WorldWideScience

Sample records for washington state transportation

  1. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  2. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  3. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  4. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  5. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  6. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  7. 2015 State Geodatabase for Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. Spacelab ready for transport to Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Spacelab is wrapped and ready for transport to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. Spacelab was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the Space Shuttle program and first flew on STS-9 in November 1983. Its final flight was the STS-90 Neurolab mission in April 1998. A sister module will travel home and be placed on display in Europe. The Spacelab concept of modular experiment racks in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment made it highly user-friendly and accessible. Numerous experiments conceived by hundreds of scientists on the ground were conducted by flight crews in orbit. Spacelab modules served as on-orbit homes for everything from squirrel monkeys to plant seeds. They supported astronomical as well as Earth observations, for servicing the Hubble Space Telescope and for research preparatory to the International Space Station. One of the greatest benefits afforded by the Spacelab missions was the opportunity to fly a mission more than once, with the second or third flight building on the experiences and data gathered from its predecessors.

  9. Fuel management at Washington State Ferries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.; Olds, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed Washington State Ferry (WSF) operations and provided details of a biodiesel research and demonstration project. Washington has the largest ferry system in the United States, with a total of 28 vessels that operate on 10 routes through 20 terminals. Routes vary by transit times, navigational challenges, and the proximity to population centres. WSF fuel and emissions management initiatives include exhaust emission studies, clean fuel initiatives, machinery upgrades, fuel conservation initiatives, and biodiesel testing. The organization is also using waste heat recovery and a positive restraint system. The WSF biodiesel pilot program was conducted using soy-derived fuels with a purifier disk stack. The program is in agreement with recent legislation requiring that 2 per cent of annual diesel fuel sales are from biodiesel fuels, and state legislation requiring that state agencies use a minimum of 20 per cent biodiesel blends in diesel-powered vessels and vehicles. Details of project partnerships were included. tabs., figs

  10. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  12. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  13. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  14. 75 FR 52023 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  15. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  16. Educator Supply and Demand in Washington State. 2004 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry; Maloney, Rick; Hathaway, Randy; Bryant, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the third Educator Supply and Demand Research study in the State of Washington. The intent of these Washington studies is to provide data to inform and shape decisions and activities in the following ways: (1) Provide useful information for educational policymakers, including the legislature, the State Board…

  17. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  18. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  19. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  20. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  1. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  2. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  3. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  4. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  5. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  6. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... construction. Archaeologists working for the Washington Archaeological Research Center at Washington State... Reservation. Historical, ethnographic, linguistic, and archaeological information links the site to the...

  7. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... of human remains under the control of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum...

  8. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Washington. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  9. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  10. Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Baker, Bridget B.; Mayer, Karl A.; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Holahan, Paula M.; Thomas, Nancy J.; White, C. LeAnn

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

  11. Climate change adaptation and mitigation : state transportation, regional, and international strategies: synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    This synthesis and literature review requested by Seth Start, Sustainable Transportation Manager, Washington State Department of Transportation, provides information on strategies other state DOTs countries, and local agencies are using to prepare...

  12. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  13. 78 FR 13887 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by April 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia... contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  14. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O. Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650... it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks...

  15. 77 FR 61782 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission at the address below by November 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Alicia... affiliated with the human remains should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation...

  16. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  17. The FLIP fuel experience at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    The Washington State University TRIGA-fueled modified G.E. reactor was refueled with a partial TRIGA-FLIP core in February, 1976. The final core loading consisted of 35 FLIP and 75 Standard TRIGA fuel rods and provided a core excess reactivity of $7.98. The observed performance of the reactor did not deviate significantly from the design predictions and specifications. Pulsing tests revealed a maximum power output of 1850 MW with a fuel temperature of 449 deg. C from a $2.50 pulse. Slight power fluctuations at 1 Megawatt steady-state operation and post-pulse power oscillations were observed. (author)

  18. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum. The human remains were removed from Island....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of...

  19. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum, Seattle, WA. The human....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of...

  20. 76 FR 58033 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  1. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  2. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  3. 76 FR 58039 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  4. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  5. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  6. Prevalence of corporal punishment among students in Washington State schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P

    1995-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Washington with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 8 33 Compressed Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks Seattle Bakery

  8. 78 FR 59964 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the Burke Museum....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Washington (Burke Museum), and Central Washington University have completed an inventory of human remains, in...

  9. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-10823; 2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  10. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-12080;2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  11. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  12. Ergonomics and regulatory politics: the Washington State case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Every year in the State of Washington more than 50,000 workers experience a work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD), making up more than 30% of all worker compensation cases. In 2000, the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) adopted a workplace ergonomics rule requiring employers to reduce worker exposure to hazards that cause or contribute to WMSDs. In 2003, the ergonomics rule was repealed by a margin of 53.5-46.5 in a statewide voter initiative. The official rulemaking record of approximately 100,000 pages, along with supplementary published and unpublished material, was reviewed. The relationship between scientific deliberation and the public policy process in adopting and repealing the ergonomics rule was assessed and described. The deliberative features of the regulatory, judicial, legislative, and ballot processes were compared. The ergonomics rule was successful in the regulatory and legal arenas where the process was most transparent and open to public involvement, differing views could be presented fully, and decision makers were expected to explain their decisions in light of the record. The rule fared most poorly in the legislature and at the ballot box when these features were lost and where considered deliberation was replaced by unconstrained political conflict. Additional checks and balances are needed.

  13. Percutaneous injuries among dental professionals in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous exposure incidents facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV. This study was conducted to identify the circumstances and equipment related to percutaneous injuries among dental professionals. Methods We used workers' compensation claims submitted to the Department of Labor and Industries State Fund during a 7-year period (1995 through 2001 in Washington State for this study. We used the statement submitted by the injured worker on the workers' compensation claim form to determine the circumstances surrounding the injury including the type of activity and device involved. Results Of a total of 4,695 accepted State Fund percutaneous injury claims by health care workers (HCWs, 924 (20% were submitted by dental professionals. Out of 924 percutaneous injuries reported by dental professionals 894 (97% were among dental health care workers in non-hospital settings, including dentists (66, 7%, dental hygienists (61, 18% and dental assistants (667, 75%. The majority of those reporting were females (638, 71%. Most (781, 87% of the injuries involved syringes, dental instruments (77, 9%, and suture needles (23%. A large proportion (90% of injuries occurred in offices and clinics of dentists, while remainder occurred in offices of clinics and of doctors of medicine (9%, and a few in specialty outpatient facilities (1%. Of the 894 dental health care workers with percutaneous injuries, there was evidence of HBV in 6 persons, HCV in 30 persons, HIV in 3 persons and both HBV and HVC (n = 2 exposure. Conclusion Out of hospital percutaneous injuries are a substantial risk to dental health professionals in Washington State. Improved work practices and safer devices are needed to address this risk.

  14. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  15. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  16. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  17. Safety of union home care aides in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Phillips, Leslie E

    2017-09-01

    A rate-based understanding of home care aides' adverse occupational outcomes related to their work location and care tasks is lacking. Within a 30-month, dynamic cohort of 43 394 home care aides in Washington State, injury rates were calculated by aides' demographic and work characteristics. Injury narratives and focus groups provided contextual detail. Injury rates were higher for home care aides categorized as female, white, 50 to working through an agency (versus individual providers). In addition to direct occupational hazards, variability in workload, income, and supervisory/social support is of concern. Policies should address the roles and training of home care aides, consumers, and managers/supervisors. Home care aides' improved access to often-existing resources to identify, manage, and eliminate occupational hazards is called for to prevent injuries and address concerns related to the vulnerability of this needed workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Washington State Energy Use Profile, 1960--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1992-07-01

    This report is divided into three sections, each with data on energy consumption, prices, and expenditures. The first section presents an overview of statewide energy use trends. The second section presents energy use trends in four basic consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. The third section presents energy use trends in specific resource markets: natural gas, petroleum, electricity, coal, and wood. The appendixes contain information about data, sources, and a glossary. Data about Washington's energy resources are reported in two forms: in measures common to the fuel (kWh, barrels, etc.) and in the generic measure British thermal units (Btu). The common measures allow the reader to quickly grasp information in a familiar form. The generic measure allows the reader to compare energy resources. Conversion to Btu occasionally produces counter-intuitive results. For example, in different years, petroleum products have different average energy values, resulting in different conversion factors from barrels to Btu. A large amount of data contained in the Profile has been categorized and presented in a variety of ways. Understanding the meaning of categories is critical to understanding differences between the tables, especially those tables that present similar data. For example, petroleum trends are not the same as transportation trends, though they are similar because transportation is almost entirely dependent on petroleum. In another example, total end-use fuel energy consumption is not the same as total primary energy consumption. End-use fuel consumption does not include energy used for the generation of electricity. Counting both fuel used for electricity generation and electricity itself could result in double counting. Primary fuel consumption, on the other hand, does include energy used for the generation of electricity and is greater than total end-use consumption

  19. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  20. The power professorship program at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, C.C.; Shamash, Y.

    1993-01-01

    As with most electric power programs, Washington State University's has existed since the beginning of the engineering program 100 years ago. It has grown and developed largely through the efforts of a few dedicated individuals. The Power Professorship Program has existed since 1972. The Power Professor has been Dr. Clifford C. Mosher until his recent semi-retirement. The Power Professorship was conceived of as an avenue for joint university-industry interaction. Considerable time and ingenuity by visionary engineers and others have resulted in development of a financial base for the Power Professorship Program. The program has been funded equally by public and investor-utility sectors. Following financial difficulties stemming from the Washington Public Power Supply System financial default on public utility bonds for several nuclear projects, funding for the program from the public sector was canceled. After several lean years, public-sector support was again restored by WSU's electrical engineering department offering a contract for services to the utilities in exchange for funding. This contract has been renewed annually, with costs and benefits firmly established through careful analysis and consultation. Problems facing the power industry in the early 1970s with regard to establishing a pipeline of future human resources, were almost identical with those of the present time: indifferent feelings about the industry in general, students being attracted to more glamorous disciplines, and a decline in educational opportunities available in the power area. A 1985 article in the IEEE Power Engineering Review describing today's declining enrollment in power engineering applies equally well to previous periods. A major driving force for initiating utility-industry participation in the Power Professorship Program was the concern for maintaining a source of entry-level engineers with a background in power engineering

  1. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an... University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, telephone (509) 335-4314. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  2. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an... objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. Repatriation of the human...

  3. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an... objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. Repatriation of the human...

  4. Unmet Student Financial Need in the State of Washington: A Study of the "Need Gap."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert; And Others

    A study of unmet student financial need in Washington State was conducted by the Washington Council for Postsecondary Education. "Unmet need" is the difference between need and the total amount of aid received by the student through federal, state, and institutional financial aid programs, privately funded scholarships, and nonsubsidized…

  5. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13770; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of..., Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

  6. 78 FR 50099 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... at the address in this notice by September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks... Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the Native... request Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  7. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given... written request with information in support of the request to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and...

  8. 78 FR 44594 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... to Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504...

  9. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  10. Biomarkers of Sensitivity and Exposure in Washington State Pesticide Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, M.C.; Checkoway, H.; De Roos, A.J.; Farin, F.M.; Fenske, R.A.; Richter, R.J.; van Belle, G.; Furlong, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are widely used in agriculture in the US and abroad. These compounds – which inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity – continue to be responsible for a high proportion of pesticide poisonings among US agricultural workers. It is possible that some individuals may be especially susceptible to health effects related to OP/CB exposure. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme metabolizes the highly toxic oxon forms of some OPs, and an individual's PON1 status may be an important determinant of his or her sensitivity to these chemicals. This chapter discusses methods used to characterize individual PON1 status and reviews previous epidemiologic studies that have evaluated PON1-related sensitivity to OPs in relation to various health endpoints. It also describes an ongoing longitudinal study among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers who are participating in a recently implemented cholinesterase monitoring program in Washington State. This study will evaluate handlers' PON1 status as a hypothesized determinant of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. Such studies will be useful to determine how regulatory risk assessments might account for differences in PON1-related OP sensitivity when characterizing inter-individual variability in risk related to OP exposure. Recent work assessing newer and more sensitive biomarkers of OP exposure is also discussed briefly in this chapter. PMID:20221867

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in Washington state public high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Sheri; Quan, Linda

    2003-03-01

    To determine the best approaches for increasing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training opportunities for public high school students, we conducted a statewide survey of all 310 public high schools in Washington State. The findings describe CPR student training currently provided by high schools, barriers to providing, and strategies to increase CPR training of high school students. The response rate was 89% (276 schools) from a combination of mail and telephone surveys; 35% (n=97) reported that they did not provide any CPR student training. Of the 132 schools that provided CPR student training, 23% trained less than 10% of their students, and 39% trained more than 90% of their students. The majority of public high schools, 70%, did not have any teacher trained to teach CPR or had only one teacher with such training. Yet 80% of schools felt that CPR training is best provided in school settings. Schools perceived the greatest benefit of CPR training as providing students with the skill to save a life (43%). The most frequently identified barriers were logistical: limited time to teach the curriculum (24%), lack of funds (16%), and instructor scheduling difficulties (17%). Less than 5% of respondents voiced any opposition to CPR training, and that opposition was for logistical reasons. To increase CPR training, the single best strategies suggested were: increase funding, provide time in the curriculum, have more certified instructors, and make CPR student training a requirement.

  12. Seismic hazard assessment of the Hanford region, Eastern Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Power, M.S.; Swan, F.H. III

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was made for a site within the Hanford region of eastern Washington state, which is characterized as an intraplate region having a relatively low rate of seismic activity. Probabilistic procedures, such as logic trees, were utilized to account for the uncertainties in identifying and characterizing the potential seismic sources in the region. Logic trees provide a convenient, flexible means of assessing the values and relative likelihoods of input parameters to the hazard model that may be dependent upon each other. Uncertainties accounted for in this way include the tectonic model, segmentation, capability, fault geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, and earthquake recurrence rate. The computed hazard results are expressed as a distribution from which confidence levels are assessed. Analysis of the results show the contributions to the total hazard from various seismic sources and due to various earthquake magnitudes. In addition, the contributions of uncertainties in the various source parameters to the uncertainty in the computed hazard are assessed. For this study, the major contribution to uncertainty in the computed hazard are due to uncertainties in the applicable tectonic model and the earthquake recurrence rate. This analysis serves to illustrate some of the probabilistic tools that are available for conducting seismic hazard assessments and for analyzing the results of these studies. 5 references, 7 figures

  13. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  14. 78 FR 45958 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13406; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  15. 78 FR 44595 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13407; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  16. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, that meets the definition of..., a copper pendant was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended...

  17. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages WA FC program for ≥11 months (N = 10,177). Regression models were used to examine associations between utilization and expenditures and sex, race, age group, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (i.e., disability), substance abuse, behavior problems, placement setting (Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  19. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  20. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  1. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  2. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9682-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted regulations analogous to... of Health--Office of Drinking Water, [[Page 33457

  3. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  4. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park... possession of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, that meets the... notice. One lot of stone, bone, and glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington...

  5. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  6. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  7. The Path to Advanced Practice Licensure for Clinical Nurse Specialists in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Heather

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the history and process to obtaining advanced practice licensure for clinical nurse specialists in Washington State. Before 2016, Washington State licensed certified nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and certified nurse anesthetists under the designation of an advanced registered nurse practitioner; however, the state did not recognize clinical nurse specialists as advanced practice nurses. The work to drive the rule change began in 2007. The Washington Affiliate of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists used the Power Elite Theory to guide advocacy activities, building coalitions and support for the desired rule changes. On January 8, 2016, the Washington State Nursing Care Quality Assurance Commission voted to amend the state's advanced practice rules, including clinical nurse specialists in the designation of an advanced practice nurse. Since the rule revision, clinical nurse specialists in Washington State have been granted advanced registered nurse practitioner licenses. Driving changes in state regulatory rules requires diligent advocacy, partnership, and a deep understanding of the state's rule-making processes. To be successful in changing rules, clinical nurse specialists must build strong partnerships with key influencers and understand the steps in practice required to make the desired changes.

  8. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  9. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  10. Washington State Johnson-O'Malley Indian Education. 1971-72 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    The Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Act of 1934, amended in 1936, authorizes the Secretary of Interior to enter into a contract with any state which has legal authority and responsibility for the education of American Indian children residing there. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, State of Washington, is legally responsible for state schools and…

  11. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  12. 77 FR 38388 - Notice of Decision to Grant Buy America Waiver to Washington Department of Transportation to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Decision to Grant Buy America Waiver to Washington Department of Transportation to Purchase Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Rail Ties...: Notice of decision to grant Buy America waiver. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing this notice to advise the public...

  13. Washington State Need Grant: Less-Than-Halftime Pilot Project (SHB 1345)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Washington State Legislature authorized, through Substitute House Bill 1345, a two-year pilot project allowing eligible students, who enroll for four or five credits in a term, to receive the State Need Grant (SNG). Several important policy considerations emerged during the pilot project. Board staff explored these issues with financial…

  14. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. Cyanotoxin bioaccumulation in freshwater fish, Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, F Joan; Johnson, Art; Hamel, Kathy; Preece, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Until recently, exposure pathways of concern for cyanotoxins have focused on recreational exposure, drinking water, and dermal contact. Exposure to cyanotoxins through fish consumption is a relatively new area of investigation. To address this concern, microcystins and other cyanotoxins were analyzed in fish collected from nine Washington lakes with recurrent toxic blooms using two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Microcystins or microcystin-like compounds were elevated in fish liver relative to muscle and other tissues (liver>gut>muscle). Microcystin concentrations in fish fillet samples using anti-Adda ELISA (range 6.3-11 μg/kg wet weight) were consistently higher in all fish species than concentrations using anti-microcystin (MC)-leucine-arginine (LR) ELISA (range 0.25-2.4 μg/kg wet weight). MC-leucine-alanine (LA) was the only variant detected in fish (2.5-12 μg/kg in four livers) among the nine variants analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Fish fillets showed no accumulation of the MCs targeted by LC-MS/MS. Other cyanotoxins analyzed (anatoxin-a, saxitoxin, domoic acid, and okadaic acid) were not detected in fish. Based on this and evidence from other studies, we believe that people can safely consume two 8-oz fish fillet meals per week from lakes with blooms producing MCs (clean the fish and discard viscera).

  16. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  17. A comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This project compares eight measures of performance related to transit service quality (e.g. trip reliability, on-time departures) and cost-efficiency (e.g. farebox recovery, subsidy per passenger) between Washington State Ferries (WSF) and 23 ferry ...

  18. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated... Commission, Olympia, WA that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This... the site to the Eastern Washington State Historical Society (EWSHS), now known as the Northwest Museum...

  19. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... below by December 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Mary Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of... ethnographic collection from the Conner Museum to the Museum of Anthropology. In June of 2011, the curator of collections at the Conner Museum found four unassociated funerary items in the museum storage area and...

  20. Chapter 28A.85 RCW Monitoring Guide. Washington State's Anti-Sex Discrimination Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide was designed to assist in the assessment of the level of implementation of Washington State's anti-sex discrimination legislation in educational programs and activities. The monitoring guide contains two major sections: a monitoring standards check list and an on-site review packet. The check list provides an overview of the specific…

  1. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  2. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental... Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient... Rules.'' The updated PSCAA rules help implement the recommendations of the Tacoma-Pierce County Clean...

  3. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  4. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9247-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition of public water system, and has adopted regulations...

  5. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  6. 78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural... organization not identified in this notice that wish to claim these cultural items should submit a written....R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  7. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  8. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  9. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology at... Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation...

