-04-01

    One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.

  8. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of

  9. [The relationship between the State and workers' unions and its impacts in the union-based health coverage regime in Argentina: an historical and political analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Federico Leandro

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims at developing a political and historical reconstruction of the period spanning from the late nineteenth century to the present. In particular, this work investigates the relationship between the Argentine State and workers' unions and the impacts of that relationship in the establishment, consolidation and potential decline of the health coverage system administrated by unions, in Argentina called obras sociales. This work will also support the hypothesis that the financing obtained by union leaders through this health coverage system has been an efficient instrument for sustaining a centralized union model and has in some cases guaranteed the continued governance of both union leaders and different national governments.

  10. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  11. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  12. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  13. 78 FR 46258 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... that governs the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520 across Lake Washington) at Seattle... Department of Transportation has requested that the draw span of the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State... this time, which would divert road traffic onto the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge. The closure of the...

  14. Comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Timo W; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Farjah, Farhood; Farrokhi, Ellen; Steele, Scott R; Thirlby, Richard; Flum, David R

    2014-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are an important source of morbidity and mortality. Chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol is effective in preventing central venous-catheter associated infections, but its effectiveness in reducing SSI in clean-contaminated procedures is uncertain. Surgical studies to date have had contradictory results. We aimed to further evaluate the relationship of commonly used antiseptic agents and SSI, and to determine if isopropyl alcohol has a unique effect. We performed a prospective cohort analysis to evaluate the relationship of commonly used skin antiseptic agents and SSI for patients undergoing mostly clean-contaminated surgery from January 2011 through June 2012. Multivariate regression modeling predicted expected rates of SSI. Risk adjusted event rates (RAERs) of SSI were compared across groups using proportionality testing. Among 7,669 patients, the rate of SSI was 4.6%. The RAERs were 0.85 (p = 0.28) for chlorhexidine (CHG), 1.10 (p = 0.06) for chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol (CHG+IPA), 0.98 (p = 0.96) for povidone-iodine (PVI), and 0.93 (p = 0.51) for iodine-povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol (IPC+IPA). The RAERs were 0.91 (p = 0.39) for the non-IPA group and 1.10 (p = 0.07) for the IPA group. Among elective colorectal patients, the RAERs were 0.90 (p = 0.48) for CHG, 1.04 (p = 0.67) for CHG+IPA, 1.04 (p = 0.85) for PVI, and 1.00 (p = 0.99) for IPC+IPA. For clean-contaminated surgical cases, this large-scale state cohort study did not demonstrate superiority of any commonly used skin antiseptic agent in reducing the risk of SSI, nor did it find any unique effect of isopropyl alcohol. These results do not support the use of more expensive skin preparation agents. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of malaysia: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmad Filza; Daud, Aziah; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdullah, Baharudin

    2013-09-01

    Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases. The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; phearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

  17. Nosocomial pathogens associated with the mobile phones of healthcare workers in a hospital in Anyigba, Kogi state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Ekwunife, N; Mofolorunsho, K C

    2014-06-01

    Mobile phones of healthcare workers (HCWs) could be colonized by potential bacteria pathogens. The aim of this research is to evaluate the bacterial contamination and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates from mobile phones of HCWs in Grimad hospital. A total of 112 swab samples were collected from the mobile phones of HCWs and students in June 2012 in Anyigba. While 56 samples were from HCWs in Grimad hospital, 56 samples were obtained from non-healthcare workers (NHCWs) who served as the control. The samples were all screened for bacterial pathogens by standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusion technique. The rate of bacterial contamination of mobile phones of HCWs was 94.6%. Bacteria isolated from mobile phones of HCWs were more resistant to antibiotics than NHCWs phones. Staphylococcus Epidermidis (42.9%) was the most frequently isolated bacteria followed by Bacillus spp. (32.1%), Staphylococcus Aureus (25%), Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (19.6%), Escherichia Coli (14.3%), Streptococcus spp. (14.3%), Proteus spp. (12.5%), Klebsiella spp. (7.1%), and Acinetobacter spp. (5.3%). Cotrimoxazole, ampicillin and tetracycline showed high levels of resistance while gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone exhibited encouraging results. The presence of bacteria pathogens associated with nosocomial infection was identified. Transmission of pathogens can be reduced by hand hygiene and regular cleaning of mobile phones. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chinese workers and labor conditions from state industry to globalized factories: how to stop the race to the bottom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorborg, Marina

