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Sample records for washington state usa

  1. Cyanotoxin bioaccumulation in freshwater fish, Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, F Joan; Johnson, Art; Hamel, Kathy; Preece, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Until recently, exposure pathways of concern for cyanotoxins have focused on recreational exposure, drinking water, and dermal contact. Exposure to cyanotoxins through fish consumption is a relatively new area of investigation. To address this concern, microcystins and other cyanotoxins were analyzed in fish collected from nine Washington lakes with recurrent toxic blooms using two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Microcystins or microcystin-like compounds were elevated in fish liver relative to muscle and other tissues (liver>gut>muscle). Microcystin concentrations in fish fillet samples using anti-Adda ELISA (range 6.3-11 μg/kg wet weight) were consistently higher in all fish species than concentrations using anti-microcystin (MC)-leucine-arginine (LR) ELISA (range 0.25-2.4 μg/kg wet weight). MC-leucine-alanine (LA) was the only variant detected in fish (2.5-12 μg/kg in four livers) among the nine variants analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Fish fillets showed no accumulation of the MCs targeted by LC-MS/MS. Other cyanotoxins analyzed (anatoxin-a, saxitoxin, domoic acid, and okadaic acid) were not detected in fish. Based on this and evidence from other studies, we believe that people can safely consume two 8-oz fish fillet meals per week from lakes with blooms producing MCs (clean the fish and discard viscera).

  2. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  3. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  4. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  5. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  6. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  7. Perceived impact and feasibility of strategies to improve access to healthy foods in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee L; Podrabsky, Mary; Beckwith-Stanley, Nadia; Chan, Nadine; Ellings, Amy; Kovacs, Tricia; Lane, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of each policy on a five-point scale using online surveys. Washington State policy process. Forty-nine content experts (national researchers and subject experts), forty policy experts (state elected officials or their staff, gubernatorial or legislative policy analysts) and forty-five other stakeholders (state-level advocates, programme administrators, food producers). In aggregate, respondents rated policy impact and implementation feasibility higher than political feasibility. Policy experts rated policy strategies as less politically feasible compared with content experts (P political and implementation feasibility. These included policies related to nutrition standards in schools and child-care facilities, food distribution systems, urban planning projects, water availability, joint use agreements and breast-feeding supports. Although they may be perceived as potentially impactful, some policies will be more difficult to enact than others. Information about the potential feasibility of policies to improve access to healthy foods can be used to focus limited policy process resources on strategies with the highest potential for enactment, implementation and impact.

  8. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p landslide volume and mean annual precipitation, with 98% of landslide volume occurring along the windward, high-precipitation side of the range during the 25-year interval. Normalized to area, this volume yields a basin-wide erosion rate of 0.28 ± 0.11 mm yr- 1, which is similar to previous time-variable estimates of erosion throughout the Olympic Mountains, including those from river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  9. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Shaogang; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Drouillard, Ken G.; Haffner, G. Douglas; Letcher, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. - Osprey eggs from the Puget Sound area contain the herbicide dacthal and its analogue

  10. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    OpenAIRE

    David G. James; Lorraine Seymour; Gerry Lauby; Katie Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other bene...

  11. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  13. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  14. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  15. Groundwater remediation of hexavalent chromium along the Columbia River at the Hanford site in Washington state, USA - 59030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, Dyan L.; Charboneau, Briant L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, formerly used for nuclear weapons production, encompasses 1500 square kilometers in southeast Washington State along the Columbia River. A principle threat to the river are the groundwater plumes of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which affect approximately 9.8 square kilometers, and 4.1 kilometers of shoreline. Cleanup goals are to stop Cr(VI) from entering the river by the end of 2012 and remediate the groundwater plumes to the drinking water standards by the end of 2020. Five groundwater pump-and-treat systems are currently in operation for the remediation of Cr(VI). Since the 1990's, over 13.6 billion L of groundwater have been treated; over 1, 435 kg of Cr(VI) have been removed. This paper describes the unique aspects of the site, its environmental setting, hydrogeology, groundwater-river interface, riverine hydraulic effects, remediation activities completed to date, a summary of the current and proposed pump-and-treat operations, the in situ redox manipulation barrier, and the effectiveness of passive barriers, resins, and treatability testing results of calcium polysulfide, bio-stimulation, and electrocoagulation, currently under evaluation. (authors)

  16. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  17. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  18. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  19. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  20. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  1. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  2. Black Carbon, Dust and Organic Matter at South Cascade Glacier in Washington State, USA: A Comprehensive Characterization of Temporal (1865-2014) and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, S.; Pittenger, D.; Swick, M.; Skiles, M.; Perez, A.; Sethi, H.; Sevier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rising temperatures are a widely recognized cause of glacial retreat in Washington, however light absorbing aerosols (LAA, including black carbon (BC), dust and organic matter) can also contribute to increased melt by reducing snow albedo. We present updated results of BC and dust variability at South Cascade (SOCAS) glacier spanning 1865-1994 using a 158 m ice core. Peak BC deposition occurred between 1940-1958, when median BC concentrations were 25 times higher than background levels. Post 1958 BC concentrations decrease, followed by an increase post 1980 associated with melt consolidation and/or trans-Pacific aerosol transport. Dust deposition at SOCAS is dominated by local sources. Albedo reductions from LAA are dominated by dust deposition, except during high BC deposition events from wildfires, and during the 1940-1958 period when BC contributes equally to albedo reductions. Results from a 2014 field campaign that included collection of 3 shallow ice cores, surface snow, and snow albedo measurements allow the 1865-1994 ice core record to be extended toward present, and spatial variability in LAA to be characterized. Snow albedo transects were measured using a spectrometer. BC concentrations were measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Gravimetric filtration was used to determine the total LAA, and a thermal gravimetric technique was used to partition the LAA between dust and organic matter. The organic matter was partitioned into organic and elemental carbon using a thermal optical method. These methods allow LAA abundances be measured, but to partition the contribution of the LAA to albedo reductions requires characterization of LAA optical properties. This was accomplished using a Hyperspectral Imaging Microscope Spectrometer method that allows particle reflectance to be measured at 138 nm2 pixel resolution. By combining these methods, we provide a comprehensive characterization of spatial and temporal LAA variability at SOCAS.

  3. The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Joseph; Montgomery, David R.; Anderson, Scott A.; Keaton, Jeffrey R.; Benoît, Jean; dela Chapelle, John; Gilbert, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The Oso, Washington, USA, landslide occurred on the morning of Saturday, 22 March 2014 and claimed the lives of 43 people. The landslide began within an 200-m-high hillslope comprised of unconsolidated glacial and previous landslide/colluvial deposits; it continued as a debris avalanche/debris flow that rapidly inundated a neighborhood of 35 single-family residences. An intense three-week rainfall that immediately preceded the event most likely played a role in triggering the landslide; and other factors that likely contributed to destabilization of the landslide mass include alteration of the local groundwater recharge and hydrogeological regime from previous landsliding, weakening and alteration of the landslide mass caused by previous landsliding, and changes in stress distribution resulting from removal and deposition of material from earlier landsliding. Field reconnaissance following the event revealed six distinctive zones and several subzones that are characterized on the basis of geomorphic expression, styles of deformation, geologic materials, and the types, size, and orientation of vegetation. Seismic recording of the landslide indicate that the event was marked by several vibration-generating episodes of mass movement. We hypothesize that the landslide occurred in two stages, with the first being a sequential remobilization of existing slide masses from the most recent (2006) landslide and from an ancient slide that triggered a devastating debris avalanche/debris flow. The second stage involved headward extension into previously unfailed material that occurred in response to unloading and redirection of stresses.

  4. 2015 State Geodatabase for Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. Fuel management at Washington State Ferries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.; Olds, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed Washington State Ferry (WSF) operations and provided details of a biodiesel research and demonstration project. Washington has the largest ferry system in the United States, with a total of 28 vessels that operate on 10 routes through 20 terminals. Routes vary by transit times, navigational challenges, and the proximity to population centres. WSF fuel and emissions management initiatives include exhaust emission studies, clean fuel initiatives, machinery upgrades, fuel conservation initiatives, and biodiesel testing. The organization is also using waste heat recovery and a positive restraint system. The WSF biodiesel pilot program was conducted using soy-derived fuels with a purifier disk stack. The program is in agreement with recent legislation requiring that 2 per cent of annual diesel fuel sales are from biodiesel fuels, and state legislation requiring that state agencies use a minimum of 20 per cent biodiesel blends in diesel-powered vessels and vehicles. Details of project partnerships were included. tabs., figs

  6. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  7. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  8. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  9. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  10. The development of permanent isolation surface barriers: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of in situ (in place) at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). The current focus of development efforts is to design barriers that will function in a semiarid to subhumid climate, Emit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero amounts, be maintenance free, and last up to 1000 years or more. A series of field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies have been conducted for several years. The results of tests to date confirm that the Hanford barrier concepts are valid for both present and wetter climatic conditions. The data collected also have provided the foundation for the design of a large prototype barrier to be constructed later in 1993. This paper presents the results of some of the field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  12. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  13. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  14. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  15. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  16. Headwater stream temperature: interpreting response after logging, with and without riparian buffers, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Janisch; Steven M. Wondzell; William J. Ehinger

    2012-01-01

    We examined stream temperature response to forest harvest in small forested headwater catchments in western Washington, USA over a seven year period (2002-2008). These streams have very low discharge in late summer and many become spatially intermittent. We used a before-after, control-impact (BACl) study design to contrast the effect of clearcut logging with two...

  17. 75 FR 52023 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  18. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  19. The biologically active zone in upland habitats at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA: Focus on plant rooting depth and biomobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtang, Sara; Delistraty, Damon; Rochette, Elizabeth

    2018-07-01

    We challenge the suggestion by Sample et al. (2015) that a depth of 305 cm (10 ft) exceeds the depth of biological activity in soils at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA, or similar sites. Instead, we support the standard point of compliance, identified in the Model Toxics Control Act in the state of Washington, which specifies a depth of 457 cm (15 ft) for the protection of both human and ecological receptors at the Hanford Site. Our position is based on additional information considered in our expanded review of the literature, the influence of a changing environment over time, plant community dynamics at the Hanford Site, and inherent uncertainty in the Sample et al. (2015) analysis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:442-446. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  20. Educator Supply and Demand in Washington State. 2004 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry; Maloney, Rick; Hathaway, Randy; Bryant, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the third Educator Supply and Demand Research study in the State of Washington. The intent of these Washington studies is to provide data to inform and shape decisions and activities in the following ways: (1) Provide useful information for educational policymakers, including the legislature, the State Board…

  1. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  2. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  3. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  4. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  5. Additions to the stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Lechleitner, R.A.; Zuellig, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    In summary, 88 species of stoneflies are now known from MRNP, representing 65% of the recorded Washington State fauna (Stark and Baumann 2005). At least two of these species are apparently restricted to the MRNP, Soliperla fenderi (Jewett) (Stark and Gustafson 2004) and P. lechleitneri.

  6. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... construction. Archaeologists working for the Washington Archaeological Research Center at Washington State... Reservation. Historical, ethnographic, linguistic, and archaeological information links the site to the...

  7. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: coastal geomorphic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Eidam, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of mud, sand, and gravel since 1927, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams, initiated in September 2011, induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal delta to these increases. Detailed measurements of beach topography and nearshore bathymetry show that ~ 2.5 million m3 of sediment was deposited during the first two years of dam removal, which is ~ 100 times greater than deposition rates measured prior to dam removal. The majority of the deposit was located in the intertidal and shallow subtidal region immediately offshore of the river mouth and was composed of sand and gravel. Additional areas of deposition include a secondary sandy deposit to the east of the river mouth and a muddy deposit west of the mouth. A comparison with fluvial sediment fluxes suggests that ~ 70% of the sand and gravel and ~ 6% of the mud supplied by the river was found in the survey area (within about 2 km of the mouth). A hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, validated with in-situ measurements, shows that tidal currents interacting with the larger relict submarine delta help disperse fine sediment large distances east and west of the river mouth. The model also suggests that waves and currents erode the primary deposit located near the river mouth and transport sandy sediment eastward to form the secondary deposit. Though most of the substrate of the larger relict submarine delta was unchanged during the first two years of dam removal, portions of the seafloor close to the river mouth became finer, modifying habitats for biological communities. These results show that river restoration, like natural changes in river sediment supply, can result in rapid and substantial coastal geomorphological

  8. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... of human remains under the control of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum...

  9. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Washington. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  10. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  11. Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Baker, Bridget B.; Mayer, Karl A.; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Holahan, Paula M.; Thomas, Nancy J.; White, C. LeAnn

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

  12. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  13. 78 FR 13887 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by April 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia... contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  14. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O. Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650... it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks...

  15. 77 FR 61782 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by November 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Alicia... affiliated with the human remains should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation...

  16. Two-phase, reciprocal, double trapdoor collapse at Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, David S [Mount Baker Volcano Research Center Geology Department Western Washington University 516 High Street Bellingham, Washington 98225-9080 (United States)], E-mail: DaveTucker@mbvo.wwu.edu

    2008-10-01

    The intracaldera Hannegan volcanics were erupted during two collapse episodes of the Hannegan caldera in the North Cascade mountains of Washington State. The first eruption yielded a down-to-the-north trapdoor style collapse at 3.722 {+-} 0.020 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) that is bounded by a horseshoe-shaped ring fault. The second collapse, most probably also trapdoor style, followed a short period of sedimentation, and completed the elliptical ring fault around the southern margin of the caldera. Post caldera plutons, with U-Pb ages of 3.42 {+-} 0.10 and 3.36 {+-} 0.20 Ma, intruded the intracaldera ignimbrite.

  17. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate E.; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John

    2013-01-01

    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  18. Tenth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA), July 19, 1995, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, V.A.; Hudgins, L. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Cassidy, S.B. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, and Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-09-06

    Each year for the last 10 years, scientists conducting research on Prader-Willi syndrome have come together to exchange information during a scientific conference held in conjunction with the annual Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) meeting. Presentations based on submitted abstracts encompass such varied fields as genetics, endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, psychology, psychiatry, and education. This year`s scientific conference was held in Seattle, Washington, on July 19, 1995, in conjunction with the 14th PWSA (USA) meeting held July 20-23. Seventeen reports were presented at the scientific meeting, the abstracts of which follow.

  19. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  20. The FLIP fuel experience at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    The Washington State University TRIGA-fueled modified G.E. reactor was refueled with a partial TRIGA-FLIP core in February, 1976. The final core loading consisted of 35 FLIP and 75 Standard TRIGA fuel rods and provided a core excess reactivity of $7.98. The observed performance of the reactor did not deviate significantly from the design predictions and specifications. Pulsing tests revealed a maximum power output of 1850 MW with a fuel temperature of 449 deg. C from a $2.50 pulse. Slight power fluctuations at 1 Megawatt steady-state operation and post-pulse power oscillations were observed. (author)

  1. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum. The human remains were removed from Island....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of...

  2. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum, Seattle, WA. The human....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of...

  3. 76 FR 58033 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  4. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  5. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  6. 76 FR 58039 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  7. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  8. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  9. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  10. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  11. Uranium release from different size fractions of sediments in Hanford 300 area, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangkun; Bao Jianguo; Hu Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Stirred-flow cell tests were carried out to investigate uranium (U) release from different size fractions of sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford 300 Area in Washington, USA. Results show that the measured concentration of U release varies with different size fractions, with the fine-grained mass fractions (<75 μm, 75–500 μm, and 500–2000 μm) being the main U carriers. However, because the sediment is mainly composed of gravel (2000–8000 μm) materials, the gravel fraction is a non-negligible U pool. Our elution experiments give a value of 8.7% of the total U being in the gravel fraction, significantly reducing the current uncertainty in evaluating U inventory. A log–log plot of released U concentration vs. elution volume (i.e., elution time) shows a power-law relationship for all size fractions, with identical exponents for the three fine size fractions (−0.875). For the <2000 μm mass fraction, comparing our eluted U values with reported total U concentrations, we estimate that a lower bound value 8.6% of the total uranium is labile. This compares well with the previously published value of 11.8% labile U after extraction with a dilute extractant for three weeks. - Highlights: ► Stirred-flow cells were used to study U release in Hanford 300 Area sediment. ► Fine-grained size fractions have higher U concentrations. ► U in coarse fraction is less studied, but its 8.7–9.3% of total U is non-negligible. ► A power-law relationship is observed between released U and elution volume. ► About 8.6% of U in the <2 mm sediment is labile.

  12. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  13. Prevalence of corporal punishment among students in Washington State schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P

    1995-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.

  14. Legacy lead arsenate soil contamination at childcare centers in the Yakima Valley, Central Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Jenna; Bartrem, Casey; Möller, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    From the early 1900s to the 1950s, Yakima Valley orchards were commonly treated with lead arsenate (LA) insecticides. Lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) soil contamination has been identified on former orchard lands throughout Central Washington and pose a threat to human health and the environment. The levels of Pb and As in soil and interior dust at participating childcare centers in the Upper Yakima Valley (Yakima County), Washington were sampled to explore exposure potential for young children. Childcare center soils were collected from two soil depths, homogenized, and analyzed in bulk by a field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Interior dust wipes samples were collected from at least two locations in each facility. All soil samples >250 mg/kg Pb and/or >20 As mg/kg were sieved to 250 μm, tested by XRF a second time, and analyzed via acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Bulk and sieved XRF results, as well as ICP-MS to XRF results were strongly correlated. Maximum Pb and As XRF results indicated that 4 (21%) and 8 (42%) of the 19 childcare centers surveyed exceeded the regulatory standard for Pb and As, respectively. Historic land use was significantly associated with elevated Pb and As levels. Interior dust loadings were below United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Childcare centers are areas of intensive use for children and when coupled with potential residential exposure in their homes, the total daily exposure is a potential hazard to children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 59964 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Washington (Burke Museum), and Central Washington University have completed an inventory of human remains, in...

  16. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-10823; 2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  17. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-12080;2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  18. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  19. Ergonomics and regulatory politics: the Washington State case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Every year in the State of Washington more than 50,000 workers experience a work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD), making up more than 30% of all worker compensation cases. In 2000, the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) adopted a workplace ergonomics rule requiring employers to reduce worker exposure to hazards that cause or contribute to WMSDs. In 2003, the ergonomics rule was repealed by a margin of 53.5-46.5 in a statewide voter initiative. The official rulemaking record of approximately 100,000 pages, along with supplementary published and unpublished material, was reviewed. The relationship between scientific deliberation and the public policy process in adopting and repealing the ergonomics rule was assessed and described. The deliberative features of the regulatory, judicial, legislative, and ballot processes were compared. The ergonomics rule was successful in the regulatory and legal arenas where the process was most transparent and open to public involvement, differing views could be presented fully, and decision makers were expected to explain their decisions in light of the record. The rule fared most poorly in the legislature and at the ballot box when these features were lost and where considered deliberation was replaced by unconstrained political conflict. Additional checks and balances are needed.

  20. Rapid deterioration of sediment surface habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, as indicated by benthic foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Elizabeth A; Martin, Ruth A; Martin, David E; Apple, Jude

    2015-08-15

    Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause. Thus, the metrics of contamination alone do not adequately characterize habitat viability, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide insight into the health of coastal ecosystems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: river channel and floodplain geomorphic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Pess, George R.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Logan, Joshua; Randle, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Minear, Justin T.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Liermann, Martin C.; McHenry, Michael L.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial increase in fluvial sediment supply relative to transport capacity causes complex, large-magnitude changes in river and floodplain morphology downstream. Although sedimentary and geomorphic responses to sediment pulses are a fundamental part of landscape evolution, few opportunities exist to quantify those processes over field scales. We investigated the downstream effects of sediment released during the largest dam removal in history, on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, by measuring changes in riverbed elevation and topography, bed sediment grain size, and channel planform as two dams were removed in stages over two years.

  2. Percutaneous injuries among dental professionals in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous exposure incidents facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV. This study was conducted to identify the circumstances and equipment related to percutaneous injuries among dental professionals. Methods We used workers' compensation claims submitted to the Department of Labor and Industries State Fund during a 7-year period (1995 through 2001 in Washington State for this study. We used the statement submitted by the injured worker on the workers' compensation claim form to determine the circumstances surrounding the injury including the type of activity and device involved. Results Of a total of 4,695 accepted State Fund percutaneous injury claims by health care workers (HCWs, 924 (20% were submitted by dental professionals. Out of 924 percutaneous injuries reported by dental professionals 894 (97% were among dental health care workers in non-hospital settings, including dentists (66, 7%, dental hygienists (61, 18% and dental assistants (667, 75%. The majority of those reporting were females (638, 71%. Most (781, 87% of the injuries involved syringes, dental instruments (77, 9%, and suture needles (23%. A large proportion (90% of injuries occurred in offices and clinics of dentists, while remainder occurred in offices of clinics and of doctors of medicine (9%, and a few in specialty outpatient facilities (1%. Of the 894 dental health care workers with percutaneous injuries, there was evidence of HBV in 6 persons, HCV in 30 persons, HIV in 3 persons and both HBV and HVC (n = 2 exposure. Conclusion Out of hospital percutaneous injuries are a substantial risk to dental health professionals in Washington State. Improved work practices and safer devices are needed to address this risk.

  3. Forest harvest patterns on private lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Walker, Jessica; Griffith, Glenn E.

    2017-01-01

    Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC) products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  4. Forest Harvest Patterns on Private Lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Soulard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  5. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  6. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  7. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  8. Safety of union home care aides in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Phillips, Leslie E

    2017-09-01

    A rate-based understanding of home care aides' adverse occupational outcomes related to their work location and care tasks is lacking. Within a 30-month, dynamic cohort of 43 394 home care aides in Washington State, injury rates were calculated by aides' demographic and work characteristics. Injury narratives and focus groups provided contextual detail. Injury rates were higher for home care aides categorized as female, white, 50 to working through an agency (versus individual providers). In addition to direct occupational hazards, variability in workload, income, and supervisory/social support is of concern. Policies should address the roles and training of home care aides, consumers, and managers/supervisors. Home care aides' improved access to often-existing resources to identify, manage, and eliminate occupational hazards is called for to prevent injuries and address concerns related to the vulnerability of this needed workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  10. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD, SITE WASHINGTON, USA - 11507

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, J.L.; Biebesheimer, F.H.; Eluskie, J.A.; Spiliotopoulos, A.; Tonkin, M.J.; Simpkin, T.

    2011-01-01

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km 2 (2.7 mi 2 ) with concentrations greater than 20 (micro)g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 (micro)g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 (micro)g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 (micro)g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  11. The power professorship program at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, C.C.; Shamash, Y.

    1993-01-01

    As with most electric power programs, Washington State University's has existed since the beginning of the engineering program 100 years ago. It has grown and developed largely through the efforts of a few dedicated individuals. The Power Professorship Program has existed since 1972. The Power Professor has been Dr. Clifford C. Mosher until his recent semi-retirement. The Power Professorship was conceived of as an avenue for joint university-industry interaction. Considerable time and ingenuity by visionary engineers and others have resulted in development of a financial base for the Power Professorship Program. The program has been funded equally by public and investor-utility sectors. Following financial difficulties stemming from the Washington Public Power Supply System financial default on public utility bonds for several nuclear projects, funding for the program from the public sector was canceled. After several lean years, public-sector support was again restored by WSU's electrical engineering department offering a contract for services to the utilities in exchange for funding. This contract has been renewed annually, with costs and benefits firmly established through careful analysis and consultation. Problems facing the power industry in the early 1970s with regard to establishing a pipeline of future human resources, were almost identical with those of the present time: indifferent feelings about the industry in general, students being attracted to more glamorous disciplines, and a decline in educational opportunities available in the power area. A 1985 article in the IEEE Power Engineering Review describing today's declining enrollment in power engineering applies equally well to previous periods. A major driving force for initiating utility-industry participation in the Power Professorship Program was the concern for maintaining a source of entry-level engineers with a background in power engineering

  12. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an... University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, telephone (509) 335-4314. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  13. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an... objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. Repatriation of the human...

  14. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an... objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. Repatriation of the human...

  15. Unmet Student Financial Need in the State of Washington: A Study of the "Need Gap."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert; And Others

    A study of unmet student financial need in Washington State was conducted by the Washington Council for Postsecondary Education. "Unmet need" is the difference between need and the total amount of aid received by the student through federal, state, and institutional financial aid programs, privately funded scholarships, and nonsubsidized…

  16. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13770; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of..., Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

  17. 78 FR 50099 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... at the address in this notice by September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks... Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the Native... request Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  18. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given... written request with information in support of the request to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and...

  19. 78 FR 44594 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  20. Biomarkers of Sensitivity and Exposure in Washington State Pesticide Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, M.C.; Checkoway, H.; De Roos, A.J.; Farin, F.M.; Fenske, R.A.; Richter, R.J.; van Belle, G.; Furlong, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are widely used in agriculture in the US and abroad. These compounds – which inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity – continue to be responsible for a high proportion of pesticide poisonings among US agricultural workers. It is possible that some individuals may be especially susceptible to health effects related to OP/CB exposure. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme metabolizes the highly toxic oxon forms of some OPs, and an individual's PON1 status may be an important determinant of his or her sensitivity to these chemicals. This chapter discusses methods used to characterize individual PON1 status and reviews previous epidemiologic studies that have evaluated PON1-related sensitivity to OPs in relation to various health endpoints. It also describes an ongoing longitudinal study among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers who are participating in a recently implemented cholinesterase monitoring program in Washington State. This study will evaluate handlers' PON1 status as a hypothesized determinant of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. Such studies will be useful to determine how regulatory risk assessments might account for differences in PON1-related OP sensitivity when characterizing inter-individual variability in risk related to OP exposure. Recent work assessing newer and more sensitive biomarkers of OP exposure is also discussed briefly in this chapter. PMID:20221867

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in Washington state public high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Sheri; Quan, Linda

    2003-03-01

    To determine the best approaches for increasing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training opportunities for public high school students, we conducted a statewide survey of all 310 public high schools in Washington State. The findings describe CPR student training currently provided by high schools, barriers to providing, and strategies to increase CPR training of high school students. The response rate was 89% (276 schools) from a combination of mail and telephone surveys; 35% (n=97) reported that they did not provide any CPR student training. Of the 132 schools that provided CPR student training, 23% trained less than 10% of their students, and 39% trained more than 90% of their students. The majority of public high schools, 70%, did not have any teacher trained to teach CPR or had only one teacher with such training. Yet 80% of schools felt that CPR training is best provided in school settings. Schools perceived the greatest benefit of CPR training as providing students with the skill to save a life (43%). The most frequently identified barriers were logistical: limited time to teach the curriculum (24%), lack of funds (16%), and instructor scheduling difficulties (17%). Less than 5% of respondents voiced any opposition to CPR training, and that opposition was for logistical reasons. To increase CPR training, the single best strategies suggested were: increase funding, provide time in the curriculum, have more certified instructors, and make CPR student training a requirement.