  10. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Jonathan S.; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S.; Heiner, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. Methods A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Results Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient’s family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35% believed the initial additional security response would not be adequate, with 26% reporting no additional security would be available within 15 minutes. Conclusion Our study reveals the variability of ED security staffing and a heterogeneity of capabilities throughout Washington State. These deficiencies and vulnerabilities highlight the need for other EDs and regional emergency preparedness planners to conduct their own readiness assessments. PMID:28435498

  11. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  12. Heat-related illness in Washington State agriculture and forestry sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K

    2014-08-01

    We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers' compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995-2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009-2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet's weather station network. There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  14. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona

    2013-01-01

    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  15. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  16. National Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1981. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 1662, October 31, 1981, Richland, Washington; November 9, 1981, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Hearings were held on October 31, 1981 in Richland, Washington and on November 9, 1981 in Washington, DC to discuss the effort in S. 1662 to establish a national policy and an environmentally acceptable program for managing nuclear wastes from domestic commercial activities. The Richland hearing was held in recognition that Washington State will bear the major impact of the legislation. Witnesses at the Washington, DC hearing included officials from states that are potential sites for radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities. The hearing record includes the testimony of 16 witnesses in Richland and seven in Washington, DC, followed by a reprint of S. 1662 and additional material submitted for the record

  17. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p landslide volume and mean annual precipitation, with 98% of landslide volume occurring along the windward, high-precipitation side of the range during the 25-year interval. Normalized to area, this volume yields a basin-wide erosion rate of 0.28 ± 0.11 mm yr- 1, which is similar to previous time-variable estimates of erosion throughout the Olympic Mountains, including those from river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  18. Radiochemistry Education at Washington State University: Sustaining Academic Radiochemistry for the Nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sue B.; Nash, Ken; Benny, Paul; Clark, Aurora; Wall, Nathalie; Wall, Don; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, Washington State University has been building radiochemistry as a component of its overall chemistry program. Using an aggressive hiring strategy and leveraged funds from the state of Washington and federal agencies, six radiochemistry faculty members have been added to give a total of seven radiochemists out of a department of twenty-five faculty members. These faculty members contribute to a diverse curriculum in radiochemistry, and the Chemistry Department now enjoys a significant increase in the number of trainees, the quantity of research expenditures, and the volume and quality of peer-reviewed scientific literature generated by the radiochemistry faculty and the trainees. These three factors are essential for sustaining the radiochemistry education and research program at any academic institution.

  19. Promoting accountability: hospital charity care in California, Washington state, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Debate as to whether private hospitals meet their charitable obligations is heated. This study examines how alternative state approaches for ensuring hospital accountability to the community affects charitable expenditures and potentially affects access to care for the uninsured. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare private California hospitals' charity care expenditures with those of hospitals in Texas and Washington state. The key finding from this study is that net of hospital characteristics, market characteristics and community need, Texas hospitals were estimated to provide over 3 times more charity care and Washington hospitals were estimated to provide 66% more charity care than California hospitals. This finding suggests that more prescriptive community benefit or charity care requirements may be necessary to ensure that private hospitals assume a larger role in the care of the uninsured.

  20. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  1. Electric and magnetic field reduction and research: A report to the Washington State Legislature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissinger, L.G.; Waller, P.; Chartier, V.L.; Olsen, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, citizens of Washington State are expressing their concerns about possible adverse health effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from electric utility power systems. A number of legislative proposals over the past several years have prompted governmental officials to evaluate available options for reducing electric and magnetic field strengths surrounding these systems (with a concentration on magnetic fields) or otherwise manage public exposure to power lines by increasing land use controls and setbacks for new development. Unsuccessful proposals brought before the Washington Legislature include 2 mG magnetic field limits for new transmission lines at the right-of-way edge; a temporary moratorium on transmission construction; requirements for providing public information on EMF; and expansion of the role of state governmental agencies in transmission siting and design. A successful Whatcom County initiative limits the voltage of new transmission to 115 kV in all but industrial land use zones, an action likely to have an unintended outcome of increasing magnetic fields in some areas. It is clear that better communication is needed about possible options for EMF management, costs and consequences, despite the fact scientific evidence on the existence of human health effects is inconclusive. This paper describes the work that Washington State undertook in 1990-92 in response to Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill 6771 establishing the Electric Transmission Research Needs Task Force. The Task Force was directed to report to the Legislature on possible exposure reduction methods; recommending engineering research that could lead to more effective approaches in the future

  2. Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally

    2015-11-01

    Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Sediment transport in the lower Snake and Clearwater River Basins, Idaho and Washington, 2008–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Wood, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation is an ongoing maintenance problem for reservoirs, limiting reservoir storage capacity and navigation. Because Lower Granite Reservoir in Washington is the most upstream of the four U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs on the lower Snake River, it receives and retains the largest amount of sediment. In 2008, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to quantify sediment transport to Lower Granite Reservoir. Samples of suspended sediment and bedload were collected from streamgaging stations on the Snake River near Anatone, Washington, and the Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho. Both streamgages were equipped with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to evaluate the efficacy of acoustic backscatter for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. In 2009, sediment sampling was extended to 10 additional locations in tributary watersheds to help identify the dominant source areas for sediment delivery to Lower Granite Reservoir. Suspended-sediment samples were collected 9–15 times per year at each location to encompass a range of streamflow conditions and to capture significant hydrologic events such as peak snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow. Bedload samples were collected at a subset of stations where the stream conditions were conducive for sampling, and when streamflow was sufficiently high for bedload transport. At most sampling locations, the concentration of suspended sediment varied by 3–5 orders of magnitude with concentrations directly correlated to streamflow. The largest median concentrations of suspended sediment (100 and 94 mg/L) were in samples collected from stations on the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, and the Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, respectively. The smallest median concentrations were in samples collected from the Selway River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Lochsa River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Clearwater River at Orofino, Idaho (13 mg

  4. Building-Resolved CFD Simulations for Greenhouse Gas Transport and Dispersion over Washington DC / Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Ghosh, S.; Mueller, K.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over urban domains such as Washington DC / Baltimore with high spatial and temporal resolution. Atmospheric transport of tracer gases from an emission source to a tower mounted receptor are usually conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For such simulations, WRF employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics generated by the flow around buildings and communities comprising a large city. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model that utilizes large eddy simulation methods to model flow around buildings at length scales much smaller than is practical with WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex urban topography on near-field dispersion and mixing difficult to simulate with a mesoscale atmospheric model. Such capabilities may be important in determining urban GHG emissions using atmospheric measurements. A methodology has been developed to run FDS as a sub-grid scale model within a WRF simulation. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards that computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. Using the coupled WRF / FDS model, NIST will investigate the effects of the urban canopy at horizontal resolutions of 10-20 m in a domain of 12 x 12 km. The coupled WRF-FDS simulations will be used to calculate the dispersion of tracer gases in the North-East Corridor and to evaluate the upwind areas that contribute to tower observations, referred to in the inversion community as influence functions. Results of this study will provide guidance regarding the importance of explicit simulations of urban atmospheric turbulence in obtaining accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and transport.

  5. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Peecook

    Full Text Available We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters. Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  6. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  7. Report of survey results for newly licensed registered nurses in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Current projections for the need for nurses in Washington state are based on an increase in the need for health care, the aging of the population, and the inability of the nursing educational institutions to supply adequate numbers of graduates. Yet many new graduates are providing anecdotal evidence that they cannot find a job in nursing. This study gathered information regarding the employment of newly licensed registered nurses in Washington between May 2009 and August 2010. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of 2,200 newly licensed nurses; 532 responses were returned. Nearly 81% reported current employment as a registered nurse and 69.5% reported that they were very or somewhat satisfied with their employment situation. The job search strategies, type of job sought, and factors contributing to their success are reported. Factors contributing to the success of their job search and to job dissatisfaction are explored. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Contents of risk assessments to support the retrieval and closure of tanks for the Washington State Department of Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Before the Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan can be performed, risk assessments of various options must be performed for ORP, DOE Headquarters, and the Washington State Dept. of Ecology. This document focuses on the risk assessments for Ecology

  9. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Methods Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N = 4,101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Results Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%–67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%–81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months’ passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Conclusions Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. PMID:28448904

  10. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  12. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  13. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wemple, C.A.; Tripard, G.E.; Gavin, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    A new epithermal-neutron beam facility for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) research and boronated agent screening in animal models is in the final stages of construction at Washington State University (WSU). A key distinguishing feature of the design is the incorporation of a new, high-efficiency, neutron moderating and filtering material, Fluental, developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. An additional key feature is the provision for adjustable filter-moderator thickness to systematically explore the radiobiological consequences of increasing the fast-neutron contamination above the nominal value associated with the baseline system. (author)

  14. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  15. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  16. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form

  17. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  18. Strategy and field implementation for determining a dangerous waste mixture in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Steve; Foster, Rick; Wright, Jamie

    1992-01-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), states rather than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maybe authorized to implement RCRA regulations. Under RCRA, environmental regulations implemented by an authorized state must be at least as stringent as those contained in RCRA. Compared to RCRA, the corresponding regulations of the State of Washington regarding the determination of characteristic wastes are more stringent and complex. This paper discusses the complexities of the regulations and presents a strategy for successfully managing diverse waste streams. This strategy was used during the cleanup of contaminated areas and equipment at the Albany Research Center (ARC) in Albany, Oregon, which processed uranium and thorium for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the early days of the nation's atomic energy program. Wastes from the cleanup of ARC were shipped to the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Because the DOE Hanford Reservation is located in Washington, this paper should be of interest to DOE waste generators. (author)

  19. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  20. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  1. Evaluation of a clinic-based cholinesterase test kit for the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Carden, Angela; Fenske, Richard A; Ruark, Harold E; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-07-01

    The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program for pesticide handlers requires blood draws at local clinics, with samples tested at a central laboratory. At present, workers with inhibited cholinesterase activity may be re-exposed before they can be removed from work. In this study we explored the option of on-site testing at local clinics using the EQM Test-mate Kittrade mark, a portable cholinesterase test kit. Test kit cholinesterase activity measurements were performed on 50 blood samples by our research staff, and compared to measurements on the same samples by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory. Another set of samples was also analyzed with the test kit by medical staff at an eastern Washington clinic. Triplicate measurements with the test kit had a 3.3% average coefficient of variation (CV) for plasma cholinesterase (PChE), and a 3.5% average CV for erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) measurements. The kit's PChE measurements were similar to PHL measurements (average ratio of 0.98) when performed in the laboratory, but had a tendency to underestimate activity when used in the clinic setting (average ratio of 0.87). The kit systematically overestimated AChE activity by 42-48% relative to the PHL measurements, regardless of where the samples were analyzed. This easy-to-use test kit appeared to be a viable method for clinic-based PChE measurements, but was less consistent for AChE measurements performed in the clinic. Absolute measurements with the kit need to be evaluated carefully relative to standardized methods. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Do Not Forget About Public Transportation: Analysis of the Association of Active Transportation to School Among Washington, DC Area Children With Parental Perceived Built Environment Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Rodkey, Lindsey; Ray, Rashawn; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-03-23

    Although the active transportation (AT) indicator received an F grade on the 2016 US Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, this AT assessment excluded public transportation. An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play Study was to assess youth AT, including public transportation, among Washington, DC area children in relation to parental perceptions of neighborhood built environment (BE) variables. Questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children aged 7-12 years. AT to school (ATS) was assessed with the question: "In an average school week, how many days does your child use each of the following ways to get to and from school? (a) Walk; (b) Bike; (c) Car; (d) Bus or Metro." Parental perceived BE data were obtained through questionnaire items, and logistic regression was conducted to determine if BE variables were associated with youth ATS. The sample included 144 children (50% female; average age 9.7 years; 56.3% white; 23.7% African American; 10.4% Asian American). Over 30% used ATS-public transportation 5 days per week, and nearly 13% used ATS-walking daily. Parental perceived BE variables significantly predicted youth ATS-walking and ATS-public transportation. ATS-public transportation is common among Washington, DC area youth, and parental perceptions of BE can significantly predict ATS.

  3. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  4. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  5. Marijuana Legalization and Parents' Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2016-10-01

    The recent legalization of nonmedical marijuana use in several U.S. states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents' reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult nonmedical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results showed (1) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of nonmedical marijuana use to be 18; (2) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (3) wide opposition to teen use and use around one's children; and (4) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. State safety oversight program : audit of the tri-state oversight committee and the Washington metropolitan area transit authority, final audit report, March 4, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) conducted an on-site audit of the safety program implemented by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and overseen by the Tri-State Oversight Committee (TOC) between December 14 and 17, 20...

  7. Effect of severity of illness on cesarean delivery rates in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Walker, Suzan; Benedetti, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Hospitals and providers are increasingly held accountable for their cesarean delivery rates. In the perinatal quality improvement arena, there is vigorous debate about whether all hospitals can be held to the same benchmark for an acceptable cesarean rate regardless of patient acuity. However, the causes of variation in hospital cesarean delivery rates are not well understood. We sought to evaluate the association and temporal trends between severity of illness at admission and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate among hospitals in Washington State. We hypothesized that hospitals with higher patient acuity would have higher cesarean delivery rates and that this pattern would persist over time. In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed aggregate hospital-level data for all nonmilitary hospitals in Washington State with ≥100 deliveries/y during federal fiscal years 2010 through 2014 (287,031 deliveries). Data were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System, which includes inpatient demographic, diagnosis, procedure, and discharge information derived from hospital billing systems. Age, admission diagnoses and procedure codes were converted to patient-level admission severity-of-illness scores using the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups classification system. This system is widely used throughout the United States to adjust hospital data for severity of illness. Mean admission hospital-level severity-of-illness scores were calculated for each fiscal year among the term singleton vertex population with no history of cesarean delivery. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between hospital admission severity of illness and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate, calculated Pearson correlation coefficients, and compared regression line slopes and 95% confidence intervals for each fiscal year. Hospitals were diverse with respect to delivery volume, level of care

  8. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates.

  9. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  10. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  11. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  12. Relationship of infant and fetal mortality to operations at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Washington State, 1946-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, S.; Hansom, J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of infant and fetal mortality to numbers of nuclear reactors at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation was investigated. Mortality rates were obtained using 36 years of United States vital statistics data. Three different exposure groups were selected based on meteorologic studies of the Hanford area: group 1, counties downwind of Hanford all year; group 2, counties seasonally downwind; and group 3, counties not downwind. Washington state was used as an additional comparison group. Four periods of operation based on fluctuations in numbers of reactors were characterized. Log-linear analysis revealed that the three groups and Washington state had similar trends in infant mortality rates over the four time periods. On the other hand, the trend in fetal mortality rates for group 1 did differ significantly from trends for the two other groups and Washington state. The trends of fetal mortality rates for group 2, group 3, and Washington state were not statistically different. Fetal mortality rates in group 1, however, failed to decline from period 1 (1946-1954) to period 2 (1955-1964) as expected by the trends for the two groups and Washington state. During period 2, the greatest number of reactors were operating. County-specific analysis showed that, of the counties in group 1, the trend in fetal mortality for Benton County, where Hanford is located, was significantly different from that for Washington state. A possible link between Hanford and an excess in fetal deaths is suggested by the deviation in trend of group 1, which appears localized to Benton County and the period of peak activity at Hanford

  13. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  14. Field observations of the developing legal recreational cannabis economy in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric L; Roussell, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Washington State legalized the sale of recreational cannabis in 2012. This paper describes the unfolding of the market regulatory regime in an eastern portion of the state, including field descriptions to illustrate the setting. We made observations and conducted interviews of the local supply chain comprising a producer/processor, analytic facility, and retail establishments as well as querying the state director of the regulatory board. Interviews and observations of facilities suggest an overwhelming concern for black market diversion drives state regulatory efforts. The ongoing dialogue between market actors and the state has resulted in a more equitable distribution of profits at different stages in the process. State safety regulations have thus far been shifted to independent laboratories. Banks and insurance companies have slowly begun making inroads into the industry, despite federal prohibition. The law was conceived as a social justice remedy, but the bulk of the legal and regulatory activity surrounds cannabis marketplace management. This has been characterized by concerns for black market diversion, producer/processor profits, and a hands-off approach to safety regulation. Minor cannabis violations as a pathway to criminal justice system involvement have been reduced substantially but disproportionate enforcement upon racial/ethnic minorities continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Big data on a big new market: Insights from Washington State's legal cannabis market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Bao, Yilun; Davenport, Steve; Fahli, Imane; Guo, Yutian; Kinnard, Krista; Najewicz, Mary; Renaud, Lauren; Kilmer, Beau

    2018-07-01

    Voters in eight U.S. states have passed initiatives to legalize large-scale commercial production of cannabis for non-medical use. All plan or require some form of "seed-to-sale" tracking systems, which provide a view of cannabis market activity at a heretofore unimagined level of detail. Legal markets also create a range of new matters for policy makers to address. Publicly available data were obtained on approximately 45 million individually priced items purchased in the 35 million retail transactions that took place during the first two and a half years of Washington State's legal cannabis market. Records include product type (flower, extract, lotion, liquid edible, etc.), product name, price, and potency with respect to multiple cannabinoids, notably THC and CBD. Items sold can be traced back up the supply chain through the store to the processor and producer, to the level of identifying the specific production batch and mother plant, the firm that tested the product, and test results. Data visualization methods are employed to describe spatial-temporal patterns of multiple correlated attributes (e.g., price and potency) broken down by product. Text-analytic methods are used to subdivide the broad category of "extracts for inhalation" into more homogeneous sub-categories. To understand the competitiveness of the legal cannabis market in Washington we calculate the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) for processors and retailers. Cannabis prices fell steadily and proportionally at the processor and retailer levels. Retail and wholesale price maintained a roughly 3:1 ratio for multiple product types after some initial fluctuations. Although a wide range of edibles are sold, they account for a modest share of consumer spending; extracts for inhalation are a larger and heterogeneous market segment. The HHI indicates the cannabis market is highly competitive at the processor level, but less so for retail markets at the county level. Washington's state-legal cannabis

  16. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  17. Perceived impact and feasibility of strategies to improve access to healthy foods in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee L; Podrabsky, Mary; Beckwith-Stanley, Nadia; Chan, Nadine; Ellings, Amy; Kovacs, Tricia; Lane, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of each policy on a five-point scale using online surveys. Washington State policy process. Forty-nine content experts (national researchers and subject experts), forty policy experts (state elected officials or their staff, gubernatorial or legislative policy analysts) and forty-five other stakeholders (state-level advocates, programme administrators, food producers). In aggregate, respondents rated policy impact and implementation feasibility higher than political feasibility. Policy experts rated policy strategies as less politically feasible compared with content experts (P political and implementation feasibility. These included policies related to nutrition standards in schools and child-care facilities, food distribution systems, urban planning projects, water availability, joint use agreements and breast-feeding supports. Although they may be perceived as potentially impactful, some policies will be more difficult to enact than others. Information about the potential feasibility of policies to improve access to healthy foods can be used to focus limited policy process resources on strategies with the highest potential for enactment, implementation and impact.

  18. Outreach at Washington State University: a case study in costs and attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth A.; Bollen, Viktor; Bersano, Thomas M.; Mossman, Sean M.

    2016-09-01

    Making effective and efficient use of outreach resources can be difficult for student groups in smaller rural communities. Washington State University's OSA/SPIE student chapter desires well attended yet cost-effective ways to educate and inform the public. We designed outreach activities focused on three different funding levels: low upfront cost, moderate continuing costs, and high upfront cost with low continuing costs. By featuring our activities at well attended events, such as a pre-football game event, or by advertising a headlining activity, such as a laser maze, we take advantage of large crowds to create a relaxed learning atmosphere. Moreover, participants enjoy casual learning while waiting for a main event. Choosing a particular funding level and associating with well-attended events makes outreach easier. While there are still many challenges to outreach, such as motivating volunteers or designing outreach programs, we hope overcoming two large obstacles will lead to future outreach success.

  19. Rapid deterioration of sediment surface habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, as indicated by benthic foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Elizabeth A; Martin, Ruth A; Martin, David E; Apple, Jude

    2015-08-15

    Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause. Thus, the metrics of contamination alone do not adequately characterize habitat viability, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide insight into the health of coastal ecosystems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  1. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented

  2. Firearm Ownership, Storage Practices, and Suicide Risk Factors in Washington State, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin Renee; Gomez, Anthony; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2018-05-17

    To characterize firearm ownership and storage practices in Washington State and assess their relationship with suicide risk factors. Using Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 2013 to 2016, we conducted survey-weighted multivariable Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Of 34 884 adult respondents, 34.3% (95% CI = 33.7%, 35.0%) reported a firearm in their household, among whom 36.6% (95% CI = 35.4%, 37.7%) stored their firearm locked and unloaded. There were no differences in mental health indicators by firearm ownership or storage practice status. Binge and chronic alcohol use were somewhat more prevalent among adults from firearm-owning households (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.3; PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4, respectively) and among those living in households not practicing safe storage (PR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7; PR = 1.9; 1.5, 2.3, respectively). Variability in mental health does not explain the substantial increased suicide risk among individuals in firearm-owning households. Greater prevalence of alcohol misuse among adults in firearm-owning households not practicing safe storage highlights the need for suicide prevention interventions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 17, 2018: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304403).