    2006-09-01

    This article discusses administrative obstacles in China that hinder the full integration of the rural population into the mainstream of development during a period of rapid industrialization. The Chinese household registration only for urban residents with its golden contents of cradle-to-grave security has become a formidable stumbling block that perpetuates the status of rural migrants as second-class citizens in their own country. Rural migrant workers are excluded from certain types of jobs and are not eligible for many benefits that urbanites have, such as health, education, and unemployment protection. These workers must also pay a number of fees and work for lower minimum wages than the local residents. With a precarious legal existence in urban areas, they are easy prey to unscrupulous officials and employers. Because they are not allowed to form independent trade unions, their best option is to vote with their feet and leave the firms with the worst conditions; this is exactly what they did from 2004. Given this situation, the debate on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) took a new turn with not only nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) pushing it but with a wider range of employers and, of late, Chinese officials promoting their version of CSR. In the campaign to promote minimum labor standards, the norms set down in the Social Accountability 8000 were included in the CSR, recognizing the right to free collective bargaining and free trade unions but were excluded in the Chinese version even though the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements recognized these rights.

  19. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  20. The Politics of Workers' Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omole, M. A. Lanre

    1998-01-01

    Provides background on the concept and history of workers' education and opposition to it. States that workers' education should be targeted also to employers, government, media, and the general public. (SK)

  1. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    endothall (DMA salt); and herbivorous fish, insects , and pathogens. 4. Comments Received from Public Review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...SNYIAOWMNWAL MANWULATION UIONOGC SSUCTION DREDGE HAND RUMOVA HOTTON SHADING WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS HERBIVOROUS FIS1H INSECTS , PAT1OGIENS, ETC. set...the control of acuatic plants. 52 4. PROBABLE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION ON~ THE ENVIRON4MENT 4.01 Impacts on Air Quality, Noise and Traffic. 4.01.1

  2. Reactor console replacement at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement reactor console was installed in 1977 at the W.S.U. 1 MW TRIGA-fueled reactor as the final step in an instrumentation upgrade program. The program was begun circa 1972 with the design, construction and installation of various systems and equipment. Major instruments were installed in the existing console and tested in the course of reactor operation. The culmination of the program was the installation of a cubicle designed and constructed to house the updated instrumentation. (author)

  3. 78 FR 19533 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210. Signed at Washington, DC, this 20th day of March 2013. Michael W.../13 03/13/13 (Workers). 82559 Kimberly-Clark Corporation-- Belmont, MI 03/14/13 03/12/13 Jackson...

  4. 76 FR 19467 - Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... employed on-site at the Federal Way, Washington location of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters... Company, Corporate Headquarters to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings, the Department... Federal Way, Washington location of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters. The amended notice...

  5. Recreational music-making: a cost-effective group interdisciplinary strategy for reducing burnout and improving mood states in long-term care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry; Bruhn, Karl T; Stevens, Christine; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2003-01-01

    This controlled, prospective, randomized study examined the clinical and potential economic impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions, as well as on Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in an interdisciplinary group of long-term care workers. A total of 112 employees participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on building support, communication, and interdisciplinary respect utilizing group drumming and keyboard accompaniment. Changes in burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Cost savings were projected by an independent consulting firm, which developed an economic impact model. Statistically-significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions, as well as TMD scores, were noted. Economic-impact analysis projected cost savings of $89,100 for a single typical 100-bed facility, with total annual potential savings to the long-term care industry of $1.46 billion. A cost-effective, 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions, as well as TMD, in long-term care workers.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Workers' mental models of radiation and chemical hazards in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Blanchard, K.A.; Lundgren, R.E.; McMakin, A.H.; Mosley, M.T.; Strom, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    A pilot study was performed to test the mental models methodology regarding knowledge and perceptions of U.S. Department of Energy contractor radiation workers about ionizing radiation and hazardous chemicals. The mental models methodology establishes a target population's beliefs about risks and compares them with current scientific knowledge. The ultimate intent is to develop risk communication guidelines that address information gaps or misperceptions that could affect decisions and behavior. In this study, 15 radiation workers from the Hanford Site in Washington State were interviewed about radiation exposure processes and effects. Their beliefs were mapped onto a science model of the same topics to see where differences occurred. In general, workers' mental models covered many of the high-level parts of the science model but did not have the same level of detail. The following concepts appeared to be well understood by most interviewees: types, form, and properties of workplace radiation; administrative and physical controls to reduce radiation exposure risk; and the relationship of dose and effects. However, several concepts were rarely mentioned by most interviewees, indicating potential gaps in worker understanding. Most workers did not discuss the wide range of measures for neutralizing or decontaminating individuals following internal contamination. Few noted specific ways of measuring dose or factors that affect dose. Few mentioned the range of possible effects, including genetic effects, birth defects, or high dose effects. Variables that influence potential effects were rarely discussed. Workers rarely mentioned how basic radiation principles influenced the source, type, or mitigation of radiation risk in the workplace

  7. 78 FR 19298 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below...