  2. Seismic hazard assessment of the Hanford region, Eastern Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Power, M.S.; Swan, F.H. III

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was made for a site within the Hanford region of eastern Washington state, which is characterized as an intraplate region having a relatively low rate of seismic activity. Probabilistic procedures, such as logic trees, were utilized to account for the uncertainties in identifying and characterizing the potential seismic sources in the region. Logic trees provide a convenient, flexible means of assessing the values and relative likelihoods of input parameters to the hazard model that may be dependent upon each other. Uncertainties accounted for in this way include the tectonic model, segmentation, capability, fault geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, and earthquake recurrence rate. The computed hazard results are expressed as a distribution from which confidence levels are assessed. Analysis of the results show the contributions to the total hazard from various seismic sources and due to various earthquake magnitudes. In addition, the contributions of uncertainties in the various source parameters to the uncertainty in the computed hazard are assessed. For this study, the major contribution to uncertainty in the computed hazard are due to uncertainties in the applicable tectonic model and the earthquake recurrence rate. This analysis serves to illustrate some of the probabilistic tools that are available for conducting seismic hazard assessments and for analyzing the results of these studies. 5 references, 7 figures

  3. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: fluvial sediment load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Hilldale, Robert C.; Curran, Christopher A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Foreman, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The Elwha River restoration project, in Washington State, includes the largest dam-removal project in United States history to date. Starting September 2011, two nearly century-old dams that collectively contained 21 ± 3 million m3 of sediment were removed over the course of three years with a top-down deconstruction strategy designed to meter the release of a portion of the dam-trapped sediment. Gauging with sediment-surrogate technologies during the first two years downstream from the project measured 8,200,000 ± 3,400,000 tonnes of transported sediment, with 1,100,000 and 7,100,000 t moving in years 1 and 2, respectively, representing 3 and 20 times the Elwha River annual sediment load of 340,000 ± 80,000 t/y. During the study period, the discharge in the Elwha River was greater than normal (107% in year 1 and 108% in year 2); however, the magnitudes of the peak-flow events during the study period were relatively benign with the largest discharge of 292 m3/s (73% of the 2-year annual peak-flow event) early in the project when both extant reservoirs still retained sediment. Despite the muted peak flows, sediment transport was large, with measured suspended-sediment concentrations during the study period ranging from 44 to 16,300 mg/L and gauged bedload transport as large as 24,700 t/d. Five distinct sediment-release periods were identified when sediment loads were notably increased (when lateral erosion in the former reservoirs was active) or reduced (when reservoir retention or seasonal low flows and cessation of lateral erosion reduced sediment transport). Total suspended-sediment load was 930,000 t in year 1 and 5,400,000 t in year 2. Of the total 6,300,000 ± 3,200,000 t of suspended-sediment load, 3,400,000 t consisted of silt and clay and 2,900,000 t was sand. Gauged bedload on the lower Elwha River in year 2 of the project was 450,000 ± 360,000 t. Bedload was not quantified in year 1, but qualitative observations using bedload

  4. A new species of in the Rhyacophila vagrita group (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from Olympic National Park, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan J; Giersch, J. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Rhyacophila vagrita Milne, 1936 was described from specimens collected in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Ross (1950), while examining R. vagrita paratypes from Alberta, discovered four males that did not fi t the R. vagrita description. These he described and named R. milnei Ross, 1950. Ross (1956) established the R. vagrita group for R. vagrita and R. milnei based primarily on the synapomorphies of the “curious dorsal projections of both ninth and tenth tergites”, a very small simple aedeagus, and “a curious development of the apical band and anal sclerite”. Schmid (1970) indicated that males of the vagrita group have genitalia that are among the most unique in all of the species of Rhyacophila. While collecting in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA, we discovered an undescribed Rhyacophila species, most similar to R. milnei, with structures as remarkable as those described for R. vagrita and R. milnei

  5. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  6. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  7. 78 FR 45958 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13406; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  8. 78 FR 44595 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13407; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  9. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Determinations of elemental and solid-phase compositions, and contaminant release studies have been applied in an ongoing study of residual tank wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from five of 149 underground single-shell storage tanks (241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This work is being conducted to support performance assessments that will be required to evaluate long-term health and safety risks associated with tank site closure. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions, solid phase properties, and contaminant release characteristics from these residual tank wastes. This variability is the result of differences in waste chemistry/composition of wastes produced from several different spent fuel reprocessing schemes, subsequent waste reprocessing to remove certain target constituents, tank farm operations that concentrated wastes and mixed wastes between tanks, and differences in retrieval processes used to remove the wastes from the tanks. Release models were developed based upon results of chemical characterization of the bulk residual waste, solid-phase characterization (see companion paper 9277 by Krupka et al.), leaching and extraction experiments, and geochemical modeling. In most cases empirical release models were required to describe contaminant release from these wastes. Release of contaminants from residual waste was frequently found to be controlled by the solubility of phases that could not be identified and/or for which thermodynamic data and/or dissolution rates have not been measured. For example, significant fractions of Tc-99, I-129, and Cr appear to be coprecipitated at trace concentrations in metal oxide phases that could not be identified unambiguously. In the case of U release from tank 241-C-103 residual waste, geochemical calculations indicated that leachate

  10. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, that meets the definition of..., a copper pendant was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended...

  11. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages WA FC program for ≥11 months (N = 10,177). Regression models were used to examine associations between utilization and expenditures and sex, race, age group, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (i.e., disability), substance abuse, behavior problems, placement setting (Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Relationships between diatoms and tidal environments in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Yuki; Horton, Benjamin P.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Nagumo, Tamostsu; Nelson, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    A new regional dataset comprising 425 intertidal diatom taxa from 175 samples from 11 ecologically diverse Oregon and Washington estuaries illustrates the importance of compiling a large modern dataset from a range of sites. Cluster analyses and detrended correspondence analysis of the diatom assemblages identify distinct vertical zones within supratidal, intertidal and subtidal environments at six of the 11 study sites, but the abundance of some of the most common species varies widely among and within sites. Canonical correspondence analysis of the regional dataset shows relationships between diatom species and tidal exposure, salinity and substratum (grain size and organic content). Correspondence analyses of local datasets show higher values of explained variation than the analysis of the combined regional dataset. Our results emphasize that studies of the autecology of diatom species require many samples from a range of modern environments to adequately characterize species–environment relationships.

  13. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  14. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  15. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  16. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  17. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9682-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted regulations analogous to... of Health--Office of Drinking Water, [[Page 33457

  18. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  19. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park... possession of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, that meets the... notice. One lot of stone, bone, and glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington...

  20. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  1. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  2. Organochlorine chemical residues in Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) eggs from Greater Washington, DC USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul; Orazio, Carl; Grimm, Christiana; Tan, Shirlee; Diggs, Nora E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2018-01-01

    Northern Cardinal eggs from six neighborhoods near Washington DC were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. All compounds were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in more heavily urbanized neighborhoods. DDT (mostly as p,pʹ-DDE) was detected in all neighborhoods. p,pʹ-DDT was typically 0.5‒16 ng/g (ww) in most suburban neighborhoods but was not detected (< 0.1 ng/g) in more rural areas; however, p,pʹ-DDT was 127‒1130 ng/g in eggs from two suburban Maryland nests and comprised 65.7% of total p,pʹ-DDT isomers in the most contaminated sample, indicating recent exposure to un-weathered DDT. Total chlordane (sum of 5 compounds) was 2‒70 ng/g; concentrations were greatest in older suburban neighborhoods. Total PCB (sum of detected congeners) was < 5‒21 ng/g. Congener patterns were similar in all neighborhoods and resembled those typical of weathered mixtures. Results indicate that wildlife remains exposed to low concentrations of legacy contaminants in suburban neighborhoods and that cardinal eggs can be used to monitor localized contamination.

  3. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington Forests, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Linda H., E-mail: lgeiser@fs.fed.u [US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Air Resource Management Program, Siuslaw National Forest, PO Box 1148, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E. [US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 620 SW Main St, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Glavich, Doug A. [US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Air Resource Management Program, Siuslaw National Forest, PO Box 1148, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States); Porter, Matthew K. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition from the Communities Multi-Scale Air Quality model, and 3) ambient particulate N from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Sensitive species declines of 20-40% were associated with CLs of 1-4 and 3-9 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in wet and total deposition. CLs increased with precipitation across the landscape, presumably from dilution or leaching of depositional N. Tight linear correlation between lichen and IMPROVE data suggests a simple screening tool for CL exceedance in US Class I areas. The total N model replicated several US and European lichen CLs and may therefore be helpful in estimating other temperate-forest lichen CLs. - Lichen-based critical loads for N deposition in western Oregon and Washington forests ranged from 3 to 9 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}, increasing with mean annual precipitation.

  4. Coastal change from a massive sediment input: Dam removal, Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Stevens, Andrew; Miller, Ian M.; Kaminsky, George M.; Foley, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, provides an ideal opportunity to study coastal morphodynamics during increased sediment supply. The dam removal project exposed ~21 million cubic meters (~30 million tonnes) of sediment in the former reservoirs, and this sediment was allowed to erode by natural river processes. Elevated rates of sand and gravel sediment transport in the river occurred during dam removal. Most of the sediment was transported to the coast, and this renewed sediment supply resulted in hundreds of meters of seaward expansion of the river delta since 2011. Our most recent survey in January 2015 revealed that a cumulative ~3.5 million m3 of sediment deposition occurred at the delta since the beginning of the dam removal project, and that aggradation had exceeded 8 m near the river mouth. Some of the newly deposited sediment has been shaped by waves and currents into a series of subaerial berms that appear to move shoreward with time.

  5. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish from the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, D.; Hart, S.A.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro explant cultures identified Ichthyophonus in 10.9% of 302 Puget Sound rockfish Sebastes emphaeus sampled from five sites in the San Juan Islands archipelago and Puget Sound, Washington, in 2003. None of the infected fish exhibited visible lesions and only a single fish was histologically positive. Significantly more females were infected (12.4%) than males (6.8%), and while infected males were only detected at two of the five sites, infected females were identified at all sites, with no significant differences in infection prevalence. Genomic sequences of Ichthyophonus isolates obtained from Puget Sound rockfish, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, and Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were identical in both the A and B regions of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA but were different from Ichthyophonus sequences previously isolated from four different species of rockfish from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish may not have been previously detected because the infection is subclinical in this species and earlier investigators did not utilize in vitro techniques for diagnosis of ichthyophoniasis. However, since clinical ichthyophoniasis has recently been identified in several other species of northeast Pacific rockfishes, it is hypothesized that this either is an emerging disease resulting from changing marine conditions or the result of introduction by infected southern species that appear during periodic El Nin??o events. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  6. Mount Saint Helens, Washington, USA, SRTM Perspective: Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Mount Saint Helens is a prime example of how Earth's topographic form can greatly change even within our lifetimes. The mountain is one of several prominent volcanoes of the Cascade Range that stretches from British Columbia, Canada, southward through Washington, Oregon, and into northern California. Mount Adams (left background) and Mount Hood (right background) are also seen in this view, which was created entirely from elevation data produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Prior to 1980, Mount Saint Helens had a shape roughly similar to other Cascade peaks, a tall, bold, irregular conic form that rose to 2950 meters (9677 feet). However, the explosive eruption of May 18, 1980, caused the upper 400 meters (1300 feet) of the mountain to collapse, slide, and spread northward, covering much of the adjacent terrain (lower left), leaving a crater atop the greatly shortened mountain. Subsequent eruptions built a volcanic dome within the crater, and the high rainfall of this area lead to substantial erosion of the poorly consolidated landslide material. Eruptions at Mount Saint Helens subsided in 1986, but renewed volcanic activity here and at other Cascade volcanoes is inevitable. Predicting such eruptions still presents challenges, but migration of magma within these volcanoes often produces distinctive seismic activity and minor but measurable topographic changes that can give warning of a potential eruption. Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading of topographic slopes, color coding of topographic height, and then projection into a perspective view. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (left to right) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. The perspective view simulates the

  7. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  8. The Path to Advanced Practice Licensure for Clinical Nurse Specialists in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Heather

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the history and process to obtaining advanced practice licensure for clinical nurse specialists in Washington State. Before 2016, Washington State licensed certified nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and certified nurse anesthetists under the designation of an advanced registered nurse practitioner; however, the state did not recognize clinical nurse specialists as advanced practice nurses. The work to drive the rule change began in 2007. The Washington Affiliate of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists used the Power Elite Theory to guide advocacy activities, building coalitions and support for the desired rule changes. On January 8, 2016, the Washington State Nursing Care Quality Assurance Commission voted to amend the state's advanced practice rules, including clinical nurse specialists in the designation of an advanced practice nurse. Since the rule revision, clinical nurse specialists in Washington State have been granted advanced registered nurse practitioner licenses. Driving changes in state regulatory rules requires diligent advocacy, partnership, and a deep understanding of the state's rule-making processes. To be successful in changing rules, clinical nurse specialists must build strong partnerships with key influencers and understand the steps in practice required to make the desired changes.

  9. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  10. Environmental contaminants in great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-12-01

    Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies in Oregon and Washington, USA, during 1994 to 1995. Contaminant concentrations, reproductive success, and biomagnification factors were determined and effects of residue levels were measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma bioassays. Mean residue concentrations in heron eggs and prey items were generally low. However, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in eggs and prey from Ross Island on the Willamette River. Biomagnification factors varied among sites. Sites were not significantly different in H4IIE tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), although the TCDD-EQ for Karlson Island was 9 to 20 times greater than that of any other site. Large differences existed between toxic equivalents calculated from egg residue concentrations and TCDD-EQs, which indicated nonadditive interactions among the compounds. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents and nest failure were positively correlated with TCDD concentration. Fledging and reproductive rates were similar to those determined for healthy heron populations, however, indicating that any adverse effects were occurring at the individual level and not at the colony level. Their results support the use of great blue herons as a biomonitor for contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Their relatively low sensitivity to organochlorine contaminants and high trophic position allows contaminant accumulation and biomagnification without immediate adverse effects that are often seen in other, more sensitive species.

  11. Baseflow characterization of the inter-mountainous regions of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W.

    2012-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the streamflow regime of any river or creek since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water temperature and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and irrigation in most temperate regions. Understanding which factors control how water is released to streams during baseflow periods has become critical for watershed management worldwide, especially, in arid and semiarid areas. This study analyzed storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds of northern Idaho and eastern Washington using Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) baseflow recession analysis. Daily streamflow and precipitation records ranged from 7 to 70 years. Mean annual precipitation fluctuated from 536 to 1,312 mm. Drainage basin areas varied from 6.35 to 12,357 km2, with streamgage elevation ranging from 536 to 2,172 m. Mean watershed slope varied from 9.24 to 46.53%. Because of the non-uniqueness watershed shapes, illustrated by the natural spectrum of data points, organic correlation analysis was used to determine the recession coefficients (kb). Numerous climatic attributes and geomorphology characteristics were evaluated as potential predictors of kb rates using a Pearson's correlation matrix. Baseflow coefficients ranged from 0.015 to 0.08 day-1. The mean characteristic timescale for baseflow drainage was found to be 33±15 days with extremes of 12.5 and 66.7 days. Watersheds dominated by basalt features showed the lowest drainage times (12.5-20.0 days). The drainage time increased as the metamorphic and sedimentary rock composition increased (33.3-66.7 days). Watersheds mainly composed by granitic features ranged from 29.1 to 50.0 days. The ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), also known as Aridity Index (AI), was found to explain 67% of kb variability. Mean watershed slope exhibited a moderate negative correlation of -0.57. Other

  12. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  13. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  14. Texts of joint USA-USSR statements following the summit meeting in Washington, D.C., 31 May - 3 June 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The texts of joint USA-USSR statements following the summit meeting in Washington, D.C., 31 May - 3 June 1990 are reproduced. One is a joint statement on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, missile and missile technology and chemical weapons, another one is a joint statement on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the last one is a joint statement on Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy

  15. Washington State Johnson-O'Malley Indian Education. 1971-72 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    The Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Act of 1934, amended in 1936, authorizes the Secretary of Interior to enter into a contract with any state which has legal authority and responsibility for the education of American Indian children residing there. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, State of Washington, is legally responsible for state schools and…

  16. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  17. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intraerythrocytic parasite(s) in Puget Sound rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Straaten, N.; Jacobson, A.; Halos, D.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, A.A.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two morphologically distinct forms of an intraerythrocytic parasite(s) were detected by microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained blood films in 45.7% of 119 rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago (Washington State, U.S.A.). Infection prevalence for both forms was 53% in males, 44% in females, and 33% in fish of undetermined gender. A binucleate "ring-stage" was present at all 4 geographic sites, with a mean prevalence of 45.7%, while mean prevalence of a larger gamont-like form from the same sites was 5.1%. The relationship of the 2 forms to each other could not be determined. Neither schizogony nor binary fission was evident in any of the infected erythrocytes and the parasites contained no obvious pigment. The possibility of the 2 morphologic forms being 2 distinct species is supported by the observation that no difference in parasitemia was seen in the binucleate form among sites (1.6-1.9%), while parasitemia of the gamont-like form varied significantly among sites, ranging from a high of 4% to a low of 0.1%. Taxonomic status of either form could not be determined at this time based on limited existing morphologic data. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  18. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  19. Washington State Need Grant: Less-Than-Halftime Pilot Project (SHB 1345)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Washington State Legislature authorized, through Substitute House Bill 1345, a two-year pilot project allowing eligible students, who enroll for four or five credits in a term, to receive the State Need Grant (SNG). Several important policy considerations emerged during the pilot project. Board staff explored these issues with financial…

  20. Mercury sedimentation in lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA and its relation to local industrial and municipal atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  2. Barriers and bridges to care: voices of homeless female adolescent youth in Seattle, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Josephine; Panke, Aileen

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of reproductive health-seeking behaviours, sources of advice, and access to care issues among a sample of clinic-based homeless adolescent women. Adolescent women are among the most vulnerable and medically underserved subgroups within the homeless population in the United States. Homeless youth are rarely invited to participate in research aimed at improving their access to appropriate health care. Also, the culture in which they live and the personal experience of being homeless are often not addressed. The research was descriptive, using focus groups and individual interviews with a purposeful sample of 20 female youth, aged 14-23 years. The women said that they seek health advice from other women, including their mothers even while they are homeless. They reported first trying self-care interventions, and going to clinics when self-care actions no longer worked. They stated that the main barriers to health care were lack of insurance, confusion over consent, transportation problems, lack of respect (from providers) for their own self-knowledge, and judgementalism from providers. Using the concept of cultural competency, the results provide insights into how to improve communication and health care services for these women. Health care providers need to recognize and appreciate the lifestyle, beliefs, and adaptive attitudes of homeless youth, rather than labelling them as 'deviant'. All personnel who interact with and on behalf of homeless youth must be adequately trained in general knowledge regarding the health of homeless youth as well as in an understanding of the role that culture plays in their health-seeking behaviours.

  3. Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Rosanna; Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau; Davenport, Steven; Midgette, Greg

    2017-12-01

    To (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower. Secondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis traceability system spanning 7 July 2014 to 30 September 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation. Washington State, USA. (1) A total of 44 482 176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31 052 123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers. Primary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type and (2) excise tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC and CBD. Traditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now comprising 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.013] and CBD (coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015-0.019). The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 (CI = -0.07 to -0.05). In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but

  4. Washington State Energy Use Profile, 1960--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1992-07-01

    This report is divided into three sections, each with data on energy consumption, prices, and expenditures. The first section presents an overview of statewide energy use trends. The second section presents energy use trends in four basic consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. The third section presents energy use trends in specific resource markets: natural gas, petroleum, electricity, coal, and wood. The appendixes contain information about data, sources, and a glossary. Data about Washington's energy resources are reported in two forms: in measures common to the fuel (kWh, barrels, etc.) and in the generic measure British thermal units (Btu). The common measures allow the reader to quickly grasp information in a familiar form. The generic measure allows the reader to compare energy resources. Conversion to Btu occasionally produces counter-intuitive results. For example, in different years, petroleum products have different average energy values, resulting in different conversion factors from barrels to Btu. A large amount of data contained in the Profile has been categorized and presented in a variety of ways. Understanding the meaning of categories is critical to understanding differences between the tables, especially those tables that present similar data. For example, petroleum trends are not the same as transportation trends, though they are similar because transportation is almost entirely dependent on petroleum. In another example, total end-use fuel energy consumption is not the same as total primary energy consumption. End-use fuel consumption does not include energy used for the generation of electricity. Counting both fuel used for electricity generation and electricity itself could result in double counting. Primary fuel consumption, on the other hand, does include energy used for the generation of electricity and is greater than total end-use consumption

  5. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  6. FLOODPLAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. BASEMAP, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  8. A comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This project compares eight measures of performance related to transit service quality (e.g. trip reliability, on-time departures) and cost-efficiency (e.g. farebox recovery, subsidy per passenger) between Washington State Ferries (WSF) and 23 ferry ...

  9. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated... Commission, Olympia, WA that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... the site to the Eastern Washington State Historical Society (EWSHS), now known as the Northwest Museum...

  10. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Mary Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of... ethnographic collection from the Conner Museum to the Museum of Anthropology. In June of 2011, the curator of collections at the Conner Museum found four unassociated funerary items in the museum storage area and...

  11. Chapter 28A.85 RCW Monitoring Guide. Washington State's Anti-Sex Discrimination Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide was designed to assist in the assessment of the level of implementation of Washington State's anti-sex discrimination legislation in educational programs and activities. The monitoring guide contains two major sections: a monitoring standards check list and an on-site review packet. The check list provides an overview of the specific…

  12. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  13. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental... Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient... Rules.'' The updated PSCAA rules help implement the recommendations of the Tacoma-Pierce County Clean...

  14. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  15. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9247-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition of public water system, and has adopted regulations...

  16. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  17. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  18. 78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural... organization not identified in this notice that wish to claim these cultural items should submit a written....R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  19. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  20. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  1. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology at... Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation...

  2. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hg and Pb concentration and isotopic compositions traced anthropogenic sources. ► Concentrations and metal loadings of Hg and Pb increased during the smelting period. ► Hg isotopic compositions changed during smelting compared to the pre-smelting period. ► Data indicate mass independent fractionation of Hg isotopes. - Abstract: Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ 202 Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ 202 Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger

  3. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  4. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  5. Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Beedlow, Peter A; Shaw, David C; Woodruff, David R; Lee, E Henry; Cline, Steven P; Comeleo, Randy L

    2018-02-01

    Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated changes, such as increasing severity of droughts and insect outbreaks. We review the major insects and pathogens affecting the disturbance regime for coastal Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon and Washington State, USA, and ask how future climate changes may influence their role in disturbance ecology. Although the physiological constraints of light, temperature, and moisture largely control tree growth, episodic and chronic disturbances interacting with biological factors have substantial impacts on the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems in this region. Understanding insect and disease interactions is critical to predicting forest response to climate change and the consequences for ecosystem services, such as timber, clean water, fish and wildlife. We focused on future predictions for warmer wetter winters, hotter drier summers, and elevated atmospheric CO 2 to hypothesize the response of Douglas-fir forests to the major insects and diseases influencing this forest type: Douglas-fir beetle, Swiss needle cast, black stain root disease, and laminated root rot. We hypothesize that 1) Douglas-fir beetle and black stain root disease could become more prevalent with increasing, fire, temperature stress, and moisture stress, 2) future impacts of Swiss needle cast are difficult to predict due to uncertainties in May-July leaf wetness, but warmer winters could contribute to intensification at higher elevations, and 3) laminated root rot will be influenced primarily by forest management, rather than climatic change. Furthermore, these biotic disturbance agents interact in complex ways that are poorly understood. Consequently, to inform management decisions, insect and disease influences on disturbance regimes must be characterized specifically by forest type and region in order to accurately capture these interactions in light of future climate-mediated changes.

  6. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Jonathan S.; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S.; Heiner, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. Methods A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Results Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient’s family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35% believed the initial additional security response would not be adequate, with 26% reporting no additional security would be available within 15 minutes. Conclusion Our study reveals the variability of ED security staffing and a heterogeneity of capabilities throughout Washington State. These deficiencies and vulnerabilities highlight the need for other EDs and regional emergency preparedness planners to conduct their own readiness assessments. PMID:28435498

  7. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  8. Heat-related illness in Washington State agriculture and forestry sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K

    2014-08-01

    We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers' compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995-2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009-2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet's weather station network. There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  10. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona

    2013-01-01

    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  11. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  12. National Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1981. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 1662, October 31, 1981, Richland, Washington; November 9, 1981, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Hearings were held on October 31, 1981 in Richland, Washington and on November 9, 1981 in Washington, DC to discuss the effort in S. 1662 to establish a national policy and an environmentally acceptable program for managing nuclear wastes from domestic commercial activities. The Richland hearing was held in recognition that Washington State will bear the major impact of the legislation. Witnesses at the Washington, DC hearing included officials from states that are potential sites for radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities. The hearing record includes the testimony of 16 witnesses in Richland and seven in Washington, DC, followed by a reprint of S. 1662 and additional material submitted for the record

  13. Radiochemistry Education at Washington State University: Sustaining Academic Radiochemistry for the Nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.; Nash, Ken; Benny, Paul; Clark, Aurora; Wall, Nathalie; Wall, Don; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, Washington State University has been building radiochemistry as a component of its overall chemistry program. Using an aggressive hiring strategy and leveraged funds from the state of Washington and federal agencies, six radiochemistry faculty members have been added to give a total of seven radiochemists out of a department of twenty-five faculty members. These faculty members contribute to a diverse curriculum in radiochemistry, and the Chemistry Department now enjoys a significant increase in the number of trainees, the quantity of research expenditures, and the volume and quality of peer-reviewed scientific literature generated by the radiochemistry faculty and the trainees. These three factors are essential for sustaining the radiochemistry education and research program at any academic institution.

  14. Promoting accountability: hospital charity care in California, Washington state, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Debate as to whether private hospitals meet their charitable obligations is heated. This study examines how alternative state approaches for ensuring hospital accountability to the community affects charitable expenditures and potentially affects access to care for the uninsured. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare private California hospitals' charity care expenditures with those of hospitals in Texas and Washington state. The key finding from this study is that net of hospital characteristics, market characteristics and community need, Texas hospitals were estimated to provide over 3 times more charity care and Washington hospitals were estimated to provide 66% more charity care than California hospitals. This finding suggests that more prescriptive community benefit or charity care requirements may be necessary to ensure that private hospitals assume a larger role in the care of the uninsured.