  3. Modeling the impact of a carbon tax: A trial analysis for Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keibun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy policy makers have proposed a carbon tax as an economy-wide policy tool to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The quantification of its impact on GHG emissions has relied on an energy-economy model, whose complexity often makes it difficult to comprehend how it simulates the interaction of a carbon tax and energy demand. This study therefore aims at developing an alternative model called the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM). The elasticity-based approach used in C-TAM is less sophisticated than an equilibrium-based approach used in an energy-economy model, but C-TAM is designed to maximize its predictive capabilities by using a wide range of elasticities for each sector and fuel use, accounting for likely changes in fuel mix for electricity generation, and addressing the model's sensitivity to elasticity estimates with Monte Carlo simulation. The trial analysis in this study evaluates a potential carbon tax in Washington State, suggesting a carbon tax at US$30 per metric ton of CO 2 (tCO 2 ) lowers GHG emissions by 8.4% from the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in 2035. The study concludes that C-TAM can provide meaningful policy implications by forecasting detailed impact on revenues and energy demand for each sector and fuel use. - Highlights: ► An elasticity-based model is developed to forecast the impact of a carbon tax. ► This model can show detailed impacts on each sector and fuel use. ► Extensive literature review and sensitivity analyses cover the model's weakness. ► A carbon tax is effective in curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Washington State. ► A carbon tax is however more effective if implemented nationwide.

  4. Suspended-sediment transport from the Green-Duwamish River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington, 2013–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Craig A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.

    2018-02-28

    The Green-Duwamish River transports watershed-derived sediment to the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site near Seattle, Washington. Understanding the amount of sediment transported by the river is essential to the bed sediment cleanup process. Turbidity, discharge, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle-size data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from February 2013 to January 2017 at the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (USGS streamgage 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). This report quantifies the timing and magnitude of suspended-sediment transported in the Duwamish River. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity and SSC and discharge to estimate 15- minute SSC. Suspended-sediment loads were calculated from the computed SSC and time-series discharge data for every 15-minute interval during the study period. The 2014–16 average annual suspended-sediment load computed was 117,246 tons (106,364 metric tons), of which 73.5 percent or (86,191 tons; 78,191 metric tons) was fine particle (less than 0.0625 millimeter in diameter) suspended sediment. The seasonality of this site is apparent when you divide the year into "wet" (October 16– April 15) and "dry" (April 16–October 15) seasons. Most (97 percent) of the annual suspended sediment was transported during the wet season, when brief periods of intense precipitation from storms, large releases from the Howard Hanson Dam, or a combination of both were much more frequent.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Washington. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  6. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Washington State is to improve intercity passenger rail service by reducing travel times, achieving greater... intercity travel demand. To achieve these goals WSDOT applied for federal funding through the High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program (HSIPR Program) administered by the FRA and funded by the American Recovery...

  7. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  8. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  9. Transport and deposition of asbestos-rich sediment in the Sumas River, Whatcom County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Cox, Stephen E.; Norton, Katherine K.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Spanjer, Andrew R.; Foreman, James R.

    2016-02-08

    Heavy sediment loads in the Sumas River of Whatcom County, Washington, increase seasonal turbidity and cause locally acute sedimentation. Most sediment in the Sumas River is derived from a deep-seated landslide of serpentinite that is located on Sumas Mountain and drained by Swift Creek, a tributary to the Sumas River. This mafic sediment contains high amounts of naturally occurring asbestiform chrysotile. A known human-health hazard, asbestiform chrysotile comprises 0.25–37 percent, by mass, of the total suspended sediment sampled from the Sumas River as part of this study, which included part of water year 2011 and all of water years 2012 and 2013. The suspended-sediment load in the Sumas River at South Pass Road, 0.6 kilometers (km) downstream of the confluence with Swift Creek, was 22,000 tonnes (t) in water year 2012 and 49,000 t in water year 2013. The suspended‑sediment load at Telegraph Road, 18.8 km downstream of the Swift Creek confluence, was 22,000 t in water year 2012 and 27,000 t in water year 2013. Although hydrologic conditions during the study were wetter than normal overall, the 2-year flood peak was only modestly exceeded in water years 2011 and 2013; runoff‑driven geomorphic disturbance to the watershed, which might have involved mass wasting from the landslide, seemed unexceptional. In water year 2012, flood peaks were modest, and the annual streamflow was normal. The fact that suspended-sediment loads in water year 2012 were equivalent at sites 0.6 and 18.8 km downstream of the sediment source indicates that the conservation of suspended‑sediment load can occur under normal hydrologic conditions. The substantial decrease in suspended-sediment load in the downstream direction in water year 2013 was attributed to either sedimentation in the intervening river reach, transfer to bedload as an alternate mode of sediment transport, or both.The sediment in the Sumas River is distinct from sediment in most other river systems because of the

  10. An exploratory study of boarding home sanctions and compliance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Schaffner, Mindy L

    2011-01-01

    States vary in enforcement systems that monitor the quality of care in residential boarding homes. The growing number of people seeking long-term care services in boarding homes requires regulatory systems that are effective in quality assurance enforcement. This 6 year retrospective study describes the characteristics of 601 sanctioned and nonsanctioned homes in the state of Washington and evaluates the effectiveness of enforcement actions such as intermediate sanctions on future boarding home compliance. The intermediate sanctions evaluated are stop placement of admissions, civil fines, and conditions placed on licenses. Boarding homes that were sanctioned tended to be homes that were for-profit and had governmental contracts for Medicaid services. Homes that remained sanctioned throughout the 6 year study tended to be homes that were individual ownership corporations, had smaller numbers of licensed beds, and did not provide nursing services. Intermediate sanctions were found to vary in effectiveness. Conditions placed on licenses were the most effective intermediate sanction, and civil fines the least effective. Higher citation numbers and the most severe level of complaint types were found to be predictors of becoming a sanctioned boarding home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Practices: A Washington State Learning Collaborative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, Emily; Johnson, Donna; Knox, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Hospital breastfeeding support practices can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Learning collaboratives are an increasingly common strategy to improve practices in health care and have been applied to breastfeeding in many cases. The aims of this study of the Evidence-Based Hospital Breastfeeding Support Learning Collaborative (EBBS LC) were to describe the perceptions of participants regarding the process and effectiveness of the EBBS LC, describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and identify additional actions and resources needed in future learning collaboratives. Qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 key staff who represented 16 of the 18 participating hospitals. The learning collaborative was perceived positively by participants, meeting the expectations of 9 and exceeding the expectations of 4 persons interviewed. The most beneficial aspect of the program was its collaborative nature, and the most difficult aspect was the time required to participate as well as technological difficulties. The key barriers were staff time, staff changes, cost, and the difficulty of changing the existing practices of hospitals and communities. The key facilitating factors were supportive management, participation in multiple breastfeeding quality improvement projects, collecting data on breastfeeding outcomes, tangible resources regarding the Ten Steps, and positive community response. Participants in the EBBS LC stated that they would like to see the Washington State Department of Health create a resource-rich, centralized source of information for participants. This learning collaborative approach was valued by participants. Future efforts can be guided by these evaluation findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation: examples from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G M; Lifka, J; Milstein, J

    1998-09-25

    Workers' compensation health benefits are broader than general health benefits and include payment for medical and rehabilitation costs, associated indemnity (lost time) costs, and vocational rehabilitation (return-to-work) costs. In addition, cost liability is for the life of the claim (injury), rather than for each plan year. We examined device evaluation and coverage policy in workers' compensation over a 10-year period in Washington State. Most requests for device coverage in workers' compensation relate to the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of chronic musculoskeletal conditions. A number of specific problems have been recognized in making device coverage decisions within workers' compensation: (1) invasive devices with a high adverse event profile and history of poor outcomes could significantly increase both indemnity and medical costs; (2) many noninvasive devices, while having a low adverse event profile, have not proved effective for managing chronic musculoskeletal conditions relevant to injured workers; (3) some devices are marketed and billed as surrogate diagnostic tests for generally accepted, and more clearly proven, standard tests; (4) quality oversight of technology use among physicians may be inadequate; and (5) insurers' access to efficacy data adequate to make timely and appropriate coverage decisions in workers' compensation is often lacking. Emerging technology may substantially increase the costs of workers' compensation without significant evidence of health benefit for injured workers. To prevent ever-rising costs, we need to increase provider education and patient education and consent, involve the state medical society in coverage policy, and collect relevant outcomes data from healthcare providers.

  13. Location, location, location: Assessing the spatial patterning between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets and neighborhood characteristics within Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Loni Philip; Fillmore, Christina; Melly, Steven

    2018-04-01

    The availability of marijuana products is becoming increasingly prevalent across the United States (US), many states are allowing for the production, processing, and retailing of these products for medical and/or recreational use. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the spatial patterning of marijuana licenses, and (2) examine the impact of alcohol outlets in addition to other neighborhood characteristics on marijuana licenses within the state of Washington. This cross-sectional observational study examined 1458 census tracts in Washington state from 2017, using marijuana and alcohol data from the Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board as well as neighborhood characteristics data from the American Community Survey 2011-2015 5-year estimates. We used exploratory and formal spatial regression methods, including integrated nested Laplace approximation within a Bayesian statistical framework, to address the study aims. Our results indicate there is significant spatial patterning of marijuana producers and processors across the state. We also found that all marijuana licenses are located in poorer census tracts, and marijuana retailers are co-located in census tracts with off-premises alcohol outlets. Our study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between marijuana licenses, alcohol outlets, and neighborhood characteristics, and has important implications for policymakers in other states currently considering legalizing marijuana-products for medical and/or recreational use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  15. Aviation and Airports, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Aviation and Airports Search DOT&PF State of pages view official DOT&PF Flickr pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box

  16. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  18. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... bone handle. The funerary objects were removed from the area surrounding Lake Washington primarily on... the 1870s, as the City of Seattle developed, the Lake people were pushed out to other areas, including...

  19. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility... Reservation, Washington) that this notice has been published. Dated: August 20, 2013. Sherry Hutt, Manager...

  20. Smoke-free law associated with higher-than-expected taxable retail sales for bars and taverns in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Dilley, Julia; Maher, Julie E; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry

    2010-07-01

    Continued progress in implementing smoke-free laws throughout the United States would benefit from documenting positive economic effects, particularly for the hospitality industry. This study describes changes in sales revenue in bars and taverns since December 2005, when a statewide smoke-free law in Washington State went into effect. Using 24 quarters of inflation-adjusted taxable retail sales data from 2002 through 2007, we fitted a regression model to estimate the effect of the smoke-free law on sales revenue, controlling for seasonality and other economic factors. We found no immediate change in bar revenues in the first quarter of 2006, but taxable retail sales grew significantly through the fourth quarter of 2007. In the 2 years after the smoke-free law was implemented, sales revenues were $105.5 million higher than expected for bars and taverns in Washington State. The higher-than-expected revenue from taxable sales in bars and taverns after the implementation of smoke-free laws in Washington State provided extra funds to the state general fund. Potential increases in revenue in other jurisdictions that implement smoke-free indoor air policies could provide funds to benefit residents of those jurisdictions.

  1. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  2. Parental Country of Birth and Childhood Vaccination Uptake in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Tasslimi, Azadeh; Matheson, Jasmine; DeBolt, Chas

    2016-07-01

    Underimmunization of certain immigrant populations can place them at high risk of experiencing vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between January 1, 2008, and May 1, 2013, among children included in the Washington State Immunization Information System. We assessed receipt of 1 or more doses of measles-containing, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-containing vaccines between 12 and 23 months of age. We compared children with 1 or more parents born in Somalia, Ukraine, Russia, Mexico, or India to children with 2 parents born in the United States. Poisson regression models with robust SEs were used to provide prevalence ratios adjusted for maternal education and number of prenatal visits. We identified 277 098 children, including 65 466 with foreign-born parents. Children of Somali-born parents were less likely to be immunized against measles than children of US-born parents (prevalence ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.84); this decrease became more pronounced over time (P < .01). No such disparity between these groups was observed with other vaccines. Compared with children of US-born parents, children of Ukrainian-born and Russian-born parents were less likely to be immunized, whereas children of Mexican-born and Indian-born parents were more likely to be immunized with any of the specified vaccines. We found country-specific patterns of immunization that may reflect underlying cultural or other beliefs. Certain immigrant communities with higher rates of immunization refusal may be at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases and require new forms of public health outreach. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Practice patterns among male and female general dentists in a Washington State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D

    2005-06-01

    Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.

  4. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  5. Program and curriculum development in radiochemistry at Washington State University to educate the next generation of radiochemists in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.B.; Nash, K.; Benny, P.; Elliston, J.; Buckely, P.

    2005-01-01

    Washington State University (WSU) has -been the recipient of grant funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Science and Technology to enhance its curriculum and service activities in radiochemistry. These funds have been used to hire new faculty, redesign undergraduate and graduate courses in radiochemistry, and initiate summer programs in radiochemistry for regional college faculty and high school teachers. The funds received from the federal government were matched by investments from the state of Washington. These investments have resulted in many positive changes in the Chemistry Department and the Nuclear Radiation Center at WSU. The number of students graduating from our radiochemistry programs has increased markedly, and the level of additional extra mural funding for our programs has also increased. These activities will be described, and feedback from employers of our radiochemistry graduates will be provided. Plans for future radiochemistry program development will also be discussed.

  6. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  7. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Padua Inventory: Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR)

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Giti; Kaviani, Hosein; Esmaili, Yaghob; Ebrahimkhani, Narges; Manesh, Alireza Amin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Persian Padua Inventory Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR), a measure of obsessive- compulsive phenomena, was examined in a non-clinical sample of 348 Iranian university students. Method The PI-WSUR was translated into Persian, and its back translation was controlled by the author inventory. A pilot study based on cultural differences was carried out on twenty students. The study subjects consisted of 348 university...

  9. Travelers' use of the WSDOT traffic conditions web site : customer satisfaction evaluation -- Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative : Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-28

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of public use of the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) traffic conditions web site. This research was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation to assess customer satisfac...

  10. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  11. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  12. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  13. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-04-01

    Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention.

  14. Nitrogen deposition effects on diatom communities in lakes from three National Parks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.

  15. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  16. Geomorphic response of the North Fork Stillaguamish River to the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott W.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mastin, Mark C.; Foreman, James R.

    2017-08-03

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington mobilized 8 million cubic meters of unconsolidated Pleistocene material, creating a valley‑spanning deposit that fully impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River. The river overtopped the 8-meter high debris impoundment within 25 hours and began steadily incising a new channel through the center of the deposit. Repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport measurements, bedload transport models, and observations of downstream channel change were used to document the establishment of that new channel through the landslide and assess the potential for downstream aggradation or channel change that might increase downstream flood hazards.Efficient erosion of the landslide deposit, associated with the steep knickzone formed by the downstream edge of the deposit, resulted in the re-establishment of a 20–40 meters wide, deeply inset channel through the entire deposit by May 2014, 2 months after the landslide. The mean water-surface elevation of the channel through the landslide decreased 7 meters during that 2-month period, and was about 1 meter above the pre-landslide profile in July 2014. The 2014–15 flood season, which included flows near the 0.5 annual exceedance probability discharge (2-year flood), widened the channel tens of meters, and further lowered the water-surface profile 0.5 meter. The planform position evolved slowly as a result of 5–20-meter high banks predominantly composed of clay-rich, cohesive lacustrine material. Erosion of the landslide deposit delivered a total of 820 thousand metric tons of sediment to the North Fork Stillaguamish River over the 18 months following the landslide. The sediment delivery from the deposit was predominantly fine grained: 77 percent (by mass) of the eroded material was silt or clay (less than 0.063 millimeter [mm]), 19 percent sand (0.063–2 mm), and 4 percent pebbles and cobbles (greater than 2 mm).Over the 18 months following the

  17. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Shaogang; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Drouillard, Ken G.; Haffner, G. Douglas; Letcher, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. - Osprey eggs from the Puget Sound area contain the herbicide dacthal and its analogue

  18. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  20. 75 FR 34674 - Washington: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information....gov or in hard copy. You may view and copy the Washington application, during normal business hours...(7)(c) Clarify that 261/5(c) Intro. counting exclusion applies to permit- by-rule (PBR), not to...

  1. Travel costs associated with flood closures of state highways near Centralia/Chehalis, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report discusses the travel costs associated with the closure of roads in the greater : Centralia/Chehalis, Washington region due to 100-year flood conditions starting on the Chehalis River. The costs : were computed for roadway closures on I-5,...

  2. School Transitions: A Qualitative Study of the Supports Provided by Washington State Special Education Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of special education administrators in the transition planning process for children with disabilities ages 3-21 in selected Washington school districts. A basic qualitative study was selected to construct meaning from a described phenomenon. The study sought to identify and explain how special education…

  3. 75 FR 12718 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Puget Sound, Naval Station Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: david.b.olson@usace.army.mil . Include the..., Attn: CECW-CO (David B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier... copy form. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Olson, Headquarters, Operations and Regulatory...

  4. 78 FR 14951 - State of Washington; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm or the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Agency, Region 10, Library, 10th Floor, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101. The Library is open from 9... telephone number for the Library is (206) 553-1289. (2) Washington Department of Ecology, Water Quality...

  5. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NODC Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  6. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  7. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  8. Procurement and Contracting, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Alaska State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Procurement and Contracting Search DOT& pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box 112500 3132 Channel Drive Juneau

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the Washington State University TRIGA reactor. Docket No. 50-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Washington State University (WSU) for a renewal of operating license number R-76 to continue to operate a research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Washington State University and is located on the WSU campus in Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by WSU without endangering the health and safety of the public

  10. The WIPP institutional program for states' involvement in WIPP transportation planning, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Supplemental Stipulated Agreement of 1982 between the state of New Mexico and the Department of Energy (DOE) committed the DOE to emergency response training in New Mexico. In 1988, the state of New Mexico and the DOE entered into a two-year agreement providing $203,017 for financial assistance and $67,000 for equipment to enhance the state's emergency response capability. In 1990, this agreement was extended for an additional two years providing $226,088 for financial assistance and $39,000 for emergency response equipment. Also, in 1988 an agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the United States Department of Transportation provided $1.0 million to seven western states (Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) to identify and implement programs to help ensure the safe transportation of transuranic waste from western points of origin to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As part of this process, the Western Governors' Association and the seven states prepared the Report to Congress, Transport of Transuranic Wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: State Concerns and Proposed Solutions. In July 1990, a five-year cooperative agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the DOE was signed providing $1.515 million in funding to seven states along the Hanford/WIPP route. This continued the work started under the Department of Transportation's cooperative agreement

  11. Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-07-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the

  12. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  13. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationships between the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning in the State of Washington. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joireman, Jeff; Abbott, Martin L.

    This report examines the overlap between student test results on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The two tests were compared and contrasted in terms of content and measurement philosophy, and analyses studied the statistical relationship between the ITBS and the WASL. The ITBS assesses…

  16. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  17. Use of attorneys and appeal filing in the Washington State workers' compensation program: does patient satisfaction matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Franklin, Gary; Turner, Judith; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Mootz, Robert; Smith-Weller, Terri

    2004-04-01

    Specify the frequency with which injured workers in Washington State's compensation system retained an attorney or filed an appeal, and the personal and job-related correlates of these actions. Analyze the relationship between workers' legal actions and their satisfaction in two domains: how well the claim was managed administratively, and how well the worker and claim manager communicated with one another. Characterize the relationship between retaining an attorney and long-term disability. Little is known about how often injured workers retain attorneys or file appeals in the workers' compensation system. We conducted a population-based study to examine the frequency of attorney retention and appeal filing in the Washington State workers' compensation program and the factors related to this event. Data for the study were provided by a survey conducted on 804 injured workers who were interviewed an average of 159 days after claim receipt. Attorney retention and appeal filing were examined up to 28 months later. Seven percent of the workers either retained an attorney or filed an appeal. Workers who were less satisfied with claims administration procedures were more likely to retain an attorney or file an appeal (Pclaim receipt to attorney retention (368 days) suggests that retaining an attorney is a correlate rather than a predictor of long-term disability.

  18. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Kerr, William C; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Ye, Yu

    2017-11-27

    In 2012 Washington State ended a wholesale/retail monopoly on liquor, permitting sale of spirits in stores with > 10,000 square feet. Implementation resulted in average price increases, but also five times the stores selling liquor. As part of a privatization evaluation, we studied pre-post and between-store-type purchase experiences. A 2010 Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) survey of liquor purchasers (n = 599), and the 2014 baseline of a repeated telephone survey (1,202 residents; n = 465 purchasers), each included 10 LCB questions on satisfaction with purchase experiences, each attribute with graded response scale A = 4 to D = 1 and F (0 = fail). Analyses used t-tests for satisfaction differences by time and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 2014 between-store satisfaction-level differences. Five purchase features were rated more favorably after privatization (ps convenience, store hours, and prices (though price rated lowest both times); selection offered, courtesy, and checkout speed were unaltered, and number of staff and staff knowledge declined (both p convenience favored grocery and drug stores, and price satisfaction favored wholesale (Costco) stores, with staff knowledge highest at liquor stores. Satisfaction with liquor purchases increased after privatization for half the consumer experiences. Availability (location convenience and store hours) was important to liquor purchasers. Such results are relevant to sustained support for the policy of privatizing spirits retail monopolies.