  8. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Washington County Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field explorations have yielded 257 species new to Washington County, Mississippi and Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. and Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & Gray) Urban new to the state. An annotated list of 796 taxa for Washington County is provided and excludes 62 species that were reported from ...

  9. Integrated Digital English Acceleration (I-DEA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington state has a large and rapidly growing foreign-born population. In 2011, immigrants made up 16.5 percent of Washington's civilian employed workforce, up from 7.1 percent in 1990. These new arrivals create jobs by forming businesses, spending income in local economies and raising employers' productivity. Thanks to project I-DEA…

  10. 76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  11. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014 fiscal year and all subsequent fiscal periods from $0.003 to $0.0025 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  12. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers...

  13. Booker T. Washington's Educational Contributions to Contemporary Practices of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Booker T. Washington's educational contributions to contemporary practices of sustainable development. In particular, the article looks at Washington's contributions in the areas of economic sustainability and entrepreneurship, character development, and aesthetics. As states continue to contemplate and evaluate the value of…

  14. Radiation haunts shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, L.

    1978-01-01

    The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)

  15. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  16. Washington biofuel feedstock crop supply under output price and quantity uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiujie; Shumway, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Subsidized development of an in-state biofuels industry has received some political support in the state of Washington, USA. Utilizing in-state feedstock supplies could be an efficient way to stimulate biofuel industries and the local economy. In this paper we estimate supply under output price and quantity uncertainty for major biofuel feedstock crops in Washington. Farmers are expected to be risk averse and maximize the utility of profit and uncertainty. We estimate very large Washington price elasticities for corn and sugar beets but a small price elasticity for a third potential feedstock, canola. Even with the large price elasticities for two potential feedstocks, their current and historical production levels in the state are so low that unrealistically large incentives would likely be needed to obtain sufficient feedstock supply for a Washington biofuel industry. Based on our examination of state and regional data, we find low likelihood that a Washington biofuels industry will develop in the near future primarily using within-state biofuel feedstock crops. - Highlights: ► Within-state feedstock crop supplies insufficient for Washington biofuel industry. ► Potential Washington corn and sugar beet supplies very responsive to price changes. ► Feedstock supplies more responsive to higher expected profit than lower risk. ► R and D for conversion of waste cellulosic feedstocks is potentially important policy.

  17. Results of the Washington Passive Solar Design/Build Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, N.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to encourage the design, construction, and marketing of moderately priced passive solar homes in Washington state, the Western Solar Utilization Network (Western SUN) recently sponsored the Washington Passive Solar Design/Build Competition. The competition drew an overwhelming response from designers and builders throughout Washington. Thermal performance of the designs was evaluated by a technical review committee, and final selections were made by the Competition Jury in accordance with the following criteria: perceived market acceptance, thermal performance, cost effectiveness, simplicity of design and operation, and completeness of the passive concept. Design contract awards totaling $50,000 were made available to winners in four categories, including single and multi-family, new and remodeled residences. In order to receive the award in its entirety, winning design/build teams are required to construct their design by April, 1983. As a result of the competition, a great deal was learned about the attitudes and knowledge of professionals and the general public regarding the use of solar energy in Washington state. Among the points that will be highlighted in this paper are the following: (1) a design/build competition is an effective vehicle for promoting solar energy among professionals in the housing community as well as the general public; (2) passive solar techniques can contribute significantly to the heating and cooling needs of residential housing throughout the state of Washington; (3) there is a great deal of interest and talent among the designers and builders of solar residences in Washington; and (4) follow-up activities, including the promotion of winning designs, the systematic collection of performance data, and identification of the major obstacles confronting designers and builders of solar homes, are critical to the success of the program in achieving both its short-term and long-term goals.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Dislocated Worker Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  20. Experience with Honeycrisp apple storage management in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    High demand and premium pricing have led to rapid increases in Honeycrisp plantings and fruit volume in Washington State, USA since introduction of the cultivar in 1999. Most fruit is packed and sold by January because of strong demand coupled with difficulties associated with extended storage. Howe...