  15. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  16. Electric and magnetic field reduction and research: A report to the Washington State Legislature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissinger, L.G.; Waller, P.; Chartier, V.L.; Olsen, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, citizens of Washington State are expressing their concerns about possible adverse health effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from electric utility power systems. A number of legislative proposals over the past several years have prompted governmental officials to evaluate available options for reducing electric and magnetic field strengths surrounding these systems (with a concentration on magnetic fields) or otherwise manage public exposure to power lines by increasing land use controls and setbacks for new development. Unsuccessful proposals brought before the Washington Legislature include 2 mG magnetic field limits for new transmission lines at the right-of-way edge; a temporary moratorium on transmission construction; requirements for providing public information on EMF; and expansion of the role of state governmental agencies in transmission siting and design. A successful Whatcom County initiative limits the voltage of new transmission to 115 kV in all but industrial land use zones, an action likely to have an unintended outcome of increasing magnetic fields in some areas. It is clear that better communication is needed about possible options for EMF management, costs and consequences, despite the fact scientific evidence on the existence of human health effects is inconclusive. This paper describes the work that Washington State undertook in 1990-92 in response to Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill 6771 establishing the Electric Transmission Research Needs Task Force. The Task Force was directed to report to the Legislature on possible exposure reduction methods; recommending engineering research that could lead to more effective approaches in the future

  17. Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally

    2015-11-01

    Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Effects of geoduck (Panopea generosa) aquaculture on resident and transient macrofauna communities of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, P. Sean; Galloway, Aaron W.E.; McPeek, Kathleen C.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    In Washington state, commercial culture of geoducks (Panopea generosa) involves large-scale out-planting of juveniles to intertidal habitats, and installation of PVC tubes and netting to exclude predators and increase early survival. Structures associated with this nascent aquaculture method are examined to determine whether they affect patterns of use by resident and transient macrofauna. Results are summarized from regular surveys of aquaculture operations and reference beaches in 2009 to 2011 at three sites during three phases of culture: (1) pregear (-geoducks, -structure), (2) gear present (+geoducks, +structures), and (3) postgear (+geoducks, -structures). Resident macroinvertebrates (infauna and epifauna) were sampled monthly (in most cases) using coring methods at low tide during all three phases. Differences in community composition between culture plots and reference areas were examined with permutational analysis of variance and homogeneity of multivariate dispersion tests. Scuba and shoreline transect surveys were used to examine habitat use by transient fish and macroinvertebrates. Analysis of similarity and complementary nonmetric multidimensional scaling were used to compare differences between species functional groups and habitat type during different aquaculture phases. Results suggest that resident and transient macrofauna respond differently to structures associated with geoduck aquaculture. No consistent differences in the community of resident macrofauna were observed at culture plots or reference areas at the three sites during any year. Conversely, total abundance of transient fish and macroinvertebrates were more than two times greater at culture plots than reference areas when aquaculture structures were in place. Community composition differed (analysis of similarity) between culture and reference plots during the gear-present phase, but did not persist to the next farming stage (postgear). Habitat complexity associated with shellfish

  19. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Peecook

    Full Text Available We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters. Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  20. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  1. Report of survey results for newly licensed registered nurses in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Current projections for the need for nurses in Washington state are based on an increase in the need for health care, the aging of the population, and the inability of the nursing educational institutions to supply adequate numbers of graduates. Yet many new graduates are providing anecdotal evidence that they cannot find a job in nursing. This study gathered information regarding the employment of newly licensed registered nurses in Washington between May 2009 and August 2010. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of 2,200 newly licensed nurses; 532 responses were returned. Nearly 81% reported current employment as a registered nurse and 69.5% reported that they were very or somewhat satisfied with their employment situation. The job search strategies, type of job sought, and factors contributing to their success are reported. Factors contributing to the success of their job search and to job dissatisfaction are explored. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Contents of risk assessments to support the retrieval and closure of tanks for the Washington State Department of Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Before the Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan can be performed, risk assessments of various options must be performed for ORP, DOE Headquarters, and the Washington State Dept. of Ecology. This document focuses on the risk assessments for Ecology

  3. Epiphytic lichen diversity and biomass in low-elevation forests of the eastern Washington Cascade range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl

    2004-01-01

    cover types in the eastern Washington Cascade range. Cover types represented a temperature/moisture and stand structural complexity gradient. Lichen litterfall biomass increased with increasing stand complexity and moisture. Lichen litterfall biomass was 3.42 kg/ha in open pine stands, 7.51 kg/ha in young mixed-species stands, 8.55 kg/ha in mature mixed-species stands...

  4. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Methods Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N = 4,101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Results Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%–67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%–81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months’ passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Conclusions Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. PMID:28448904

  5. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  7. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  8. Association of Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria with onion bulb rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 1.6 million metric tons of onion bulbs are produced annually in the Pacific Northwest USA. Bulb decay can be a major problem and is caused by a variety of plant pathogens. Onion bulbs exhibiting symptoms of bacterial rot were sampled to determine the causal agents. Enterobacter cloacae...

  9. Characterization of Solids in Residual Wastes from Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Solid-phase characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from the underground single-shell storage tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions of those residual wastes and the compositions, morphologies, and crystallinities of the individual phases that make up these wastes. These differences undoubtedly result from the various waste types stored and transferred in and out each tank and the sluicing and retrieval operations used for waste retrieval. Our studies indicate that these residual wastes are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or co-precipitated within oxide phases. Depending on the specific tank, various solids (e.g., gibbsite; boehmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and numerous amorphous or poorly crystalline phases) have been identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in residual wastes studied to date. Our studies also show that contact of residual wastes with Ca(OH)2- and CaCO3-saturated aqueous solutions, which were used as surrogates for the compositions of pore-fluid leachants derived from young and aged cements respectively, may alter the compositions of solid phases present in the contacted wastes. Fe oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual wastes studied to date. They occur in these wastes as discrete particles, particles intergrown within a matrix of other phases, and surface coatings on other particles or particle aggregates. These Fe oxides/hydroxides typically contain trace concentrations of other transition metals, such Cr, Mn

  10. Parasite Prevalence and the Distribution of Intelligence among the States of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Christopher; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the parasite-stress hypothesis for the distribution of intelligence among the USA states: the hypothesis proposes that intelligence emerges from a developmental trade-off between maximizing brain vs. immune function. From this we predicted that among the USA states where infectious disease stress was high, average…

  11. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wemple, C.A.; Tripard, G.E.; Gavin, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    A new epithermal-neutron beam facility for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) research and boronated agent screening in animal models is in the final stages of construction at Washington State University (WSU). A key distinguishing feature of the design is the incorporation of a new, high-efficiency, neutron moderating and filtering material, Fluental, developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. An additional key feature is the provision for adjustable filter-moderator thickness to systematically explore the radiobiological consequences of increasing the fast-neutron contamination above the nominal value associated with the baseline system. (author)

  12. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  13. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  14. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form

  15. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  16. Strategy and field implementation for determining a dangerous waste mixture in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Steve; Foster, Rick; Wright, Jamie

    1992-01-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), states rather than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maybe authorized to implement RCRA regulations. Under RCRA, environmental regulations implemented by an authorized state must be at least as stringent as those contained in RCRA. Compared to RCRA, the corresponding regulations of the State of Washington regarding the determination of characteristic wastes are more stringent and complex. This paper discusses the complexities of the regulations and presents a strategy for successfully managing diverse waste streams. This strategy was used during the cleanup of contaminated areas and equipment at the Albany Research Center (ARC) in Albany, Oregon, which processed uranium and thorium for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the early days of the nation's atomic energy program. Wastes from the cleanup of ARC were shipped to the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Because the DOE Hanford Reservation is located in Washington, this paper should be of interest to DOE waste generators. (author)

  17. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  18. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  19. Evaluation of a clinic-based cholinesterase test kit for the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Carden, Angela; Fenske, Richard A; Ruark, Harold E; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-07-01

    The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program for pesticide handlers requires blood draws at local clinics, with samples tested at a central laboratory. At present, workers with inhibited cholinesterase activity may be re-exposed before they can be removed from work. In this study we explored the option of on-site testing at local clinics using the EQM Test-mate Kittrade mark, a portable cholinesterase test kit. Test kit cholinesterase activity measurements were performed on 50 blood samples by our research staff, and compared to measurements on the same samples by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory. Another set of samples was also analyzed with the test kit by medical staff at an eastern Washington clinic. Triplicate measurements with the test kit had a 3.3% average coefficient of variation (CV) for plasma cholinesterase (PChE), and a 3.5% average CV for erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) measurements. The kit's PChE measurements were similar to PHL measurements (average ratio of 0.98) when performed in the laboratory, but had a tendency to underestimate activity when used in the clinic setting (average ratio of 0.87). The kit systematically overestimated AChE activity by 42-48% relative to the PHL measurements, regardless of where the samples were analyzed. This easy-to-use test kit appeared to be a viable method for clinic-based PChE measurements, but was less consistent for AChE measurements performed in the clinic. Absolute measurements with the kit need to be evaluated carefully relative to standardized methods. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  1. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  2. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  3. Marijuana Legalization and Parents' Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2016-10-01

    The recent legalization of nonmedical marijuana use in several U.S. states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents' reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult nonmedical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results showed (1) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of nonmedical marijuana use to be 18; (2) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (3) wide opposition to teen use and use around one's children; and (4) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. State safety oversight program : audit of the tri-state oversight committee and the Washington metropolitan area transit authority, final audit report, March 4, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) conducted an on-site audit of the safety program implemented by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and overseen by the Tri-State Oversight Committee (TOC) between December 14 and 17, 20...

  5. Effect of severity of illness on cesarean delivery rates in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Walker, Suzan; Benedetti, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Hospitals and providers are increasingly held accountable for their cesarean delivery rates. In the perinatal quality improvement arena, there is vigorous debate about whether all hospitals can be held to the same benchmark for an acceptable cesarean rate regardless of patient acuity. However, the causes of variation in hospital cesarean delivery rates are not well understood. We sought to evaluate the association and temporal trends between severity of illness at admission and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate among hospitals in Washington State. We hypothesized that hospitals with higher patient acuity would have higher cesarean delivery rates and that this pattern would persist over time. In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed aggregate hospital-level data for all nonmilitary hospitals in Washington State with ≥100 deliveries/y during federal fiscal years 2010 through 2014 (287,031 deliveries). Data were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System, which includes inpatient demographic, diagnosis, procedure, and discharge information derived from hospital billing systems. Age, admission diagnoses and procedure codes were converted to patient-level admission severity-of-illness scores using the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups classification system. This system is widely used throughout the United States to adjust hospital data for severity of illness. Mean admission hospital-level severity-of-illness scores were calculated for each fiscal year among the term singleton vertex population with no history of cesarean delivery. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between hospital admission severity of illness and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate, calculated Pearson correlation coefficients, and compared regression line slopes and 95% confidence intervals for each fiscal year. Hospitals were diverse with respect to delivery volume, level of care

  6. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates.

  7. Relationship of infant and fetal mortality to operations at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Washington State, 1946-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, S.; Hansom, J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of infant and fetal mortality to numbers of nuclear reactors at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation was investigated. Mortality rates were obtained using 36 years of United States vital statistics data. Three different exposure groups were selected based on meteorologic studies of the Hanford area: group 1, counties downwind of Hanford all year; group 2, counties seasonally downwind; and group 3, counties not downwind. Washington state was used as an additional comparison group. Four periods of operation based on fluctuations in numbers of reactors were characterized. Log-linear analysis revealed that the three groups and Washington state had similar trends in infant mortality rates over the four time periods. On the other hand, the trend in fetal mortality rates for group 1 did differ significantly from trends for the two other groups and Washington state. The trends of fetal mortality rates for group 2, group 3, and Washington state were not statistically different. Fetal mortality rates in group 1, however, failed to decline from period 1 (1946-1954) to period 2 (1955-1964) as expected by the trends for the two groups and Washington state. During period 2, the greatest number of reactors were operating. County-specific analysis showed that, of the counties in group 1, the trend in fetal mortality for Benton County, where Hanford is located, was significantly different from that for Washington state. A possible link between Hanford and an excess in fetal deaths is suggested by the deviation in trend of group 1, which appears localized to Benton County and the period of peak activity at Hanford

  8. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  9. Field observations of the developing legal recreational cannabis economy in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric L; Roussell, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Washington State legalized the sale of recreational cannabis in 2012. This paper describes the unfolding of the market regulatory regime in an eastern portion of the state, including field descriptions to illustrate the setting. We made observations and conducted interviews of the local supply chain comprising a producer/processor, analytic facility, and retail establishments as well as querying the state director of the regulatory board. Interviews and observations of facilities suggest an overwhelming concern for black market diversion drives state regulatory efforts. The ongoing dialogue between market actors and the state has resulted in a more equitable distribution of profits at different stages in the process. State safety regulations have thus far been shifted to independent laboratories. Banks and insurance companies have slowly begun making inroads into the industry, despite federal prohibition. The law was conceived as a social justice remedy, but the bulk of the legal and regulatory activity surrounds cannabis marketplace management. This has been characterized by concerns for black market diversion, producer/processor profits, and a hands-off approach to safety regulation. Minor cannabis violations as a pathway to criminal justice system involvement have been reduced substantially but disproportionate enforcement upon racial/ethnic minorities continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Big data on a big new market: Insights from Washington State's legal cannabis market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Bao, Yilun; Davenport, Steve; Fahli, Imane; Guo, Yutian; Kinnard, Krista; Najewicz, Mary; Renaud, Lauren; Kilmer, Beau

    2018-07-01

    Voters in eight U.S. states have passed initiatives to legalize large-scale commercial production of cannabis for non-medical use. All plan or require some form of "seed-to-sale" tracking systems, which provide a view of cannabis market activity at a heretofore unimagined level of detail. Legal markets also create a range of new matters for policy makers to address. Publicly available data were obtained on approximately 45 million individually priced items purchased in the 35 million retail transactions that took place during the first two and a half years of Washington State's legal cannabis market. Records include product type (flower, extract, lotion, liquid edible, etc.), product name, price, and potency with respect to multiple cannabinoids, notably THC and CBD. Items sold can be traced back up the supply chain through the store to the processor and producer, to the level of identifying the specific production batch and mother plant, the firm that tested the product, and test results. Data visualization methods are employed to describe spatial-temporal patterns of multiple correlated attributes (e.g., price and potency) broken down by product. Text-analytic methods are used to subdivide the broad category of "extracts for inhalation" into more homogeneous sub-categories. To understand the competitiveness of the legal cannabis market in Washington we calculate the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) for processors and retailers. Cannabis prices fell steadily and proportionally at the processor and retailer levels. Retail and wholesale price maintained a roughly 3:1 ratio for multiple product types after some initial fluctuations. Although a wide range of edibles are sold, they account for a modest share of consumer spending; extracts for inhalation are a larger and heterogeneous market segment. The HHI indicates the cannabis market is highly competitive at the processor level, but less so for retail markets at the county level. Washington's state-legal cannabis

  11. Field Scale Studies on the Spatial Variability of Soil Quality Indicators in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arable lands are needed for sustainable agricultural systems to support an ever-growing human population. Soil quality needs to be defined to assure that new land brought into crop production is sustainable. To evaluate soil quality, a number of soil attributes will need to be measured, evaluated, and integrated into a soil-quality index using the multivariable indicator kriging (MVIK procedure. This study was conducted to determine the spatial variability and correlation of indicator parameters on a field scale with respect to soil quality and suitability for use with MVIK. The variability of the biological parameters decreased in the order of respiration > enzyme assays and qCO2 > microbial biomass C. The distribution frequency of all parameters except respiration were normal although the spatial distribution across the landscape was highly variable. The biological parameters showed little correlation with each other when all data points were considered; however, when grouped in smaller sections, the correlations were more consistent with observed patterns across the field. To accurately assess soil quality, and arable land use, consideration of spatial and temporal variability, soil conditions, and other controlling factors must be taken into account.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in fish near the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Delistraty, Damon; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-03-03

    It is well-known that absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes in fish can alter polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in fish, but these patterns have never been investigated using an advanced source-apportionment tool. In this work, PCB congener patterns in freshwater fish were examined with positive matrix factorization (PMF). PCB congeners were quantified via EPA Method 1668 in fillet and carcass of six species in four study areas in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. Six factors were resolved with PMF2 software. Depletion and enhancement of PCB congeners in factors, relative to Aroclor 1254, suggested biotransformation (via cytochrome P450) and bioaccumulation in fish, respectively. Notable differences were observed among species and across study locations. For example, sturgeon and whitefish exhibited congener patterns consistent with Aroclor weathering, suggesting potential PCB metabolism in these species. In terms of location, average concentration of total PCBs for all species combined was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Hanford 100 and 300 areas, relative to upriver and downriver study sites. Furthermore, a distinct PCB signature in sturgeon and whitefish, collected at Hanford study areas, suggests that Hanford is a unique PCB source.

  13. Three new Psammothidium species from lakes of Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Mihaela D.; Potapova, Marina; Sheibley, Rich; Moran, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Populations of several Psammothidium species were found in core sediments from nine remote, high elevation, ultraoligotrophic and oligotrophic, Olympic and Cascade Mountain lakes. Three of these species, P. lacustre, P. alpinum, and P. nivale, are described here as new. The morphology of the silica frustules of these species was documented using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the similarities and differences with previously described Psammothidium species.

  14. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  15. Outreach at Washington State University: a case study in costs and attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth A.; Bollen, Viktor; Bersano, Thomas M.; Mossman, Sean M.

    2016-09-01

    Making effective and efficient use of outreach resources can be difficult for student groups in smaller rural communities. Washington State University's OSA/SPIE student chapter desires well attended yet cost-effective ways to educate and inform the public. We designed outreach activities focused on three different funding levels: low upfront cost, moderate continuing costs, and high upfront cost with low continuing costs. By featuring our activities at well attended events, such as a pre-football game event, or by advertising a headlining activity, such as a laser maze, we take advantage of large crowds to create a relaxed learning atmosphere. Moreover, participants enjoy casual learning while waiting for a main event. Choosing a particular funding level and associating with well-attended events makes outreach easier. While there are still many challenges to outreach, such as motivating volunteers or designing outreach programs, we hope overcoming two large obstacles will lead to future outreach success.

  16. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  17. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  18. Firearm Ownership, Storage Practices, and Suicide Risk Factors in Washington State, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin Renee; Gomez, Anthony; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2018-05-17

    To characterize firearm ownership and storage practices in Washington State and assess their relationship with suicide risk factors. Using Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 2013 to 2016, we conducted survey-weighted multivariable Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Of 34 884 adult respondents, 34.3% (95% CI = 33.7%, 35.0%) reported a firearm in their household, among whom 36.6% (95% CI = 35.4%, 37.7%) stored their firearm locked and unloaded. There were no differences in mental health indicators by firearm ownership or storage practice status. Binge and chronic alcohol use were somewhat more prevalent among adults from firearm-owning households (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.3; PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4, respectively) and among those living in households not practicing safe storage (PR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7; PR = 1.9; 1.5, 2.3, respectively). Variability in mental health does not explain the substantial increased suicide risk among individuals in firearm-owning households. Greater prevalence of alcohol misuse among adults in firearm-owning households not practicing safe storage highlights the need for suicide prevention interventions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 17, 2018: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304403).

  19. Modeling the impact of a carbon tax: A trial analysis for Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keibun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy policy makers have proposed a carbon tax as an economy-wide policy tool to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The quantification of its impact on GHG emissions has relied on an energy-economy model, whose complexity often makes it difficult to comprehend how it simulates the interaction of a carbon tax and energy demand. This study therefore aims at developing an alternative model called the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM). The elasticity-based approach used in C-TAM is less sophisticated than an equilibrium-based approach used in an energy-economy model, but C-TAM is designed to maximize its predictive capabilities by using a wide range of elasticities for each sector and fuel use, accounting for likely changes in fuel mix for electricity generation, and addressing the model's sensitivity to elasticity estimates with Monte Carlo simulation. The trial analysis in this study evaluates a potential carbon tax in Washington State, suggesting a carbon tax at US$30 per metric ton of CO 2 (tCO 2 ) lowers GHG emissions by 8.4% from the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in 2035. The study concludes that C-TAM can provide meaningful policy implications by forecasting detailed impact on revenues and energy demand for each sector and fuel use. - Highlights: ► An elasticity-based model is developed to forecast the impact of a carbon tax. ► This model can show detailed impacts on each sector and fuel use. ► Extensive literature review and sensitivity analyses cover the model's weakness. ► A carbon tax is effective in curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Washington State. ► A carbon tax is however more effective if implemented nationwide.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Christina; Hershberger, Paul K.; Kocan, Richard; Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, is reported. Virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees C and grew optimally at 15 degrees C in cultures of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The cytopathic effect on EPC cell monolayers was characterized by raised foci containing rounded masses of cells. Pyknotic and dark-staining nuclei that also showed signs of karyorrhexis were observed following haematoxylin and eosin, May-Grunwald Giemsa and acridine orange staining. PAGE of the structural proteins and PCR assays using primers specific for other known fish rhabdoviruses, including Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Spring viremia of carp virus, and Hirame rhabdovirus, indicated that the new virus, tentatively termed starry flounder rhabdovirus (SFRV), was previously undescribed in marine fishes from this region. In addition, sequence analysis of 2678 nt of the amino portion of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available. Detection of this virus during a limited viral survey of wild fishes emphasizes the void of knowledge regarding the diversity of viruses that naturally infect marine fish species in the North Pacific Ocean.

  1. Characteristics and Dynamics of a Large Sub-Tidal Sand Wave Field—Habitat for Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes personatus, Salish Sea, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gary Greene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water sand wave fields in the San Juan Archipelago of the Salish Sea and Pacific Northwest Washington, USA, have been found to harbor Pacific sand lance (PSL, Ammodytes personatus, a critical forage fish of the region. Little is known of the dynamics of these sand waves and the stability of the PSL sub-tidal habitats. Therefore, we have undertaken an initial investigation to determine the dynamic conditions of a well-known PSL habitat in the San Juan Channel within the Archipelago using bottom sediment sampling, an acoustical doppler current profiling (ADCP system, and multi-beam echo sounder (MBES bathymetry. Our study indicates that the San Juan Channel sand wave field maintained its shape and bedforms geometry throughout the years it has been studied. Based on bed phase diagrams for channelized bedforms, the sand waves appear to be in a dynamic equilibrium condition. Sea level rise may change the current regime within the Archipelago and may alter some of the deep-water or sub-tidal PSL habitats mapped there. Our findings have global significance in that these dynamic bedforms that harbor PSL and sand-eels elsewhere along the west coast of North America and in the North Sea may also be in a marginally dynamic equilibrium condition and may be prone to alteration by sea level rise, indicating an urgency in locating and investigating these habitats in order to sustain the forage fish.

  2. Assessing climate-change risks to cultural and natural resources in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Waste, Stephen M.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of an interdisciplinary special issue that examines the influence of climate change on people and fish in the Yakima River Basin, USA. Jenni et al. (2013) addresses stakeholder-relevant climate change issues, such as water availability and uncertainty, with decision analysis tools. Montag et al. (2014) explores Yakama Tribal cultural values and well-being and their incorporation into the decision-making process. Graves and Maule (2012) simulates effects of climate change on stream temperatures under baseline conditions (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios (increased air temperature of 1 °C and 2 °C). Hardiman and Mesa (2013) looks at the effects of increased stream temperatures on juvenile steelhead growth with a bioenergetics model. Finally, Hatten et al. (2013) examines how changes in stream flow will affect salmonids with a rule-based fish habitat model. Our simulations indicate that future summer will be a very challenging season for salmonids when low flows and high water temperatures can restrict movement, inhibit or alter growth, and decrease habitat. While some of our simulations indicate salmonids may benefit from warmer water temperatures and increased winter flows, the majority of simulations produced less habitat. The floodplain and tributary habitats we sampled are representative of the larger landscape, so it is likely that climate change will reduce salmonid habitat potential throughout particular areas of the basin. Management strategies are needed to minimize potential salmonid habitat bottlenecks that may result from climate change, such as keeping streams cool through riparian protection, stream restoration, and the reduction of water diversions. An investment in decision analysis and support technologies can help managers understand tradeoffs under different climate scenarios and possibly improve water and fish conservation over the next century.

  3. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: source-to-sink sediment budget and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; East, Amy E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Randle, Timothy J.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Pess, George R.; Leung, Vivian; Duda, Jeff J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding landscape responses to sediment supply changes constitutes a fundamental part of many problems in geomorphology, but opportunities to study such processes at field scales are rare. The phased removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, exposed 21 ± 3 million m3, or ~ 30 million tonnes (t), of sediment that had been deposited in the two former reservoirs, allowing a comprehensive investigation of watershed and coastal responses to a substantial increase in sediment supply. Here we provide a source-to-sink sediment budget of this sediment release during the first two years of the project (September 2011–September 2013) and synthesize the geomorphic changes that occurred to downstream fluvial and coastal landforms. Owing to the phased removal of each dam, the release of sediment to the river was a function of the amount of dam structure removed, the progradation of reservoir delta sediments, exposure of more cohesive lakebed sediment, and the hydrologic conditions of the river. The greatest downstream geomorphic effects were observed after water bodies of both reservoirs were fully drained and fine (silt and clay) and coarse (sand and gravel) sediments were spilling past the former dam sites. After both dams were spilling fine and coarse sediments, river suspended-sediment concentrations were commonly several thousand mg/L with ~ 50% sand during moderate and high river flow. At the same time, a sand and gravel sediment wave dispersed down the river channel, filling channel pools and floodplain channels, aggrading much of the river channel by ~ 1 m, reducing river channel sediment grain sizes by ~ 16-fold, and depositing ~ 2.2 million m3 of sand and gravel on the seafloor offshore of the river mouth. The total sediment budget during the first two years revealed that the vast majority (~ 90%) of the sediment released from the former reservoirs to the river passed through the fluvial system and was discharged to the coastal

  4. Topographic controls on pyroclastic density current dynamics: Insight from 18 May 1980 deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Self, Stephen; Pollock, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Our ability to interpret the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical for understanding the transport and depositional processes that control PDC dynamics. This paper focuses on the influence of slope on flow dynamics and criticality as recorded in PDC deposits from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (USA). PDC deposits are found along the steep flanks (10°-30°) and across the pumice plain ( 5°) up to 8 km north of the volcano. Granulometry, componentry and descriptions of depositional characteristics (e.g., bedform morphology) are recorded with distance from source. The pumice plain deposits are primarily thick (3-12 m), massive and poorly-sorted, and represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs. By contrast, the steep flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes. We propose that acceleration of the concentrated PDCs along the steep flanks resulted in thinning of the concentrated, basal region of the current(s). Enhanced entrainment of ambient air, and autofluidization from upward fluxes of air from substrate interstices and plunging breakers across rugged, irregular topography further inflated the currents to the point that the overriding turbulent region strongly influenced transport and depositional mechanisms. Acceleration in combination with partial confinement in slot canyons and high surface roughness would also increase basal shear stress, further promoting shear and traction transport in the basal region of the current. Conditions along the steep flank resulted in supercritical flow, as recorded by regressive bedforms, which gradually transitioned to subcritical flow downstream as the concentrated basal region thickness increased as a function of decreasing slope and flow energy. We also find that (1) PDCs were erosive into the underlying granular substrate along high slopes (> 25°) where currents were

  5. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Washington. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  6. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Washington State is to improve intercity passenger rail service by reducing travel times, achieving greater... intercity travel demand. To achieve these goals WSDOT applied for federal funding through the High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program (HSIPR Program) administered by the FRA and funded by the American Recovery...

  7. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  8. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  9. Experience with Honeycrisp apple storage management in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    High demand and premium pricing have led to rapid increases in Honeycrisp plantings and fruit volume in Washington State, USA since introduction of the cultivar in 1999. Most fruit is packed and sold by January because of strong demand coupled with difficulties associated with extended storage. Howe...