  19. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  20. Cost-Effectiveness/Cost-Benefit Analysis of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Thompson, John D; Kobrynski, Lisa; Ojodu, Jelili; Zarbalian, Guisou; Grosse, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the expected cost-effectiveness and net benefit of the recent implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Washington State. We constructed a decision analysis model to estimate the costs and benefits of NBS in an annual birth cohort of 86 600 infants based on projections of avoided infant deaths. Point estimates and ranges for input variables, including the birth prevalence of SCID, proportion detected asymptomatically without screening through family history, screening test characteristics, survival rates, and costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment were derived from published estimates, expert opinion, and the Washington NBS program. We estimated treatment costs stratified by age of identification and SCID type (with or without adenosine deaminase deficiency). Economic benefit was estimated using values of $4.2 and $9.0 million per death averted. We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the influence of key variables on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of net direct cost per life-year saved. Our model predicts an additional 1.19 newborn infants with SCID detected preclinically through screening, in addition to those who would have been detected early through family history, and 0.40 deaths averted annually. Our base-case model suggests an ICER of $35 311 per life-year saved, and a benefit-cost ratio of either 5.31 or 2.71. Sensitivity analyses found ICER values <$100 000 and positive net benefit for plausible assumptions on all variables. Our model suggests that NBS for SCID in Washington is likely to be cost-effective and to show positive net economic benefit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  2. Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria using geoinformatics, with focus on impact of climate ... Also the impacts of climate change on transportation were highlighted. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  3. Grants and Funding for State and Local Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and Local Transportation resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Guidance, strategies and links to grant opportunities are offered for reducing vehicle air pollution, including ozone or smog.

  4. 78 FR 46258 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... that governs the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520 across Lake Washington) at Seattle... Department of Transportation has requested that the draw span of the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State... this time, which would divert road traffic onto the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge. The closure of the...

  5. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting

  6. Information Needs Assessment for K-12 School Nurses in Rural Eastern Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    School nurses are an often-overlooked population of health care professionals who have great importance in rural communities where access to health care is limited. In order to better serve school nurses in rural eastern Washington, an assessment was conducted to determine their information needs, behaviors, and perceptions. Results indicated this population of school nurses searches for multiple types of health information on a daily basis and navigates obstacles to information access using a variety of resources. While largely confident in their searching ability, they are open to learning more about how to find reliable health information to support their daily responsibilities. These results will guide the development of a workshop for school nurses about using reliable health information resources to improve health care in their rural communities.

  7. Innovative States: Emerging Family Support and Education Programs. Arkansas, Iowa, Oregon, Vermont, Washington. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, MA.

    The five states featured in this second edition of "Innovative States" were chosen because they reflect crucial elements in an emerging understanding of state policy making in family support and education. Creative state partnerships involving program development and funding are a key ingredient to successful endeavors. States rely on…

  8. Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Rosanna; Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau; Davenport, Steven; Midgette, Greg

    2017-12-01

    To (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower. Secondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis traceability system spanning 7 July 2014 to 30 September 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation. Washington State, USA. (1) A total of 44 482 176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31 052 123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers. Primary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type and (2) excise tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC and CBD. Traditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now comprising 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.013] and CBD (coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015-0.019). The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 (CI = -0.07 to -0.05). In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but

  9. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  10. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  11. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  12. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets

  13. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  14. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  15. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  16. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...

  17. State transportation liaison funded positions study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), which was signed into law in August 2005, contained several provisions focused on streamlining the environmental review process. One of these provi...

  18. A Brief History of the Resting State: the Washington University Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a history of the concepts and developments that have led us to focus on the resting state as an object of study. We then discuss resting state research performed in our laboratory since 2005 with an emphasis on papers of particular interest. PMID:22266172

  19. Washington state--British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) : ITS-CVO border crossing deployment, evaluation draft report : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Washington state-British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) ITS-CVO Border Crossing Deployment is allowing for the completion of a bi-national freight border crossing ITS system at the border, and is a follow-on effort t...

  20. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  1. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Laurel... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AO-370-A8; AMS..., Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  2. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of... Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of a... have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding...

  3. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  4. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  5. Foreign-born care givers in Washington State nursing homes: characteristics, associations with quality of care, and views of administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Katherine; Pletz, Anna Maria; Katz, Aaron; Hagopian, Amy

    2015-06-01

    Following national trends, Washington State relies heavily on foreign-born workers to provide long-term care. Our study assesses state nursing facility characteristics, quality ratings, and the views of facility administrators about the implications of an increasing number of foreign-born employees. We used independently available data to supplement a survey of nursing home administrators. Nearly half of the administrators reported difficulty hiring U.S.-born job applicants. Three in four administrators reported problems related to language differences, and just more than a third reported challenges related to cultural and/or religious differences. Nonetheless, the proportion of foreign-born employees was positively associated with independent facility quality ratings. Almost half of the administrators reported discrimination by patients/clients toward their foreign-born workers. Quality ratings were negatively associated with for-profit, chain, or multi-ownership status. The proportion of foreign-born employees in nursing facilities may be associated with improved performance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  7. Maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, 1992-2014: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Julianne; Vora, Manali V; Fuller, Mackenzie S; Phipps, Amanda I; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2018-05-01

    Women in veterinary occupations are routinely exposed to potential reproductive hazards, yet research into their birth outcomes is limited. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of the association between maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. Using Washington State birth certificate, fetal death certificate and hospital discharge data from 1992 to 2014, we compared birth outcomes of mothers in veterinary professions (n=2662) with those in mothers in dental professions (n=10 653) and other employed mothers (n=8082). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using log binomial regression. Outcomes studied were premature birth (veterinary support staff separately. While no statistically significant associations were found, we noted a trend for SGA births in all veterinary mothers compared with dental mothers (RR=1.16, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.36) and in veterinarians compared with other employed mothers (RR=1.37, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.96). Positive but non-significant association was found for malformations among children of veterinary support staff. These results support the need for further study of the association between veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Washington State Retail Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Preferences for Marijuana Messages in a Sample of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve

    2018-03-01

    As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.

  9. The state of public transportation in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-14

    This full text of a speech delivered at a luncheon in Harris County,Texas on December 14, 1994, gives a status report on METRO and how Houston's key transportation providers plan to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. Many improvements h...

  10. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  11. GED Test Changes and Attainment: Overview of 2014 GED Test Changes and Attainment in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kara; Gaeta, Cristina; Sager, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In January 2014, the GED Testing Service significantly redesigned the GED test to incorporate the Common Core State Standards and the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the significant changes made to the test in 2014, examine the impact of the changes on Washingtonians, and make…

  12. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  13. Epidemiology of Infectious Disease-Related Death After Release from Prison, Washington State, United States, and Queensland, Australia: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Blatchford, Patrick J; Forsyth, Simon J; Stern, Marc F; Kinner, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    People in prison may be at high risk for infectious diseases and have an elevated risk of death immediately after release compared with later; their risk of death is elevated for at least a decade after release. We compared rates, characteristics, and prison-related risk factors for infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, and Washington State, United States, regions with analogous available data. We analyzed data from retrospective cohort studies of people released from prison in Queensland (1997-2007, n=37,180) and Washington State (1999-2009, n=76,208) and linked identifiers from each cohort to its respective national death index. We estimated infectious disease-related mortality rates (deaths per person-years in community) and examined associations using Cox proportional hazard models. The most frequent infectious disease-related underlying cause of death after release from prison was pneumonia (43%, 23/54 deaths) in the Australian cohort and viral hepatitis (40%, 69/171 deaths) in the U.S. cohort. The infectious disease-related mortality rate was significantly higher in the U.S. cohort than in the Australian cohort (51.2 vs. 26.5 deaths per 100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.42, 2.62). In both cohorts, increasing age was strongly associated with mortality from infectious diseases. Differences in the epidemiology of infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prison may reflect differences in patterns of community health service delivery in each region. These findings highlight the importance of preventing and treating hepatitis C and other infectious diseases during the transition from prison to the community.

  14. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  15. 78 FR 26417 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Transportation Project in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Interstate 90 (I-90) Snoqualmie Pass... to 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). A claim seeking judicial review of the Federal agency actions on the listed... claim, then that shorter time period still applies. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Liana Liu, Area...

  16. Statement at NRC International Regulators Conference on Nuclear Security, 4 December 2012, Washington, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    I would like to begin by thanking NRC Chairman Allison Macfarlane for hosting this first regulatory Conference on nuclear security involving regulators, law enforcement agencies and the IAEA. The United States has been a very important partner in the IAEA's nuclear security activities right from the start. It is by far the largest donor to our Nuclear Security Fund. It has actively supported our programmes and has been generous in providing funding, equipment and training to other Member States. When President Obama hosted the first Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010, he said it was important that that event should be part of a ''serious and sustained effort'' to improve nuclear security throughout the world. Since then, a growing number of governments have given high-level attention to this vitally important issue. This is very encouraging. Today, I am especially pleased to see regulators coming together to focus on this subject. I am confident that your meeting will make a valuable contribution to strengthening global nuclear security. I would like to share with you some important recent milestones in the IAEA's nuclear security work. As you know, primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments. However, governments have recognized that international cooperation is vital. Terrorists and other criminals do not respect international borders and no country can respond effectively on its own to the threat which they pose. In September, our Member States - there are now 158 - reaffirmed the central role of the IAEA in e nsuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique expertise and our long experience of providing technical assistance and specialist, practical guidance to countries. To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other

  17. Groundwater remediation of hexavalent chromium along the Columbia River at the Hanford site in Washington state, USA - 59030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, Dyan L.; Charboneau, Briant L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, formerly used for nuclear weapons production, encompasses 1500 square kilometers in southeast Washington State along the Columbia River. A principle threat to the river are the groundwater plumes of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which affect approximately 9.8 square kilometers, and 4.1 kilometers of shoreline. Cleanup goals are to stop Cr(VI) from entering the river by the end of 2012 and remediate the groundwater plumes to the drinking water standards by the end of 2020. Five groundwater pump-and-treat systems are currently in operation for the remediation of Cr(VI). Since the 1990's, over 13.6 billion L of groundwater have been treated; over 1, 435 kg of Cr(VI) have been removed. This paper describes the unique aspects of the site, its environmental setting, hydrogeology, groundwater-river interface, riverine hydraulic effects, remediation activities completed to date, a summary of the current and proposed pump-and-treat operations, the in situ redox manipulation barrier, and the effectiveness of passive barriers, resins, and treatability testing results of calcium polysulfide, bio-stimulation, and electrocoagulation, currently under evaluation. (authors)

  18. Effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on carpenters' work-related injury rates, Washington State 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Sinyai, Clayton; Adams, Darrin

    2017-01-01

    Despite the size and breadth of OSHA's Outreach Training program for construction, information on its impact on work-related injury rates is limited. In a 9-year dynamic cohort of 17,106 union carpenters in Washington State, the effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on workers' compensation claims rate was explored. Injury rates were calculated by training status overall and by carpenters' demographic and work characteristics using Poisson regression. OSHA Outreach Training resulted in a 13% non-significant reduction in injury claims rates overall. The protective effect was more pronounced for carpenters in their apprenticeship years, drywall installers, and with increasing time since training. In line with these observed effects and prior research, it is unrealistic to expect OSHA Outreach Training alone to have large effects on union construction workers' injury rates. Standard construction industry practice should include hazard awareness and protection training, coupled with more efficient approaches to injury control. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:45-57, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Going from Microbial Ecology to Genome Data and Back: Studies on a Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Mormile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (~pH 9.8 and saline (~14 to 140 g liter-1 lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years and the extremely high sulfide level (~140 mM in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. H. hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment.

  20. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-376-2018, US Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, C.M.; Klein, M.K.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from the United States Marshals Service (SIC-9221) in Washington, D.C. for assistance in testing the effect of renovations to the ventilation system of their indoor firing range, lead (7439921) exposures were measured during handgun qualifying sessions. Each qualifying session of firing consisted of 60 rounds fired in 10 to 12 minutes. Personal breathing zone air samples were taken from three shooters and the range officer. Lead exposure concentrations measured were 2073, 1786, 172, and 142 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (microg/cu m). Eight hour time weighted average concentrations were calculated to be 194, 167, 101, and 13microg/cu m, respectively. The three shooters were therefore overexposed to lead. Bulk sampling of the sand from the bullet trap indicated it to be contaminated, containing 41% lead by weight. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed from exposure to lead. The authors recommended changes to improve the ventilation system. Following modification of the system, tests were again conducted and 11 of the 12 samples taken were below the limits of detection for the method used. The authors conclude that after modification, a hazard did not exist during qualifying sessions. The authors recommend specific measures to protect personnel from exposure to lead.

  1. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  2. New records of nematomorph parasites (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.

  3. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Ko, Cynthia W; Saha, Somnath; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789). We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. RESULTS: Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  4. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  5. Characteristics of construction firms at risk for future workers' compensation claims using administrative data systems, Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Foley, Michael; Adams, Darrin; Bonauto, Dave

    2018-06-01

    Construction is high-hazard industry, and continually ranks among those with the highest workers' compensation (WC) claim rates in Washington State (WA). However, not all construction firms are at equal risk. We tested the ability to identify those construction firms most at risk for future claims using only administrative WC and unemployment insurance data. We collected information on construction firms with 10-50 average full time equivalent (FTE) employees from the WA unemployment insurance and WC data systems (n=1228). Negative binomial regression was used to test the ability of firm characteristics measured during 2011-2013 to predict time-loss claim rates in the following year, 2014. Claim rates in 2014 varied by construction industry groups, ranging from 0.7 (Land Subdivision) to 4.6 (Foundation, Structure, and Building Construction) claims per 100 FTE. Construction firms with higher average WC premium rates, a history of WC claims, increasing number of quarterly FTE, and lower average wage rates during 2011-2013 were predicted to have higher WC claim rates in 2014. We demonstrate the ability to leverage administrative data to identify construction firms predicted to have future WC claims. This study should be repeated to determine if these results are applicable to other high-hazard industries. Practical Applications: This study identified characteristics that may be used to further refine targeted outreach and prevention to construction firms at risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Reduced sleep duration and history of work-related injuries among Washington State adolescents with a history of working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Miller, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between sleep and occupational injury risk has not been adequately explored for working adolescents. Data were analyzed from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade public school students. Teens reported average school and weekend night sleep hours and history of work-related injury that received medical treatment. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between sleep duration and occupational injury. Of 4,144 working teens, 6.4% reported ever having an occupational injury. Teens who sleep ≤5 hr/school night had greater odds of a history of occupational injury than those sleeping 8 hr (OR:2.91, 95% CI:1.85-4.57). No significant association was observed for weekend night sleep duration. Reduced school night sleep was associated with increased odds of work-related injury in adolescents. Long hours and late night schedules may contribute to decreased sleep time and potentially have other health and developmental impacts for youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity.The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts.This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  8. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A; Tezak, Eugene P

    2013-01-01

    Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  9. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  10. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  11. Basalt alteration and basalt-waste interaction in the Pasco Basin of Washington State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Carnahan, C.L.; Apps, J.A.; Mouton, C.A.; Corrigan, D.J.; Frisch, C.J.; Shomura, L.K.

    1978-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the nature of the minerals which coat vesicle and fracture surfaces in the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation, simulate the mass transfer which led to their precipitation, and predict the mass transfer associated with the dissolution of spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), petrographic, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe (EMP) analyses have been made on a series of samples taken from 1100 ft (335.3 m) of core from core hole DC2. Preliminary simulations of the mass transfer associated with basalt dissolution in a thermodynamically closed system have been accomplished. In addition two mass transfer codes have been modified to facilitate data base changes. Thermochemical data for uranium and plutonium have been collected and converted to standard state conditions. These data will be critically evaluated and input to the mass transfer data base in the near future

  12. Space transportation activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  13. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  14. Workplace health and safety regulations: Impact of enforcement and consultation on workers' compensation claims rates in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggs, James; Silverstein, Barbara; Foley, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There has been considerable debate in the public policy arena about the appropriate mix of regulatory enforcement and consultation in achieving desired health and safety behavior across industries. Recently there has been a shift in federal policy toward voluntary approaches and constraining the scope of enforcement programs, although there is little evidence that this might improve health and safety outcomes. To address this, we examined changes in lost time workers compensation claims rates for Washington State employers who had (1) no OSHA State Plan (WISHA) activity, (2) enforcement, (3) consultation, and (4) both types of visits. Compensable claims rates, hours, and WISHA activity were determined for each employer account with a single business location that had payroll hours reported for every quarter from 1997-2000 and more than 10 employees. We used a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to Poisson regression to model the association between WISHA activity and claims rate controlling for other external factors. Controlling for previous claims rate and average size, claims rates for employers with WISHA enforcement activity declined 22.5% in fixed site industry SIC codes compared to 7% among employers with no WISHA activity (P 0.10). WISHA consultation activity was not associated with a greater decline in compensable claims rates (-2.3% for fixed sites and +3.5% for non-fixed sites). WISHA activity did not adversely affect worksite survivability through the study period. Enforcement inspections are significantly associated with decreasing compensable workers compensation claims rates especially for fixed site employers. We were unable to identify an association between consultation activities and decreasing claims rates. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Particle transport methods for LWR dosimetry developed by the Penn State transport theory group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighat, A.; Petrovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews advanced particle transport theory methods developed by the Penn State Transport Theory Group (PSTTG) over the past several years. These methods have been developed in response to increasing needs for accuracy of results and for three-dimensional modeling of nuclear systems

  16. Permissible state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation have been ruled inconsistent with federal law invalidated by the courts. As the date for repository operation, and its associated transportation, draws near, more states can be expected to adopt permit/fee systems. Examination of the U.S. Department of Transportation's advisory rulings and federal court cases on previous permit/fee systems gives general guidance on the type of permit/fee systems most likely to withstand challenges. Such a system would: have a simplified permit application with minimal information requirements; address a federally-defined class of hazardous or radioactive materials; allow access to all shipments conducted in compliance with federal law; charge a fee reasonably related to the costs imposed on the state by the transportation; and minimize the potential for re-directing shipments to other jurisdictions

  17. United States Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) 80 transportation facilities, each contractor's transportation management operation has different internal and site specific procedures, and reports to a DOE regional Field Office Traffic Manager (FOTM). The DOE Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the responsibility to manage a transportation program for safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The TMP develops and administers transportation/traffic operations management policies and programs for materials; including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous wastes, pursuant to applicable federal regulations, such as the Code of Federal Register, Sections 40 and 49. Transportation management has become an increasingly critical primarily because of transportation issues regarding the shipment of radioactive materials and hazardous wastes that are frequently the focus of public concerns. A large shipments and requiring millions of business transactions necessitates the establishment of automated systems, programs, procedures, and controls to ensure that the transportation management process in being handled in a safe, efficient, and economical manner. As the mission of many DOE facilities changes from production of special nuclear materials for defense purposes to environmental restoration and waste management, the role of transportation management will become even more important to the safe and efficient movement of waste materials to prescribed locations. In support of this role, the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) was conceived to assist the DOE and its contractors in the performance of their day-to-day transportation management activities. The ATMS utilizes the latest in technology and will supply state-of-the-art automated transportation management for current and future DOE transportation requirements

  18. Collaborative effort in Washington state slashes non-essential use of the ED by Medicaid patients, delivering millions in projected savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Early data suggest a coordinated, state-wide effort has reduced non-essential use of the ED by 10% among Medicaid recipients in Washington state, and is projected to save the state an estimated $31 million in the first year of the approach. The effort includes the adoption of seven best practices by hospitals across the state.These include the creation of an Emergency Department Information Exchange, so that EDs can immediately access a patient's utilization history, strict narcotic prescribing guidelines, and regular feedback reports to hospitals regarding ED utilization patterns. The effort was prompted by threats by the state legislature to limit Medicaid payments for ED visits deemed not medically necessary in the emergency setting. The legislature backed down when emergency physicians in the state countered with their own proposal to reduce nonessential use of the ED. They worked with other health care groups in the state to develop the plan. Data on the first six months of the effort are included in a report to the state legislature by the Washington State Health Care Authority. Among the findings are a 23% reduction in ED visits among Medicaid recipients with five or more visits, a 250% increase in providers who have registered with the state's Prescription Monitoring Program, aimed at identifying patients with narcotic-seeking behavior, and a doubling in the number of shared care plans, intended to improve care coordination. Emergency providers say big challenges remain, including a need for more resources for patients with mental health and dental care needs.