  1. Booker T. Washington's Audacious Vocationalist Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Booker T. Washington was born a slave in the American South, rising remarkably in the period after slavery to become a leader of his race. His advocacy of appeasement with the Southern white establishment incurred the ire of his black peers, given the withdrawal of the franchise from ex-slaves in southern states after a brief period of positive…

  2. Timber resource statistics for Washington, January 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate

    1974-01-01

    Timber resource statistics to January 1, 1973, for the State of Washington show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973.

  3. Impact of Community Health Workers on Use of Healthcare Services in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Helen E; Arabadjis, Sophia D; Sun, Lucy; Sullivan, Erin E; Phillips, Russell S

    2017-03-01

    As the US transitions to value-based healthcare, physicians and payers are incentivized to change healthcare delivery to improve quality of care while controlling costs. By assisting with the management of common chronic conditions, community health workers (CHWs) may improve healthcare quality, but physicians and payers who are making choices about care delivery also need to understand their effects on healthcare spending. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science from the inception of each database to 22 June 2015. We included US-based studies that evaluated a CHW intervention for patients with at least one chronic health condition and reported cost or healthcare utilization outcomes. We evaluated studies using tools specific to study design. Our search yielded 2,941 studies after removing duplicates. Thirty-four met inclusion and methodological criteria. Sixteen studies (47%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs typically had less positive outcomes than other study designs. Of the 16 RCTs, 12 reported utilization outcomes, of which 5 showed a significant reduction in one or more of ED visits, hospitalizations and/or urgent care visits. Significant reductions reported in ED visits ranged from 23%-51% and in hospitalizations ranged from 21%-50%, and the one significant reduction in urgent care visits was recorded at 60% (p < 0.05 for all). Our results suggest that CHW interventions have variable effects, but some may reduce costs and preventable utilization. These findings suggest that it is possible to achieve reductions in care utilization and cost savings by integrating CHWs into chronic care management. However, variations in cost and utilization outcomes suggest that CHWs alone do not make an intervention successful. The paucity of rigorous studies and heterogeneity of study designs limited conclusions about factors associated with reduced

  4. MANHATTAN PROJECT B REACTOR HANFORD WASHINGTON [HANFORD'S HISTORIC B REACTOR (12-PAGE BOOKLET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2009-04-28

    The Hanford Site began as part of the United States Manhattan Project to research, test and build atomic weapons during World War II. The original 670-square mile Hanford Site, then known as the Hanford Engineer Works, was the last of three top-secret sites constructed in order to produce enriched uranium and plutonium for the world's first nuclear weapons. B Reactor, located about 45 miles northwest of Richland, Washington, is the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor. Not only was B Reactor a first-of-a-kind engineering structure, it was built and fully functional in just 11 months. Eventually, the shoreline of the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State held nine nuclear reactors at the height of Hanford's nuclear defense production during the Cold War era. The B Reactor was shut down in 1968. During the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy began removing B Reactor's support facilities. The reactor building, the river pumphouse and the reactor stack are the only facilities that remain. Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office offers escorted public access to B Reactor along a designated tour route. The National Park Service (NPS) is studying preservation and interpretation options for sites associated with the Manhattan Project. A draft is expected in summer 2009. A final report will recommend whether the B Reactor, along with other Manhattan Project facilities, should be preserved, and if so, what roles the DOE, the NPS and community partners will play in preservation and public education. In August 2008, the DOE announced plans to open B Reactor for additional public tours. Potential hazards still exist within the building. However, the approved tour route is safe for visitors and workers. DOE may open additional areas once it can assure public safety by mitigating hazards.

  5. School Social Workers' Intent to Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselman, Tonia D.; Brandt, Mary D.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents findings from a survey that examined school social workers' intent to stay in the field of school social work. Forty-eight school social workers from a midwestern state participated in the study. Effect size estimates were used to examine the relationship between social workers' intent to stay and years of experience,…

  6. Knowledge and implementation of the National Malaria Control Programme among health-care workers in primary health-care centers in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Wunmi Ladi-Akinyemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of capacity to implement programs effectively and low public education about malaria is some of the factors that Nigeria governments must address to effectively combat malaria. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the knowledge and implementation of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP among health-care workers in the primary health-care centers in Ogun state. Three hundred and twenty-five respondents were recruited into the study using cluster sampling method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect necessary information. Analysis and statistical calculation was done using SPSS version 20.0. Relationships between categorical variables were tested using Chi-square test with P value at 0.05. Results: One hundred and twenty-five (38.5% of the respondents were from Ado-odo/Ota local government areas (LGAs, 120 (36.9% of the respondents were from Ijebu-ode LGA and 80 (24.6% were from Ewekoro LGA. About 37.8% of the respondents were within age range of 45–54 years, with mean of 41.7 ± 8.5. Over 90% of the respondents knew the mode of transmission of malaria, <50% of them could identified case definition of simple and complicated malaria. Large percentage of the respondents knew the signs and symptoms of simple malaria. The respondents who were older (P = 0.004 with more than 15-year work experience (P = 0.006 had good knowledge score of the NMCP. Conclusion: Knowledge and implementation of NMCP by health-care workers in some of the LGAs in this study was inadequate. Regular visit to the health facilities, especially those in the remote areas by the staff of malaria control unit were recommended.