  10. An exploratory study of boarding home sanctions and compliance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Schaffner, Mindy L

    2011-01-01

    States vary in enforcement systems that monitor the quality of care in residential boarding homes. The growing number of people seeking long-term care services in boarding homes requires regulatory systems that are effective in quality assurance enforcement. This 6 year retrospective study describes the characteristics of 601 sanctioned and nonsanctioned homes in the state of Washington and evaluates the effectiveness of enforcement actions such as intermediate sanctions on future boarding home compliance. The intermediate sanctions evaluated are stop placement of admissions, civil fines, and conditions placed on licenses. Boarding homes that were sanctioned tended to be homes that were for-profit and had governmental contracts for Medicaid services. Homes that remained sanctioned throughout the 6 year study tended to be homes that were individual ownership corporations, had smaller numbers of licensed beds, and did not provide nursing services. Intermediate sanctions were found to vary in effectiveness. Conditions placed on licenses were the most effective intermediate sanction, and civil fines the least effective. Higher citation numbers and the most severe level of complaint types were found to be predictors of becoming a sanctioned boarding home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Practices: A Washington State Learning Collaborative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, Emily; Johnson, Donna; Knox, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Hospital breastfeeding support practices can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Learning collaboratives are an increasingly common strategy to improve practices in health care and have been applied to breastfeeding in many cases. The aims of this study of the Evidence-Based Hospital Breastfeeding Support Learning Collaborative (EBBS LC) were to describe the perceptions of participants regarding the process and effectiveness of the EBBS LC, describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and identify additional actions and resources needed in future learning collaboratives. Qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 key staff who represented 16 of the 18 participating hospitals. The learning collaborative was perceived positively by participants, meeting the expectations of 9 and exceeding the expectations of 4 persons interviewed. The most beneficial aspect of the program was its collaborative nature, and the most difficult aspect was the time required to participate as well as technological difficulties. The key barriers were staff time, staff changes, cost, and the difficulty of changing the existing practices of hospitals and communities. The key facilitating factors were supportive management, participation in multiple breastfeeding quality improvement projects, collecting data on breastfeeding outcomes, tangible resources regarding the Ten Steps, and positive community response. Participants in the EBBS LC stated that they would like to see the Washington State Department of Health create a resource-rich, centralized source of information for participants. This learning collaborative approach was valued by participants. Future efforts can be guided by these evaluation findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation: examples from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G M; Lifka, J; Milstein, J

    1998-09-25

    Workers' compensation health benefits are broader than general health benefits and include payment for medical and rehabilitation costs, associated indemnity (lost time) costs, and vocational rehabilitation (return-to-work) costs. In addition, cost liability is for the life of the claim (injury), rather than for each plan year. We examined device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation over a 10-year period in Washington State. Most requests for device coverage in workers' compensation relate to the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of chronic musculoskeletal conditions. A number of specific problems have been recognized in making device coverage decisions within workers' compensation: (1) invasive devices with a high adverse event profile and history of poor outcomes could significantly increase both indemnity and medical costs; (2) many noninvasive devices, while having a low adverse event profile, have not proved effective for managing chronic musculoskeletal conditions relevant to injured workers; (3) some devices are marketed and billed as surrogate diagnostic tests for generally accepted, and more clearly proven, standard tests; (4) quality oversight of technology use among physicians may be inadequate; and (5) insurers' access to efficacy data adequate to make timely and appropriate coverage decisions in workers' compensation is often lacking. Emerging technology may substantially increase the costs of workers' compensation without significant evidence of health benefit for injured workers. To prevent ever-rising costs, we need to increase provider education and patient education and consent, involve the state medical society in coverage policy, and collect relevant outcomes data from healthcare providers.

  13. Location, location, location: Assessing the spatial patterning between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets and neighborhood characteristics within Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Loni Philip; Fillmore, Christina; Melly, Steven

    2018-04-01

    The availability of marijuana products is becoming increasingly prevalent across the United States (US), many states are allowing for the production, processing, and retailing of these products for medical and/or recreational use. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the spatial patterning of marijuana licenses, and (2) examine the impact of alcohol outlets in addition to other neighborhood characteristics on marijuana licenses within the state of Washington. This cross-sectional observational study examined 1458 census tracts in Washington state from 2017, using marijuana and alcohol data from the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board as well as neighborhood characteristics data from the American Community Survey 2011-2015 5-year estimates. We used exploratory and formal spatial regression methods, including integrated nested Laplace approximation within a Bayesian statistical framework, to address the study aims. Our results indicate there is significant spatial patterning of marijuana producers and processors across the state. We also found that all marijuana licenses are located in poorer census tracts, and marijuana retailers are co-located in census tracts with off-premises alcohol outlets. Our study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets, and neighborhood characteristics, and has important implications for policymakers in other states currently considering legalizing marijuana-products for medical and/or recreational use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Channel-planform evolution in four rivers of Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A.: The roles of physical drivers and trophic cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Randle, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history. All four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, evident from landslide response on the Elwha River. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. In this sediment-routing system with high connectivity, such climate-driven signals appear to propagate downstream without being buffered substantially by sediment storage. Legacy effects of anthropogenic modification likely also affect the Quinault River planform. We infer no correspondence between channel geomorphic evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that trophic-cascade effects in this setting are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park fluvial dynamics and contrast with the classic example of Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of elk overuse are apparent in channel morphology; we attribute these differences to hydrologic regime and large-wood availability.

  15. Bioavailability and uptake of smelter emissions in freshwater zooplankton in northeastern Washington, USA lakes using Pb isotope analysis and trace metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, A W; Moore, B C; Vervoort, J D; Beutel, M W

    2018-07-01

    The upper Columbia River and associated valley systems are highly contaminated with metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada (Teck smelter), and to a lesser extent, Northport, Washington, USA (Le Roi smelter). Previous studies have investigated depositional patterns of airborne emissions from these smelters, and documented the Teck smelter as the primary metal contamination source. However, there is limited research directed at whether these contaminants are bioavailable to aquatic organisms. This study investigates whether smelter derived contaminants are bioavailable to freshwater zooplankton. Trace metal (Zn, Cd, As, Sb, Pb and Hg) concentrations and Pb isotope compositions of zooplankton and sediment were measured in lakes ranging from 17 to 144 km downwind of the Teck smelter. Pb isotopic compositions of historic ores used by both smelters are uniquely less radiogenic than local geologic formations, so when zooplankton assimilate substantial amounts of smelter derived metals their compositions deviate from local baseline compositions toward ore compositions. Sediment metal concentrations and Pb isotope compositions in sediment follow significant (p < 0.001) negative exponential and sigmoidal patterns, respectively, as distance from the Teck smelting operation increases. Zooplankton As, Cd, and Sb contents were related to distance from the Teck smelter (p < 0.05), and zooplankton Pb isotope compositions suggest As, Cd, Sb and Pb from historic and current smelter emissions are biologically available to zooplankton. Zooplankton from lakes within 86 km of the Teck facility display isotopic evidence that legacy ore pollution is biologically available for assimilation. However, without water column data our study is unable to determine if legacy contaminants are remobilized from lake sediments, or erosional pathways from the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  17. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... bone handle. The funerary objects were removed from the area surrounding Lake Washington primarily on... the 1870s, as the City of Seattle developed, the Lake people were pushed out to other areas, including...

  18. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility... Reservation, Washington) that this notice has been published. Dated: August 20, 2013. Sherry Hutt, Manager...

  19. Smoke-free law associated with higher-than-expected taxable retail sales for bars and taverns in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Dilley, Julia; Maher, Julie E; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry

    2010-07-01

    Continued progress in implementing smoke-free laws throughout the United States would benefit from documenting positive economic effects, particularly for the hospitality industry. This study describes changes in sales revenue in bars and taverns since December 2005, when a statewide smoke-free law in Washington State went into effect. Using 24 quarters of inflation-adjusted taxable retail sales data from 2002 through 2007, we fitted a regression model to estimate the effect of the smoke-free law on sales revenue, controlling for seasonality and other economic factors. We found no immediate change in bar revenues in the first quarter of 2006, but taxable retail sales grew significantly through the fourth quarter of 2007. In the 2 years after the smoke-free law was implemented, sales revenues were $105.5 million higher than expected for bars and taverns in Washington State. The higher-than-expected revenue from taxable sales in bars and taverns after the implementation of smoke-free laws in Washington State provided extra funds to the state general fund. Potential increases in revenue in other jurisdictions that implement smoke-free indoor air policies could provide funds to benefit residents of those jurisdictions.

  20. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  1. Parental Country of Birth and Childhood Vaccination Uptake in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Tasslimi, Azadeh; Matheson, Jasmine; DeBolt, Chas

    2016-07-01

    Underimmunization of certain immigrant populations can place them at high risk of experiencing vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between January 1, 2008, and May 1, 2013, among children included in the Washington State Immunization Information System. We assessed receipt of 1 or more doses of measles-containing, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-containing vaccines between 12 and 23 months of age. We compared children with 1 or more parents born in Somalia, Ukraine, Russia, Mexico, or India to children with 2 parents born in the United States. Poisson regression models with robust SEs were used to provide prevalence ratios adjusted for maternal education and number of prenatal visits. We identified 277 098 children, including 65 466 with foreign-born parents. Children of Somali-born parents were less likely to be immunized against measles than children of US-born parents (prevalence ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.84); this decrease became more pronounced over time (P < .01). No such disparity between these groups was observed with other vaccines. Compared with children of US-born parents, children of Ukrainian-born and Russian-born parents were less likely to be immunized, whereas children of Mexican-born and Indian-born parents were more likely to be immunized with any of the specified vaccines. We found country-specific patterns of immunization that may reflect underlying cultural or other beliefs. Certain immigrant communities with higher rates of immunization refusal may be at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases and require new forms of public health outreach. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Practice patterns among male and female general dentists in a Washington State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D

    2005-06-01

    Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.

  3. Washington Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference was held in Washington from 11-13 March. It was the ninth in the series of meetings organized in the USA which differ from the 'International' meetings in their coverage of the full range of accelerator engineering and technology, including applications outside e field of high energy physics. The Conference took place under the cloud of further budget cuts for Fiscal Year 1982 in the USA which the Department of Energy has applied in line with the financial policy of the new administration. Coming on top of many years of budget trimming which have reduced the number of high energy physics Laboratories funded by the DOE to three (Brookhaven, Fermilab, Stanford - Cornell is funded by the National Science Foundation) and reduced the exploitation of these Laboratories to less than half of their potential, the new cuts did not exactly help to boost morale. Nevertheless, the huge amount of tailed work in accelerator physics and technology which was presented at the Conference showed how alive the field is

  4. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  5. HYDROLOGY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, Ohio USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. HYDRAULICS, Washington COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, CLARK COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  10. BASEMAP, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. BASEMAP, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  12. SURVEY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. HYDROLOGY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDRAULICS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. Program and curriculum development in radiochemistry at Washington State University to educate the next generation of radiochemists in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.B.; Nash, K.; Benny, P.; Elliston, J.; Buckely, P.

    2005-01-01

    Washington State University (WSU) has -been the recipient of grant funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Science and Technology to enhance its curriculum and service activities in radiochemistry. These funds have been used to hire new faculty, redesign undergraduate and graduate courses in radiochemistry, and initiate summer programs in radiochemistry for regional college faculty and high school teachers. The funds received from the federal government were matched by investments from the state of Washington. These investments have resulted in many positive changes in the Chemistry Department and the Nuclear Radiation Center at WSU. The number of students graduating from our radiochemistry programs has increased markedly, and the level of additional extra mural funding for our programs has also increased. These activities will be described, and feedback from employers of our radiochemistry graduates will be provided. Plans for future radiochemistry program development will also be discussed.

  16. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Padua Inventory: Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR)

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Giti; Kaviani, Hosein; Esmaili, Yaghob; Ebrahimkhani, Narges; Manesh, Alireza Amin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Persian Padua Inventory Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR), a measure of obsessive- compulsive phenomena, was examined in a non-clinical sample of 348 Iranian university students. Method The PI-WSUR was translated into Persian, and its back translation was controlled by the author inventory. A pilot study based on cultural differences was carried out on twenty students. The study subjects consisted of 348 university...

  18. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  19. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  20. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  1. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-04-01

    Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention.

  2. Nitrogen deposition effects on diatom communities in lakes from three National Parks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.

  3. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  4. Improving Health, Social Welfare, and Human Development Through Women's Empowerment in Developing Countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Janel

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Foundation's Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13, 2016. The summit welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, as well as engage in an official lobby day in the nation's capital. Topics discussed at the summit ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit.

  5. Improving Health, Social Welfare, and Human Development Through Women’s Empowerment in Developing Countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Janel

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Foundation’s Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13, 2016. The summit welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, as well as engage in an official lobby day in the nation’s capital. Topics discussed at the summit ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit. PMID:28058195

  6. Checklist of copepods (Crustacea: Calanoida, Cyclopoida,Harpacticoida) from Wyoming, USA, with new state records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation of a comprehensive checklist of the copepod fauna of Wyoming, USA with 41 species of copepods; based on museum specimens, literature reviews, and active surveillance. Of these species 19 were previously unknown from the state. This checklist includes species in the families Centropagida...

  7. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  9. 75 FR 34674 - Washington: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information....gov or in hard copy. You may view and copy the Washington application, during normal business hours...(7)(c) Clarify that 261/5(c) Intro. counting exclusion applies to permit- by-rule (PBR), not to...

  10. Travel costs associated with flood closures of state highways near Centralia/Chehalis, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report discusses the travel costs associated with the closure of roads in the greater : Centralia/Chehalis, Washington region due to 100-year flood conditions starting on the Chehalis River. The costs : were computed for roadway closures on I-5,...

  11. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  12. 75 FR 12718 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Puget Sound, Naval Station Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: david.b.olson@usace.army.mil . Include the..., Attn: CECW-CO (David B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier... copy form. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Olson, Headquarters, Operations and Regulatory...

  13. 78 FR 14951 - State of Washington; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm or the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Agency, Region 10, Library, 10th Floor, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101. The Library is open from 9... telephone number for the Library is (206) 553-1289. (2) Washington Department of Ecology, Water Quality...

  14. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NODC Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  15. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  16. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the Washington State University TRIGA reactor. Docket No. 50-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Washington State University (WSU) for a renewal of operating license number R-76 to continue to operate a research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Washington State University and is located on the WSU campus in Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by WSU without endangering the health and safety of the public

  18. Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-07-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the

  19. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  20. Modeling the effects of urban expansion on natural capital stocks and ecosystem service flows: A case study in the Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Ben; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Villa, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Urban expansion and its associated landscape modifications are important drivers of changes in ecosystem service (ES). This study examined the effects of two alternative land use-change development scenarios in the Puget Sound region of Washington State on natural capital stocks and ES flows. Land-use change model outputs served as inputs to five ES models developed using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) platform. While natural capital stocks declined under managed (1.3–5.8%) and unmanaged (2.8–11.8%) development scenarios, ES flows increased by 18.5–56% and 23.2–55.7%, respectively. Human development of natural landscapes reduced their capacity for service provision, while simultaneously adding beneficiaries, particularly along the urban fringe. Using global and local Moran’s I, we identified three distinct patterns of change in ES due to projected landuse change. For services with location-dependent beneficiaries – open space proximity, viewsheds, and flood regulation – urbanization led to increased clustering and hot-spot intensities. ES flows were greatest in the managed land-use change scenario for open space proximity and flood regulation, and in the unmanaged land-use change scenario for viewsheds—a consequence of the differing ES flow mechanisms underpinning these services. We observed a third pattern – general declines in service provision – for carbon storage and sediment retention, where beneficiaries in our analysis were not location dependent. Contrary to past authors’ finding of ES declines under urbanization, a more nuanced analysis that maps and quantifies ES provision, beneficiaries, and flows better identifies gains and losses for specific ES beneficiaries as urban areas expand.

  1. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Host ranges of Penicillium species causing blue mold of bulb crops in Washington State and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    First reported from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of U.S.A. as causal agents of blue mold on edible and/or ornamental bulbs are Penicillium albocoremium (from Tulipa sp.; pathogenic on Allium sativum, A. cepa, A. stipitatum, Iris hollandica and Tulipa sp.), P. crustosum (from Narcissus; pathogenic on ...

  3. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationships between the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning in the State of Washington. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joireman, Jeff; Abbott, Martin L.

    This report examines the overlap between student test results on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The two tests were compared and contrasted in terms of content and measurement philosophy, and analyses studied the statistical relationship between the ITBS and the WASL. The ITBS assesses…

  5. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  6. 76 FR 75508 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; Restricted Area... facility located in Mobile, Alabama. The Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion and Repair, United States... contracts at AUSTAL USA in Mobile, Alabama, on October 9, 2011, replacing Supervisor of Shipbuilding...

  7. Multi-method Near-surface Geophysical Surveys for Site Response and Earthquake Damage Assessments at School Sites in Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Norman, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    We, Washington Geological Survey (WGS), have been performing multi-method near surface geophysical surveys to help assess potential earthquake damage at public schools in Washington. We have been conducting active and passive seismic surveys, and estimating Shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles, then determining the NEHRP soil classifications based on Vs30m values at school sites in Washington. The survey methods we have used: 1D and 2D MASW and MAM, P- and S-wave refraction, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V), and 2ST-SPAC to measure Vs and Vp at shallow (0-70m) and greater depths at the sites. We have also run Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys at the sites to check possible horizontal subsurface variations along and between the seismic survey lines and the actual locations of the school buildings. The seismic survey results were then used to calculate Vs30m for determining the NEHRP soil classifications at school sites, thus soil amplification effects on the ground motions. Resulting shear-wave velocity profiles generated from these studies can also be used for site response and liquefaction potential studies, as well as for improvement efforts of the national Vs30m database, essential information for ShakeMap and ground motion modeling efforts in Washington and Pacific Northwest. To estimate casualties, nonstructural, and structural losses caused by the potential earthquakes in the region, we used these seismic site characterization results associated with structural engineering evaluations based on ASCE41 or FEMA 154 (Rapid Visual Screening) as inputs in FEMA Hazus-Advanced Engineering Building Module (AEBM) analysis. Compelling example surveys will be presented for the school sites in western and eastern Washington.

  8. Use of attorneys and appeal filing in the Washington State workers' compensation program: does patient satisfaction matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Franklin, Gary; Turner, Judith; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Mootz, Robert; Smith-Weller, Terri

    2004-04-01

    Specify the frequency with which injured workers in Washington State's compensation system retained an attorney or filed an appeal, and the personal and job-related correlates of these actions. Analyze the relationship between workers' legal actions and their satisfaction in two domains: how well the claim was managed administratively, and how well the worker and claim manager communicated with one another. Characterize the relationship between retaining an attorney and long-term disability. Little is known about how often injured workers retain attorneys or file appeals in the workers' compensation system. We conducted a population-based study to examine the frequency of attorney retention and appeal filing in the Washington State workers' compensation program and the factors related to this event. Data for the study were provided by a survey conducted on 804 injured workers who were interviewed an average of 159 days after claim receipt. Attorney retention and appeal filing were examined up to 28 months later. Seven percent of the workers either retained an attorney or filed an appeal. Workers who were less satisfied with claims administration procedures were more likely to retain an attorney or file an appeal (Pclaim receipt to attorney retention (368 days) suggests that retaining an attorney is a correlate rather than a predictor of long-term disability.

  9. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Kerr, William C; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Ye, Yu

    2017-11-27

    In 2012 Washington State ended a wholesale/retail monopoly on liquor, permitting sale of spirits in stores with > 10,000 square feet. Implementation resulted in average price increases, but also five times the stores selling liquor. As part of a privatization evaluation, we studied pre-post and between-store-type purchase experiences. A 2010 Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) survey of liquor purchasers (n = 599), and the 2014 baseline of a repeated telephone survey (1,202 residents; n = 465 purchasers), each included 10 LCB questions on satisfaction with purchase experiences, each attribute with graded response scale A = 4 to D = 1 and F (0 = fail). Analyses used t-tests for satisfaction differences by time and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 2014 between-store satisfaction-level differences. Five purchase features were rated more favorably after privatization (ps convenience, store hours, and prices (though price rated lowest both times); selection offered, courtesy, and checkout speed were unaltered, and number of staff and staff knowledge declined (both p convenience favored grocery and drug stores, and price satisfaction favored wholesale (Costco) stores, with staff knowledge highest at liquor stores. Satisfaction with liquor purchases increased after privatization for half the consumer experiences. Availability (location convenience and store hours) was important to liquor purchasers. Such results are relevant to sustained support for the policy of privatizing spirits retail monopolies.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness/Cost-Benefit Analysis of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Thompson, John D; Kobrynski, Lisa; Ojodu, Jelili; Zarbalian, Guisou; Grosse, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the expected cost-effectiveness and net benefit of the recent implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Washington State. We constructed a decision analysis model to estimate the costs and benefits of NBS in an annual birth cohort of 86 600 infants based on projections of avoided infant deaths. Point estimates and ranges for input variables, including the birth prevalence of SCID, proportion detected asymptomatically without screening through family history, screening test characteristics, survival rates, and costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment were derived from published estimates, expert opinion, and the Washington NBS program. We estimated treatment costs stratified by age of identification and SCID type (with or without adenosine deaminase deficiency). Economic benefit was estimated using values of $4.2 and $9.0 million per death averted. We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the influence of key variables on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of net direct cost per life-year saved. Our model predicts an additional 1.19 newborn infants with SCID detected preclinically through screening, in addition to those who would have been detected early through family history, and 0.40 deaths averted annually. Our base-case model suggests an ICER of $35 311 per life-year saved, and a benefit-cost ratio of either 5.31 or 2.71. Sensitivity analyses found ICER values <$100 000 and positive net benefit for plausible assumptions on all variables. Our model suggests that NBS for SCID in Washington is likely to be cost-effective and to show positive net economic benefit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  12. Washington biofuel feedstock crop supply under output price and quantity uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiujie; Shumway, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Subsidized development of an in-state biofuels industry has received some political support in the state of Washington, USA. Utilizing in-state feedstock supplies could be an efficient way to stimulate biofuel industries and the local economy. In this paper we estimate supply under output price and quantity uncertainty for major biofuel feedstock crops in Washington. Farmers are expected to be risk averse and maximize the utility of profit and uncertainty. We estimate very large Washington price elasticities for corn and sugar beets but a small price elasticity for a third potential feedstock, canola. Even with the large price elasticities for two potential feedstocks, their current and historical production levels in the state are so low that unrealistically large incentives would likely be needed to obtain sufficient feedstock supply for a Washington biofuel industry. Based on our examination of state and regional data, we find low likelihood that a Washington biofuels industry will develop in the near future primarily using within-state biofuel feedstock crops. - Highlights: ► Within-state feedstock crop supplies insufficient for Washington biofuel industry. ► Potential Washington corn and sugar beet supplies very responsive to price changes. ► Feedstock supplies more responsive to higher expected profit than lower risk. ► R and D for conversion of waste cellulosic feedstocks is potentially important policy.

  13. Firearm legislation and firearm mortality in the USA: a cross-sectional, state-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Mobily, Matthew E; Keiser, Olivia; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-30

    In an effort to reduce firearm mortality rates in the USA, US states have enacted a range of firearm laws to either strengthen or deregulate the existing main federal gun control law, the Brady Law. We set out to determine the independent association of different firearm laws with overall firearm mortality, homicide firearm mortality, and suicide firearm mortality across all US states. We also projected the potential reduction of firearm mortality if the three most strongly associated firearm laws were enacted at the federal level. We constructed a cross-sectional, state-level dataset from Nov 1, 2014, to May 15, 2015, using counts of firearm-related deaths in each US state for the years 2008-10 (stratified by intent [homicide and suicide]) from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, data about 25 firearm state laws implemented in 2009, and state-specific characteristics such as firearm ownership for 2013, firearm export rates, and non-firearm homicide rates for 2009, and unemployment rates for 2010. Our primary outcome measure was overall firearm-related mortality per 100,000 people in the USA in 2010. We used Poisson regression with robust variances to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. 31,672 firearm-related deaths occurred in 2010 in the USA (10·1 per 100,000 people; mean state-specific count 631·5 [SD 629·1]). Of 25 firearm laws, nine were associated with reduced firearm mortality, nine were associated with increased firearm mortality, and seven had an inconclusive association. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the three state laws most strongly associated with reduced overall firearm mortality were universal background checks for firearm purchase (multivariable IRR 0·39 [95% CI 0·23-0·67]; p=0·001), ammunition background checks (0·18 [0·09-0·36]; plaws are associated with reduced firearm mortality, and this evidence underscores the importance of focusing on

  14. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Alvarez, David A.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Torres, Leticia; Patino, Reynaldo; Mesa, Matthew G.; Grove, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated occurrence, transport pathways, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010, foodweb sampling at three sites along a gradient of contaminant exposure near Skamania (Washington), Columbia City (Oregon) and Longview (Washington) included water (via passive samplers), bed sediment, invertebrate biomass residing in sediment, a resident fish species (largescale suckers [Catostomus macrocheilus]), and eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus). This paper primarily reports fish tissue concentrations. In 2009, composites of fish brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues revealed that overall contaminant concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples from all three sites ranged from contaminants in the environment lead to bioaccumulation and potential negative effects in multiple levels of the foodweb.

  15. The Society for Pediatric Radiology, 38th annual meeting, Washington, DC, USA, April 27-30, 1995. Gold medalists, honorary members, pioneer session, abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution reports the highlights of the 38th annual meeting of the Society for Pediatric Radiology in Washington, DC, from 27 - 30 April, 1995. The abstracts of the 96 papers presented at the sessions on all pediatric subject fields are reproduced, and the gold medalists of the Society of the year 1995 are introduced with a brief c.v. and a survey of their careers. (VHE) [de

  16. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  17. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting

  18. Information Needs Assessment for K-12 School Nurses in Rural Eastern Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    School nurses are an often-overlooked population of health care professionals who have great importance in rural communities where access to health care is limited. In order to better serve school nurses in rural eastern Washington, an assessment was conducted to determine their information needs, behaviors, and perceptions. Results indicated this population of school nurses searches for multiple types of health information on a daily basis and navigates obstacles to information access using a variety of resources. While largely confident in their searching ability, they are open to learning more about how to find reliable health information to support their daily responsibilities. These results will guide the development of a workshop for school nurses about using reliable health information resources to improve health care in their rural communities.

  19. Innovative States: Emerging Family Support and Education Programs. Arkansas, Iowa, Oregon, Vermont, Washington. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, MA.

    The five states featured in this second edition of "Innovative States" were chosen because they reflect crucial elements in an emerging understanding of state policy making in family support and education. Creative state partnerships involving program development and funding are a key ingredient to successful endeavors. States rely on…

  20. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  1. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets

  2. Four Decades of Systems Science Teaching and Research in the USA at Portland State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Wakeland

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems science is defined in general fashion, and a brief background is provided that lists some of the systems science-related societies, conferences, journals, research institutes, and educational programs. The Systems Science Graduate Program at Portland State University in Portland, OR, USA, is described in detail, including its history, curriculum, students, faculty, and degrees granted. Dissertation topics are summarized via word diagrams created from dissertation titles over the years. MS degrees, student placement, and undergraduate courses are also mentioned, and future plans for the program are described including its support for sustainability education.

  3. The distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis cases across states and counties in the USA, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine the distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in the USA through the use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. The distribution of three sexually transmitted diseases (STD; chlamydia, gonorrhoea and primary and secondary syphilis) was examined across states and counties in the USA in 2007, based on reported case numbers. Gini coefficients, which can range from 0 (equality in STD rates across geographical units) to 1 (complete inequality such that all STD occur in one geographical unit) were calculated. Overall, chlamydia was the most evenly distributed and syphilis was the most concentrated of the three STD examined. The Gini coefficients for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis were 0.121, 0.255 and 0.334, respectively, when examined across states, and 0.319, 0.494 and 0.630, respectively, when examined across counties. Differences in Gini coefficients were observed when the STD distributions were examined by sex, race/ethnicity and age group. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients can help to assess inequalities in the distribution of STD, to gauge the suitability of geographically targeted interventions, and to help in determining the epidemic phase of STD. Having a better understanding of the disparities in the distribution of STD across states and counties by sex, race/ethnicity and age group might help in understanding why disparities in STD rates exist across different groups and in developing interventions to address these disparities.