  19. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  20. Partners in immunization: 2010 survey examining differences among H1N1 vaccine providers in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Katherine; Gleason, Cindy; Richards, Jennifer L; Chamberlain, Allison; Andrews, Tracey; Watson, Lin; Whitney, Ellen; Hinman, Alan R; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Emergency response involving mass vaccination requires the involvement of traditional vaccine providers as well as other health-care providers, including pharmacists, obstetricians, and health-care providers at correctional facilities. We explored differences in provider experiences administering pandemic vaccine during a public health emergency. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of H1N1 vaccine providers in Washington State, examining topics regarding pandemic vaccine administration, participation in preparedness activities, and communication with public health agencies. We also examined differences among provider types in responses received (n=619, 80.9% response rate). Compared with other types of vaccine providers (e.g., family practitioners, obstetricians, and specialists), pharmacists reported higher patient volumes as well as higher patient-to-practitioner ratios, indicating a broad capacity for community reach. Pharmacists and correctional health-care providers reported lower staff coverage with seasonal and H1N1 vaccines. Compared with other vaccine providers, pharmacists were also more likely to report relying on public health information from federal sources. They were less likely to report relying on local health departments (LHDs) for pandemic-related information, but indicated a desire to be included in LHD communications and plans. While all provider types indicated a high willingness to respond to a public health emergency, pharmacists were less likely to have participated in training, actual emergency response, or surge capacity initiatives. No obstetricians reported participating in surge capacity initiatives. Results from this survey suggest that efforts to increase communication and interaction between public health agencies and pharmacy, obstetric, and correctional health-care vaccine providers may improve future preparedness and emergency response capability and reach.

  1. Using the global positioning system in support of environmental characterization at the Hanford Site in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.B.; Tzemos, S.; Dietz, L.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's 1,450 km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State accumulated hazardous wastes for more than 50 years. To support the Site's mission of environmental restoration and cleanup, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to verify waste site locations and provide location information for field samples. Collected GPS data are stored for use in the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). The NAVSTAR GPS is a space-based electronic navigation and positioning system designed and operated by the US Department of Defense (DOD). The system consists of three major components: (1) the space segment, comprising 24 earth-orbiting satellites; (2) the control segment, made up of 5 control and monitoring stations placed around the globe; and (3) the user segment, which includes users worldwide. When declared fully operational by the DOD, the NAVSTAR GPS will allow users to identify their geographical position anywhere on earth at any time. There are no user fees for the service and anyone with a GPS receiver may use the system worldwide. The one major hindrance to the system is the DOD policy concerning a security option called Selective Availability (SA). Selective Availability affects the usability of the system by intentional manipulation of the GPS signals to degrade the accuracy of the user's positions. The period and magnitude of degradation is solely a DOD privilege. The DOD policy on SA is to vary the error in position calculated from the Standard Positioning Service code to approximately 100 m root-mean squared (RMS). With SA on and other possible errors included, users may know their location to within a few hundred meters. While this accuracy is good for many applications, it is too inaccurate for others

  2. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Prescribing Among Washington State Medical Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.

  4. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  5. Impacts of Landuse Management and Climate Change on Landslides Susceptibility over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, M. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The commercial forests on the western side of the Olympic Mountains in Washington State are a region of steep slopes and high annual rainfall (2500-6000 mm/year) and are therefore highly susceptible to landslides. Potential climatic change (more intense and frequent winter storms) may exacerbate landslide susceptibility unless forest management practices are changed. As this area is a critical habitat for numerous organisms, including salmon, this may result in potentially severe consequences to riparian habitat due to increased sediment loads. Therefore, there is a need to investigate potential forest management plans to promote the economic viability of timber extraction while protecting the natural habitat, particularly in riparian areas. The objective of this study is to predict the long term effects of forest management decisions under projected climate change on slope stability. We applied the physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with its sediment module to simulate mass wasting and sediment delivery under different vegetation and climate scenarios. Sub-basins were selected and classified according to elevation, slope, land cover and soil type. Various land management practices (such as clear-cutting in riparian areas, logging under short rotations, varying amount of timbers left intact in riparian areas) were applied to each of the selected sub-basins. DHSVM was used to simulate landslide volume, frequency, and sediment loads for each of the land cover applications under various future climate scenarios. We comment on the suitability of various harvesting techniques for different parts of the forest to minimize landslide-induced sediment loading to streams in an altered climate. This approach can be developed as a decision making tool that can be used by forest managers to make long-term planning decisions.

  6. Marine vessel air emissions in B.C. and Washington State outside the GVRD and FVRD for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, R.G.; Trask, T.C.; Cheng, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    Emissions inventories are used by government agencies as a tool for policy development and air quality management. Marine vessels have been identified as a major source of anthropogenic pollution in British Columbia. This report presents estimates of emissions from marine vessels in coastal areas in British Columbia outside of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD), and in Washington State for the year 2000. The project includes an update of emission estimates for each marine vessel category and an update of emission estimates for pollutants of interest, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), sulphur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as inhalable fine particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia. This report presented emissions results for both the Canadian and U.S. portions. It also includes both spatial and temporal allocation of emissions. Results indicate that ocean-going vessels are the major contributor to emissions of NOx, SOx, PM and greenhouse gases, accounting for 56, 93, 83, and 51 per cent of the total marine vessel emissions respectively. They also contribute 30 and 33 per cent to the marine totals for CO and VOCs. Harbour vessels contribute 22 and 24 per cent of NOx and greenhouse gases and 17 per cent of both CO and VOCs. Ferries contribute between 15 per cent and 23 per cent for CO, VOC, NOx and GHGs, but less than 9 per cent for SOx and PM. Fishing vessels contribute 1 per cent or less of all contaminants. Although recreational vessels are major contributors for CO and VOC, they contribute less than 2 per cent for all other contaminants. A comparison of 1995 and 2000 marine vessel inventory for British Columbia was presented and recommendations for improvements were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Promoting Employee Health Through an American Cancer Society Program, The CEOs Challenge, Washington State, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Parrish, Amanda T; Kohn, Marlana; Hammerback, Kristen; McMillan, Becca; Hannon, Peggy A

    2015-12-17

    Evidence-based practices in the workplace can increase levels of healthy eating, cancer screening, physical activity, and tobacco cessation but are underused, even in large workplaces. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of The CEOs Challenge, a program developed by the American Cancer Society to promote implementation and maintenance of health-promoting, evidence-based workplace practices by large companies. Use of 17 evidence-based practices by 17 companies in the Washington State Chapter of the American Cancer Society's CEOs Against Cancer network was assessed via survey and scored from 0 to 100. Companies received a written report of their baseline performance, followed by at least quarterly consultations with American Cancer Society staff members trained to assist in implementation of these practices. Follow-up performance was measured at 1 year. At baseline, implementation scores were 54.8 for cancer screening, 46.5 for healthy eating, 59.8 for physical activity, and 68.2 for tobacco cessation. At follow-up, scores increased by 19.6 for cancer screening, 19.4 for healthy eating, 16.0 for physical activity, and 9.4 points for tobacco cessation. The CEOs Challenge is a promising approach to chronic disease prevention via the workplace. It brings together one of the nation's largest health-promoting voluntary agencies with the nation's largest employers to promote evidence-based practices targeted at the most common causes of disease and death. The program increased the adoption of these practices and was well-accepted.

  8. Senior executive transportation & public safety summit : national traffic incident management leadership & innovation roadmap for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    This report summarizes the proceedings, findings, and recommendations from a two-day Senior Executive Summit on Transportation and Public Safety, held June 26 and 27, 2012 at the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) in Washington, D.C. ...

  9. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  10. Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)

  11. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    5.:01 6.01 1 5801 25.0100MS OC2&O 1 I I150Of.01 2.01 1.01 I I I I I I I I (5A 440 AI ,.l;. :, 2) ARARAT MARINE, tNC. I I I ! : 16 I -660 I9A~ o * 16... MONT CATNEIMEN M 3103 3 1333 31 0.1.39003 3 ...M 3AM ME#CNIMAN it 1907 of M1M 94311041 3 0730303 77.71 22.73 14.03 18003 1 40.0180MIR 3K ETCNtMAN 1 197...903D MONTE & STATES U=16 MCI. I I I I I fts me Is"M 1 19624asat #Q.ot 11.11 6.61 - t 41111 13.618M ILA MY I SM I 1",211 61.61 11.21 1.01 1 1KW9Ift, I

  12. Transportation risk assessment of radioactive wastes generated by the N-Reactor stabilization program at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.

    1994-12-01

    The potential radiological and nonradiological risks associated with specific radioactive waste shipping campaigns at the Hanford Site are estimated. The shipping campaigns analyzed are associated with the transportation of wastes from the N-Reactor site at the 200-W Area, both within the Hanford Reservation, for disposal. The analysis is based on waste that would be generated from the N-Reactor stabilization program

  13. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information

  14. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  15. Association of Pre-pregnancy BMI and Postpartum Weight Retention Before Second Pregnancy, Washington State, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, Tyler G; Dundas, Nicolas J; Roncaioli, Steven A; Littman, Alyson J; Phipps, Amanda I

    2018-03-06

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity is one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions associated with adverse birth outcomes. Smaller studies have suggested that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with postpartum weight retention. Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI status and maternal weight retention. Study design We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data from 2003-2013. We included women who had two sequential births during this time period, with the second birth occurring within 18-36 months of the first singleton delivery date. BMI before a women's first pregnancy ("pre-pregnancy BMI") was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) and overweight/obese (25-40 kg/m 2 ). Women were classified as having returned to first pre-pregnancy BMI if their BMI before their second pregnancy was no more than 1 kg/m 2 more compared to their BMI before their first pregnancy. Analyses were stratified by gestational weight gain during the first pregnancy (below, met, exceeded recommended gestational weight gain). Results A total of 49,132 mothers were included in the study. Among women who met their recommended gestational weight gain, compared to mothers with a normal BMI, obese/overweight mothers were less likely to return to their pre-pregnancy BMI (76.5 vs 72.3%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85-0.92). A similar pattern was observed among women who exceeded their recommended gestational weight gain (62.6 vs 53.2%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.78-0.80). Conclusion Pre-pregnancy BMI in the overweight/obese range is associated with a decreased likelihood of returning to pre-pregnancy BMI. Further research to support women during and after their pregnancy to promote behavior changes that prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention after birth is needed.

  16. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  17. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  18. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of any agricultural land that would result from the disapproval. The environmental and economic effects on productive...

  19. Gauge field governing parallel transport along mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    At first a short account is given of some basic notations and results on parallel transport along mixed states. A new connection form (gauge field) is introduced to give a geometric meaning to the concept of parallelity in the theory of density operators. (Author) 11 refs

  20. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  1. State and market in post-reform Brazilian air transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fonseca Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes that have taken place in Brazilian air transportation following the cycle of “market reforms” have turned this sector into an object of growing interest. This interest, in turn, has led to the emergence of a broad literature on the subject, characterized by the emphasis on an agenda of liberalization and the critique of State activism. The goal of the present article is to promote a confrontation between the different interpretations that have been made, incorporating the contributions of approaches inspired in Economic Sociology and in institutionalist analyses in order to draw attention to the importance that political variables, and the State in particular, have for economic performance. The post-reform context is characterized by an initial moment of greater State activism regarding air transportation, through re-initiation of stricter regulatory mechanisms and the re-opening of channels of dialog between state actors and firms. This is followed by a second moment in which state activism is abandoned, at the same time that the sector demonstrates expressive rates of growth, pushing it beyond its existing capacity and flight support infrastructure. This culminated in the episode known as the “apagão aéreo” (aerial black out Analysis of testimonies of state and private sector actors regarding the “blackout” enables us to identify the flaws in the responsible state apparatus as one of the factors that led to the “blackout”. Our conclusions draw attention to the importance of taking political factors into consideration, and particularly the role of the State, in the development of air transportation in Brazil. Keywords: commercial aviation, politics and economics, regulation, Economic Sociology, Historical Institutionalism.

  2. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation

  3. Characteristics of home care workers who leave their jobs: a cross-sectional study of job satisfaction and turnover in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Sahar; Jacoby, Daniel; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining a stable and motivated home care workforce has become a top policy priority. We surveyed 402 former home care workers in Washington State. We compared these "leavers" to current home care workers recently surveyed. Those who left the profession were more highly educated, had higher household income, and were more likely to be White. Those newly employed have better benefits, wages, hours, and career mobility than in their home care jobs. The low status and poor pay of home care workers may result in the inability of the profession to retain those who face better prospects.

  4. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  5. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  6. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. The efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness, and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results and observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with PWRs. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of lay-up and various start-up conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on corrosion-product transport on the primary side of steam generators are also discussed. (author)

  7. State of the art, to protect lines that transport hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    Personnel's periodic and forced displacement for monitoring the buried pipe and to obtain reports on the state of the lines, it will no longer be necessary in some tracts of the pipeline in Colombia, now the remote supervision exists for the control of the systems of cathodic protection, a technology that ECOPETROL is applying in its lines of transport. This technique facilitates the preventive maintenance to the systems to the corrosion protection

  8. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, S.N.

    1984-02-01

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  9. Use of electrical imaging and distributed temperature sensing methods to characterize surface water–groundwater exchange regulating uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Andy; Strickland, Christopher; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensor (FO‐DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the Columbia River corridor at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington. We first inverted resistivity and induced polarization CWEI data sets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse‐grained, high‐permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer‐grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ∼3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). The FO‐DTS data recorded along 1.5 km of cable with a 1 m spatial resolution and 5 min sampling interval revealed subreaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water–groundwater exchange. The FO‐DTS data sets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the CWEI and reveal a pattern of highly focused exchange, concentrated at springs where the Hanford Formation is thickest. Our findings illustrate how the combination of CWEI and FO‐DTS technologies can characterize surface water–groundwater exchange in a complex, coupled river‐aquifer system.

  10. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.; Douglas, David C.; Shirley, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997–2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7°C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska.

  11. Washington Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference was held in Washington from 11-13 March. It was the ninth in the series of meetings organized in the USA which differ from the 'International' meetings in their coverage of the full range of accelerator engineering and technology, including applications outside e field of high energy physics. The Conference took place under the cloud of further budget cuts for Fiscal Year 1982 in the USA which the Department of Energy has applied in line with the financial policy of the new administration. Coming on top of many years of budget trimming which have reduced the number of high energy physics Laboratories funded by the DOE to three (Brookhaven, Fermilab, Stanford - Cornell is funded by the National Science Foundation) and reduced the exploitation of these Laboratories to less than half of their potential, the new cuts did not exactly help to boost morale. Nevertheless, the huge amount of tailed work in accelerator physics and technology which was presented at the Conference showed how alive the field is

  12. Expanded public notice: Washington State notice of intent for corrective action management unit, Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document is to serve notice of the intent to operate an Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), adjacent to the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington, as a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 264.552. The ERDF CAMU will serve as a management unit for the majority of waste (primarily soil) excavated during remediation of waste management sites on the Hanford Facility. Only waste that originates from the Hanford Facility can be accepted in this ERDF CAMU. The waste is expected to consist of dangerous waste, radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Mixed waste contains radioactive and dangerous components. The primary features of the ERDF could include the following: one or more trenches, rail and tractor/trailer container handling capability, railroads, an inventory control system, a decontamination building, and operational offices

  13. Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.

  14. Developing guidelines for incorporating managing demand into WSDOT planning and programming: transportation demand management guidance for corridor planning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) regional planning programs address current and forecasted deficiencies of State highways through the conduct of corridor studies. This Guidance for the conduct of corridor planning studies is ...

  15. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  16. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U 3 O 8 resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed

  17. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  18. Information needs to support state and local transportation decision making into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established new requirements for data development and dissemination that have had an impact on federal, state, and local transportation planning processes across the United States. ...

  19. United States experience in the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.; Williams, L.D.; Brobst, W.A.; Shappert, L.B.; Jefferson, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material forms a vital link in the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. Actual U.S. experience and practice with such systems for the packaging and transport of uranium ore concentrates, uranium hexafluoride, fresh fuel, irradiated fuel, non-high-level waste, and plutonium with low heat generation rates are described. Specific shipping systems in current use for these services are illustrated. A comparison will be made of shipping requirements for nuclear parks versus dispersed facilities. Shipping systems for other fuel cycle materials (e.g., high-level waste and cladding hulls) have not been developed because there has been no need to transport these materials commercially. However, conceptual designs for packaging and transport of such materials have been developed. Selected systems are reviewed and summarized. Transport safety in the U.S. is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Key regulations defining packaging requirements, allowable radiation dose rates, and handling procedures are reviewed. Although the radioactive material shipping industry has an outstanding safety record, opposition to nuclear fuel cycle shipments has surfaced in several areas. The U.S. congressional ban on the shipment of plutonium by air, the actions of New York City to prohibit certain shipments within the city limits, and the requirement of U.S. railroads to ship spent fuel casks only in dedicated trains are reviewed. In an attempt to provide information on the safety margins inherent in the design of radioactive materials packages, ERDA has undertaken a series of accident studies and full scale crash tests that stress the packages beyond the levels expected in severe accidents. In addition, the level of total risk associated with radioactive materials shipments is being evaluated. Current ERDA crash test and transportation risk assessment studies are reviewed. Concern about the possibility of

  20. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Transuranic waste transportation issues in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes

  2. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Marijuana and Other Substances Among Pregnant and Parenting Women With Substance Use Disorders: Changes in Washington State After Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Therese M; Graham, J Christopher; Carlini, Beatriz H; Ernst, Cara C; Brown, Natalie Novick

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization. Most study participants reported complete abstinence from alcohol and nonprescription drugs at program exit. Among those who were still using substances, women who completed the intervention after marijuana legalization were significantly more likely to report marijuana use at program exit compared with women who completed the intervention before marijuana legalization. Across both cohorts (pre- and post-legalization), we found a positive association of exit marijuana use with alcohol, illegal methadone, other opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use; even when we controlled for historical period, the association with some of these substances with marijuana use remained evident. Independent of marijuana use, we saw increased use during the post-legalization period of alcohol, illicit methadone, and other opioids. Marijuana use at exit from the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) increased significantly after marijuana legalization in the state. Women who were not abstinent from marijuana at program exit were likely to report use of other substances as well. Our study design demonstrates an association but does not allow us to conclude that marijuana use leads to other substance use among this sample of women with a history of polysubstance use.

  4. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1995-08-01

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  5. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Reed, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  6. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  7. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. Efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results of observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with pressurized-water reactors. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of layup and various startup conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on CPT on the primary side of SGs are also discussed. (author)

  8. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State... Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... Anthropology, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7544, telephone (509) 963-2671 or Dr. Peter...

  9. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  10. 76 FR 377 - Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... State of Washington by Auditor's File Nos. G 450664 and G 147358. Parcel II That portion of the... thereof acquired by the State of Washington by deed recorded under Auditor's File Nos. G 140380 and D... recorded under Auditor's File No. F 38759, records of Clark County, Washington, described as follows...

  11. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  12. Producing a satellite-derived map and modelling Spartina alterniflora expansion for Willapa Bay in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Cynthia Jane

    1998-12-01

    This research addresses the identification of the areal extent of the intertidal wetlands of Willapa Bay, Washington, and the evaluation of the potential for exotic Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) expansion in the bay using a spatial geographic approach. It is hoped that the results will address not only the management needs of the study area but provide a research design that may be applied to studies of other coastal wetlands. Four satellite images, three Landsat Multi-Spectral (MSS) and one Thematic Mapper (TM), are used to derive a map showing areas of water, low, middle and high intertidal, and upland. Two multi-date remote sensing mapping techniques are assessed: a supervised classification using density-slicing and an unsupervised classification using an ISODATA algorithm. Statistical comparisons are made between the resultant derived maps and the U.S.G.S. topographic maps for the Willapa Bay area. The potential for Spartina expansion in the bay is assessed using a sigmoidal (logistic) growth model and a spatial modelling procedure for four possible growth scenarios: without management controls (Business-as-Usual), with moderate management controls (e.g. harvesting to eliminate seed setting), under a hypothetical increase in the growth rate that may reflect favorable environmental changes, and under a hypothetical decrease in the growth rate that may reflect aggressive management controls. Comparisons for the statistics of the two mapping techniques suggest that although the unsupervised classification method performed satisfactorily, the supervised classification (density-slicing) method provided more satisfactory results. Results from the modelling of potential Spartina expansion suggest that Spartina expansion will proceed rapidly for the Business-as-Usual and hypothetical increase in the growth rate scenario, and at a slower rate for the elimination of seed setting and hypothetical decrease in the growth rate scenarios, until all potential

  13. Effects of natural gas vehicles and fuel prices on key transportation economic metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is responsible for planning, operating, and maintaining : a highway network consisting of over 18,500 lane-miles of highway. Planning and building highways is, by nature, a : long-range enterp...