  7. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS and EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors

  8. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GLASS FORMULATION TESTING TO INCREASE SULFATE INCORPORATION - Final Report VSL-04R4960-1, Rev 0, 2/28/05, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of American, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The melter tests described in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared

  10. Father Secchi Goes to Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. F.

    1994-12-01

    In 1848 a small group of Jesuit refugees arrived at Georgetown College near Washington, D.C. Among them was a young priest, Angelo Secchi, who had finished theology studies in Rome, but had not been able to complete his final examinations. This done successfully, Secchi turned to astronomy and the new facilities of the Georgetown College Observatory, directed by its founder, Fr. James Curley. During his two years in Washington, Secchi studied physics, wrote an article on Electrical Rheometry for the Smithsonian Institution, and formed a friendship with Matthew Fontaine Maury of the U.S. Navy, who headed the Chart Service and in 1844 was named superintendent of the National Observatory. This was later named the U.S. Naval Observatory. Secchi's friendships formed during the Washington visit proved most helpful for relations between European astronomers and U.S. colleagues. Secchi, after his return to Rome constructed the Observatory of the Collegio Romano atop the baroque Church of St. Ignatius in Rome and began his work in spectral classification of stars.

  11. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  12. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  13. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  14. Perceptions of risk from workers in high risk industries with work related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D; Silverstein, B

    2014-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) remain a major occupational health problem, despite decades of research, outreach, and intervention. The aim of this study is to promote early identification and prevention of WMSDs by developing education and outreach materials grounded in interview data collected from workers that have recently filed for workers compensation (WC) for WMSDs. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with WC claimants (n=66) from high risk industries identified through the use of a Prevention Index (PI) in Washington state with WMSDs of the back, shoulder, hand/wrist, or knee. Perceptions regarding the degree of exposure to WMSD risk factors, the social construction of pain, and the potential to implement injury-prevention measures varied widely. Many workers dismissed their injuries as the result of "fluke" or "freak" occurrences and framed their exposure to risk factors for WMSDs as either inevitable or "just part of the job." Workers in high-risk industries for WMSDs described their work conditions in ways that suggested: (1) a lack of awareness of the potential for developing a WMSD, (2) a view of work-related pain as normal, and/or (3) a pattern of self-blame for WMSD onset. A paradigm that either asserts the inevitability of WMSDs or dismisses potential control measures presents both a significant barrier to injury prevention efforts as well as a major opportunity for future occupational health research.

  15. Surveillance of Washington OSHA exposure data to identify uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Chemical substance exposure data from the Washington State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program were reviewed to determine if inspections conducted as a result of a report of a hazard from a complainant or referent may alert the agency to uncharacterized or emerging health hazards. Exposure and other electronically stored data from 6890 health inspection reports conducted between April 2003 and August 2008 were extracted from agency records. A total of 515 (7%) inspections with one or more personal airborne chemical substance samples were identified for further study. Inspections by report of a hazard and by targeting were compared for the following: number of inspections, number and percentage of inspections with workers exposed to substances above an agency's permissible exposure limit, types of industries inspected, and number and type of chemical substances assessed. Report of a hazard inspections documented work sites with worker overexposure at the same rate as agency targeted inspections (approximately 35% of the time), suggesting that complainants and referents are a credible pool of observers capable of directing the agency to airborne chemical substance hazards. Report of a hazard inspections were associated with significantly broader distribution of industries as well as a greater variety of chemical substance exposures than were targeted inspections. Narrative text that described business type and processes inspected was more useful than NAICS codes alone and critical in identifying processes and industries that may be associated with new hazards. Finally, previously identified emerging hazards were found among the report of a hazard data. These findings indicate that surveillance of OSHA inspection data can be a valid tool to identify uncharacterized and emerging health hazards. Additional research is needed to develop criteria for objective review and prioritization of the data for intervention. Federal OSHA and other state

  16. Expression of Cyclin D1 protein and CCN DI with PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean-up worker of Chernobyl accident with different state of immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazika, D.A.; Kubashko, A.V.; Yil'jenko, Yi.M.; Belyajev, O.A.; Pleskach, O.Ya.