  4. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  5. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  6. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  7. Common state mechanisms regulating tribal tobacco taxation and sales, the USA, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Hillary; Chriqui, Jamie; Leider, Julien; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    Native American tribes, as sovereign nations, are exempt from state tobacco excise taxation, and self-govern on-reservation activity in the USA. Under Federal law, state excise taxes are owed by non-members purchasing tobacco on tribal land, but states are limited in how they enforce or collect these taxes. This study highlights the various policy approaches that states have taken to regulate tobacco sales on tribal lands given jurisdictional challenges. State laws (statutes, regulations and case law), Attorney General opinions, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 1 January 2015 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. Laws were limited to those addressing taxation compacts or tobacco sales involving tribal entities. Master Settlement Agreement laws and non-codified tribal codes/compacts were excluded. Twenty of the 34 states with tribal lands address tribal tobacco sales. Fourteen states address intergovernmental compacts: 11 are tobacco specific, and suggest or require specific provisions. Fifteen states address tribal tax stamps: 2 explicitly prohibit stamping tribally sold products, 9 stamp all products, and 4 stamp some. Prepayment of excise tax is required in 12 states: 6 on all products, 4 on products in excess of quota, and 2 on products sold by non-tribal retailers. 6 states use quotas to limit tax-free tobacco available to tribes. Many states with a tribal presence have no formal strategies for non-members purchasing tobacco on tribal lands. Formalising policies and harmonising tax rates may assist states in collecting tax revenue from non-tribal consumers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. A Brief History of the Resting State: the Washington University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a history of the concepts and developments that have led us to focus on the resting state as an object of study. We then discuss resting state research performed in our laboratory since 2005 with an emphasis on papers of particular interest. PMID:22266172

  9. Washington state--British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) : ITS-CVO border crossing deployment, evaluation draft report : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Washington state-British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) ITS-CVO Border Crossing Deployment is allowing for the completion of a bi-national freight border crossing ITS system at the border, and is a follow-on effort t...

  10. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  11. Test Review: Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (2010), "Watson-Glaser™ II Critical Thinking Appraisal." Washington State University, Pullman, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternod, Latisha; French, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Watson-Glaser™ II Critical Thinking Appraisal (Watson-Glaser II; Watson & Glaser, 2010) is a revised version of the "Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal®" (Watson & Glaser, 1994). The Watson-Glaser II introduces a simplified model of critical thinking, consisting of three subdimensions: recognize assumptions, evaluate…

  12. Sphaerospora elwhaiensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae) from landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) in Washington State, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jones, S.; Fiala, Ivan; Prosperi-Porta, G.; House, M.; Mumford, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2011), s. 87-94 ISSN 0015-5683 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Sphaerospora elwhaiensis * Myxozoa * Myxosporea * kokanee * Oncorhynchus nerka Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=21977

  13. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Laurel... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AO-370-A8; AMS..., Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  14. Foreign-born care givers in Washington State nursing homes: characteristics, associations with quality of care, and views of administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Katherine; Pletz, Anna Maria; Katz, Aaron; Hagopian, Amy

    2015-06-01

    Following national trends, Washington State relies heavily on foreign-born workers to provide long-term care. Our study assesses state nursing facility characteristics, quality ratings, and the views of facility administrators about the implications of an increasing number of foreign-born employees. We used independently available data to supplement a survey of nursing home administrators. Nearly half of the administrators reported difficulty hiring U.S.-born job applicants. Three in four administrators reported problems related to language differences, and just more than a third reported challenges related to cultural and/or religious differences. Nonetheless, the proportion of foreign-born employees was positively associated with independent facility quality ratings. Almost half of the administrators reported discrimination by patients/clients toward their foreign-born workers. Quality ratings were negatively associated with for-profit, chain, or multi-ownership status. The proportion of foreign-born employees in nursing facilities may be associated with improved performance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  16. Maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, 1992-2014: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Julianne; Vora, Manali V; Fuller, Mackenzie S; Phipps, Amanda I; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2018-05-01

    Women in veterinary occupations are routinely exposed to potential reproductive hazards, yet research into their birth outcomes is limited. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of the association between maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. Using Washington State birth certificate, fetal death certificate and hospital discharge data from 1992 to 2014, we compared birth outcomes of mothers in veterinary professions (n=2662) with those in mothers in dental professions (n=10 653) and other employed mothers (n=8082). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using log binomial regression. Outcomes studied were premature birth (veterinary support staff separately. While no statistically significant associations were found, we noted a trend for SGA births in all veterinary mothers compared with dental mothers (RR=1.16, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.36) and in veterinarians compared with other employed mothers (RR=1.37, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.96). Positive but non-significant association was found for malformations among children of veterinary support staff. These results support the need for further study of the association between veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Washington State Retail Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Preferences for Marijuana Messages in a Sample of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve

    2018-03-01

    As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.

  18. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    November was a quiet month in Washington. Although Congress has recessed until 1991, the Senate filled vacancies in party leadership positions created by November's elections. The House is expected to proceed with its changes in early December. The Nuclear Energy Forum was held in Washington, DC on November 11-14 to discuss the status of the nuclear industry in the USA. The Forum, held in conjunction with the American Nuclear Society's annual meeting, assembled a large number of CEO's from US, European, and Far Eastern utilities and vendors. The meeting concluded with an announcement by Philip Bayne, President of NYPA and chairman of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), of the results of a year-long NPOC study entitled a open-quotes Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes

  19. On achieving the state's household recycling target: A case study of Northern New Jersey, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otegbeye, M.; Abdel-Malek, L.; Hsieh, H.N.; Meegoda, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities

  20. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  1. GED Test Changes and Attainment: Overview of 2014 GED Test Changes and Attainment in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kara; Gaeta, Cristina; Sager, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In January 2014, the GED Testing Service significantly redesigned the GED test to incorporate the Common Core State Standards and the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the significant changes made to the test in 2014, examine the impact of the changes on Washingtonians, and make…

  2. Pilot-Scale Test Results Of A Thin Film Evaporator System For Management Of Liquid High-Level Wastes At The Hanford Site Washington USA -11364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.; Tedesch, A.R.; Wilson, R.A.; Beck, T.H.; Larkin, J.

    2011-01-01

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  3. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  4. Epidemiology of Infectious Disease-Related Death After Release from Prison, Washington State, United States, and Queensland, Australia: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Blatchford, Patrick J; Forsyth, Simon J; Stern, Marc F; Kinner, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    People in prison may be at high risk for infectious diseases and have an elevated risk of death immediately after release compared with later; their risk of death is elevated for at least a decade after release. We compared rates, characteristics, and prison-related risk factors for infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, and Washington State, United States, regions with analogous available data. We analyzed data from retrospective cohort studies of people released from prison in Queensland (1997-2007, n=37,180) and Washington State (1999-2009, n=76,208) and linked identifiers from each cohort to its respective national death index. We estimated infectious disease-related mortality rates (deaths per person-years in community) and examined associations using Cox proportional hazard models. The most frequent infectious disease-related underlying cause of death after release from prison was pneumonia (43%, 23/54 deaths) in the Australian cohort and viral hepatitis (40%, 69/171 deaths) in the U.S. cohort. The infectious disease-related mortality rate was significantly higher in the U.S. cohort than in the Australian cohort (51.2 vs. 26.5 deaths per 100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.42, 2.62). In both cohorts, increasing age was strongly associated with mortality from infectious diseases. Differences in the epidemiology of infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prison may reflect differences in patterns of community health service delivery in each region. These findings highlight the importance of preventing and treating hepatitis C and other infectious diseases during the transition from prison to the community.

  5. Statement at NRC International Regulators Conference on Nuclear Security, 4 December 2012, Washington, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    I would like to begin by thanking NRC Chairman Allison Macfarlane for hosting this first regulatory Conference on nuclear security involving regulators, law enforcement agencies and the IAEA. The United States has been a very important partner in the IAEA's nuclear security activities right from the start. It is by far the largest donor to our Nuclear Security Fund. It has actively supported our programmes and has been generous in providing funding, equipment and training to other Member States. When President Obama hosted the first Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010, he said it was important that that event should be part of a ''serious and sustained effort'' to improve nuclear security throughout the world. Since then, a growing number of governments have given high-level attention to this vitally important issue. This is very encouraging. Today, I am especially pleased to see regulators coming together to focus on this subject. I am confident that your meeting will make a valuable contribution to strengthening global nuclear security. I would like to share with you some important recent milestones in the IAEA's nuclear security work. As you know, primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments. However, governments have recognized that international cooperation is vital. Terrorists and other criminals do not respect international borders and no country can respond effectively on its own to the threat which they pose. In September, our Member States - there are now 158 - reaffirmed the central role of the IAEA in e nsuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique expertise and our long experience of providing technical assistance and specialist, practical guidance to countries. To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other

  6. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  7. Effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on carpenters' work-related injury rates, Washington State 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Sinyai, Clayton; Adams, Darrin

    2017-01-01

    Despite the size and breadth of OSHA's Outreach Training program for construction, information on its impact on work-related injury rates is limited. In a 9-year dynamic cohort of 17,106 union carpenters in Washington State, the effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on workers' compensation claims rate was explored. Injury rates were calculated by training status overall and by carpenters' demographic and work characteristics using Poisson regression. OSHA Outreach Training resulted in a 13% non-significant reduction in injury claims rates overall. The protective effect was more pronounced for carpenters in their apprenticeship years, drywall installers, and with increasing time since training. In line with these observed effects and prior research, it is unrealistic to expect OSHA Outreach Training alone to have large effects on union construction workers' injury rates. Standard construction industry practice should include hazard awareness and protection training, coupled with more efficient approaches to injury control. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:45-57, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Going from Microbial Ecology to Genome Data and Back: Studies on a Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Mormile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (~pH 9.8 and saline (~14 to 140 g liter-1 lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years and the extremely high sulfide level (~140 mM in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. H. hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment.

  9. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-376-2018, US Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, C.M.; Klein, M.K.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from the United States Marshals Service (SIC-9221) in Washington, D.C. for assistance in testing the effect of renovations to the ventilation system of their indoor firing range, lead (7439921) exposures were measured during handgun qualifying sessions. Each qualifying session of firing consisted of 60 rounds fired in 10 to 12 minutes. Personal breathing zone air samples were taken from three shooters and the range officer. Lead exposure concentrations measured were 2073, 1786, 172, and 142 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (microg/cu m). Eight hour time weighted average concentrations were calculated to be 194, 167, 101, and 13microg/cu m, respectively. The three shooters were therefore overexposed to lead. Bulk sampling of the sand from the bullet trap indicated it to be contaminated, containing 41% lead by weight. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed from exposure to lead. The authors recommended changes to improve the ventilation system. Following modification of the system, tests were again conducted and 11 of the 12 samples taken were below the limits of detection for the method used. The authors conclude that after modification, a hazard did not exist during qualifying sessions. The authors recommend specific measures to protect personnel from exposure to lead.

  10. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  11. New records of nematomorph parasites (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.

  12. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Ko, Cynthia W; Saha, Somnath; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789). We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. RESULTS: Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  13. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  14. Characteristics of construction firms at risk for future workers' compensation claims using administrative data systems, Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Foley, Michael; Adams, Darrin; Bonauto, Dave

    2018-06-01

    Construction is high-hazard industry, and continually ranks among those with the highest workers' compensation (WC) claim rates in Washington State (WA). However, not all construction firms are at equal risk. We tested the ability to identify those construction firms most at risk for future claims using only administrative WC and unemployment insurance data. We collected information on construction firms with 10-50 average full time equivalent (FTE) employees from the WA unemployment insurance and WC data systems (n=1228). Negative binomial regression was used to test the ability of firm characteristics measured during 2011-2013 to predict time-loss claim rates in the following year, 2014. Claim rates in 2014 varied by construction industry groups, ranging from 0.7 (Land Subdivision) to 4.6 (Foundation, Structure, and Building Construction) claims per 100 FTE. Construction firms with higher average WC premium rates, a history of WC claims, increasing number of quarterly FTE, and lower average wage rates during 2011-2013 were predicted to have higher WC claim rates in 2014. We demonstrate the ability to leverage administrative data to identify construction firms predicted to have future WC claims. This study should be repeated to determine if these results are applicable to other high-hazard industries. Practical Applications: This study identified characteristics that may be used to further refine targeted outreach and prevention to construction firms at risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Reduced sleep duration and history of work-related injuries among Washington State adolescents with a history of working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Miller, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between sleep and occupational injury risk has not been adequately explored for working adolescents. Data were analyzed from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade public school students. Teens reported average school and weekend night sleep hours and history of work-related injury that received medical treatment. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between sleep duration and occupational injury. Of 4,144 working teens, 6.4% reported ever having an occupational injury. Teens who sleep ≤5 hr/school night had greater odds of a history of occupational injury than those sleeping 8 hr (OR:2.91, 95% CI:1.85-4.57). No significant association was observed for weekend night sleep duration. Reduced school night sleep was associated with increased odds of work-related injury in adolescents. Long hours and late night schedules may contribute to decreased sleep time and potentially have other health and developmental impacts for youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  17. Basalt alteration and basalt-waste interaction in the Pasco Basin of Washington State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Carnahan, C.L.; Apps, J.A.; Mouton, C.A.; Corrigan, D.J.; Frisch, C.J.; Shomura, L.K.

    1978-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the nature of the minerals which coat vesicle and fracture surfaces in the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation, simulate the mass transfer which led to their precipitation, and predict the mass transfer associated with the dissolution of spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), petrographic, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe (EMP) analyses have been made on a series of samples taken from 1100 ft (335.3 m) of core from core hole DC2. Preliminary simulations of the mass transfer associated with basalt dissolution in a thermodynamically closed system have been accomplished. In addition two mass transfer codes have been modified to facilitate data base changes. Thermochemical data for uranium and plutonium have been collected and converted to standard state conditions. These data will be critically evaluated and input to the mass transfer data base in the near future

  18. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  19. Modern Timber Harvesting Practices Have Little Short-Term Effect on Soil Carbon Stores in Industrial Forests of Western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, S. M.; Hatten, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon represents a large, but slowly changing pool of carbon in forests and understanding its response to forest management, including harvesting, is critical for determining overall stand/landscape carbon balance. Past studies have observed mixed effects of harvesting on soil carbon possibly due, in part, to imprecise sampling methods and high variability within soils. Weyerhaeuser Company has led a major effort to examine the effect of conventional timber harvesting on long-term soil carbon stores in western Oregon and Washington Douglas-fir forests using a highly-replicated longitudinal study design that enables precise estimation of variability found in these systems. In 2010, we randomly selected nine harvest units from Weyerhaeuser's 2012 harvest plan. At each non-harvested unit, a uniform, non-rocky area of about 3-6 hectares was selected for the study. Pre-harvest soil samples were collected at 300 sample points from each unit on a fixed square grid, targeting an intensity that would allow detection of >5% change in soil carbon stores. We measured soil carbon concentration and soil bulk density in depth increments to 1 m to allow for the calculation of total soil carbon per hectare. Other ecosystem pools of carbon, such as trees and downed wood, also have been measured to complete the whole-site carbon budget. All units were harvested from late 2011 through mid-year 2012. In 2015, 3-3.5 years post-harvest, we resampled the same areas in an identical manner as the pre-harvest collection to evaluate changes in soil carbon following harvest. Across all sites combined, we estimated a +2% change (-2% to +6%, 95% confidence interval) in mineral soil carbon following harvest, which is consistent with small-to-no change. Individual sites varied in direction of response; only one site showed evidence of a slight decrease in soil carbon, while two sites showed slight gains. These early results indicate that Weyerhaeuser's conventional timber harvesting methods

  20. Drainage effects on the transient, near-surface hydrologic response of a steep hillslope to rainfall: Implications for slope stability, Edmonds, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, G.; Godt, J.W.; McKenna, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow landslides on steep (>25??) hillsides along Puget Sound have resulted in occasional loss of life and costly damage to property during intense or prolonged rainfall. As part of a larger project to assess landslide hazards in the Seattle area, the U.S. Geological Survey instrumented two coastal bluff sites in 2001 to observe the subsurface hydrologic response to rainfall. The instrumentation at one of these sites, near Edmonds, Washington, consists of two rain gauges, two water-content probes that measure volumetric water content at eight depths between 0.2 and 2.0 m, and two tensiometer nests that measure soil-water suction at six depths ranging from 0.2 to 1.5m. Measurements from these instruments are used to test one- and two-dimensional numerical models of infiltration and groundwater flow. Capillary-rise tests, performed in the laboratory on soil sample from the Edmonds site, are used to define the soil hydraulic properties for the wetting process. The field observations of water content and suction show an apparent effect of porosity variation with depth on the hydraulic response to rainfall. Using a range of physical properties consistent with our laboratory and field measurements, we perform sensitivity analyses to investigate the effects of variation in physical and hydraulic properties of the soil on rainfall infiltration, pore-pressure response, and, hence, slope stability. For a two-layer-system in which the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer is at least 10 times greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, and the infiltration rate is greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, a perched water table forms above the layer boundary potentially destabilizing the upper layer of soil. Two-dimensional modeling results indicate that the addition of a simple trench drain to the same two-layer slope has differing effects on the hydraulic response depending on the initial pressure head conditions. For slope-parallel flow conditions

  1. Drainage effects on the transient, near-surface hydrologic response of a steep hillslope to rainfall: implications for slope stability, Edmonds, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biavati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow landslides on steep (>25° hillsides along Puget Sound have resulted in occasional loss of life and costly damage to property during intense or prolonged rainfall. As part of a larger project to assess landslide hazards in the Seattle area, the U.S. Geological Survey instrumented two coastal bluff sites in 2001 to observe the subsurface hydrologic response to rainfall. The instrumentation at one of these sites, near Edmonds, Washington, consists of two rain gauges, two water-content probes that measure volumetric water content at eight depths between 0.2 and 2.0 m, and two tensiometer nests that measure soil-water suction at six depths ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 m. Measurements from these instruments are used to test one- and two-dimensional numerical models of infiltration and groundwater flow. Capillary-rise tests, performed in the laboratory on soil sample from the Edmonds site, are used to define the soil hydraulic properties for the wetting process. The field observations of water content and suction show an apparent effect of porosity variation with depth on the hydraulic response to rainfall. Using a range of physical properties consistent with our laboratory and field measurements, we perform sensitivity analyses to investigate the effects of variation in physical and hydraulic properties of the soil on rainfall infiltration, pore-pressure response, and, hence, slope stability. For a two-layer-system in which the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer is at least 10 times greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, and the infiltration rate is greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, a perched water table forms above the layer boundary potentially destabilizing the upper layer of soil. Two-dimensional modeling results indicate that the addition of a simple trench drain to the same two-layer slope has differing effects on the hydraulic response depending on the initial pressure head conditions. For slope

  2. Workplace health and safety regulations: Impact of enforcement and consultation on workers' compensation claims rates in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggs, James; Silverstein, Barbara; Foley, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There has been considerable debate in the public policy arena about the appropriate mix of regulatory enforcement and consultation in achieving desired health and safety behavior across industries. Recently there has been a shift in federal policy toward voluntary approaches and constraining the scope of enforcement programs, although there is little evidence that this might improve health and safety outcomes. To address this, we examined changes in lost time workers compensation claims rates for Washington State employers who had (1) no OSHA State Plan (WISHA) activity, (2) enforcement, (3) consultation, and (4) both types of visits. Compensable claims rates, hours, and WISHA activity were determined for each employer account with a single business location that had payroll hours reported for every quarter from 1997-2000 and more than 10 employees. We used a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to Poisson regression to model the association between WISHA activity and claims rate controlling for other external factors. Controlling for previous claims rate and average size, claims rates for employers with WISHA enforcement activity declined 22.5% in fixed site industry SIC codes compared to 7% among employers with no WISHA activity (P 0.10). WISHA consultation activity was not associated with a greater decline in compensable claims rates (-2.3% for fixed sites and +3.5% for non-fixed sites). WISHA activity did not adversely affect worksite survivability through the study period. Enforcement inspections are significantly associated with decreasing compensable workers compensation claims rates especially for fixed site employers. We were unable to identify an association between consultation activities and decreasing claims rates. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Health status of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) collected along an organic contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Nilsen, Elena B.; Grove, Robert A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    The health of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) in the lower Columbia River (USA) was evaluated using morphometric and histopathological approaches, and its association with organic contaminants accumulated in liver was evaluated in males. Fish were sampled from three sites along a contaminant gradient In 2009, body length and mass, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and hematocrit were measured in males and females; liver and gonad tissue were collected from males for histological analyses; and organ composites were analyzed for contaminant content in males. In 2010, additional data were collected for males and females, including external fish condition assessment, histopathologies of spleen, kidney and gill and, for males, liver contaminant content. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that biological traits in males, but not females, differed among sites in 2009 and 2010. Discriminant function analysis indicated that site-related differences among male populations were relatively small in 2009, but in 2010, when more variables were analyzed, males differed among sites in regards to kidney, spleen, and liver histopathologies and gill parasites. Kidney tubular hyperplasia, liver and spleen macrophage aggregations, and gill parasites were generally more severe in the downstream sites compared to the reference location. The contaminant content of male livers was also generally higher downstream, and the legacy pesticide hexachlorobenzene and flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-154 were the primary drivers for site discrimination. However, bivariate correlations between biological variables and liver contaminants retained in the discriminant models failed to reveal associations between the two variable sets. In conclusion, whereas certain non-reproductive biological traits and liver contaminant contents of male Largescale Sucker differed according to an upstream-downstream gradient in the lower Columbia River, results from this study did not reveal

  4. Collaborative effort in Washington state slashes non-essential use of the ED by Medicaid patients, delivering millions in projected savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Early data suggest a coordinated, state-wide effort has reduced non-essential use of the ED by 10% among Medicaid recipients in Washington state, and is projected to save the state an estimated $31 million in the first year of the approach. The effort includes the adoption of seven best practices by hospitals across the state.These include the creation of an Emergency Department Information Exchange, so that EDs can immediately access a patient's utilization history, strict narcotic prescribing guidelines, and regular feedback reports to hospitals regarding ED utilization patterns. The effort was prompted by threats by the state legislature to limit Medicaid payments for ED visits deemed not medically necessary in the emergency setting. The legislature backed down when emergency physicians in the state countered with their own proposal to reduce nonessential use of the ED. They worked with other health care groups in the state to develop the plan. Data on the first six months of the effort are included in a report to the state legislature by the Washington State Health Care Authority. Among the findings are a 23% reduction in ED visits among Medicaid recipients with five or more visits, a 250% increase in providers who have registered with the state's Prescription Monitoring Program, aimed at identifying patients with narcotic-seeking behavior, and a doubling in the number of shared care plans, intended to improve care coordination. Emergency providers say big challenges remain, including a need for more resources for patients with mental health and dental care needs.

  5. Plentern mit Kiefern--Ergebnisse aus den USA [Plentering with pines--results from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Don C. Bragg; Andreas Zingg

    2017-01-01

    Until now, scientifically reliable data on plentering of light-demanding tree species in Europe have been lacking. This gap is filled with long-term trials from the USA, among others with southern yellow pines. In the southern state of Arkansas, two plots of 16 hectares were installed in 1936, in the context of a large-scale trial of mixed loblolly pine (...

  6. Forest biomass estimated from MODIS and FIA data in the Lake States: MN, WI and MI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2007-01-01

    This study linked the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data through empirical models established using high-resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus observations to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) in three Lake States in the north-central USA. While means obtained from larger sample sizes...

  7. Partners in immunization: 2010 survey examining differences among H1N1 vaccine providers in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Katherine; Gleason, Cindy; Richards, Jennifer L; Chamberlain, Allison; Andrews, Tracey; Watson, Lin; Whitney, Ellen; Hinman, Alan R; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Emergency response involving mass vaccination requires the involvement of traditional vaccine providers as well as other health-care providers, including pharmacists, obstetricians, and health-care providers at correctional facilities. We explored differences in provider experiences administering pandemic vaccine during a public health emergency. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of H1N1 vaccine providers in Washington State, examining topics regarding pandemic vaccine administration, participation in preparedness activities, and communication with public health agencies. We also examined differences among provider types in responses received (n=619, 80.9% response rate). Compared with other types of vaccine providers (e.g., family practitioners, obstetricians, and specialists), pharmacists reported higher patient volumes as well as higher patient-to-practitioner ratios, indicating a broad capacity for community reach. Pharmacists and correctional health-care providers reported lower staff coverage with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines. Compared with other vaccine providers, pharmacists were also more likely to report relying on public health information from federal sources. They were less likely to report relying on local health departments (LHDs) for pandemic-related information, but indicated a desire to be included in LHD communications and plans. While all provider types indicated a high willingness to respond to a public health emergency, pharmacists were less likely to have participated in training, actual emergency response, or surge capacity initiatives. No obstetricians reported participating in surge capacity initiatives. Results from this survey suggest that efforts to increase communication and interaction between public health agencies and pharmacy, obstetric, and correctional health-care vaccine providers may improve future preparedness and emergency response capability and reach.

  8. Using the global positioning system in support of environmental characterization at the Hanford Site in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.B.; Tzemos, S.; Dietz, L.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's 1,450 km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State accumulated hazardous wastes for more than 50 years. To support the Site's mission of environmental restoration and cleanup, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to verify waste site locations and provide location information for field samples. Collected GPS data are stored for use in the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). The NAVSTAR GPS is a space-based electronic navigation and positioning system designed and operated by the US Department of Defense (DOD). The system consists of three major components: (1) the space segment, comprising 24 earth-orbiting satellites; (2) the control segment, made up of 5 control and monitoring stations placed around the globe; and (3) the user segment, which includes users worldwide. When declared fully operational by the DOD, the NAVSTAR GPS will allow users to identify their geographical position anywhere on earth at any time. There are no user fees for the service and anyone with a GPS receiver may use the system worldwide. The one major hindrance to the system is the DOD policy concerning a security option called Selective Availability (SA). Selective Availability affects the usability of the system by intentional manipulation of the GPS signals to degrade the accuracy of the user's positions. The period and magnitude of degradation is solely a DOD privilege. The DOD policy on SA is to vary the error in position calculated from the Standard Positioning Service code to approximately 100 m root-mean squared (RMS). With SA on and other possible errors included, users may know their location to within a few hundred meters. While this accuracy is good for many applications, it is too inaccurate for others

  9. Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Prescribing Among Washington State Medical Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.