  14. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  15. Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers

  16. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: −1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  17. Federal/State cooperation in the licensing of a nuclear power project. A joint licensing process between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents a joint environmental review and licensing process established between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) in 1980-1983 for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project (S/HNP). It documents the agreements made between the agencies to prepare a joint environmental impact statement responsive to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act. These agreements also established protocol to conduct joint public evidentiary hearings on matters of mutual jurisdiction, thereby reducing the duplication of effort and increasing the efficiency of the use of resources of federal and state governments and other entities involved in the process. This report may provide guidance and rationale to licensing bodies that may wish to adopt some of the procedures discussed in the report in the event that they become involved in the licensing of a nuclear power plant project. The history of the S/HNP and of the agreement processes are discussed. Discussions are provided on implementing the joint review process. A separate section is included which presents independent evaluations of the process by the applicant, NRC, and EFSEC

  18. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  19. STATE REGULATION OF CARGO SECURING FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.

  20. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  1. 76 FR 14055 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA, and California State University, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA, and in the possession of California State University...

  2. Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward

  3. Intermittent strong transport of the quasi-adiabatic plasma state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bae; An, Chan-Yong; Min, Byunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The dynamics of the fluctuating electrostatic potential and the plasma density couched in the resistive-drift model at nearly adiabatic state are simulated. The linear modes are unstable if the phase difference between the potential and the density are positive. Exponential growth of the random small perturbations slows down due to the nonlinear E × B flows that work in two ways. They regulate the strength of the fluctuations by transferring the energy from the energy-producing scale to neighboring scales and reduce the cross phase at the same time. During quasi-steady relaxation sporadic appearance of very strong turbulent particle flux is observed that is characterized by the flat energy spectrum and the broad secondary peak in the mesoscale of the order of the gyro-radius. Such boost of the transport is found to be caused by presence of relatively large cross phase as the E × B flows are not effective in cancelling out the cross phase.

  4. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  5. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  6. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  7. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou’s [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent variables. Econometrica 68 (4), 839–874] conditional maximum likelihood estimator to allow for the presence of individual-specific effects. A limited information test is suggested to test for selection issues in non-experimental data. The specification tests indicate that the (conditional on the set of the confounding variables considered) assumptions of no selection due to unobservables and/or no unobserved individual-specific effects are not violated. Our findings indicate that the first job search service does have positive and significant impacts on the employment rate. However, providing repeated JSS to the same client has no significant impact. Further, we find that there are significant experience-enhancing effects. These findings suggest that providing one job search services training to individuals may have a lasting impact on raising their employment rates. PMID:26052178

  9. Black Carbon, Dust and Organic Matter at South Cascade Glacier in Washington State, USA: A Comprehensive Characterization of Temporal (1865-2014) and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, S.; Pittenger, D.; Swick, M.; Skiles, M.; Perez, A.; Sethi, H.; Sevier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rising temperatures are a widely recognized cause of glacial retreat in Washington, however light absorbing aerosols (LAA, including black carbon (BC), dust and organic matter) can also contribute to increased melt by reducing snow albedo. We present updated results of BC and dust variability at South Cascade (SOCAS) glacier spanning 1865-1994 using a 158 m ice core. Peak BC deposition occurred between 1940-1958, when median BC concentrations were 25 times higher than background levels. Post 1958 BC concentrations decrease, followed by an increase post 1980 associated with melt consolidation and/or trans-Pacific aerosol transport. Dust deposition at SOCAS is dominated by local sources. Albedo reductions from LAA are dominated by dust deposition, except during high BC deposition events from wildfires, and during the 1940-1958 period when BC contributes equally to albedo reductions. Results from a 2014 field campaign that included collection of 3 shallow ice cores, surface snow, and snow albedo measurements allow the 1865-1994 ice core record to be extended toward present, and spatial variability in LAA to be characterized. Snow albedo transects were measured using a spectrometer. BC concentrations were measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Gravimetric filtration was used to determine the total LAA, and a thermal gravimetric technique was used to partition the LAA between dust and organic matter. The organic matter was partitioned into organic and elemental carbon using a thermal optical method. These methods allow LAA abundances be measured, but to partition the contribution of the LAA to albedo reductions requires characterization of LAA optical properties. This was accomplished using a Hyperspectral Imaging Microscope Spectrometer method that allows particle reflectance to be measured at 138 nm2 pixel resolution. By combining these methods, we provide a comprehensive characterization of spatial and temporal LAA variability at SOCAS.

  10. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  11. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  12. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1996 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1996. Thirteen bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The report also includes 10 New York bills introduced in 1995 that remained pending during this review period. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency response. Also summarized are a state legislative resolution and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  13. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  14. Transportation of energy materials in the United states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography lists 459 books, periodical articles, research reports, and conference papers on the transportation of general/multi-fuel, coal, petroleum and gas, nuclear fuel, and electric power. Emphasis is on the various impacts of this transport in the U.S.: environmental, economic, social, safety, policy, etc. Arrangement is by commodity and by mode. An index by type of impact is included.

  15. Multimodal transports in the Unidted States and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2009-01-01

    is preferred in Europe whereas another is preferred in the US. In this sense, modern transport law has become reginialized. The regionalization creates difficulties when goods are trasnported between the two regions. Neither the attempt to regulate multimodal transports in the new global UNCITRAL Convention...

  16. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  17. Physical Activity Practices, Policies and Environments in Washington State Child Care Settings: Results of a Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Walters, Kelly M; Igoe, Bridget M; Payne, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Donna B

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Child care is an important setting for the promotion of physical activity (PA) in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between specific PA environments and recommended practices in child care settings as well as the degree to which child care settings met recommended standards for total PA time. Methods In 2013, all programs licensed to care for children ages 2-5 in WA state were surveyed about their PA related practices. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time and PA. Results The response rate was 45.8 % from centers (692/1511) and 32.1 % from homes (1281/3991). Few programs reported meeting best-practice standards for the amount of time children spend being physically active (centers: 12.1 %, homes: 20.1 %) and outdoor time (centers: 21.8 %, homes: 21.7 %). Programs where children go outside regardless of weather and those reporting more adult-led PA had higher odds of meeting best-practice standards for both PA and outdoor time. Meeting best-practice standards for outdoor time was the strongest predictor of meeting best-practice standards for total PA time [centers: OR 15.9 (9.3-27.2), homes: OR 5.2 (3.8-7.1)]. Conclusions for Practice There is considerable room for improvement in licensed child care settings in WA to meet best-practice standards for young children's outdoor and PA time. Initiatives that create policies and environments encouraging outdoor play and adult-led PA in child care have the potential to increase physical activity in substantial numbers of young children.

  18. Auditing Access to Outpatient Rehabilitation Services for Children With Traumatic Brain Injury and Public Insurance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Molly M; Thompson, Leah; Quistberg, D Alex; Haaland, Wren L; Rhodes, Karin; Kartin, Deborah; Kerfeld, Cheryl; Apkon, Susan; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-09-01

    To identify insurance-based disparities in access to outpatient pediatric neurorehabilitation services. Audit study with paired calls, where callers posed as a mother seeking services for a simulated child with history of severe traumatic brain injury and public or private insurance. Outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Sample of rehabilitation clinics (N=287): 195 physical therapy (PT) clinics, 109 occupational therapy (OT) clinics, 102 speech therapy (ST) clinics, and 11 rehabilitation medicine clinics. Not applicable. Acceptance of public insurance and the number of business days until the next available appointment. Therapy clinics were more likely to accept private insurance than public insurance (relative risk [RR] for PT clinics, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; RR for OT clinics, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.57; and RR for ST clinics, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.62), with no significant difference for rehabilitation medicine clinics (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.34). The difference in median wait time between clinics that accepted public insurance and those accepting only private insurance was 4 business days for PT clinics and 15 days for ST clinics (P≤.001), but the median wait time was not significantly different for OT clinics or rehabilitation medicine clinics. When adjusting for urban and multidisciplinary clinic statuses, the wait time at clinics accepting public insurance was 59% longer for PT (95% CI, 39%-81%), 18% longer for OT (95% CI, 7%-30%), and 107% longer for ST (95% CI, 87%-130%) than that at clinics accepting only private insurance. Distance to clinics varied by discipline and area within the state. Therapy clinics were less likely to accept public insurance than private insurance. Therapy clinics accepting public insurance had longer wait times than did clinics that accepted only private insurance. Rehabilitation professionals should attempt to implement policy and practice changes to promote equitable access to care. Copyright © 2017

  19. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  20. Advanced public transportation system deployment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication techn...

  1. Advanced public transportation systems : the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This report documents one of the early initiatives of UMTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communi...

  2. Structure of a Eukaryotic CLC Transporter Defines an Intermediate State in the Transport Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl - ) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl - ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl - ions and protons (H + ) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Cytoplasmic cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion-transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate residue changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl - /H + exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters.

  3. Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2011-01-01

    CLC proteins transport Cl− ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl− ion channels, while others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl− ions and H+ with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 Å resolution. Cytoplasmic CBS domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl−/H+ exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters. PMID:20929736

  4. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  5. A model for incorporating patient and stakeholder voices in a learning health care network: Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Edwards, Todd C; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Kessler, Larry; Lavallee, Danielle C; Patrick, Donald L; Sullivan, Sean D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Yanez, N David; Flum, David R

    2013-08-01

    To describe the inaugural comparative effectiveness research (CER) cohort study of Washington State's Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN), which compares invasive with noninvasive treatments for peripheral artery disease, and to focus on the patient centeredness of this cohort study by describing it within the context of a newly published conceptual framework for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). The peripheral artery disease study was selected because of clinician-identified uncertainty in treatment selection and differences in desired outcomes between patients and clinicians. Patient centeredness is achieved through the "Patient Voices Project," a CERTAIN initiative through which patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are administered for research and clinical purposes, and a study-specific patient advisory group where patients are meaningfully engaged throughout the life cycle of the study. A clinician-led research advisory panel follows in parallel. Primary outcomes are PRO instruments that measure function, health-related quality of life, and symptoms, the latter developed with input from the patients. Input from the patient advisory group led to revised retention procedures, which now focus on short-term (3-6 months) follow-up. The research advisory panel is piloting a point-of-care, patient assessment checklist, thereby returning study results to practice. The cohort study is aligned with the tenets of one of the new conceptual frameworks for conducting PCOR. The CERTAIN's inaugural cohort study may serve as a useful model for conducting PCOR and creating a learning health care network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between aggrading geomorphic surfaces and the formation of a late pleistocene paleosol in the palouse loess of eastern Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Eric V.; Busacca, Alan J.

    1990-09-01

    Variable rates of loess deposition contributed to dramatic regional variation in a soil-stratigraphic unit, the Washtucna Soil, in the Palouse loess deposits in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington state. Throughout most of the Channeled Scabland, the morphology of the Washtucna Soil is that of a single buried soil, but it bifurcates into two well-developed and pedologically distinct buried soils in areas immediately downwind of the major source of loessial sediment. Regional loess stratigraphy confirms that the two well-developed soils formed during the same interval of time during which only one soil formed in areas that are distal to loess source areas. The variable and perhaps rapid rates of soil formation suggested by the stratigraphy resulted from an interaction between variable rates of loess deposition and the formation of superimposed calcic soils. Petrocalcic horizons with weak Stage IV morphology formed as the zone of carbonate accumulation moved up into former A and cambic horizons that had been profusely burrowed by cicadas. The development of cicada burrows in one phase of soil development that were subsequently engulfed by pedogenic carbonate under a rising land surface seems to have greatly accelerated the development of the petrocalcic horizons. Accelerated rates of formation of the petrocalcic horizons occurred when extrinsic (pulses of loess deposition) and intrinsic (engulfment of burrowed horizons) thresholds were exceeded. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the soil formation that accompanied the rise in the land surface due to additional loess deposition may have occurred during the late Wisconsin glaciation when giant glacial outburst floods in the channeled Scabland triggered a new cycle of loess deposition.

  7. The persistent gap in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State: BRFSS, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z Joyce; Anderson, Naomi J; Foley, Michael; Rauser, Eddy; Silverstein, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    We examined the disparities in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State (WA) to provide support for possible policy decisions for uninsured workers. We examined data from the WA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2007 and compared workers aged 18-64 years of low income (annual household income income (annual household income ≥$35,000) on proportions and sources of health-care coverage. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses on factors that were associated with the uninsured. Of the 54,536 survey respondents who were working-age adults in WA, 13,922 (25.5%) were low-income workers. The proportions of uninsured were 38.2% for low-income workers and 6.3% for high-income workers. While employment-based health benefits remained a dominant source of health insurance coverage, they covered only 40.2% of low-income workers relative to 81.5% of high-income workers. Besides income, workers were more likely to be uninsured if they were younger; male; Hispanic; less educated; not married; current smokers; self-employed; or employed in agriculture/forestry/fisheries, construction, and retail. More low-income workers (28.7%) reported cost as an issue in paying for health services than did their high-income counterparts (6.7%). A persistent gap in health-care coverage exists between low- and high-income workers. The identified characteristics of these workers can be used to implement policies to expand health insurance coverage.

  8. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  9. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  10. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  11. Fokker-Planck transport in solid state accelerator concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.

    1989-01-01

    Particle transport in a crystalline solid under channeling conditions is considered by means of a Fokker-Planck description. The model includes electron multiple scattering, radiation damping and an accelerating electric field. Analytic solutions have been obtained using a harmonic potential model to describe the channeling forces. These solutions will be described

  12. Transportation Conformity : A Basic Guide for State and Local Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for five connected vehicle vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications, and the underlying connected vehicle system, for crash avoidance for the U.S. Department of Transportation (USD...

  13. Light transport through the bandedge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal Negro, Luca; Oton, Claudio J.; Gaburro, Zeno; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Johnson, Patrick; Lagendijk, Aart; Righini, Roberto; Colocci, Marcello; Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of light in nonperiodic quasicrystals is studied by ultrashort pulse interferometry. Samples consist of multilayer dielectric structures of the Fibonacci type and are realized from porous silicon. We observe mode beating and strong pulse stretching in the light transport through

  14. Working with the States to Transport TMI-2 Core Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.A.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, provided the opportunity to recognize and respond to specific state concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 81.348 - Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 5/14/01 Attainment The City of Kent and a portion of the Green River valley bounded on the east and... Type Seattle-Tacoma Area: Seattle-Tacoma Urban Area (as defined by the Washington Department of Transportation urban area maps) King County (part) Attainment Pierce County (part) Attainment Snohomish County...

  16. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head

    1983-01-01

    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...

  17. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  18. Facilities for Study and Research in the Offices of the United States Government at Washington. Bulletin, 1909, No. 1. Whole Number 398

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Arthur Twining

    1909-01-01

    This bulletin contains a report prepared by President Hadley of Yale University on the facilities for advanced study and research in the offices of the National Government at Washington. Especial interest attaches to this publication. It sets forth, in compact form, information which has frequently been sought by institutions and individuals…

  19. Working with the states to transport TMI-2 core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.A.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This reports that close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign

  20. 75 FR 1010 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Docket No. AB-55 (Sub-No. 698X)] CSX Transportation, Inc.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and..., Orange, and Washington Counties, IN.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 47150...

  1. Transport Properties of the Metallic State of TMTSF-DMTCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Jan Rud; Andrieux, A.

    1979-01-01

    The authors report the transport properties (longitudinal and transverse conductivity, magnetoresistance and thermopower) of TMTSF-DMTCNQ for pressures up to 13 kbar and temperatures down to 1.2K together with the phase diagram which results from these measurements. The most striking results...... at any temperature (σ∥≳105 (Ωcm)-1) and an enormous magnetoresistance Δρ/ρ≈15) is found for a field of 75 kOe perpendicular to the conducting chains...

  2. Steady-state cerebral glucose concentrations and transport in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetter, R.; Ugurbil, K.; Seaquist, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of brain glucose transport across the blood- brain barrier is of importance to understanding brain energy metabolism. The specific kinetics of glucose transport nave been generally described using standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These models predict that the steady- state glucose concentration approaches an upper limit in the human brain when the plasma glucose level is well above the Michaelis-Menten constant for half-maximal transport, K(t). In experiments wh...

  3. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  4. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparala, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  6. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  7. 77 FR 17569 - United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC)-Transportation-Dangerous Goods Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... identified in the Joint Action Plan, the Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group led by senior...)-- Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...--Dangerous Goods Working Group, of the United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC). Comments...

  8. Environmental impact of accident-free transportation of radioactive material in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A recent study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia Laboratories which considered transportation of radioactive materials in the United States suggests that a significant portion of the radiological impact results from accident-free transport. This paper explores the basis for that conclusion

  9. Sociodemographic Factors, Population Density, and Bicycling for Transportation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Transportation bicycling is a behavior with demonstrated health benefits. Population-representative studies of transportation bicycling in United States are lacking. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors, population density, and transportation bicycling and described transportation bicyclists by trip purposes, using a US-representative sample. This cross-sectional study used 2009 National Household Travel Survey datasets. Associations among study variables were assessed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. On a typical day in 2009, 1% of Americans older than 5 years of age reported a transportation bicycling trip. Transportation cycling was inversely associated with age and directly with being male, with being white, and with population density (≥ 10,000 vs transportation. Twenty-one percent of transportation bicyclists reported trips to work, whereas 67% reported trips to social or other activities. Transportation bicycling in the United States is associated with sociodemographic characteristics and population density. Bicycles are used for a variety of trip purposes, which has implications for transportation bicycling research based on commuter data and for developing interventions to promote this behavior.

  10. Climate change/variability science and adaptive strategies for state and regional transportation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a baseline understanding of current policy responses to climate : change/variability at the state and regional transportation-planning and -decision levels. Specifically, : researchers were interested in th...

  11. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been

  12. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Valstar, Johan R.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data

  13. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  14. State-Level Workshops on Ethanol for Transportation: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Final report on subcontract for holding four state-level workshops (Hawaii, Kentucky, Nevada, California) to facilitate development of ethanol production facilities in those states. In 2002/2003, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BBI International conducted state-level workshops ethanol in Hawaii, Nevada, Kentucky and California. These four workshops followed over 30 other workshops previous held under the Ethanol Workshop Series program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Two other workshops were conducted by BBI International during 2003, Oklahoma and Kansas, under contract to the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program. The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources. In addition, the EWS was to provide a promotional and educational forum for policy makers, community leaders, media and potential stakeholders. It was recognized that to eventually achieve biomass-ethanol production, it was necessary to support grain-ethanol production as a bridge. The long-term goal of the Workshops was to facilitate the development of biomass ethanol plants at a state-level. The near-term goal was to provide correct and positive information for education, promotion, production and use of fuel ethanol. The EWS drew from 65 to over 200 attendees and were deemed by the local organizers to have served the objectives set out by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  16. Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long-Long; Xu Wen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)

  17. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  18. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  19. Plasma Science and Innovation Center at Washington, Wisconsin, and Utah State: Final Scientific Report for the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison component of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) contributed to modeling capabilities and algorithmic efficiency of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation (NIMROD) Code, which is widely used to model macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma. It also contributed to the understanding of direct-current (DC) injection of electrical current for initiating and sustaining plasma in three spherical torus experiments: the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II), the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The effort was funded through the PSI Center's cooperative agreement with the University of Washington and Utah State University over the period of March 1, 2005 - August 31, 2016. In addition to the computational and physics accomplishments, the Wisconsin effort contributed to the professional education of four graduate students and two postdoctoral research associates. The modeling for HIT-II and Pegasus was directly supported by the cooperative agreement, and contributions to the NSTX modeling were in support of work by Dr. Bickford Hooper, who was funded through a separate grant. Our primary contribution to model development is the implementation of detailed closure relations for collisional plasma. Postdoctoral associate Adam Bayliss implemented the temperature-dependent effects of Braginskii's parallel collisional ion viscosity. As a graduate student, John O'Bryan added runtime options for Braginskii's models and Ji's K2 models of thermal conduction with magnetization effects and thermal equilibration. As a postdoctoral associate, O'Bryan added the magnetization effects for ion viscosity. Another area of model development completed through the PSI-Center is the implementation of Chodura's phenomenological resistivity model. Finally, we investigated and tested linear electron parallel viscosity, leveraged by support from

  20. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  1. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  2. Radiological transportation risk assessment of the shipment of sodium-bonded fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-01-31

    This document was written in support of Environmental Assessment: Shutdown of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. It analyzes the potential radiological risks associated with the transportation of sodium-bonded metal alloy and mixed carbide fuel from the FFTF on the Hanford Site in Washington State to the Idaho Engineering Laboratory in Idaho in the T-3 Cask. RADTRAN 4 is used for the analysis which addresses potential risk from normal transportation and hypothetical accident scenarios.

  3. Radiological transportation risk assessment of the shipment of sodium-bonded fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document was written in support of Environmental Assessment: Shutdown of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. It analyzes the potential radiological risks associated with the transportation of sodium-bonded metal alloy and mixed carbide fuel from the FFTF on the Hanford Site in Washington State to the Idaho Engineering Laboratory in Idaho in the T-3 Cask. RADTRAN 4 is used for the analysis which addresses potential risk from normal transportation and hypothetical accident scenarios

  4. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.; Tate, P.