    2015-01-01

    The investigate of Cyclin D1+cells levels changes, associated CCND1 and PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cleanup workers of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system in depends on the dose irradiation. Analyzed data of the nuclear controller of cell cycle- Cyclin D1 protein expression changes and related CCND1 and PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cleanup workers Chornobyl accident with different status of immune system in remote period after exposure is represented. Reveled changes in expression of Cyclin D1+cells and regulation of related genes may point on possible radiation-associated firm molecular disturbances occurred during elimination of consequences of Chornobyl accident, that could be a potential basis for cell and humoral communicative links breach in immune system result ing in elevation of stochastic effects like oncopathology in cleanup workers of Chornobyl accident in remote peri od after exposure

  17. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. Death with dignity in Washington patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leo H; Elliott, Michael A; Jung Henson, Lily; Gerena-Maldonado, Elba; Strom, Susan; Downing, Sharon; Vetrovs, Jennifer; Kayihan, Paige; Paul, Piper; Kennedy, Kate; Benditt, Joshua O; Weiss, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    To describe the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who sought medication under the Washington State Death with Dignity (DWD) Act since its inception in 2009. Chart review at 3 tertiary medical centers in the Seattle/Puget Sound region and comparison to publicly available data of ALS and all-cause DWD cohorts from Washington and Oregon. In Washington State, 39 patients with ALS requested DWD from the University of Washington, Virginia Mason, and Swedish Medical Centers beginning in 2009. The median age at death was 65 years (range 46-86). Seventy-seven percent of the patients used the prescriptions. All of the patients who used the medications passed away without complications. The major reasons for patients to request DWD as reported by participating physicians were loss of autonomy and dignity and decrease in enjoyable activities. Inadequate pain control, financial cost, and loss of bodily control were less commonly indicated. These findings were similar to those of the 92 patients who sought DWD in Oregon. In Washington and Oregon, the percentage of patients with ALS seeking DWD is higher compared to the cancer DWD cohort. Furthermore, compared to the all-cause DWD cohort, patients with ALS are more likely to be non-Hispanic white, married, educated, enrolled in hospice, and to have died at home. Although a small number, ALS represents the disease with the highest proportion of patients seeking to participate in DWD. Patients with ALS who choose DWD are well-educated and have access to palliative or life-prolonging care. The use of the medications appears to be able to achieve the patients' goals without complications. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  20. 76 FR 21928 - Washington State University; Facility Operating License No. R-76; Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... late 2008, the site was surrounded for a distance of 400 meters (1300 feet) in all directions by... course is separated from the NRCR by 100 to 200 meters (330 to 660 feet) of land. There is a parcel of land abutting the NRCR of about 10,000 square meters (109,000 square feet) of virgin prairie land which...

  1. Needs Assessment of the Healthcare Sector in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area. Research Report. Business Needs Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the growing population of elderly citizens will result in an increased demand for healthcare services that will rise for a full 50 years. This study assesses the need for healthcare sector workers in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Information on the skills, education, and experience that…

  2. Routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site (Hanford), Richland, Washington. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents an reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Washington regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted May 2--13, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  3. Routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site (Hanford), Richland, Washington. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents an reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Washington regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted May 2--13, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements

  4. 77 FR 72907 - Western Washington Railroad, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-City of Tacoma, Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., 2012, Western Washington Railroad, LLC (WWRR), a Washington limited liability company and noncarrier... allow for interchange with WWRR, BNSF Railway Company, the Puget Sound and Pacific Railroad, and Union Pacific Railroad Company, and also over the entire line for emergency routing. WWRR states that the...

  5. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie Tara SH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media, and primary stakeholders (FSWs, as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face. Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.3 to 0.5, p Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  6. Use of interferon-gamma release assays in a health care worker screening program: experience from a tertiary care centre in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Monson, Thomas P; Woods, Gail L