  10. Impacts of Landuse Management and Climate Change on Landslides Susceptibility over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, M. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The commercial forests on the western side of the Olympic Mountains in Washington State are a region of steep slopes and high annual rainfall (2500-6000 mm/year) and are therefore highly susceptible to landslides. Potential climatic change (more intense and frequent winter storms) may exacerbate landslide susceptibility unless forest management practices are changed. As this area is a critical habitat for numerous organisms, including salmon, this may result in potentially severe consequences to riparian habitat due to increased sediment loads. Therefore, there is a need to investigate potential forest management plans to promote the economic viability of timber extraction while protecting the natural habitat, particularly in riparian areas. The objective of this study is to predict the long term effects of forest management decisions under projected climate change on slope stability. We applied the physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with its sediment module to simulate mass wasting and sediment delivery under different vegetation and climate scenarios. Sub-basins were selected and classified according to elevation, slope, land cover and soil type. Various land management practices (such as clear-cutting in riparian areas, logging under short rotations, varying amount of timbers left intact in riparian areas) were applied to each of the selected sub-basins. DHSVM was used to simulate landslide volume, frequency, and sediment loads for each of the land cover applications under various future climate scenarios. We comment on the suitability of various harvesting techniques for different parts of the forest to minimize landslide-induced sediment loading to streams in an altered climate. This approach can be developed as a decision making tool that can be used by forest managers to make long-term planning decisions.

  11. Marine vessel air emissions in B.C. and Washington State outside the GVRD and FVRD for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, R.G.; Trask, T.C.; Cheng, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    Emissions inventories are used by government agencies as a tool for policy development and air quality management. Marine vessels have been identified as a major source of anthropogenic pollution in British Columbia. This report presents estimates of emissions from marine vessels in coastal areas in British Columbia outside of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD), and in Washington State for the year 2000. The project includes an update of emission estimates for each marine vessel category and an update of emission estimates for pollutants of interest, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), sulphur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as inhalable fine particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia. This report presented emissions results for both the Canadian and U.S. portions. It also includes both spatial and temporal allocation of emissions. Results indicate that ocean-going vessels are the major contributor to emissions of NOx, SOx, PM and greenhouse gases, accounting for 56, 93, 83, and 51 per cent of the total marine vessel emissions respectively. They also contribute 30 and 33 per cent to the marine totals for CO and VOCs. Harbour vessels contribute 22 and 24 per cent of NOx and greenhouse gases and 17 per cent of both CO and VOCs. Ferries contribute between 15 per cent and 23 per cent for CO, VOC, NOx and GHGs, but less than 9 per cent for SOx and PM. Fishing vessels contribute 1 per cent or less of all contaminants. Although recreational vessels are major contributors for CO and VOC, they contribute less than 2 per cent for all other contaminants. A comparison of 1995 and 2000 marine vessel inventory for British Columbia was presented and recommendations for improvements were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Promoting Employee Health Through an American Cancer Society Program, The CEOs Challenge, Washington State, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Parrish, Amanda T; Kohn, Marlana; Hammerback, Kristen; McMillan, Becca; Hannon, Peggy A

    2015-12-17

    Evidence-based practices in the workplace can increase levels of healthy eating, cancer screening, physical activity, and tobacco cessation but are underused, even in large workplaces. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of The CEOs Challenge, a program developed by the American Cancer Society to promote implementation and maintenance of health-promoting, evidence-based workplace practices by large companies. Use of 17 evidence-based practices by 17 companies in the Washington State Chapter of the American Cancer Society's CEOs Against Cancer network was assessed via survey and scored from 0 to 100. Companies received a written report of their baseline performance, followed by at least quarterly consultations with American Cancer Society staff members trained to assist in implementation of these practices. Follow-up performance was measured at 1 year. At baseline, implementation scores were 54.8 for cancer screening, 46.5 for healthy eating, 59.8 for physical activity, and 68.2 for tobacco cessation. At follow-up, scores increased by 19.6 for cancer screening, 19.4 for healthy eating, 16.0 for physical activity, and 9.4 points for tobacco cessation. The CEOs Challenge is a promising approach to chronic disease prevention via the workplace. It brings together one of the nation's largest health-promoting voluntary agencies with the nation's largest employers to promote evidence-based practices targeted at the most common causes of disease and death. The program increased the adoption of these practices and was well-accepted.

  13. Welcome address to 30th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors, 6 October 2008, Washington, D.C., USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The RERTR meetings, of course, have a special role among our activities. They are important not only for what is presented in the formal technical sessions, but also for what takes place in the informal gatherings, side meetings, and personal encounters. The IAEA also has participated as an observer in the International Fuel Development Working Group, a highly important effort that is overseeing the multinational cooperative research and development effort for very high density LEU fuel. Remarkable achievements of GTRI are the conversion to LEU or final shutdown prior to conversion of 62 research reactors, the return to the United States of more than 1100 kg of spent HEU fuel and more than 1800 kg of spent LEU fuel and the return to Russia of more than 600 kg of spent and fresh HEU fuel. But while much has been achieved so far, vulnerabilities remain. HEU continues to be used for military purposes in a number of States; about 150 civilian and military research reactors are still using HEU and important quantities of fresh; and spent HEU fuel continues to be stored in different countries. All this calls for continued efforts, with a sense of urgency and more coherent global action. Some of the measures that might be taken are as follows: The countries involved should join forces to step up their efforts towards minimizing and eventually eliminating the civilian and in due course the military use of HEU. Financing and other incentives should be made available where needed to assist countries with conversion operations. All countries should agree to stop producing fissile material for use in nuclear weapons. The elements are already in place for such an agreement, in the form of the proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. It is high time to negotiate and conclude such a treaty. To build confidence, countries with civilian and military HEU stockpiles should declare the size of those stockpiles and publish a schedule under which the remaining HEU will be verifiably

  14. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  15. Geographic Labor Mobility as an Element of Adjustment Process in the Eurozone Countries and the USA States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziółkowski Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to compare geographic labor mobility (the migration channel of adjustment in the eurozone and the USA since the 1990s. The first part of the article contains a review of selected literature on migration in Europe and the USA. In the second part three hypotheses are formulated on the basis of this review. The third part of the article presents the methodology and data used to verify these hypotheses. Tat methodology rests on analyzing how net emigration rates in the period 1992-2011 in eurozone countries and various states in the United States (plus the District of Columbia reacted to unemployment rates. The fourth part of the article presents the results of the analysis, together with an explanation of the intensity and dynamics of the migration channel of adjustment in both monetary unions. The analysis confirms that migration has been less supportive for the functioning of the monetary union in the eurozone than in the USA. It also shows that visible strengthening of the migration channel in the eurozone seems to have taken place only after 2004, which suggests an association with the European Union enlargement in 2004. For the eurozone, the analysis does not provide convincing evidence that the migration channel strengthened after the outbreak of the fnancial crisis. For the USA the analysis suggests that the fnancial and economic crisis significantly weakened the migration channel. The article ends with concluding remarks.

  16. Association of Pre-pregnancy BMI and Postpartum Weight Retention Before Second Pregnancy, Washington State, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, Tyler G; Dundas, Nicolas J; Roncaioli, Steven A; Littman, Alyson J; Phipps, Amanda I

    2018-03-06

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity is one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions associated with adverse birth outcomes. Smaller studies have suggested that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with postpartum weight retention. Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI status and maternal weight retention. Study design We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data from 2003-2013. We included women who had two sequential births during this time period, with the second birth occurring within 18-36 months of the first singleton delivery date. BMI before a women's first pregnancy ("pre-pregnancy BMI") was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) and overweight/obese (25-40 kg/m 2 ). Women were classified as having returned to first pre-pregnancy BMI if their BMI before their second pregnancy was no more than 1 kg/m 2 more compared to their BMI before their first pregnancy. Analyses were stratified by gestational weight gain during the first pregnancy (below, met, exceeded recommended gestational weight gain). Results A total of 49,132 mothers were included in the study. Among women who met their recommended gestational weight gain, compared to mothers with a normal BMI, obese/overweight mothers were less likely to return to their pre-pregnancy BMI (76.5 vs 72.3%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85-0.92). A similar pattern was observed among women who exceeded their recommended gestational weight gain (62.6 vs 53.2%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.78-0.80). Conclusion Pre-pregnancy BMI in the overweight/obese range is associated with a decreased likelihood of returning to pre-pregnancy BMI. Further research to support women during and after their pregnancy to promote behavior changes that prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention after birth is needed.

  17. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  18. Washington watch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol on climate change is seen as a 'bad deal' for the Americans - it will significantly increase the cost of energy, have a negative effect on economic potential, make US business less competitive in many parts of the world, and cost America jobs. The agreement would also impinge on the USA's national sovereignty and cost the nation clearly in national defense capability. The senior vice president, policy analysis, for the National Mining Association speaks out against the Kyoto protocol

  19. FIS STUDY FOR Pacific COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — For this revision, STARR conducted over 38 miles of revised Coastal Hazard Analysis that included computing wave runup. STARR utilized 79 transects in this study. No...

  20. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  1. Characteristics of home care workers who leave their jobs: a cross-sectional study of job satisfaction and turnover in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Sahar; Jacoby, Daniel; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining a stable and motivated home care workforce has become a top policy priority. We surveyed 402 former home care workers in Washington State. We compared these "leavers" to current home care workers recently surveyed. Those who left the profession were more highly educated, had higher household income, and were more likely to be White. Those newly employed have better benefits, wages, hours, and career mobility than in their home care jobs. The low status and poor pay of home care workers may result in the inability of the profession to retain those who face better prospects.

  2. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  3. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  4. Regional energy demand and adaptations to climate change: Methodology and application to the state of Maryland, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Matthias [Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20782 (United States)]. E-mail: mruth1@umd.edu; Lin, A.-C. [Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20782 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper explores potential impacts of climate change on natural gas, electricity and heating oil use by the residential and commercial sectors in the state of Maryland, USA. Time series analysis is used to quantify historical temperature-energy demand relationships. A dynamic computer model uses those relationships to simulate future energy demand under a range of energy prices, temperatures and other drivers. The results indicate that climate exerts a comparably small signal on future energy demand, but that the combined climate and non-climate-induced changes in energy demand may pose significant challenges to policy and investment decisions in the state.

  5. Regional energy demand and adaptations to climate change: Methodology and application to the state of Maryland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Lin, A.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores potential impacts of climate change on natural gas, electricity and heating oil use by the residential and commercial sectors in the state of Maryland, USA. Time series analysis is used to quantify historical temperature-energy demand relationships. A dynamic computer model uses those relationships to simulate future energy demand under a range of energy prices, temperatures and other drivers. The results indicate that climate exerts a comparably small signal on future energy demand, but that the combined climate and non-climate-induced changes in energy demand may pose significant challenges to policy and investment decisions in the state

  6. Geomorphic response of the North Fork Stillaguamish River to the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott W.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mastin, Mark C.; Foreman, James R.

    2017-08-03

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington mobilized 8 million cubic meters of unconsolidated Pleistocene material, creating a valley‑spanning deposit that fully impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River. The river overtopped the 8-meter high debris impoundment within 25 hours and began steadily incising a new channel through the center of the deposit. Repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport measurements, bedload transport models, and observations of downstream channel change were used to document the establishment of that new channel through the landslide and assess the potential for downstream aggradation or channel change that might increase downstream flood hazards.Efficient erosion of the landslide deposit, associated with the steep knickzone formed by the downstream edge of the deposit, resulted in the re-establishment of a 20–40 meters wide, deeply inset channel through the entire deposit by May 2014, 2 months after the landslide. The mean water-surface elevation of the channel through the landslide decreased 7 meters during that 2-month period, and was about 1 meter above the pre-landslide profile in July 2014. The 2014–15 flood season, which included flows near the 0.5 annual exceedance probability discharge (2-year flood), widened the channel tens of meters, and further lowered the water-surface profile 0.5 meter. The planform position evolved slowly as a result of 5–20-meter high banks predominantly composed of clay-rich, cohesive lacustrine material. Erosion of the landslide deposit delivered a total of 820 thousand metric tons of sediment to the North Fork Stillaguamish River over the 18 months following the landslide. The sediment delivery from the deposit was predominantly fine grained: 77 percent (by mass) of the eroded material was silt or clay (less than 0.063 millimeter [mm]), 19 percent sand (0.063–2 mm), and 4 percent pebbles and cobbles (greater than 2 mm).Over the 18 months following the

  7. The modern state and problems of training of fitness trainers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko M.N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analytical revue of system of professional fitness trainers' training in the USA is presented in the article. Analysis of 40 literature's sources is performed. The mechanisms of obtaining the profession "fitness trainers" ("personal trainers" in the USA are concretized. Investigated, that certification of competence is a necessary condition for a fitness trainers working, but the higher education (on the level of Bachelor's or Master's curriculum isn't needed. Found, that organizations and education institutes are engaged in the certification of fitness specialists. They quickly react to the emergence of new popular fitness technologies, operatively develop educational programs and offer them to the education market. There is a tendency to the emergence of specialized curriculum of Bachelor and Master in higher education. The benefits of the national American education system of future fitness trainers are singled.

  8. Expanded public notice: Washington State notice of intent for corrective action management unit, Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document is to serve notice of the intent to operate an Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), adjacent to the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington, as a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 264.552. The ERDF CAMU will serve as a management unit for the majority of waste (primarily soil) excavated during remediation of waste management sites on the Hanford Facility. Only waste that originates from the Hanford Facility can be accepted in this ERDF CAMU. The waste is expected to consist of dangerous waste, radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Mixed waste contains radioactive and dangerous components. The primary features of the ERDF could include the following: one or more trenches, rail and tractor/trailer container handling capability, railroads, an inventory control system, a decontamination building, and operational offices

  9. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Marijuana and Other Substances Among Pregnant and Parenting Women With Substance Use Disorders: Changes in Washington State After Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Therese M; Graham, J Christopher; Carlini, Beatriz H; Ernst, Cara C; Brown, Natalie Novick

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization. Most study participants reported complete abstinence from alcohol and nonprescription drugs at program exit. Among those who were still using substances, women who completed the intervention after marijuana legalization were significantly more likely to report marijuana use at program exit compared with women who completed the intervention before marijuana legalization. Across both cohorts (pre- and post-legalization), we found a positive association of exit marijuana use with alcohol, illegal methadone, other opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use; even when we controlled for historical period, the association with some of these substances with marijuana use remained evident. Independent of marijuana use, we saw increased use during the post-legalization period of alcohol, illicit methadone, and other opioids. Marijuana use at exit from the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) increased significantly after marijuana legalization in the state. Women who were not abstinent from marijuana at program exit were likely to report use of other substances as well. Our study design demonstrates an association but does not allow us to conclude that marijuana use leads to other substance use among this sample of women with a history of polysubstance use.

  11. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State... Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... Anthropology, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7544, telephone (509) 963-2671 or Dr. Peter...

  12. 76 FR 377 - Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... State of Washington by Auditor's File Nos. G 450664 and G 147358. Parcel II That portion of the... thereof acquired by the State of Washington by deed recorded under Auditor's File Nos. G 140380 and D... recorded under Auditor's File No. F 38759, records of Clark County, Washington, described as follows...

  13. Poola ootab USA maaväelasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Poola kaitseministri Tomasz Siemoniaki sõnul saadab USA Poolasse maavägesid, et laeindada NATO kohalolekut ajal, mil pingeline olukord Ukrainas kestab, kirjutas Washington Post. Siemoniak ütles lehele, et sõjalised planeerijad juba töötavad vastava kava üksikasjade kallal. Ta lisas, et tõenäoliselt saadetakse USA sõdureid ka Baltimaadesse

  14. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  15. State Firearm Laws and Interstate Transfer of Guns in the USA, 2006-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tessa; Greenberg, Rachael; Siegel, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Cronin, Shea W; Hemenway, David

    2018-06-01

    In a cross-sectional, panel study, we examined the relationship between state firearm laws and the extent of interstate transfer of guns, as measured by the percentage of crime guns recovered in a state and traced to an in-state source (as opposed to guns recovered in a state and traced to an out-of-state source). We used 2006-2016 data on state firearm laws obtained from a search of selected state statutes and 2006-2016 crime gun trace data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. We examined the relationship between state firearm laws and interstate transfer of guns using annual data from all 50 states during the period 2006-2016 and employing a two-way fixed effects model. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of crime guns recovered in a state that could be traced to an original point of purchase within that state as opposed to another state. The main exposure variables were eight specific state firearm laws pertaining to dealer licensing, sales restrictions, background checks, registration, prohibitors for firearm purchase, and straw purchase of guns. Four laws were independently associated with a significantly lower percentage of in-state guns: a waiting period for handgun purchase, permits required for firearm purchase, prohibition of firearm possession by people convicted of a violent misdemeanor, and a requirement for relinquishment of firearms when a person becomes disqualified from owning them. States with a higher number of gun laws had a lower percentage of traced guns to in-state dealers, with each increase of one in the total number of laws associated with a decrease of 1.6 percentage points in the proportion of recovered guns that were traced to an in-state as opposed to an out-of-state source. Based on an examination of the movement patterns of guns across states, the overall observed pattern of gun flow was out of states with weak gun laws and into states with strong gun laws. These findings indicate that certain

  16. Producing a satellite-derived map and modelling Spartina alterniflora expansion for Willapa Bay in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Cynthia Jane

    1998-12-01

    This research addresses the identification of the areal extent of the intertidal wetlands of Willapa Bay, Washington, and the evaluation of the potential for exotic Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) expansion in the bay using a spatial geographic approach. It is hoped that the results will address not only the management needs of the study area but provide a research design that may be applied to studies of other coastal wetlands. Four satellite images, three Landsat Multi-Spectral (MSS) and one Thematic Mapper (TM), are used to derive a map showing areas of water, low, middle and high intertidal, and upland. Two multi-date remote sensing mapping techniques are assessed: a supervised classification using density-slicing and an unsupervised classification using an ISODATA algorithm. Statistical comparisons are made between the resultant derived maps and the U.S.G.S. topographic maps for the Willapa Bay area. The potential for Spartina expansion in the bay is assessed using a sigmoidal (logistic) growth model and a spatial modelling procedure for four possible growth scenarios: without management controls (Business-as-Usual), with moderate management controls (e.g. harvesting to eliminate seed setting), under a hypothetical increase in the growth rate that may reflect favorable environmental changes, and under a hypothetical decrease in the growth rate that may reflect aggressive management controls. Comparisons for the statistics of the two mapping techniques suggest that although the unsupervised classification method performed satisfactorily, the supervised classification (density-slicing) method provided more satisfactory results. Results from the modelling of potential Spartina expansion suggest that Spartina expansion will proceed rapidly for the Business-as-Usual and hypothetical increase in the growth rate scenario, and at a slower rate for the elimination of seed setting and hypothetical decrease in the growth rate scenarios, until all potential

  17. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity.The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts.This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  18. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A; Tezak, Eugene P

    2013-01-01

    Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  19. Farm-to-School Programmes in the USA: An Examination of State-Level Enacted, Pending and Vetoed or Dead Bills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Ghelardini, Lauren; Keene, Kristin L.; Stewart, Kendra B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of state-level legislation regulating farm-to-school programmes throughout the United States of America (USA). The research is timely given national goals put forth by the Let's Move Campaign and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act to reduce childhood obesity prevalence and…

  20. 77 FR 42653 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Gulf Coast Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; Restricted Area... restricted area established around the AUSTAL, USA shipbuilding facility located in Mobile, Alabama. The...) assumed the duties of administering new construction contracts at AUSTAL USA in Mobile, AL, on October 9...

  1. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: −1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  2. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  4. Federal/State cooperation in the licensing of a nuclear power project. A joint licensing process between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents a joint environmental review and licensing process established between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) in 1980-1983 for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project (S/HNP). It documents the agreements made between the agencies to prepare a joint environmental impact statement responsive to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act. These agreements also established protocol to conduct joint public evidentiary hearings on matters of mutual jurisdiction, thereby reducing the duplication of effort and increasing the efficiency of the use of resources of federal and state governments and other entities involved in the process. This report may provide guidance and rationale to licensing bodies that may wish to adopt some of the procedures discussed in the report in the event that they become involved in the licensing of a nuclear power plant project. The history of the S/HNP and of the agreement processes are discussed. Discussions are provided on implementing the joint review process. A separate section is included which presents independent evaluations of the process by the applicant, NRC, and EFSEC

  5. A GIS Based Approach for Assessing the Association between Air Pollution and Asthma in New York State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit K.; Tuluri, Francis; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on asthma have shown that air pollution can lead to increased asthma prevalence. The aim of this study is to examine the association between air pollution (fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3)) and human health (asthma emergency department visit rate (AEVR) and asthma discharge rate (ADR)) among residents of New York, USA during the period 2005 to 2007. Annual rates of asthma were calculated from population estimates for 2005, 2006, and 2007 and number of asthma hospital discharge and emergency department visits. Population data for New York were taken from US Bureau of Census, and asthma data were obtained from New York State Department of Health, National Asthma Survey surveillance report. Data on the concentrations of PM2.5, SO2 and ground level ozone were obtained from various air quality monitoring stations distributed in different counties. Annual means of these concentrations were compared to annual variations in asthma prevalence by using Pearson correlation coefficient. We found different associations between the annual mean concentration of PM2.5, SO2 and surface ozone and the annual rates of asthma discharge and asthma emergency visit from 2005 to 2007. A positive correlation coefficient was observed between the annual mean concentration of PM2.5, and SO2 and the annual rates of asthma discharge and asthma emergency department visit from 2005 to 2007. However, the correlation coefficient between annual mean concentrations of ground ozone and the annual rates of asthma discharge and asthma emergency visit was found to be negative from 2005 to 2007. Our study suggests that the association between elevated concentrations of PM2.5 and SO2 and asthma prevalence among residents of New York State in USA is consistent enough to assume concretely a plausible and significant association. PMID:24806193

  6. The state in industrial relations: The politics of minimum wage in Turkey and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koçer, R.G.; Visser, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the direct role of the state in industrial relations is scrutinized by focusing on the political basis of decisions regarding the minimum wage. We argue that in order to ensure stability and growth, any state must balance the interests of capital and labour when taking this kind of

  7. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  8. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  9. Geographic variation in opinions on climate change at state and local scales in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Peter D.; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Addressing climate change in the United States requires enactment of national, state and local mitigation and adaptation policies. The success of these initiatives depends on public opinion, policy support and behaviours at appropriate scales. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys that obscure geographic variability across regions, states and localities. Here we present independently validated high-resolution opinion estimates using a multilevel regression and poststratification model. The model accurately predicts climate change beliefs, risk perceptions and policy preferences at the state, congressional district, metropolitan and county levels, using a concise set of demographic and geographic predictors. The analysis finds substantial variation in public opinion across the nation. Nationally, 63% of Americans believe global warming is happening, but county-level estimates range from 43 to 80%, leading to a diversity of political environments for climate policy. These estimates provide an important new source of information for policymakers, educators and scientists to more effectively address the challenges of climate change.

  10. Genetic variation in populations of Culicoides variipennis complex in the six New England states, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J; Brady, R

    1996-04-01

    We investigated the identity and distribution of members of the Culicoides variipennis complex in the six New England states of the U.S.A., a region where bluetongue transmission has not been detected. Analyses of seven polymorphic isozyme-encoding loci showed that only C.v.variipennis, not considered to be a vector of the bluetongue viruses, was present. The populations of C.v.variipennis were significantly more hetero-zygous than C.v.sonorensis and C.v.occidentalis populations from similar studies in the state of California. Estimates of genetic diversity among populations of C.v.variipennis in New England were similar to C.v.sonorensis in the state of Colorado, but were significantly more genetically divergent than California populations of C.v.occidentalis. The impact of these findings on the status of New England as a possible bluetongue-free region for the purpose of international trade in ruminant livestock and their germplasm is discussed.

  11. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  12. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of... Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of a... have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding...

  13. Congress in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Over 1200 accelerator physicists and engineers gathered in Washington mid-May for the 15th in the series of biennial Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) - the major US forum for accelerator physics and technology. For the first time since their inception, actual attendance declined, however the number of contributed papers stayed around 1500. CERN Director General designate Chris Llewellyn Smith spelled out the challenges with an opening talk underlining the deficiencies in today's Standard Model. From many directions comes the message that collision in the 1 TeV range must tell us something new - wherefore art thou SSC and LHC? The secondary shock waves of last year's (fortunately overturned) bid to cancel the SSC Superconducting Supercollider project still ripple around the USA, while progress towards authorization of CERN's LHC Large Hadron Collider has been slower than initially hoped. The new US administration has indicated a constant rate of SSC funding over the next four years; the figure is higher than the present budget but considerably below the originally proposed budget profile, implying that completion will be retarded by some three years beyond the end of the decade. The SSC Laboratory will clearly have problems to fight increased overall cost and sustain enthusiasm. CERN hopes for LHC blessing in time to allow machine completion by the year 2000. Pride of place at Washington went to DESY's HERA electron-proton collider - the major new facility since the previous PAC. Commissioning has been impressive and physics is well underway, with luminosity climbing towards the design figure. The varied user community of the ubiquitous synchrotron radiation facilities is now considerably larger than that of particle physics and has extensive industrial involvement. Three such machines have come into operation since the previous PAC - the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Grenoble, the 1.5 GeV Advanced Light Source

  14. Predators collected from balsam woolly adelgid and Cooley spruce gall adelgid in western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., with reference to biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Glenn R. Kohler; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2017-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive study to survey predators associated with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, 1928 in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), U.S.A. (Kohler et al. 2008), predators of balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg, 1844) and Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Adelges cooleyi (Gillette...

  15. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  19. Tradeoffs between Three Forest Ecosystem Services across the State of New Hampshire, USA: Timber, Carbon, and Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D. A.; Burakowski, E. A.; Murphy, M. B.; Borsuk, M. E.; Niemiec, R. M.; Howarth, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Albedo is an important physical property of the land surface which influences the total amount of incoming solar radiation that is reflected back into space. It is a critical ecosystem service that helps regulate the Earth's energy balance and, in the context of climate mitigation, has been shown to have a strong influence on the overall effectiveness of land management schemes designed to counteract climate change. Previously, we demonstrated that incorporating the physical effects of albedo into an ecological economic forest model of locations in the White Mountain National Forest, in New Hampshire, USA, leads to a substantially shorter optimal rotation period for forest harvest than under a carbon- and timber-only approach. In this study, we investigate similar tradeoffs at 565 sites across the entire state of New Hampshire in a variety of different forest types, latitudes, and elevations. Additionally, we use a regression tree approach to calculate the influence of biogeochemical and physical factors on the optimal rotation period. Our results suggest that in many instances, incorporating albedo may lead to optimal rotation times approaching zero, or, perpetual clear-cut. Overall, the difference between growing season and winter-time albedo for forested and harvested states was the most significant variable influencing the rotation period, followed by timber stumpage price, and biomass growth rate. These results provide an initial understanding of tradeoffs amongst these three ecosystem services and provide guidance for forest managers as to the relative important properties of their forests when these three services are incentivized economically.