    1983-07-01

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  5. Microfour-point probe for studying electronic transport through surface states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Shiraki, I.

    2000-01-01

    Microfour-point probes integrated on silicon chips have been fabricated with probe spacings in the range 4-60 mum. They provide a simple robust device for electrical transport measurements at surfaces, bridging the gap between conventional macroscopic four-point probes and scanning tunneling...... transport through surface states, which is not observed on the macroscopic scale, presumably due to scattering at atomic steps. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  6. The water needs for LDV transportation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Carey W.; Webber, Michael E.; Duncan, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased demand for petroleum, reliable fuel supply, and global climate change has resulted in the US government passing new Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and a Renewable Fuels Standard. Consequently, the fuel mix for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel in the United States will change over the coming years. This paper explores the embodied water consumption and withdrawal associated with two projections for future fuel use in the US LDV sector. This analysis encompasses conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, soy biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen. The existing mandate in the US to blend ethanol into gasoline had effectively committed 3300 billion liters of irrigation water in 2005 (approximately 2.4% of US 2005 fresh water consumption) for producing fuel for LDVs. With current irrigation practices, fuel processing, and electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2030, approximately 14,000 billion liters of water per year will be consumed and 23,000-27,000 billion liters withdrawn to produce fuels used in LDVs. Irrigation for biofuels dominates projected water usage for LDV travel, but other fuels (coal to liquids, oil shale, and electricity via plug-in hybrid vehicles) will also contribute appreciably to future water consumption and withdrawal, especially on a regional basis. (author)

  7. 77 FR 37317 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ..., 2012. The deviation allows the floating draw span of the SR 520 Lake Washington Bridge to remain in the... schedule that governs the State Route 520 (SR 520) Bridge across Lake Washington at Seattle, WA. This... allows the bridge to remain in the closed position to allow safe movement of event participants. DATES...

  8. 75 FR 71139 - Land Acquisitions; Puyallup Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Auditor, in Pierce County, Washington. Except that portion of Lot 3 conveyed to the State of Washington by Deeds recorded under Auditor's file number 689865 and 689858. Together with the East half of the... amendment of Short Plat Nos. 8502210395 and 8403080186, filed with the Pierce County Auditor, in Pierce...

  9. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  10. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    on the rail system, and recommended improvements to improve the safety of the Metrorail system. These three influences show a holistic view of the...due to special events in the area to include Washington Redskins football , Washington National baseball, and other events held in the Washington, D.C...Station in Washington, DC. The accident resulted in nine people including the train operator were killed. Emergency response agencies reported

  11. Washington Schools Learn from Value Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleae, Michael L.; Childs, Harvey C.

    1983-01-01

    Results of two value engineering studies have shown that a review early in the design process can help save costs in school construction, maintenance, operation, and replacement. The value engineering concepts and technical manual are being presented throughout the state of Washington. (MLF)

  12. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  13. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  14. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information.

  15. Authorization procedure for containers and modalities of transport of radioactive substances within the EC Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, S.

    1977-02-01

    In all EC Member States, the transport of radioactive substances, the activity of which is higher than a specific level, is subject to regulatory requirements. Most of these requirements demand an administrative authorization before starting transport. In Belgium, authorization may take the form of a general, particular or special authorization, and in Luxembourg of a general or particular authorization. The latter applies in France and Italy but in these countries specific provisions also exist depending on the means of transport used. The latter specific provisions also exist in Germany and in the Netherlands. On the contrary in the United Kingdom, no administrative authorization is needed for such transport, except for special consignments. Finally, it is to be noted that neither in Denmark nor in Ireland have regulatory requirements been laid down with respect to such authorization procedure

  16. Dark states in spin-polarized transport through triple quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniewski, K.; Weymann, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the spin-polarized transport through a triple-quantum-dot molecule weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The analysis is performed by means of the real-time diagrammatic technique, including up to the second order of perturbation expansion with respect to the tunnel coupling. The emphasis is put on the impact of dark states on spin-resolved transport characteristics. It is shown that the interplay of coherent population trapping and cotunneling processes results in a highly nontrivial behavior of the tunnel magnetoresistance, which can take negative values. Moreover, a super-Poissonian shot noise is found in transport regimes where the current is blocked by the formation of dark states, which can be additionally enhanced by spin dependence of tunneling processes, depending on the magnetic configuration of the device. The mechanisms leading to those effects are thoroughly discussed.

  17. New York State intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations (CVO) : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this Business Plan is to describe the major Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) initiatives and projects in the area of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) that have recently been or are planned to be undertaken in New York State b...

  18. Application of quasi-steady state methods to molecular motor transport on microtubules in fungal hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2015-08-21

    We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal : Year 2004 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of : the FFY 04 SIB had a total of nineteen loans in the amount of $47,340,891. : A comp...

  20. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2008 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of the FFY 2008 SIB had a total of five loans totaling $22.1 million. Since the begi...

  1. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2007 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2007 SIB had a total of 13 loans and 1 bond in the : amount of $17....

  2. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2009 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2009 SIB had a total of nine loans totaling $9.0 : million and one ...

  3. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  4. 78 FR 53235 - 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom By the President of the United States of America A... waters of the reflecting pool, to the proud base of the Washington Monument. They were men and women..., and justice for all. The March on Washington capped off a summer of discontent, a time when the...

  5. 78 FR 29314 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R08-OAR- 2012-0350. EPA's policy is that all comments received... reiterated the recommendations for western states made by EPA in previous guidance addressing the 110(a)(2)(D... stated that EPA was working on a new rule to replace CAIR that would address issues raised by the court...

  6. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    November was a quiet month in Washington. Although Congress has recessed until 1991, the Senate filled vacancies in party leadership positions created by November's elections. The House is expected to proceed with its changes in early December. The Nuclear Energy Forum was held in Washington, DC on November 11-14 to discuss the status of the nuclear industry in the USA. The Forum, held in conjunction with the American Nuclear Society's annual meeting, assembled a large number of CEO's from US, European, and Far Eastern utilities and vendors. The meeting concluded with an announcement by Philip Bayne, President of NYPA and chairman of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), of the results of a year-long NPOC study entitled a open-quotes Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes

  7. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  8. Toward a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    In recognition of the federal government's responsibility for initiating a national strategy for hazardous materials transportation safety, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) prepared an internal strategy paper for creating a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety in August 1981. The paper outlined the scope of the hazardous materials transportation problem and established MTB's approach for creating an intergovernmental partnership for its resolution. This paper represents an update and refinement of the original plan, and is designed to chart the direction of the emerging federal/state/local relationship. The cornerstone of the plan remains the establishment of a single national set of safety regulations. It is on achievement of this objective that MTB's plan for development of enforcement, training, and emergency response capabilities at all levels of government is based. Chapter I introduces the problem with a desription of the economic importance of hazardous materials and discusses its implications for public safety. Chapter II defines the appropriate role for each level of government in the areas of rulemaking, enforcement, emergency response, and education. Chapter III demonstrates the need for uniform national safety standards and describes the economic and safety benefits of this approach. Chapter IV contains a detailed description of MTB's program for developing a successful intergovernmental partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

  9. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  10. Devolution's policy impact on non-emergency medical transportation in State Children's Health Insurance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Stephen; Blakely, Craig; Ponder, Linda; Raphael, David

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of devolution often maintain that the transfer of power and authority of programs enables local officials to craft policy solutions that better align with the needs of their constituents. This article provides one of the first empirical evaluations of this assumption as it relates to non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). NEMT programs meet a critical need in the areas in which they serve, directly targeting this single key access barrier to care. Yet states have great latitude in making such services available. The authors utilize data from 32 states to provide a preliminary assessment of devolution's consequences and policy impact on transportation-related access to care. Their findings provide mixed evidence on devolution's impact on policy outcomes. Proponents of devolution can find solace in the fact that several states have gone beyond federally mandated minimum requirements to offer innovative programs to remove transportation barriers to care. Detractors of devolution will find continued pause on several key issues, as a number of states do not offer NEMT to their SCHIP populations while cutting services and leaving over $7 billion in federal matching funding unspent.

  11. Federal legal constraints on state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Morris, F.A.; Welles, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Within the last five years, the transportation of nuclear materials has experienced a rapid growth of state/local regulations. The federal government is responding to develop a legal basis for declaring these state/local regulations inconsistent and has proceeded to declare certain state regulations invalid. This paper summarizes the relevant legal doctrines, places these doctrines in the context of the federal regulatory framework and reaches conclusions about what forms of state and local regulation may be subject to possible preemptive initiatives and what regulations are unlikely candidates for federal actions. This paper also discusses an example of a preemptive initiative and a federal action. The initiative is contained in DOT's proposed rule on Highway Routing of Radioactive Materials. DOT's first general preemptive action under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act is described with respect to decisions on Rhode Island's regulations regarding transportation of liquified natural and petroleum gases. There are still some issues that have not been clarified - the role of the federal government in the development and support of emergency response capabilities for nuclear and other hazardous materials, detailed shipment information, and state requirements for prenotifications

  12. Transport analysis of oscillatory state for plasma dynamics in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2012-11-01

    In helical plasmas, two kinds of the oscillation for the plasma quantities are experimentally observed. Firstly, the limit cycle phenomena in the temporal evolution of the electrostatic potential, namely the electric pulsation, have been observed in the core region. The temporally self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as a simulation result in the core region. The dependence of the transition point for the radial electric field on the source is examined. Secondly, the density limit oscillation in the helical device was reported. To realize the oscillation phenomena at the density limit, the temporal evolution of the density profile is newly included in a simulation when the radiative loss is calculated in the edge region. Two stationary plasma states, where the transport loss or radiative loss is dominant in the edge region, are obtained. The dynamics of the plasma quantity is found to show the transition from the transport-dominated state to the radiation-dominated state. (author)

  13. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  14. A Markov State-based Quantitative Kinetic Model of Sodium Release from the Dopamine Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Asghar M.; Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family of membrane proteins that are responsible for reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to terminate a neuronal signal and enable subsequent neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. The release of one sodium ion from the crystallographically determined sodium binding site Na2 had been identified as an initial step in the transport cycle which prepares the transporter for substrate translocation by stabilizing an inward-open conformation. We have constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of human DAT (hDAT) to explore the mechanism of this sodium release. Our results quantify the release process triggered by hydration of the Na2 site that occurs concomitantly with a conformational transition from an outward-facing to an inward-facing state of the transporter. The kinetics of the release process are computed from the MSM, and transition path theory is used to identify the most probable sodium release pathways. An intermediate state is discovered on the sodium release pathway, and the results reveal the importance of various modes of interaction of the N-terminus of hDAT in controlling the pathways of release.

  15. New York state high-speed surface transportation study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    In 1990, New York State Governor Mario M. Cuomo created an interagency task force under the leadership of Lt. Governor Stan Lundine to investigate the potential of high speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Building on information from previous agency activities, including consultant efforts contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), and in-house analyses performed by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the task force focused on the corridor between New York City and the Niagara Frontier. In December 1991, NYSERDA issued a contract for a study of high speed ground transportation options for New York State. The study`s objective was to assess potential rights-of-way, ridership, energy and environmental impacts, economic benefits, capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and financial viability of HSGT systems. This study builds upon and supplements previous and on-going HSGT activities conducted by the members of the interagency task force. These activities include: Maglev Technical and Economic Feasibility Study (NYSERDA); Maglev Demonstration Site Investigation (NYSTA); and New York/Massachusetts High Speed Ground Transportation Study (NYSDOT). This study is intended to verify and refine previous information and analyses and provide supplemental information and insights to be used in determining if additional investigation and activities involving HSGT are desirable for New York State. This study evaluates HSGT technologies capable of speeds significantly higher than those achieved with the present rail system. Three HSGT categories are used in this study: incremental rail improvement, very high-speed rail, and Maglev.

  16. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  17. Climatology of transport and diffusion conditions along the United States Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the atmospheric transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts was conducted to aid in planning and site selection for potentially polluting installations. This paper presents selected results from an extensive statistical study. Regular hourly observational data were obtained from 30 coastal stations from Maine to Texas and analyzed in terms of conditions important to emission transport and diffusion. The 30 stations included four pairs with one of each pair at a greater distance from the coast than the other but near the same latitude

  18. Seismic imaging beneath an InSAR anomaly in eastern Washington State: Shallow faulting associated with an earthquake swarm in a low-hazard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Wicks, Chuck; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five‐month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ∼3  km of high‐resolution seismic‐reflection profiles to image the upper‐source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west‐dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.

  19. Comparison of under-pressure and over-pressure pulse tests conducted in low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Over-pressure pulse tests (pressurized slug tests have been widely used by others for hydraulic characterization of low-permeability ( -8 m/sec) rock formations. Recent field studies of low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington, indicate that the under-pressure pulse technique is also a viable test method for hydraulic characterization studies. For over-pressure pulse tests, fluid within the test system is rapidly pressurized and the associated pressure decay is monitored as compressed fluid within the test system expands and flows into the test formation. Under-pressure pulse tests are conducted in a similar manner by abruptly decreasing the pressure of fluid within the test system, and monitoring the associated increase in pressure as fluid flows from the formation into the test system. Both pulse test methods have been used in conjunction with other types of tests to determine the hydraulic properties of selected low-permeability basalt horizons at Hanford test sites. Results from both pulse test methods generally provide comparable estimates of hydraulic properties and are in good agreement with those from other tests

  20. Analysis of the reduction in waste volumes received for disposal at the low-level radioactive waste site in the State of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal site at Richland, Washington has been receiving waste from generators nationwide since 1965 and is one of the three sites in the nation currently receiving commercial LLRW for disposal. In the past, volumes of LLRW have been increasing steadily, however, this trend has reversed since 1986. This paper addresses waste volume and activity of the waste disposed, factors which have caused this dramatic reduction in LLRW volume, and regulatory concerns regarding environmental protection, and public and occupational health and safety. Future volumes of LLRW that are disposed at the Richland site depend on economic, technological, political and regulatory variables. Provided there is a continual increase in industrial growth, and a demand for medical research and diagnosis, the volume of LLRW increases. However, this volume also offsets by an increase in demand for volume reduction due to economic and institutional pressures. Yet, if all generators continue to volume reduce their LLRW, some time in future, a limit will be reached when the facility site operator needs to increase the unit disposal cost to cover the fixed cost and maintain a profit margin in order to operate the site

  1. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  2. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  3. The Impact of Interstate Migration on Human Capital Development in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Washington State is a leader in the innovation economy largely due to the combination of aerospace, software, and biomedical industries centered in the greater Seattle area; and, the state's high level of international trade. Despite Washington's national ranking, the state is overly reliant on importing educated workers from other states and…

  4. 78 FR 27883 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-OAR- 2012-0347. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance essentially reiterated the recommendations for western... . \\6\\ The 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance stated that EPA was working on a new rule to...

  5. The International Experience of the State Support for Creating the Transport and Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharska Iryna O.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analysis and synthesis of the international experience as to the State support for creating the transport and logistics centers (TLCs. The causes for emergence of the first TLCs in Europe (60-80-ies of XX century were considered. Values of the LPI index for the countries occupying the first 40 positions of the ranking as of 2014 and of 2016 have been provided, and the major changes during this time have been analyzed. The ranking position of Ukraine is displayed separately. Features of the logistics infrastructure of nine countries with a high value of the LPI index have been considered, degree of the State involvement in the formation of the TLC network has been analyzed. It has been substantiated that creation of the transport and logistics centers allows to reduce the logistics costs of individual producers and contributes to enhancing the efficiency of operation of the national economy in general by attracting investments in the infrastructure development, increasing the number of jobs and tax revenues. The basic motifs that determine the interest of the State authorities in providing support for creating the transportation and logistics centers have been defined. Prospect for further research in this direction will be determining the efficiency of using the different models of the State support for creation and development of TLCs

  6. The Efficiency and Public Transport Accessibility of Indirect State Administration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrabková Iveta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency and public transport accessibility of indirect (devolved state administration performed by municipalities with extended powers (hereinafter MEPs in the Czech Republic. Our aim is to evaluate the efficiency of the revenues made by municipalities with extended powers, through performing powers delegated to them by the state administration, and those municipalities’ public transport accessibility as of 31 December, 2014. The rate of efficiency is tested on an output-oriented Free Disposable Hull model. One input variable is selected - the operating expenses of the municipal offices recalculated per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district - and two output variables are selected: contribution to the performance of state administration, recalculated per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district, and revenues from administrative fees per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district. The municipality’s offices’ transport accessibility is evaluated via network analysis using ArcGIS software. The article investigates the hypothesis that public administration deconcentration practices logically result in higher security costs and therefore inefficiency. The results reveal that only 66 of the country’s 205 MEPs are efficient and that operating expenses and state contributions for the performance of state administrative tasks play a significant role in these results. Efficiency is less significantly influenced by administrative fee revenues. Public transport accessibility is analyzed for two time intervals - 6:00 to 8:00 am and 1:00 to 2:00 pm - on Tuesdays. The degree of accessibility is defined using a six-point scale of accessibility. The results show that the best accessibility is in the morning hours, when the offices are accessible for 68.8% of the population aged 15+ in the Czech Republic; the worst accessibility is in the afternoon hours when only 2% of the

  7. State-specific transport properties of electronically excited Ar and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a theoretical model of state-resolved transport properties in electronically excited atomic species developed earlier is applied to argon and carbon atomic species. It is shown that for Ar and C, similarly to the case of atomic nitrogen and oxygen, the Slater-like models can be applied to calculate diameters of electronically excited atoms. Using the Slater-like model it is shown that for half-filled N (2 px1py1pz1) and full-filled Ar (3 px2py2pz2) electronic shells the growth of atomic radius goes slowly compared to C (2 px1py1) and O (2 px2py1pz1). The effect of collision diameters on the transport properties of Ar and C is evaluated. The influence of accounted number of electronic levels on the transport coefficients is examined for the case of Boltzmann distributions over electronic energy levels. It is emphasized that in the temperature range 1000-14000 K, for Boltzmann-like distributions over electronic states the number of accounted electronic levels do not influence the transport coefficients. Contrary to this, for higher temperatures T > 14000 K this effect becomes of importance, especially for argon.

  8. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus U. Pietrzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  9. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  10. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  11. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  12. Systematic study of transport via surface and bulk states in Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, S.; Peres, M. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Gratens, X.; Soares, D. A. W.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    We performed magnetoresistance measurements on Bi2Te3 thin film in the temperature range of T = 1.2-4.0 K and for magnetic fields up to 2 T. The curves exhibited anomalous behavior for temperatures below 4.0 K. Different temperature intervals revealed electrical transport through different conductive channels with clear signatures of weak antilocalization. The magnetoresistance curves were explained using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the 2D Dirac modified model. The comparison between the parameters obtained from the two models revealed the transport via topological surface states and bulk states. In addition, a superconductive like transition is observed for the lowest temperatures and we suggest that this effect can be originated from the misfit dislocations caused by strain, giving rise to a superconductive channel between the interface of the film and the substrate.

  13. Steady-state coupled transport of HNO3 through a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.D.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Nitric acid removal from an aqueous stream was accomplished by continuously passing the fluid through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (SLM). The nitric acid was extracted through the membrane wall by coupled transport. The system was modeled as a series of (SLM)-continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) pairs. An approximate technique was used to predict the steady state nitric acid concentration in the system. The comparison with experimental data was very good

  14. Summary report of the state surveillance program on the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    From 1973 to 1976, a surveillance program was conducted in New Jersey, Oregon, Missouri, New York, Illinois, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Minnesota, and New York City to provide training support for State radiation personnel and to determine actual radiation exposure conditions and radioactive material package handling practices through the terminals of air carriers and freight forwarders. NRC and DOT along with the participating States, developed the surveillance program. In general, the results did not indicate a public health or safety problem due to the transportation of radioactive materials. Some employees of several freight forwarders, are, however, receiving annual exposures in excess of 500 mrem. Recommendations are given

  15. Dirac-Screening Stabilized Surface-State Transport in a Topological Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Brüne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report magnetotransport studies on a gated strained HgTe device. This material is a three-dimensional topological insulator and exclusively shows surface-state transport. Remarkably, the Landau-level dispersion and the accuracy of the Hall quantization remain unchanged over a wide density range (3×10^{11}  cm^{−2}transport is surface-state dominated, where bulk transport would have been expected to coexist already. Moreover, the density dependence of the Dirac-type quantum Hall effect allows us to identify the contributions from the individual surfaces. A k·p model can describe the experiments but only when assuming a steep band bending across the regions where the topological surface states are contained. This steep potential originates from the specific screening properties of Dirac systems and causes the gate voltage to influence the position of the Dirac points rather than that of the Fermi level.