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-gamma release assays including the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT [Cellestis Ltd, Australia]) may be used in place of the tuberculin skin test (TST) in surveillance programs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection control. However, data on performance and practicality of the QFT-GIT in such programs for health care workers (HCWs) are limited. To assess the performance, practicality and reversion rate of the QFT-GIT among HCWs at a tertiary health care institution in the United States. Retrospective chart review of HCWs at Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System (Arkansas, USA) who underwent QFT-GIT testing as a part of their employee screening between November 1, 2008 and October 31, 2009. QFT-GIT was used to screen 3290 HCWs. The initial QFT-GIT was interpreted as positive for 129 (3.9%) HCWs, negative for 3155 (95.9%) and indeterminate for six (0.2%). Testing with QFT-GIT was repeated in 45 HCWs who had positive results on the initial test. The QFT-GIT reverted to negative in 18 (40.0%) HCWs, all of whom had negative TST status and initial interferon-gamma values of 0.35 IU⁄mL to 2.0 IU⁄mL. The QFT-GIT test is feasible in large health care setting as an alternative to TST for M tuberculosis infection screening in HCWs but is not free from challenges. The major concerns are the high number of positive test results and high reversion rates on repeat testing, illustrating poor short-term reproducibility of positive QFT-GIT test results. These results suggest adopting a borderline zone between interferon-gamma values of 0.35 IU⁄mL to 2.0 IU⁄mL, and cautious clinical interpretation of values in this range.

  7. Washington Windplant No. 1: Botanical resources field survey. Appendix B to Washington Windplant No. 1 EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    KENETECH Windpower, Inc., has applied to Klickitat County for a conditional use permit to construct and operate a 115 Megawatt windfarm on an approximately 5110 hectare (12,630 acre) site in the Columbia Hills near Goldendale, Washington. A transmission services agreement between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and utilities purchasing the Project's output will also be required. Klickitat County and BPA initiated the preparation of a joint SEPA/NEPA Environmental Impact Statement, under the authority of the Washington State Environmental Policy Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS addresses, among other issues, the Project's potential impact on rare, threatened or endangered, and sensitive plant species and communities as well as plant species of potential cultural importance. A field survey along potential impact corridors (turbine strings, roadways, and the transmission line alignment) was conducted between April and June, 1994 in order to identify rare plant species, high-quality native plant communities, and plant species of potential cultural importance present in these corridors. In addition, habitat maps of the entire 5110-ha project area were field verified. This report contains the results of that survey and an assessment of the potential project impacts

  8. Advanced Worker Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs

  9. Study of radiosensitivity and antioxidant-oxidant state in workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the hospital environment; Estudio de la radiosensibilidad y estado antioxidante-oxidante en trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes en el ámbito hospitalario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastià, N.; Rodrigo, R.; Hervás, D.; Olivares-González, L; Óscar Alonso, O.; Marti, L.; Jambrina, E.; Sarrias, A.; Pérez-Calatayud, J.; García, T.; Gras, P.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Soriano, J.M.; León, Z.; Montoro, A.

    2014-07-01

    Prevention and protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation is an objective of particular importance from the occupational health and safety point of view. This study establishes a technique for the evaluation of the individual radiosensibility of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the Hospital environment using the cytogenetic biomarker known as the G2 –Test. In addition, using various oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant capacity, we evaluate the antioxidant-oxidant state of these workers. Both biomarkers could be established as additional tools in the medical control of workers exposed to ionizing radiation. [Spanish] La prevención y protección de los trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes es un objetivo de gran relevancia desde el punto de vista de seguridad ocupacional y salud. Este estudio consiste en la puesta a punto de una técnica de evaluación de la radiosensibilidad individual de los trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes en el ámbito hospitalario mediante el biomarcador citogenético conocido como Test G2. Además, utilizando diversos biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo y capacidad anti- oxidante, evaluamos el estado antioxidante-oxidante en estos trabajadores. Ambos biomarcadores podrían establecerse como una herramienta más dentro de la vigilancia médica de los trabajadores expuestos a radiación ionizante.

  10. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  11. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Risk perception of workers at nuclear power plants from Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State: preliminary study of a reality on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scliar, Claudio; Vasconcelos, Ana S.F.; Rodrigues, Anacely S.; Santos, Gloria R.R.; Albuquerque, Patricia O.; Carvalho, Sirlene L.A.; Oliveira, Simone

    1999-01-01

    The present paper analyses some social and occupational parameters that may have an influence on the risk perception levels of the workers in Brazilian Nuclear Power pLants, emphasizing possible relationship between the specificity of job tasks/literacy and risk perception. This study was based on two findings from the scientific literature: risk perception increases proportionally with literacy; risk perception decreases proportionally with the specificity of job tasks. The results of this pilot study indicates that risk perception levels of the workers in Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants increases proportionally with the literacy and specificity of their job tasks, contrasting with the american and european profiles. These results appears as a singular reality of those workers and the possibility of a new regard over the management and decision making process in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  13. Status of birds at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Johnson, A.R.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has entered into agreements with the Washington State Department of Ecology, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Hanford Site contractors to focus work activities on cleanup and stabilization of radioactive and hazardous waste sites located at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Ecological characterization is an essential part of the remediation process, and the identification of biotic components such as bird species that could be impacted by cleanup activities is an important part of the initial environmental characterizations. Site characterization work has resulted in this list of 238 birds that have been observed at the Hanford Site. This list is presented with a status rating for abundance and seasonal occurrence