  20. Automobile-dependency as a barrier to vision zero, evidence from the states in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Hamed; Atkinson-Palombo, Carol; Garrick, Norman W

    2017-10-01

    With a traffic fatality rate of 10.6 per 100,000 as of 2013-more than triple that in the UK, the Netherlands, and Sweden-the United States has the worst traffic safety performance of all developed countries. Statewide variations are even more pronounced. North Dakota registers more than twice the national average and five times the rate of Massachusetts. We used panel models and annual data from 1997 to 2013 to capture the effect of seven separate sets of factors that influence traffic safety: exposure, travel behavior, socioeconomics, macroeconomics, safety policies, and mitigating factors such as health care. The results of our panel models and supplementary analysis of state effects show that two variables - Vehicle Miles Traveled and Vehicles per Capita-have the strongest impact on traffic fatality rates. This is closely followed by Infant Mortality Rates, the proxy that we used to represent the quality of health care. Policy levers such as Graduated Driver's Licenses (GDL) have improved safety, but to a limited extent. We also found that states with higher urban density and more walking are associated with lower traffic fatality rates. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that if additional progress is to be made in reducing traffic fatalities, emphasis needs to move beyond simply focusing on policies such as GDL and seat belt laws, which have already been adopted by almost all jurisdictions across the United States. We need to also consider factors that focus on the type of urban form that we are creating to ensure that we are fostering environments that encourage multi-modal transportation such as walking to reduce the VMT and Vehicles per Capita, the two strongest predictors of traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ohio USA stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera): species richness estimation, distribution of functional niche traits, drainage affiliations, and relationships to other states

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R. Edward; Cao, Yong; Tweddale, Tari; Grubbs, Scott A.; Hinz, Leon; Pessino, Massimo; Robinson, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine–fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6) were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainages having richer assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well–studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp.) and Kentucky (108 spp.), two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection. PMID:22539876

  2. Ohio USA stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera: species richness estimation, distribution of functional niche traits, drainage affiliations, and relationships to other states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. DeWalt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine–fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6 were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainagesricher assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well–studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp. and Kentucky (108 spp., two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection.

  3. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent variables. Econometrica 68 (4), 839–874] conditional maximum likelihood estimator to allow for the presence of individual-specific effects. A limited information test is suggested to test for selection issues in non-experimental data. The specification tests indicate that the (conditional on the set of the confounding variables considered) assumptions of no selection due to unobservables and/or no unobserved individual-specific effects are not violated. Our findings indicate that the first job search service does have positive and significant impacts on the employment rate. However, providing repeated JSS to the same client has no significant impact. Further, we find that there are significant experience-enhancing effects. These findings suggest that providing one job search services training to individuals may have a lasting impact on raising their employment rates. PMID:26052178

  5. Aaviksoo goes to Washington

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Oma USA visiidi ajal kohtus kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo USA relvajõudude küberväejuhatuse ülema kindral Keith Alexander'iga ja sai ülevaate USA küberkaitsekorraldusest. Ministri ja USA Esindajatekoja järgmise koosseisu relvajõudude komitee esimehe Howard McKeon'i kohtumisel räägiti Euroopa ja Eesti praegusest julgeolekunägemusest. Kaitseministri plaanis oli ka kohtumine USA kaitseministri Robert Gates'iga

  6. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  7. United States of America. Status of commercial LILW site closure in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States has adopted the requirements of 10 CFR Part 61 for the licensing standards of all new commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facilities. In general, low level waste as addressed in 10 CFR Part 61 is that waste that is not classified as high level waste, transuranic waste, or naturally occurring or accelerator produced radioactive materials. The requirements of this regulation dictate that certain standards be met by any new licensed facility. Obviously, arid locations offer certain advantages over humid locations with regards to controlling moisture infiltration and movement, the primary mechanism for radionuclide transport. Whereas relatively simple thick vegetated caps designed for enhancing evapotranspiration may be suitable for arid locations, more humid facilities may require more elaborate means to provide for the same degree of long term isolation of wastes from the biosphere. In general, the closure systems at low level disposal facilities built in humid areas of the United States tend to have more engineering features than those in more arid locations

  8. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  9. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  10. Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. from crows and their environment in metropolitan Washington State, USA: Is there a correlation between VRE positive crows and the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marilyn C; No, David B; Marzluff, John M; Delap, Jack H; Turner, Robert

    2016-10-15

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE] have been isolated from municipal, hospital and agricultural wastewater, recreational beaches, wild animals, birds and food animals around the world. In this study, American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) from sewage treatment plants (WWTP), dairy farms, and a large roost in a restored wetland with corresponding environmental samples were cultured for VRE. A total of 245 samples [156 crows, 89 environmental] were collected and screened for acquired vanA, vanB and/or intrinsic vanC1 genes. Samples were enriched overnight in BHI supplemented with 20μg/mL aztreonam, 4μg/mL vancomycin and plated on m-Enterococcus agar media supplemented with 6μg/mL vancomycin. Selected colonies were grown on BHI media supplemented with 18μg/mL vancomycin. Of these, 24.5% of the crow and 55% the environmental/cow samples were VRE positive as defined by Enterococcus spp. able to grow on media supplemented with 18μg/mL vancomycin. A total of 122 VRE isolates, 43 crow and 79 environmental isolates were screened, identified to species level using 16S sequencing and further characterized. Four vanA E. faecium and multiple vanC1 E. gallinarum were identified from crows isolated from three sites. E. faecium vanA and E. gallinarum vanC1 along with other Enterococcus spp. carrying vanA, vanB, vanC1 were isolated from three environments. All enterococci were multidrug resistant. Crows were more likely to carry vanA E. faecium than either the cow feces or wetland waters/soils. Comparing E. gallinarum vanC1 from crows and their environment would be useful in determining whether crows share VRE strains with their environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  12. Management of wastestreams in United States; Jaetevirtojen hallinta USA:ssa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaevaara, M. [VTT Biotekniikka, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    International markets are advancing waste management practices more than the legislation. The instructions and guidelines issued by the US EPA are not being implemented in practice. Restrictions designed to minimise the impacts of industrial activities are also scarce. Recycling and reuse of materials vary locally, and have recently increased considerably in some states. The goal of the US EPA is to keep the amount of waste generated per capita at the same level, in spite of increasing amounts of waste. Recycling goals have been set at levels that prevent the amounts of waste from increasing. Former US President Clinton signed the Kioto Agreement concerning global restrictions on impacts to the environment. However, the agreement has never been ratified by the Congress, and has therefore not even been started. European legislation and restrictions that effect international trade and exports are carefully followed, and changes in waste management practices in the US will probably be driven more by the international markets than by local legislation. Many companies in the US still consider environmental aspects to be a luxury which they cannot afford. In Europe, and especially in Scandinavia, environmentally friendly industrial products are considered to be marketing tools because of the high environmental awareness in these countries; in contrast, no such benefits are seen in the United States. In addition to national and international legislation, the cultural habits of the population strongly affect reuse, recycling and treatment efficiency. These cultural and national aspects should be taken into account when developing collection technologies and other waste management technologies for the US markets. (orig.)

  13. Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWaters, Jan E.; Powers, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Energy literacy, which encompasses broad content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral characteristics, will empower people to make appropriate energy-related choices and embrace changes in the way we harness and consume energy. Energy literacy was measured with a written questionnaire completed by 3708 secondary students in New York State, USA. Results indicate that students are concerned about energy problems (affective subscale mean 73% of the maximum attainable score), yet relatively low cognitive (42% correct) and behavioral (65% of the maximum) scores suggest that students may lack the knowledge and skills they need to effectively contribute toward solutions. High school (HS) students scored significantly better than middle school (MS) students on the cognitive subscale; gains were greatest on topics included in NY State educational standards, and less on topics related to 'practical' energy knowledge such as ways to save energy. Despite knowledge gains, there was a significant drop in energy conservation behavior between the MS and HS students. Intercorrelations between groups of questions indicate energy-related behaviors are more strongly related to affect than to knowledge. These findings underscore the need for education that improves energy literacy by impacting student attitudes, values and behaviors, as well as broad content knowledge. - Research highlights: → Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State, US, was measured with a written survey. → Students scored 42%, 65%, and 73% (out of 100%) on cognitive, affective, and behavioral subscales. → HS students scored higher on cognitive, but lower on behavioral questions than MS students. → Results suggest energy-related behaviors more closely related to affective factors than to knowledge. → Study underscores importance of influencing attitudes/values to realize energy-related behavioral change.

  14. Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWaters, Jan E., E-mail: dewaters@clarkson.ed [Clarkson University, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States); Powers, Susan E. [Clarkson University, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy literacy, which encompasses broad content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral characteristics, will empower people to make appropriate energy-related choices and embrace changes in the way we harness and consume energy. Energy literacy was measured with a written questionnaire completed by 3708 secondary students in New York State, USA. Results indicate that students are concerned about energy problems (affective subscale mean 73% of the maximum attainable score), yet relatively low cognitive (42% correct) and behavioral (65% of the maximum) scores suggest that students may lack the knowledge and skills they need to effectively contribute toward solutions. High school (HS) students scored significantly better than middle school (MS) students on the cognitive subscale; gains were greatest on topics included in NY State educational standards, and less on topics related to 'practical' energy knowledge such as ways to save energy. Despite knowledge gains, there was a significant drop in energy conservation behavior between the MS and HS students. Intercorrelations between groups of questions indicate energy-related behaviors are more strongly related to affect than to knowledge. These findings underscore the need for education that improves energy literacy by impacting student attitudes, values and behaviors, as well as broad content knowledge. - Research highlights: {yields} Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State, US, was measured with a written survey. {yields} Students scored 42%, 65%, and 73% (out of 100%) on cognitive, affective, and behavioral subscales. {yields} HS students scored higher on cognitive, but lower on behavioral questions than MS students. {yields} Results suggest energy-related behaviors more closely related to affective factors than to knowledge. {yields} Study underscores importance of influencing attitudes/values to realize energy-related behavioral change.

  15. Physical Activity Practices, Policies and Environments in Washington State Child Care Settings: Results of a Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Walters, Kelly M; Igoe, Bridget M; Payne, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Donna B

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Child care is an important setting for the promotion of physical activity (PA) in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between specific PA environments and recommended practices in child care settings as well as the degree to which child care settings met recommended standards for total PA time. Methods In 2013, all programs licensed to care for children ages 2-5 in WA state were surveyed about their PA related practices. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time and PA. Results The response rate was 45.8 % from centers (692/1511) and 32.1 % from homes (1281/3991). Few programs reported meeting best-practice standards for the amount of time children spend being physically active (centers: 12.1 %, homes: 20.1 %) and outdoor time (centers: 21.8 %, homes: 21.7 %). Programs where children go outside regardless of weather and those reporting more adult-led PA had higher odds of meeting best-practice standards for both PA and outdoor time. Meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time was the strongest predictor of meeting best-practice standards for total PA time [centers: OR 15.9 (9.3-27.2), homes: OR 5.2 (3.8-7.1)]. Conclusions for Practice There is considerable room for improvement in licensed child care settings in WA to meet best-practice standards for young children's outdoor and PA time. Initiatives that create policies and environments encouraging outdoor play and adult-led PA in child care have the potential to increase physical activity in substantial numbers of young children.

  16. Auditing Access to Outpatient Rehabilitation Services for Children With Traumatic Brain Injury and Public Insurance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Molly M; Thompson, Leah; Quistberg, D Alex; Haaland, Wren L; Rhodes, Karin; Kartin, Deborah; Kerfeld, Cheryl; Apkon, Susan; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-09-01

    To identify insurance-based disparities in access to outpatient pediatric neurorehabilitation services. Audit study with paired calls, where callers posed as a mother seeking services for a simulated child with history of severe traumatic brain injury and public or private insurance. Outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Sample of rehabilitation clinics (N=287): 195 physical therapy (PT) clinics, 109 occupational therapy (OT) clinics, 102 speech therapy (ST) clinics, and 11 rehabilitation medicine clinics. Not applicable. Acceptance of public insurance and the number of business days until the next available appointment. Therapy clinics were more likely to accept private insurance than public insurance (relative risk [RR] for PT clinics, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; RR for OT clinics, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.57; and RR for ST clinics, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.62), with no significant difference for rehabilitation medicine clinics (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.34). The difference in median wait time between clinics that accepted public insurance and those accepting only private insurance was 4 business days for PT clinics and 15 days for ST clinics (P≤.001), but the median wait time was not significantly different for OT clinics or rehabilitation medicine clinics. When adjusting for urban and multidisciplinary clinic statuses, the wait time at clinics accepting public insurance was 59% longer for PT (95% CI, 39%-81%), 18% longer for OT (95% CI, 7%-30%), and 107% longer for ST (95% CI, 87%-130%) than that at clinics accepting only private insurance. Distance to clinics varied by discipline and area within the state. Therapy clinics were less likely to accept public insurance than private insurance. Therapy clinics accepting public insurance had longer wait times than did clinics that accepted only private insurance. Rehabilitation professionals should attempt to implement policy and practice changes to promote equitable access to care. Copyright © 2017

  17. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  18. POINT CLOUD MAPPING METHODS FOR DOCUMENTING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES AT THE WORMSLOE STATE HISTORIC SITE, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Jordana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentation of the three-dimensional (3D cultural landscape has traditionally been conducted during site visits using conventional photographs, standard ground surveys and manual measurements. In recent years, there have been rapid developments in technologies that produce highly accurate 3D point clouds, including aerial LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetric data reduction from unmanned aerial systems (UAS images and hand held photographs using Structure from Motion (SfM methods. These 3D point clouds can be precisely scaled and used to conduct measurements of features even after the site visit has ended. As a consequence, it is becoming increasingly possible to collect non-destructive data for a wide variety of cultural site features, including landscapes, buildings, vegetation, artefacts and gardens. As part of a project for the U.S. National Park Service, a variety of data sets have been collected for the Wormsloe State Historic Site, near Savannah, Georgia, USA. In an effort to demonstrate the utility and versatility of these methods at a range of scales, comparisons of the features mapped with different techniques will be discussed with regards to accuracy, data set completeness, cost and ease-of-use.

  19. Trade-offs between three forest ecosystem services across the state of New Hampshire, USA: timber, carbon, and albedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, David A; Burakowski, Elizabeth A; Murphy, Mackenzie B; Borsuk, Mark E; Niemiec, Rebecca M; Howarth, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Forests are more frequently being managed to store and sequester carbon for the purposes of climate change mitigation. Generally, this practice involves long-term conservation of intact mature forests and/or reductions in the frequency and intensity of timber harvests. However, incorporating the influence of forest surface albedo often suggests that long rotation lengths may not always be optimal in mitigating climate change in forests characterized by frequent snowfall. To address this, we investigated trade-offs between three ecosystem services: carbon storage, albedo-related radiative forcing, and timber provisioning. We calculated optimal rotation length at 498 diverse Forest Inventory and Analysis forest sites in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We found that the mean optimal rotation lengths across all sites was 94 yr (standard deviation of sample means = 44 yr), with a large cluster of short optimal rotation lengths that were calculated at high elevations in the White Mountain National Forest. Using a regression tree approach, we found that timber growth, annual storage of carbon, and the difference between annual albedo in mature forest vs. a post-harvest landscape were the most important variables that influenced optimal rotation. Additionally, we found that the choice of a baseline albedo value for each site significantly altered the optimal rotation lengths across all sites, lowering the mean rotation to 59 yr with a high albedo baseline, and increasing the mean rotation to 112 yr given a low albedo baseline. Given these results, we suggest that utilizing temperate forests in New Hampshire for climate mitigation purposes through carbon storage and the cessation of harvest is appropriate at a site-dependent level that varies significantly across the state.

  20. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  1. A model for incorporating patient and stakeholder voices in a learning health care network: Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Edwards, Todd C; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Kessler, Larry; Lavallee, Danielle C; Patrick, Donald L; Sullivan, Sean D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Yanez, N David; Flum, David R

    2013-08-01

    To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive with noninvasive treatments for peripheral artery disease, and to focus on the patient centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual framework for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). The peripheral artery disease study was selected because of clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient centeredness is achieved through the "Patient Voices Project," a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the study. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms, the latter developed with input from the patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3-6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, thereby returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. The CERTAIN's inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a learning health care network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction between aggrading geomorphic surfaces and the formation of a late pleistocene paleosol in the palouse loess of eastern Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eric V.; Busacca, Alan J.

    1990-09-01

    Variable rates of loess deposition contributed to dramatic regional variation in a soil-stratigraphic unit, the Washtucna Soil, in the Palouse loess deposits in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington state. Throughout most of the Channeled Scabland, the morphology of the Washtucna Soil is that of a single buried soil, but it bifurcates into two well-developed and pedologically distinct buried soils in areas immediately downwind of the major source of loessial sediment. Regional loess stratigraphy confirms that the two well-developed soils formed during the same interval of time during which only one soil formed in areas that are distal to loess source areas. The variable and perhaps rapid rates of soil formation suggested by the stratigraphy resulted from an interaction between variable rates of loess deposition and the formation of superimposed calcic soils. Petrocalcic horizons with weak Stage IV morphology formed as the zone of carbonate accumulation moved up into former A and cambic horizons that had been profusely burrowed by cicadas. The development of cicada burrows in one phase of soil development that were subsequently engulfed by pedogenic carbonate under a rising land surface seems to have greatly accelerated the development of the petrocalcic horizons. Accelerated rates of formation of the petrocalcic horizons occurred when extrinsic (pulses of loess deposition) and intrinsic (engulfment of burrowed horizons) thresholds were exceeded. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the soil formation that accompanied the rise in the land surface due to additional loess deposition may have occurred during the late Wisconsin glaciation when giant glacial outburst floods in the channeled Scabland triggered a new cycle of loess deposition.

  3. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  4. The persistent gap in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State: BRFSS, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z Joyce; Anderson, Naomi J; Foley, Michael; Rauser, Eddy; Silverstein, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    We examined the disparities in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State (WA) to provide support for possible policy decisions for uninsured workers. We examined data from the WA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2007 and compared workers aged 18-64 years of low income (annual household income income (annual household income ≥$35,000) on proportions and sources of health-care coverage. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses on factors that were associated with the uninsured. Of the 54,536 survey respondents who were working-age adults in WA, 13,922 (25.5%) were low-income workers. The proportions of uninsured were 38.2% for low-income workers and 6.3% for high-income workers. While employment-based health benefits remained a dominant source of health insurance coverage, they covered only 40.2% of low-income workers relative to 81.5% of high-income workers. Besides income, workers were more likely to be uninsured if they were younger; male; Hispanic; less educated; not married; current smokers; self-employed; or employed in agriculture/forestry/fisheries, construction, and retail. More low-income workers (28.7%) reported cost as an issue in paying for health services than did their high-income counterparts (6.7%). A persistent gap in health-care coverage exists between low- and high-income workers. The identified characteristics of these workers can be used to implement policies to expand health insurance coverage.

  5. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  6. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  7. Providing Retraining and Advancement Training for Primary/Elementary School Teachers at the State Level in Great Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chychuk Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain and the USA the normative basis of primary/elementary school teachers’ qualification advancement is being actively developed, i. e. this issue is considered at the state level. For a long time the development of retraining and advancement training system for primary/elementary school teachers has been grounded on conceptual foundations of pedagogy that ensures the functionality of the mentioned system. The research results on conceptual foundations for forming an education sy...

  8. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head

    1983-01-01

    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...

  9. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  10. Facilities for Study and Research in the Offices of the United States Government at Washington. Bulletin, 1909, No. 1. Whole Number 398

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Arthur Twining

    1909-01-01

    This bulletin contains a report prepared by President Hadley of Yale University on the facilities for advanced study and research in the offices of the National Government at Washington. Especial interest attaches to this publication. It sets forth, in compact form, information which has frequently been sought by institutions and individuals…

  11. Hello Mr. President! Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hello Mr. President Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington Am 8. November 2016 entscheidet sich, wer zum 58. Präsidenten der USA gewählt wird: Die ehemalige Außenministerin Hillary Clinton oder der republikanische Kandidat Donald Trump. In der heißen Phase des Wahlkampfs fällt besonders

  12. Oletus : USA luurevanglad on Poolas ja Rumeenias / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    USA ajalehe Washington Post andmeil hoiab USA terrorismis kahtlustavaid Ida-Euroopa riikides. Poola ajalehe allikate väitel on üks neist riikidest Poola. Poola, Rumeenia, Bulgaaria tõrjuvad kahtlustusi, Tšehhi väitel on ameeriklaste palvele vange majutada ära öeldud

  13. Visualising variation in mortality rates across the life course and by sex, USA and comparator states, 1933-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Dorling, Danny; Minton, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Previous research showed that younger adult males in the USA have, since the 1950s, died at a faster rate than females of the same age. In this paper, we quantify this difference, and explore possible explanations for the differences at different ages and in different years. Using data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD), the number of additional male deaths per 10 000 female deaths was calculated for each year from 1933 to 2010, and for each year of age from 0 to 60 years, for the USA, and a number of other countries for comparison. The data were explored visually using shaded contour plots. Gender differences in excess mortality have increased. Coming of age (between the ages of 15 and 25 years of age) is especially perilous for men relative to women now compared with the past in the USA; the visualisations highlight this change as important. Sex differences in mortality risks at various ages are not static. While women may today have an advantage when it comes to life expectancy, in the USA, this has greatly increased since the 1930s. Just as young adulthood for women has been made safer through safer antenatal and childbirth practices, changes in public policy can make the social environment safer for men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Using solar energy to arrest the increasing rate of fossil-fuel consumption: The southwestern states of the USA as case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, D.; Raviv, D.; Rosenstreich, R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper first reviews some recently introduced ideas concerning the feasibility of realizing concentrator photovoltaic systems on a very large (state-wide) scale. In particular, energy and cost assumptions are re-discussed, the concepts of double and triple sustainability are recalled and used to perform a sensitivity study of the various assumed parameter values. The model is then applied to each of the southwestern states of the USA in order to assess the economic potential for each state to freeze its fossil fuel consumption at present levels and to provide all future electricity needs entirely from solar. It is found that the scheme is economically feasible for all of the states considered, varying in attractiveness from Utah (where low electricity tariffs are problematic), to California and Nevada, where the economics are by far the most attractive among all the states

  15. A two-states Markov-switching model of inflation in France and the USA: credible target VS inflation spiral

    OpenAIRE

    B. HEITZ

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to apply the general framework of Markov-switching models to inflation in France and in the USA. We propose a model where inflation can, alternatively, follow two regimes: the first one, where inflation is stationary, is interpreted as a situation where there exists a credible inflation target, even if it is not explicit; the second one where inflation is integrated. Moreover, observing that the two oil shocks were followed by accelerating inflation periods, we allow dependen...

  16. Plasma Science and Innovation Center at Washington, Wisconsin, and Utah State: Final Scientific Report for the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison component of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) contributed to modeling capabilities and algorithmic efficiency of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation (NIMROD) Code, which is widely used to model macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma. It also contributed to the understanding of direct-current (DC) injection of electrical current for initiating and sustaining plasma in three spherical torus experiments: the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II), the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The effort was funded through the PSI Center's cooperative agreement with the University of Washington and Utah State University over the period of March 1, 2005 - August 31, 2016. In addition to the computational and physics accomplishments, the Wisconsin effort contributed to the professional education of four graduate students and two postdoctoral research associates. The modeling for HIT-II and Pegasus was directly supported by the cooperative agreement, and contributions to the NSTX modeling were in support of work by Dr. Bickford Hooper, who was funded through a separate grant. Our primary contribution to model development is the implementation of detailed closure relations for collisional plasma. Postdoctoral associate Adam Bayliss implemented the temperature-dependent effects of Braginskii's parallel collisional ion viscosity. As a graduate student, John O'Bryan added runtime options for Braginskii's models and Ji's K2 models of thermal conduction with magnetization effects and thermal equilibration. As a postdoctoral associate, O'Bryan added the magnetization effects for ion viscosity. Another area of model development completed through the PSI-Center is the implementation of Chodura's phenomenological resistivity model. Finally, we investigated and tested linear electron parallel viscosity, leveraged by support from

  17. 77 FR 37317 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ..., 2012. The deviation allows the floating draw span of the SR 520 Lake Washington Bridge to remain in the... schedule that governs the State Route 520 (SR 520) Bridge across Lake Washington at Seattle, WA. This... allows the bridge to remain in the closed position to allow safe movement of event participants. DATES...

  18. 75 FR 71139 - Land Acquisitions; Puyallup Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Auditor, in Pierce County, Washington. Except that portion of Lot 3 conveyed to the State of Washington by Deeds recorded under Auditor's file number 689865 and 689858. Together with the East half of the... amendment of Short Plat Nos. 8502210395 and 8403080186, filed with the Pierce County Auditor, in Pierce...

  19. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    on the rail system, and recommended improvements to improve the safety of the Metrorail system. These three influences show a holistic view of the...due to special events in the area to include Washington Redskins football , Washington National baseball, and other events held in the Washington, D.C...Station in Washington, DC. The accident resulted in nine people including the train operator were killed. Emergency response agencies reported

  20. Washington Schools Learn from Value Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleae, Michael L.; Childs, Harvey C.

    1983-01-01

    Results of two value engineering studies have shown that a review early in the design process can help save costs in school construction, maintenance, operation, and replacement. The value engineering concepts and technical manual are being presented throughout the state of Washington. (MLF)

  1. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  2. 78 FR 53235 - 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom By the President of the United States of America A... waters of the reflecting pool, to the proud base of the Washington Monument. They were men and women..., and justice for all. The March on Washington capped off a summer of discontent, a time when the...

  3. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  6. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR CLALLAM COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, PIERCE, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  9. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay, Washington, (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, G.; Drum, A.S.; Bridge, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated the existence of metallothionein-like, low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Relatively large quantities of mercury were associated with such proteins in gills and digestive gland, the organs of interest in the present study. /sup 14/C-incorporation indicated induction of the protein in gills, but not in digestive gland. Mercury in digestive gland may have bound to existing metal-binding proteins. Short-term incorporation of mercury occurred primarily in gills. The induction of mercury-binding proteins in gills may have facilitated detoxification of mercury at the site of uptake. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay were shown to have decreased from 1970 to 1978, the collection date for the present study. Mercury levels were low but approximately three times higher than those from uncontaminated areas. Mercury associated with the mercury-binding protein of gills and digestive glands of Bellingham Bay mussels were low and reflected the concentrations measured in the whole tissues. However, the highest concentration of mercury was associated with the low molecular pool components, the identity of which is not presently known.

  10. Seismic imaging beneath an InSAR anomaly in eastern Washington State: Shallow faulting associated with an earthquake swarm in a low-hazard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Wicks, Chuck; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five‐month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ∼3  km of high‐resolution seismic‐reflection profiles to image the upper‐source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west‐dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.