  14. Meeting Report: Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Mexico City, Mexico, 3rd to 4th October 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Ibarra Martha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From October 3 to 4, 2016, the fourth meeting of haematologists who belonged to the institute for social security and services for state workers (ISSSTE was held, the meeting was held in Mexico City, Mexico. Attending this working meeting, medical fellows of the specialty of Haematology and Paediatric Haematology, as well as attached doctors of both specialties that work in different hospitals in Mexico City and the rest of the country, the purpose of the attendees to this consensus was discuss, update, and homogenize the protocols of diagnostic and therapeutic approach in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of all ages. All participants appreciated the opportunity to participate in one of the most important cooperation projects of the ISSSTE and to be able to offer updated treatment protocols to this population or, failing that, to send them a Medical Center that can provide hospital care as soon as possible. Physicians took advantage of this meeting for the scientific exchange, the discussion on projects in course and were planned the development of other consensuses being the closest the one of lymphomas. As in the previous consensuses that were published in a National magazine. The coordinator of this project raised to the attendees the possibility of a publication in magazines of greater prestige international since in countries like Mexico the cooperative work is not frequent and the group of haematologists belonging to ISSSTE are working towards this goal. This consensus was considered as a very well-organized platform to support the research of young fellows in the specialty to stimulate the team work in protocols of the different haematological pathologies and to inform the world the results achieved in a population of patients attended by the ISSSTE. In agreement with the main objective of this consensus on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia once finished and discussed throughout the haematological group, the coordinator for the

  15. Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented

  16. Raising Job Quality and Skills for American Workers: Creating More-Effective Education and Workforce Development Systems in the States. Discussion Paper 2011-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the employment rates and earnings of Americans workers, we need to create more-coherent and more-effective education and workforce development systems, focusing primarily (though not exclusively) on disadvantaged youth and adults, and with education and training more clearly targeted towards firms and sectors that provide good-paying…

  17. Establishing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Suggestions Made by Health Care Workers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queeneth Ndukwe Kalu

    2018-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Healthcare workers perceive an urgent need for the establishment of CPR services in our health facilities and communities. There is need to address the triad of awareness, infrastructure and capacity building for the establishment of CPR services peculiar to Sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Analysis of the Return on Investment and Economic Impact of Education: The Economic Value of Washington's Community and Technical Colleges. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Washington's Community and Technical Colleges (the colleges) serve 305,087 credit and 95,890 non-credit students. The colleges' service region, for the purpose of this report, consists of Washington State. This report assesses the impact of the colleges as a whole on the state economy and the benefits generated by the colleges for students,…

  19. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  20. An evaluation of the adequacy of vital status follow-up in the Hanford worker mortality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omohundro, E.L.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report was to evaluate the completeness of vital status ascertainment in the Hanford worker cohort. Identifying information on 17,708 Hanford workers, including all workers who were monitored for external radiation exposure, employed at least six months at the Hanford site, and whose vital status remains unknown, was submitted to a private search organization, Equifax Government and Special Systems. Equifax then linked Social Security numbers of these workers with death information files. For the period 1945--86 that has been emphasized in recent dose-response analyses of the Hanford data, Equifax ascertained only 12 new deaths, an increase of only 0.2% over deaths that had been ascertained previously. In addition, Equifax ascertained 23 deaths that were judged to be mismatches based on comparison of names and birth-dates on their files and ours; it is shown that this number can be regarded as a rough estimate of the number of deaths missed because workers had incorrect Social Security numbers. Overall the study suggests that the number of deaths missed was not large, but the confidence one can place in this conclusion is limited by the fact that Equifax's ascertainment procedures are not perfect, especially for the period before 1965. In order to evaluate the adequacy of the methods used by Equifax, information on 2,254 Hanford workers who had been previously identified as dead was also submitted. Equifax missed less than 2% of known Hanford deaths occurring in the period 1965--86, but missed about 18% of deaths occurring before 1965. Although recent analyses have focused on the period 1945--86, some analyses have included deaths ascertained using direct linkage with Washington state death files for the period 1987--89