  11. Comparison of under-pressure and over-pressure pulse tests conducted in low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Over-pressure pulse tests (pressurized slug tests have been widely used by others for hydraulic characterization of low-permeability ( -8 m/sec) rock formations. Recent field studies of low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington, indicate that the under-pressure pulse technique is also a viable test method for hydraulic characterization studies. For over-pressure pulse tests, fluid within the test system is rapidly pressurized and the associated pressure decay is monitored as compressed fluid within the test system expands and flows into the test formation. Under-pressure pulse tests are conducted in a similar manner by abruptly decreasing the pressure of fluid within the test system, and monitoring the associated increase in pressure as fluid flows from the formation into the test system. Both pulse test methods have been used in conjunction with other types of tests to determine the hydraulic properties of selected low-permeability basalt horizons at Hanford test sites. Results from both pulse test methods generally provide comparable estimates of hydraulic properties and are in good agreement with those from other tests

  12. Analysis of the reduction in waste volumes received for disposal at the low-level radioactive waste site in the State of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal site at Richland, Washington has been receiving waste from generators nationwide since 1965 and is one of the three sites in the nation currently receiving commercial LLRW for disposal. In the past, volumes of LLRW have been increasing steadily, however, this trend has reversed since 1986. This paper addresses waste volume and activity of the waste disposed, factors which have caused this dramatic reduction in LLRW volume, and regulatory concerns regarding environmental protection, and public and occupational health and safety. Future volumes of LLRW that are disposed at the Richland site depend on economic, technological, political and regulatory variables. Provided there is a continual increase in industrial growth, and a demand for medical research and diagnosis, the volume of LLRW increases. However, this volume also offsets by an increase in demand for volume reduction due to economic and institutional pressures. Yet, if all generators continue to volume reduce their LLRW, some time in future, a limit will be reached when the facility site operator needs to increase the unit disposal cost to cover the fixed cost and maintain a profit margin in order to operate the site

  13. Interaction of science, business and state in the sphere of innovative projects development: comparative analysis by the example of Russia, USA and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Kamko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the organizational principles of institutional mechanisms in innovation sphere which are capable of maintaining and developing the interaction of science state and business. Methods general scientific principles of economic phenomena cognition such as dialectical structural historical approaches which allowed us to evaluate the institutional structures and mechanisms to reveal their inherent qualities and structure and to identify trends in their historical and future development. The specificity of the institutions which characterizes the individual companies was considered on the basis of comparative institutional analysis drawing on the institutional concept of the X and Yeconomies. Justification of the practical conclusions was made on the basis of theoretical analysis and generalization of the actual historical examples of innovative breakthroughs both in Russia and abroad. Results institutional characteristics of interaction between science state and business in Russia USA and China were analyzed. Investigation of the projects associated with innovation breakthroughs innovation center quotSkolkovoquot Russia Silicon Valley USA and Technopark quotZhongguancunquot China revealed the specificity and established causeandeffect relations in the formation of institutional mechanisms that are present in their implementation. As a result it was determined that the effectiveness of institutional mechanisms for the innovative projects implementation is connected with such combination of the implemented institutions which reflects the dominant position of the institutional matrix of the society in which these projects are implemented. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of the institutional concepts of the X and Yeconomies the causeandeffect relations in the formation of institutional mechanisms for innovative areas in different countries were investigated. Practical significance the results and conclusions of the

  14. The Impact of Interstate Migration on Human Capital Development in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Washington State is a leader in the innovation economy largely due to the combination of aerospace, software, and biomedical industries centered in the greater Seattle area; and, the state's high level of international trade. Despite Washington's national ranking, the state is overly reliant on importing educated workers from other states and…

  15. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  16. The State Regulation of External Labor Migration: the Experience of the EU, France, Germany and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Георгиевич Иванов

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The given article is devoted to the actual problem of the state regulation of external labor migration. It's based on examples of developed western countries. The author makes a conclusion about the importance of the state regulation of migration processes, warning that narrow understanding of migration policy as restriction of external migration flows is insufficient nowadays.

  17. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  18. A Comprehensive Review of State Laws Governing Internet and Other Delivery Sales of Cigarettes in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Wallace, Raedell M.; Williams, Rebecca S.; O’Connor, Jean C.; el Arculli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    All U.S. states regulate face-to-face tobacco sales at retail outlets. However, the recent growth of delivery sales of tobacco products by Internet and mail order vendors has prompted new state regulations focused on preventing youth access and tax evasion. To date, there are no comprehensive and systematic analyses of these laws. The objectives of this study were to: (1) document the historical enactment of the laws; (2) assess the nature and extent of the laws; and (3) conduct preliminary analyses to examine the relationship between states with laws and other factors that might predict enactment of or be impacted by these laws. Between 1995 and 2006, thirty-four states (67%) enacted a relevant law, with 23 states’ laws (45%) enacted between 2003 and 2006. Four states banned direct-to-consumer shipment of cigarettes. The remaining 30 states’ laws included a combination of requirements addressing minimum age/ID, payment issues, shipping, vendor licensure and related issues, tax collection/remittance, and penalties/enforcement. States with delivery sales laws also have stronger state excise tax rates, youth access to tobacco policies, and state tobacco control environments as well as higher cigarette excise tax revenue, past month cigarette use rates, and perceptions of risk of use by adolescents. This paper provides the policy context for understanding Internet and other cigarette delivery sales laws in the U.S. It also provides a systematic framework for ongoing policy surveillance and will contribute to future analyses of the impact of these laws on successfully reducing youth access to cigarettes and preventing tax evasion. PMID:18236290

  19. Changes in the state-level distribution of primary and secondary syphilis in the USA, 1985-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine changes over time in the distribution of primary and secondary syphilis cases across states, using Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. For each year from 1985 to 2007, the Gini coefficient for the state-level distribution of male and female syphilis cases was calculated. The Gini coefficient can range from 0 (indicating equality in syphilis rates across states) to 1 (indicating complete inequality such that all syphilis cases occur in one state). The Gini coefficients for men are notably lower (indicating more equality in the distribution of syphilis across states) in recent years (in which men who have sex with men (MSM) account for most syphilis cases) than in the heterosexual epidemic of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although syphilis rates in men were similar in 1995 and 2007 (6.7 and 6.6 per 100,000, respectively), the Gini coefficient for male syphilis decreased from 0.523 in 1995 to 0.333 in 2007. For syphilis in women, Gini coefficients have not shown the same degree of decline. The spread of MSM syphilis cases to urban areas across the nation is likely to be a main cause of the decreased concentration of male syphilis cases across states from 1995 to 2007.

  20. Spatial analysis of environment and population at risk of natural gas fracking in the state of Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2015-05-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been increasing exponentially across the United States, which holds the largest known shale gas reserves in the world. Studies have found that the high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing process (HVHFP) threatens water resources, harms air quality, changes landscapes, and damages ecosystems. However, there is minimal research focusing on the spatial study of environmental and human risks of HVHFP, which is necessary for state and federal governments to administer, regulate, and assess fracking. Integrating GIS and spatial kernel functions, we study the presently operating fracking wells across the state of Pennsylvania (PA), which is the main part of the current hottest Marcellus Shale in US. We geographically process the location data of hydraulic fracturing wells, 2010 census block data, urbanized region data, railway data, local road data, open water data, river data, and wetland data for the state of PA. From this we develop a distance based risk assessment in order to understand the environmental and urban risks. We generate the surface data of fracking well intensity and population intensity by integrating spatial dependence, semivariogram modeling, and a quadratic kernel function. The surface data of population risk generated by the division of fracking well intensity and population intensity provide a novel insight into the local and regional regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities in terms of environmental and health related risks due to the proximity of fracking wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthropogenic hydrological cycle disturbance at a regional scale: State-wide evapotranspiration trends (1979-2015) across Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2018-02-01

    Trends in monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates across Nebraska, the most intensely irrigated state within the US, were calculated by the calibration-free version of the nonlinear complementary relationship of evaporation over the 1979-2015 period utilizing North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) net radiation, 10-m wind velocity, as well as Parameter Regression Independent Slope Model (PRISM) air- and dew-point temperature data. State-averaged modeled ET rates rose by 5.5 mm decade-1 due to the presence of wide-spread large-scale irrigation projects in accordance with a 2.4 mm decade-1 increase in PRISM precipitation (P) and a simultaneous -2.8 mm decade-1 drop in United States Geological Survey's state-averaged annual streamflow rates, raising the state-wide ET to P ratio from 0.89 to 0.91 over the modeled time-period. ET rates over irrigated crops increased by 7 mm decade-1 despite a -4.4 mm decade-1 drop in precipitation rates. A similar increase in ET rates (6 mm decade-1) required 8.1 mm decade-1 increase in precipitation rates across the non-irrigated Sand Hills of Nebraska. Published NARR ET rates are unable to pick up this unusual regional trend. Since an increase in precipitation rates should normally decrease the ET ratio, as predicted by the Budyko curve, this study yields evidence on how dramatically sustained large-scale irrigation can alter the regional hydrologic cycle not only through a) trivially depleting streamflow rates and/or lowering groundwater table levels; b) suppressing precipitation locally (while enhancing it a long distance downwind), but also; c) reversing the trajectory of the regional ET ratio under generally increasing trends of precipitation.

  2. Whole genome sequencing analyses of Listeria monocytogenes that persisted in a milkshake machine for a year and caused illnesses in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen; P?rez-Osorio, Ailyn; Wang, Yu; Eckmann, Kaye; Glover, William A.; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; Chen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2015, in addition to a United States multistate outbreak linked to contaminated ice cream, another outbreak linked to ice cream was reported in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It was a hospital-acquired outbreak linked to milkshakes, made from contaminated ice cream mixes and milkshake maker, served to patients. Here we performed multiple analyses on isolates associated with this outbreak: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole genome single nucleotide polymo...

  3. USA luureinfo sumbub üle pea kasvanud bürokraatiasse / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    USA ajalehes Washington Post ilmusid mitme aasta uurimise tulemusel artiklid, milles käsitleti riigi luureteenistusi ja nende tööd. USA luurebürokraatia on kasvanud hiiglasuureks, ajaleht suhtub kriitiliselt asjaolusse, et luuretöösse on kaasatud palju eraisikuid. Skeem: Luureinfo kogumisega seotud valitsusametid ja agentuurid

  4. State Emergency Response and Field Observation Activities in California (USA) during the March 11, 2011, Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Goltz, J.; Fenton, J.; Long, K.; Dengler, L.; Rosinski, A.; California Tsunami Program

    2011-12-01

    This poster will present an overview of successes and challenges observed by the authors during this major tsunami response event. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami was the most costly to affect California since the 1964 Alaskan earthquake and ensuing tsunami. The Tohoku tsunami caused at least $50 million in damage to public facilities in harbors and marinas along the coast of California, and resulted in one fatality. It was generated by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake which occurred at 9:46PM PST on Thursday, March 10, 2011 in the sea off northern Japan. The tsunami was recorded at tide gages monitored by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), which projected tsunami surges would reach California in approximately 10 hours. At 12:51AM on March 11, 2011, based on forecasted tsunami amplitudes, the WCATWC placed the California coast north of Point Conception (Santa Barbara County) in a Tsunami Warning, and the coast south of Point Conception to the Mexican border in a Tsunami Advisory. The California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) activated two Regional Emergency Operation Centers (REOCs) and the State Operation Center (SOC). The California Geological Survey (CGS) deployed a field team which collected data before, during and after the event through an information clearinghouse. Conference calls were conducted hourly between the WCATWC and State Warning Center, as well as with emergency managers in the 20 coastal counties. Coordination focused on local response measures, public information messaging, assistance needs, evacuations, emergency shelters, damage, and recovery issues. In the early morning hours, some communities in low lying areas recommended evacuation for their citizens, and the fishing fleet at Crescent City evacuated to sea. The greatest damage occurred in the harbors of Crescent City and Santa Cruz. As with any emergency, there were lessons learned and important successes in managing this event. Forecasts by the WCATWC were highly accurate

  5. USA ja Iraak püüavad jõuda sel aastal vägede lepinguni / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraak püüavad enne 31. juulit sõlmida lepingu, mis käsitleb USA vägede viibimist Iraagis. Washington Posti andmeil on valitsused loobunud laiahaardelise ja pikaajalise vägede lepingu sõlmimisest, keskendudes nn. sillakavale, mis oleks üleminekuleping ja peaks võimaldama USA sõjaliste operatsioonide jätkamist pärast ÜRO mandaadi lõppu. Lisa: USA taandub roheliset tsoonist?

  6. Offshore Earthquakes Do Not Influence Marine Mammal Stranding Risk on the Washington and Oregon Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Savirina, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches is not unusual. However, there appears to be no single cause for this, with several causes being probable, such as starvation, contact with humans (for example boat strike or entanglement with fishing gear), disease, and parasitism. We evaluated marine mammal stranding off the Washington and Oregon coasts and looked at offshore earthquakes as a possible contributing factor. Our analysis showed that offshore earthquakes did not make marine mammals more likely to strand. We also analysed a subset of data from the north of Washington State and found that non-adult animals made up a large proportion of stranded animals, and for dead animals the commonest cause of death was disease, traumatic injury, or starvation. Abstract The causes of marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches are not well understood, but may relate to topography, currents, wind, water temperature, disease, toxic algal blooms, and anthropogenic activity. Offshore earthquakes are a source of intense sound and disturbance and could be a contributing factor to stranding probability. We tested the hypothesis that the probability of marine mammal stranding events on the coasts of Washington and Oregon, USA is increased by the occurrence of offshore earthquakes in the nearby Cascadia subduction zone. The analysis carried out here indicated that earthquakes are at most, a very minor predictor of either single, or large (six or more animals) stranding events, at least for the study period and location. We also tested whether earthquakes inhibit stranding and again, there was no link. Although we did not find a substantial association of earthquakes with strandings in this study, it is likely that there are many factors influencing stranding of marine mammals and a single cause is unlikely to be responsible. Analysis of a subset of data for which detailed descriptions were available showed that most live stranded animals were pups, calves, or

  7. A State upon the Hill”: Studies of the Subjective and Objective Factors Which Support USA Hegemonic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As the leading power in the world, the US has had the most important influence on international society in the 20th century which was named by some as the American Century. The reasons behind the success of the US could be characterized as “4 outstanding”. The first was the outstanding secure environment the US faced when it was emerging. Benefitting from the protection of the Pacific and Atlantic, the US grew to be a world power peacefully and quickly. The second was the outstanding historic opportunity the US experienced when it extended its strength toward the western states. Due to the prevailing attitudes of that time, no European countries criticized the violence and acts of aggression the US committed, which would seem impossible today. The third was the outstanding political culture and institution American founders set up in the 18th and 19th centuries, which helped the US to overcome many strategic challenges, and the fourth was the outstanding international regime designed by US elites, which helped the US to maintain its leading influence on the international community.

  8. Comparative study of microfacies variation in two samples from the Chittenango member, Marcellus shale subgroup, western New York state, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balulla, Shama, E-mail: shamamohammed77@outlook.com; Padmanabhan, E., E-mail: eswaran-padmanabhan@petronas.com.my [Department of Geoscience, Faculty of Geosciencs and Petroleum Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh (Malaysia); Over, Jeffrey, E-mail: over@geneseo.edu [Department of geological sciences, Geneseo, NY (United States)

    2015-07-22

    This study demonstrates the significant lithologic variations that occur within the two shale samples from the Chittenango member of the Marcellus shale formation from western New York State in terms of mineralogical composition, type of lamination, pyrite occurrences and fossil content using thin section detailed description and field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray Spectrum (EDX). This study is classified samples as laminated clayshale and fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. The most important detrital constituents of these shales are the clay mineral illite and chlorite, quartz, organic matter, carbonate mineral, and pyrite. The laminated clayshale has a lower amount of quartz and carbonate minerals than fossiliferous carbonaceous shale while it has a higher amount of clay minerals (chlorite and illite) and organic matter. FESEM analysis confirms the presence of chlorite and illite. The fossil content in the laminated clayshale is much lower than the fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. This can provide greater insights about variations in the depositional and environmental factors that influenced its deposition. This result can be compiled with the sufficient data to be helpful for designing the horizontal wells and placement of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas exploration and production.

  9. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, T.C.; Harris, D.L.; Burns, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km 2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  10. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  11. Validation of abridged mini-mental state examination scales using population-based data from Sweden and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Malin Christina; Gatz, Margaret; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Parker, Marti G; Fors, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to validate two abridged versions of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE): one intended for use in face-to-face interviews, and the other developed for telephonic interviews, using data from Sweden and the US to validate the abridged scales against dementia diagnoses as well as to compare their performance to that of the full MMSE scale. The abridged versions were based on eight domains from the original MMSE scale. The domains included in the MMSE-SF were registration, orientation, delayed recall, attention, and visual spatial ability. In the MMSE-SF-C, the visual spatial ability item was excluded, and instead, one additional orientation item was added. There were 794 participants from the Swedish HARMONY study [mean age 81.8 (4.8); the proportion of cognitively impaired was 51 %] and 576 participants from the US ADAMS study [mean age 83.2 (5.7); the proportion of cognitively impaired was 65 %] where it was possible to compare abridged MMSE scales to dementia diagnoses and to the full MMSE scale. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity levels of the abridged tests, using clinical diagnoses as reference. Analyses with both the HARMONY and the ADAMS data indicated comparable levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting cognitive impairment for the two abridged scales relative to the full MMSE. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that the two abridged scales corresponded well to those of the full MMSE. The two abridged tests have adequate validity and correspond well with the full MMSE. The abridged versions could therefore be alternatives to consider in larger population studies where interview length is restricted, and the respondent burden is high.

  12. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) across all species and locations and typically were greater in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) than in other taxa. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p < 0.01) among sites and species. Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent

  13. Detecting Coastline Change with All Available Landsat Data over 1986–2015: A Case Study for the State of Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastline change often results from social and natural factors, such as human activities in the coastal zone, long-term and short-term sea level change, hurricane occurrences, subsequent recovery, and so on. Tracking coastline change is essential to deepen our understanding of coastal responses to these factors. Such information is also required for land use planning and sustainable development of coastal zones. In this context, we aimed to collect all available Landsat data (TM: Thematic Mapper, ETM+: Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and OLI: Operational Land Imager over 1986–2015 for tracking the coastline dynamic and estimating its change rate in the State of Texas, USA. First, the land vs. water maps at an annual scale were derived from the satellite images. The border between land and water represents the coastline in this study. Second, the annual land area was obtained to characterize the coastline dynamic and a linear regression model was used for estimating the change rate. We also analyzed the potential driving factors of the observed coastline change. The results reveal that the coastline in the State of Texas changed at a rate of −0.154 ± 0.063 km2/year from 1986 to 2015, which indicates that the coastline has mainly experienced an erosion over the past three decades. Specifically, 52.58% of the entire coastline retreated to the land while a 47.42% portion advanced to the ocean. Long-term sea level rise can result in the erosion of coastline. Hurricane occurrences can explain the relatively strong coastline erosion. Besides, significant difference between the coastline change rate with a higher curvature and a lower curvature was observed. This study establishes a general method for detecting coastline change at large spatial and long-term temporal scales, by using remote sensing that can give fundamental information on coastline change. This is important for making scientific and reasonable policies of sustainable development of

  14. Complex Messages in Long-Term Monitoring of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the State of Wisconsin, USA, 1988–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Swengel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The regal fritillary (“regal” (Speyeria idalia is endangered in Wisconsin, USA, and declining and at risk range-wide. During 1988–2015, we surveyed 24 known regal sites and >100 areas of potential habitat in Wisconsin. We recorded 9037 individuals in 742.7 km on the peak survey per year at occupied sites. At six sites surveyed over 5–25 years, we found regal fritillaries in only one year, mostly in the latter half of the study. The three populations in the state with more favorable trends than the median had a never-burned refugium and/or infrequent fire management. They also all had substantial amounts of grazing, haying, and/or mowing managements. Sites with trends below the regional median trend had frequent or moderate fire management, and either a diminishing never-burned refugium or none at all. Regal populations at sites with ≤15 ha of grassland have become undetectable. Nonetheless, Hogback, a slightly larger than 15 ha site, had the most favorable trend, a significant increase. Nearly all Wisconsin Regal populations known before 1990 declined to consistent non-findability, even though these were conserved sites. More favorable trends at more recently discovered populations may be attributable to species-specific habitat management protocols implemented in the 1990s. Two sites with better than median long-term trends represent the longest consistent land ownership of known Regal populations in the state. This wide range of population outcomes illustrates both the need for long-term monitoring and the challenges of explaining the outcomes. Despite evidence of increasing Regal dispersal, this species remains very localized, indicating the unsuitability of the wider landscape as regal habitat. The number of significantly declining or no longer detectable populations in Wisconsin indicates an ever more adverse landscape for this species. Sites will need to have habitat characteristics that are ever more optimal in a wide range of

  15. Washington Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped

  16. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs

  17. Washington Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-09-15

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped.

  18. A Partnership for Modeling the Marine Environment of Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, a joint University of Washington - Oregon State project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. e. A... Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), a joint Washington - Oregon State project to investigate extraction of wave and tidal energy sponsored by

  19. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  20. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  1. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  2. 78 FR 46258 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... that governs the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520 across Lake Washington) at Seattle... Department of Transportation has requested that the draw span of the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State... this time, which would divert road traffic onto the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge. The closure of the...

  3. Comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Timo W; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Farjah, Farhood; Farrokhi, Ellen; Steele, Scott R; Thirlby, Richard; Flum, David R

    2014-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are an important source of morbidity and mortality. Chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol is effective in preventing central venous-catheter associated infections, but its effectiveness in reducing SSI in clean-contaminated procedures is uncertain. Surgical studies to date have had contradictory results. We aimed to further evaluate the relationship of commonly used antiseptic agents and SSI, and to determine if isopropyl alcohol has a unique effect. We performed a prospective cohort analysis to evaluate the relationship of commonly used skin antiseptic agents and SSI for patients undergoing mostly clean-contaminated surgery from January 2011 through June 2012. Multivariate regression modeling predicted expected rates of SSI. Risk adjusted event rates (RAERs) of SSI were compared across groups using proportionality testing. Among 7,669 patients, the rate of SSI was 4.6%. The RAERs were 0.85 (p = 0.28) for chlorhexidine (CHG), 1.10 (p = 0.06) for chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol (CHG+IPA), 0.98 (p = 0.96) for povidone-iodine (PVI), and 0.93 (p = 0.51) for iodine-povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol (IPC+IPA). The RAERs were 0.91 (p = 0.39) for the non-IPA group and 1.10 (p = 0.07) for the IPA group. Among elective colorectal patients, the RAERs were 0.90 (p = 0.48) for CHG, 1.04 (p = 0.67) for CHG+IPA, 1.04 (p = 0.85) for PVI, and 1.00 (p = 0.99) for IPC+IPA. For clean-contaminated surgical cases, this large-scale state cohort study did not demonstrate superiority of any commonly used skin antiseptic agent in reducing the risk of SSI, nor did it find any unique effect of isopropyl alcohol. These results do not support the use of more expensive skin preparation agents. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craighead, Peter S.; Smulian, Hubert G.; Groot, Henk J. de; Toit, Pierre F.M. du

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  5. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  6. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  7. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    endothall (DMA salt); and herbivorous fish, insects , and pathogens. 4. Comments Received from Public Review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...SNYIAOWMNWAL MANWULATION UIONOGC SSUCTION DREDGE HAND RUMOVA HOTTON SHADING WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS HERBIVOROUS FIS1H INSECTS , PAT1OGIENS, ETC. set...the control of acuatic plants. 52 4. PROBABLE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION ON~ THE ENVIRON4MENT 4.01 Impacts on Air Quality, Noise and Traffic. 4.01.1

  8. Reactor console replacement at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement reactor console was installed in 1977 at the W.S.U. 1 MW TRIGA-fueled reactor as the final step in an instrumentation upgrade program. The program was begun circa 1972 with the design, construction and installation of various systems and equipment. Major instruments were installed in the existing console and tested in the course of reactor operation. The culmination of the program was the installation of a cubicle designed and constructed to house the updated instrumentation. (author)

  9. 78 FR 19298 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA..., Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Washington, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below...

  10. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Washington County Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field explorations have yielded 257 species new to Washington County, Mississippi and Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. and Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & Gray) Urban new to the state. An annotated list of 796 taxa for Washington County is provided and excludes 62 species that were reported from ...

  11. Integrated Digital English Acceleration (I-DEA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington state has a large and rapidly growing foreign-born population. In 2011, immigrants made up 16.5 percent of Washington's civilian employed workforce, up from 7.1 percent in 1990. These new arrivals create jobs by forming businesses, spending income in local economies and raising employers' productivity. Thanks to project I-DEA…

  12. 76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  13. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014 fiscal year and all subsequent fiscal periods from $0.003 to $0.0025 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  14. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers...

  15. Booker T. Washington's Educational Contributions to Contemporary Practices of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Booker T. Washington's educational contributions to contemporary practices of sustainable development. In particular, the article looks at Washington's contributions in the areas of economic sustainability and entrepreneurship, character development, and aesthetics. As states continue to contemplate and evaluate the value of…

  16. Liquid metal reactor cover gas purification and analysis in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K J [Argonne National Laboratory, EBR-II Division, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meadows, G E; Schuck, W J [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Two sodium cooled reactors are currently being operated In the United States of America for the U.S. Department of Energy. These are Experimental Breeder Reactor II, EBR-ll, and the Fast Flux Test Facility, FFTF. EBR-ll is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho and the FFTF is near Rich land, Washington. These reactors are currently engaged In a wide range of testing including fuels and materials tests, and plant system performance and safety development. The U.S. DOE program also includes designs of a next generation sodium cooled power reactor. This paper discusses the efforts to develop and operate cover gas systems for the sodium cooled nuclear reactor program in the USA.

  17. Liquid metal reactor cover gas purification and analysis in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.; Meadows, G.E.; Schuck, W.J.

    1986-09-01

    Two sodium cooled reactors are currently being operated in the United States of America for the US Department of Energy. These are Experimental Breeder Reactor 11, EBR-11, and the Fast Flux Test Facility, FFTF. EBR-11 is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho, and the FFTF is near Richland, Washington. These reactors are currently engaged in a wide range of testing including fuels and materials tests, and plant system performance and safety development. The US DOE program also includes designs of a next generation sodium cooled power reactor. The FFTF and EBR-11 communities are providing input to these designs. This paper discusses the efforts to develop and operate cover gas systems for the sodium cooled nuclear reactor program in the USA

  18. Liquid metal reactor cover gas purification and analysis in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.; Meadows, G.E.; Schuck, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two sodium cooled reactors are currently being operated In the United States of America for the U.S. Department of Energy. These are Experimental Breeder Reactor II, EBR-ll, and the Fast Flux Test Facility, FFTF. EBR-ll is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho and the FFTF is near Rich land, Washington. These reactors are currently engaged In a wide range of testing including fuels and materials tests, and plant system performance and safety development. The U.S. DOE program also includes designs of a next generation sodium cooled power reactor. This paper discusses the efforts to develop and operate cover gas systems for the sodium cooled nuclear reactor program in the USA

  19. Results of the Washington Passive Solar Design/Build Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, N.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to encourage the design, construction, and marketing of moderately priced passive solar homes in Washington state, the Western Solar Utilization Network (Western SUN) recently sponsored the Washington Passive Solar Design/Build Competition. The competition drew an overwhelming response from designers and builders throughout Washington. Thermal performance of the designs was evaluated by a technical review committee, and final selections were made by the Competition Jury in accordance with the following criteria: perceived market acceptance, thermal performance, cost effectiveness, simplicity of design and operation, and completeness of the passive concept. Design contract awards totaling $50,000 were made available to winners in four categories, including single and multi-family, new and remodeled residences. In order to receive the award in its entirety, winning design/build teams are required to construct their design by April, 1983. As a result of the competition, a great deal was learned about the attitudes and knowledge of professionals and the general public regarding the use of solar energy in Washington state. Among the points that will be highlighted in this paper are the following: (1) a design/build competition is an effective vehicle for promoting solar energy among professionals in the housing community as well as the general public; (2) passive solar techniques can contribute significantly to the heating and cooling needs of residential housing throughout the state of Washington; (3) there is a great deal of interest and talent among the designers and builders of solar residences in Washington; and (4) follow-up activities, including the promotion of winning designs, the systematic collection of performance data, and identification of the major obstacles confronting designers and builders of solar homes, are critical to the success of the program in achieving both its short-term and long-term goals.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.