  16. Highly-resolved modeling of personal transportation energy consumption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratori, Matteo; Moran, Michael J.; Serra, Emmanuele; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    This paper centers on the estimation of the total primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States, to include gasoline and/or electricity consumption, depending on vehicle type. The bottom-up sector-based estimation method introduced here contributes to a computational tool under development at The Ohio State University for assisting decision making in energy policy, pricing, and investment. In order to simulate highly-resolved consumption profiles three main modeling steps are needed: modeling the behavior of drivers, generating realistic driving profiles, and simulating energy consumption of different kinds of vehicles. The modeling proposed allows for evaluating the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level. It can serve as a tool to compare different vehicle types and assist policy-makers in estimating their impact on primary energy consumption and the role transportation can play to reduce oil dependency. - Highlights: • Modeling primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States. • Behavior of drivers has been simulated in order to establish when driving events occur and the length of each event. • Realistic driving profiles for each driving event are generated using a stochastic model. • The model allows for comparing the initial cost of different vehicles and their expected energy-use operating cost. • Evaluation of the impact of PEVs on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level – can be performed

  17. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data are assimilated in the model. Assuming perfect flow, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used for direct data assimilation into the transport model. This is, however, a crude assumption as flow models can be subject to many sources of uncertainty. If the flow is not accurately simulated, contaminant predictions will likely be inaccurate even after successive Kalman updates of the contaminant model with the data. The problem is better handled when both flow and contaminant states are concurrently estimated using the traditional joint state augmentation approach. In this paper, we introduce a dual estimation strategy for data assimilation into a one-way coupled system by treating the flow and the contaminant models separately while intertwining a pair of distinct EnKFs, one for each model. The presented strategy only deals with the estimation of state variables but it can also be used for state and parameter estimation problems. This EnKF-based dual state-state estimation procedure presents a number of novel features: (i) it allows for simultaneous estimation of both flow and contaminant states in parallel; (ii) it provides a time consistent sequential updating scheme between the two models (first flow, then transport); (iii) it simplifies the implementation of the filtering system; and (iv) it yields more stable and accurate solutions than does the standard joint approach. We conducted synthetic numerical experiments based on various time stepping and observation strategies to evaluate the dual EnKF approach and compare its performance with the joint state augmentation approach. Experimental results show that on average, the dual strategy could reduce the estimation error of the coupled states by 15% compared with the

  18. Changes in electrical transport and density of states of phase change materials upon resistance drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Daniel; Bachmann, Tobias; Jonnalagadda, Prasad; Dellmann, Laurent; Raoux, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change memory technology has become more mature in recent years. But some fundamental problems linked to the electrical transport properties in the amorphous phase of phase-change materials still need to be solved. The increase of resistance over time, called resistance drift, for example, poses a major challenge for the implementation of multilevel storage, which will eventually be necessary to remain competitive in terms of high storage densities. To link structural properties with electrical transport, a broader knowledge of (i) changes in the density of states (DoS) upon structural relaxation and (ii) the influence of defects on electrical transport is required. In this paper, we present temperature-dependent conductivity and photo-conductivity measurements on the archetype phase change material GeTe. It is shown that trap-limited band transport at high temperatures (above 165 K) and variable range hopping at low temperatures are the predominating transport mechanism. Based on measurements of the temperature dependence of the optical band gap, modulated photo-conductivity and photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy, a DoS model for GeTe was proposed. Using this DoS, the temperature dependence of conductivity and photo-conductivity has been simulated. Our work shows how changes in the DoS (band gap and defect distributions) will affect the electrical transport before and after temperature-accelerated drift. The decrease in conductivity upon annealing can be explained entirely by an increase of the band gap by about 12%. However, low-temperature photo-conductivity measurements revealed that a change in the defect density may also play a role

  19. Stormwater Design Return Period Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure: How Are States Approaching Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, C.; Lopez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation in many regions, which is relevant for stormwater engineering designs and resilience in the transportation sector. Existing and future stormwater infrastructure is generally designed for historical and stationary hydrologic conditions. For example, the design return period is based on statistical analysis of past precipitation events, often over a 50-year historical timeline. The design return period translates into how much peak precipitation volume a system is designed for in a state, and provides information about the performance of a drainage structure. The higher the design period used by an engineer for a given stormwater system, the more peak stormwater volume the system can convey. Therefore, design return periods can be associated with a design's near-term and long-term resilience. However, there is a tradeoff between the choice of design return period, the total infrastructure capital cost, and the resilience of a system to heavy precipitation events. This study analyzes current stormwater infrastructure design guidelines for state departments of transportation in the contiguous United States, in order to understand how stormwater design return periods vary across states and provide insight into the resilience of current stormwater systems design. The study found that the design return period varies considerably across the United States by roadway functional class and drainage classification, as well as within climate regions. Understanding this variation will help states identify possible vulnerabilities, highlight deficiencies across states and infrastructure types, and help in updating design return periods to increase the climate resilience of stormwater infrastructure.

  20. Federal, state, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation: Progress toward a definition of regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The supremacy clause, the commerce clause, and the equal-protection guarantees of the U.S. Constitution establish the basic framework for defining the authority of Federal, State, and local governments to regulate the transportation of radioactive waste. Court decisions and advisory rulings of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) suggest that State and local regulation of the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is precluded under supremacy-clause principles to the extent that such regulation addresses nuclear safety or aspects of transportation that are already specifically regulated by the Federal government. Even where State and local requirements are found to be valid under the supremacy clause, they must still satisfy constitutional requirements under the commerce and equal-protection clauses. Despite stringent standards of review, State and local transportation requirements have been upheld where directly related to the traditional exercise of police powers in the area of transportation. Legitimate State and local police-power activities identified to date by the DOT and the courts include inspection and enforcement, immediate accident reporting, local regulation of traffic, and certain time-of-day curfews. The extent to which State and local permitting requirements and license fees may be determined valid by the DOT and the courts remains unclear. Continued clarification by the DOT and the courts as to the validity of permits and fees will serve to further define the appropriate balance for Federal, State, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation

  1. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joung-min; Akiyama, Yuto; Kakinuma, Tomoyuki; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical V G above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge

  2. Quasibound states and transport characteristics of Au chains with a substitutional S impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyniak-Adamczewska, M; Kostyrko, T

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of short gold atom chains with a single sulfur impurity were studied using density functional theory. It is found that the role of the impurity atom in the transport properties is twofold. First, it acts as a scattering center in the dominating 6s-orbital transmission channel and generally leads to a decrease of the transmission function in a wide energy region around the Fermi level. Second, it gives rise to a quasibound state manifesting as a peak near the Fermi level both in the partial density of states as well as in the transmission function. Because of the hybridization of the sulfur 3p and gold 5d orbitals in its formation, the quasibound state moves locally upward in the gold 5d transmission channel and brings about an enhancement of the transmission function in a narrow energy region near the Fermi level. The height of the peak of the quasibound state in the transmission function depends significantly on the position of the impurity in the chain and its energy varies with the bias voltage. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics become asymmetric with a departure of the impurity from the central position in the chain and they are nonlinear for small values of the voltage (V < 0.1 V). It is proposed that a careful analysis of the I–V characteristics or the voltage dependence of the differential conductance may be used for unambiguous location of the light impurity in experiments with gold chains. (paper)

  3. Whole genome sequencing analyses of Listeria monocytogenes that persisted in a milkshake machine for a year and caused illnesses in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen; P?rez-Osorio, Ailyn; Wang, Yu; Eckmann, Kaye; Glover, William A.; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; Chen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2015, in addition to a United States multistate outbreak linked to contaminated ice cream, another outbreak linked to ice cream was reported in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It was a hospital-acquired outbreak linked to milkshakes, made from contaminated ice cream mixes and milkshake maker, served to patients. Here we performed multiple analyses on isolates associated with this outbreak: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole genome single nucleotide polymo...

  4. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  5. Risk assessment for transportation of radioactive material within the state of Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, C.; Oberg, S.G.; Downs, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The State of Idaho and the U.S. DOE have agreed to a one year pilot program to review and analyze DOE's off-site transportation of radioactive materials within Idaho on a shipping-campaign basis. As a part of that effort, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program conducts independent transportation risk assessments. These risk assessments are performed for both highway and railroad shipments using the computer codes RADTRAN4 ,and RISKIND 1.11. Some input parameters are customized with. Idaho-specific data, such as population density, accident rates and meteorological data. The dose and risk (to the public, handlers, crew, etc.) are estimated for both incident free and accident scenarios. Source term files are being built for past, current, and future shipments in Idaho. These include transuranic waste. shipments to WIPP, low level waste, mixed waste, spent fuel, and high level waste. Each shipment is analyzed for two types of transportation route segments: county segments and ten-mile segments. Risk estimation for each county segment provides information for allocation of emergency preparedness resources. Risk estimation for each ten-mile segment helps to identify higher risk segments. The dose and risk results are presented in appropriate formats for various audiences. The quantitative risk measures are used to guide appropriate levels of emergency preparedness. GIS tools are being used to graphically present risk information to elected officials and to the general public

  6. Fire test of container for radioactive materials under the condition of transportation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Sanae; Shimada, Hirohisa

    1986-01-01

    To secure the safe transportation of container for radioactive materials, furnace and open fire test for the thermal test of container are provided. Therefore, we have carried out furnace and open fire test using test model simulating a transportation state. Test model used in this test is made of stainless steel with diameter of 200 mm and length of 400 mm, and is set on the rest as in the case of transportation state. From the data on temperature measurement, some interesting results are obtained as follows. Near the surface of model, the temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the surface of model with the rest is greater than that without the rest. The temperature rise at the center of the model with the rest is less than that without the rest. In the experiment, temperature distributions are measured in the three radial directions. The temperature differences among three distributions in the model with rest are greater than that without rest. On the other hand, in the furnace test, the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of test model with the rest is 90 - 140 kcal/m 2 h · K for the range of furnace temperature from 700 to 950 deg C and this value is almost equal to the value without the rest. (author)

  7. State control of translational movement in high-speed Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, E

    1981-01-01

    The combination of state control with cascade control satisfies all demands made on train movements in a high-speed Maglev transportation system. The inner control loop compensates nonlinearities and disturbances and limits the acceleration. The dynamics of the control loop are determined by the riding characteristics. The superposed speed state control provides for running without overshoot within permissible limits. In order to reach a target point in the shortest possible time, the control signal for initiating the retardation is issued as late as possible and the speed is output as a function of position. The subsequent structure changeover to a position state control causes the train to come to a smooth halt at its destination in an almost optimal time.

  8. Semiconducting states and transport in metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiongwen; Wang Haiyan; Wan Haiqing; Zhou Guanghui; Song Kehui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method within the tight-binding approximation scheme, through a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) model, we study the low-energy electronic states and transport properties of carbon chains in armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). We show that semiconducting AGNRs possess only semiconducting chains, while metallic ones possess not only metallic chains but also unconventional semiconducting chains located at the 3jth (j≠0) column from the edge (the first chain) due to the vanishing of the metallic component in the electron wavefunction. The two types of states for carbon chains in a metallic AGNR system are demonstrated by different density of states and STM tunneling currents. Moreover, a similar phenomenon is predicted in the edge region of very wide AGNRs. However, there is remarkable difference in the tunneling current between narrow and wide ribbons.

  9. Contribution to the Study of the State Transport Service in Roman Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Escutia-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cursus publicus was the government transportation system in the Roman Empire. It made government communication, travel by government officials and the transport of certain State goods such as tax money, metals (gold and silver and army equipment possible. This work seeks to illustrate the origin of this official service, the highways used, the infrastructure (mansiones and mutationes, the animals and wagons exchanged periodically along the way, the authorization for the use of cursus publicus administration, the extremely restricted issue of warrants for the use of the cursus publicus (evectiones, the funding of services and the irregularities and abuse of the system and the necessary legislation to avoid and condemn such acts.

  10. State-of-the-art in modeling solute and sediment transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    This overview is structured around a comprehensive general model based on the conservation of mass principle as applied to dissolved and particulate constituents in rivers, with a few restricted but more specific examples that illustrate the state-of-the-art in modeling typical physical, chemical, and biological processes undergone by selected constituents in rivers. These examples include: simplified one- and two-dimensional formulations focusing on the hydrodynamic advection and dispersion mechanisms; a two-dimensional biochemial oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen model; a one-dimensional polychlorinated biphenyl model that includes uptake and release of constituent by suspended sediment, and deposition and erosion of contaminated particles; and a one-dimensional sediment transport model that accounts for interactions between the flow and the bed, and is capable of tracking dispersing slugs of sediment through cycles of erosion, entrainment, transport in suspension and as bed load, and burial and storage in the bed

  11. Tunnel and thermal c-axis transport in BSCCO in the normal and pseudogap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giura, M; Fastampa, R; Sarti, S; Pompeo, N; Silva, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of c-axis transport in double-layered cuprates, in particular with reference to Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ compounds. We exploit the effect of the two barriers on the thermal and tunnel transport. The resulting model is able to describe accurately the normal state c-axis resistivity in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , from the underdoped side up to the strongly overdoped. We extend the model, without introducing additional parameters, in order to allow for the decrease of the barrier when an external voltage bias is applied. The extended model is found to describe properly the c-axis resistivity for small voltage bias above the pseudogap temperature T * , the c-axis resistivity for large voltage bias even below T c , and the differential dI/dV curves taken in mesa structures

  12. Financial assistance to States and tribes to support emergency preparedness and response and the safe transportation of hazardous shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Indian tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. The report has been prepared as an information resource for the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Office of Transportation, Emergency Management and Analytical Services. The report discusses funding programs administered by the following Federal agencies: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Department of Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Department of Energy. Also included is a summary of fees assessed by some States on carriers of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The discussion of programs is supplemented by an Appendix that provides a series of tables summarizing funding sources and amounts. The report includes several conclusions concerning the level of funding provided to Indian tribes, the relative ranking of funding sources and the variation among States in overall revenues for emergency response and safe transportation

  13. Status of burnup credit for transport of SNF in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Wagner, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Allowing credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining a subcritical margin sufficient to establish an adequate safety basis. This paper reviews the current status of burnup credit applied to the design and transport of SNF casks in the United States. The existing U.S. regulatory guidance on burnup credit is limited to pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel and to allowing credit only for actinides in the SNF. By comparing loading curves against actual SNF discharge data for U.S. reactors, the potential benefits that can be realized using the current regulatory guidance with actinide-only burnup credit are illustrated in terms of the inventory allowed in high-capacity casks and the concurrent reduction in SNF shipments. The additional benefits that might be realized by extending burnup credit to credit for select fission products are also illustrated. The curves show that, although fission products in SNF provide a small decrease in reactivity compared with actinides, the additional negative reactivity causes the SNF inventory acceptable for transportation to increase from roughly 30% to approximately 90% when fission products are considered. A savings of approximately $150M in transport costs can potentially be realized for the planned inventory of the repository. Given appropriate experimental data to support code validation, a realistic best-estimate analysis of burnup credit that includes validated credit for fission products is the enhancement that will yield the most significant impact on future transportation plans

  14. Molecular dynamics studies of transport properties and equation of state of supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Obika C.

    Many chemical propulsion systems operate with one or more of the reactants above the critical point in order to enhance their performance. Most of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods used to predict these flows require accurate information on the transport properties and equation of state at these supercritical conditions. This work involves the determination of transport coefficients and equation of state of supercritical fluids by equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on parallel computers using the Green-Kubo formulae and the virial equation of state, respectively. MD involves the solution of equations of motion of a system of molecules that interact with each other through an intermolecular potential. Provided that an accurate potential can be found for the system of interest, MD can be used regardless of the phase and thermodynamic conditions of the substances involved. The MD program uses the effective Lennard-Jones potential, with system sizes of 1000-1200 molecules and, simulations of 2,000,000 time-steps for computing transport coefficients and 200,000 time-steps for pressures. The computer code also uses linked cell lists for efficient sorting of molecules, periodic boundary conditions, and a modified velocity Verlet algorithm for particle displacement. Particle decomposition is used for distributing the molecules to different processors of a parallel computer. Simulations have been carried out on pure argon, nitrogen, oxygen and ethylene at various supercritical conditions, with self-diffusion coefficients, shear viscosity coefficients, thermal conductivity coefficients and pressures computed for most of the conditions. Results compare well with experimental and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values. The results show that the number of molecules and the potential cut-off radius have no significant effect on the computed coefficients, while long-time integration is necessary for accurate determination of the

  15. A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Golub, A.; Robinson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s ‘‘Spheres of Justice’’

  16. Resolution of the steady state transport equation for Lagrangian geometry with cylindrical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, G.

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to solve the steady state transport equation for (r, z) geometries given by hydrodynamics calculations. The discontinuous finite element method for the space variables (r, z) provides a stable scheme which satisfies the particle balance equation. We are able to sweep cells for each direction over the mesh to have an explicit scheme. The graph theory provides a very efficient algorithm to compute this ordering array. Previously, we must divide all the quadrilaterals into two triangles to get only convex cells. Thus, we get a fast, vectorized calculation which gives a good accuracy on very distorted meshes [fr

  17. Phason thermal transport of three-helix state in insulating chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Gen

    2018-06-01

    Thermal dynamics of the three-helix state in a chiral magnet is studied based on a phason representation. Although phason representation is convenient for intuitive description, it is not straightforwardly compatible with microscopic linear response calculation of transport phenomena, because it is a (semi)macroscopic picture obtained by a coarse graining. By separating the slow phason mode and fast magnon mode, we show that phason thermal dynamics is driven by thermal magnon flow via the spin-transfer effect. The magnon and phason velocities are calculated by use of thermal vector potential formalism.

  18. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of Low Specific Activity Nitric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document was written in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes the potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with the transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site in Washington State to three Eastern ports

  19. Congress in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Over 1200 accelerator physicists and engineers gathered in Washington mid-May for the 15th in the series of biennial Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) - the major US forum for accelerator physics and technology. For the first time since their inception, actual attendance declined, however the number of contributed papers stayed around 1500. CERN Director General designate Chris Llewellyn Smith spelled out the challenges with an opening talk underlining the deficiencies in today's Standard Model. From many directions comes the message that collision in the 1 TeV range must tell us something new - wherefore art thou SSC and LHC? The secondary shock waves of last year's (fortunately overturned) bid to cancel the SSC Superconducting Supercollider project still ripple around the USA, while progress towards authorization of CERN's LHC Large Hadron Collider has been slower than initially hoped. The new US administration has indicated a constant rate of SSC funding over the next four years; the figure is higher than the present budget but considerably below the originally proposed budget profile, implying that completion will be retarded by some three years beyond the end of the decade. The SSC Laboratory will clearly have problems to fight increased overall cost and sustain enthusiasm. CERN hopes for LHC blessing in time to allow machine completion by the year 2000. Pride of place at Washington went to DESY's HERA electron-proton collider - the major new facility since the previous PAC. Commissioning has been impressive and physics is well underway, with luminosity climbing towards the design figure. The varied user community of the ubiquitous synchrotron radiation facilities is now considerably larger than that of particle physics and has extensive industrial involvement. Three such machines have come into operation since the previous PAC - the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Grenoble, the 1.5 GeV Advanced Light Source

  20. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  1. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: olutas_m@ibu.edu.tr; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2} have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below {approx}1 {mu}V), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains.

  2. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olutas, M.; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB 2 have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below ∼1 μV), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains

  3. Asymmetric ion transport through ion-channel-mimetic solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-12-17

    Both scientists and engineers are interested in the design and fabrication of synthetic nanofluidic architectures that mimic the gating functions of biological ion channels. The effort to build such structures requires interdisciplinary efforts at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology. Biological ion channels and synthetic nanofluidic devices have some structural and chemical similarities, and therefore, they share some common features in regulating the traverse ionic flow. In the past decade, researchers have identified two asymmetric ion transport phenomena in synthetic nanofluidic structures, the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. The rectified ionic current is a diode-like current-voltage response that occurs when switching the voltage bias. This phenomenon indicates a preferential direction of transport in the nanofluidic system. The net diffusion current occurs as a direct product of charge selectivity and is generated from the asymmetric diffusion through charged nanofluidic channels. These new ion transport phenomena and the elaborate structures that occur in biology have inspired us to build functional nanofluidic devices for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of biomimetic solid-state nanofluidic devices with asymmetric ion transport behavior. We demonstrate the origin of the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. We also identify several influential factors and discuss how to build these asymmetric features into nanofluidic systems by controlling (1) nanopore geometry, (2) surface charge distribution, (3) chemical composition, (4) channel wall wettability, (5) environmental pH, (6) electrolyte concentration gradient, and (7) ion mobility. In the case of the first four features, we build these asymmetric features directly into the nanofluidic structures. With the final three, we construct

  4. Green's theorem and Green's functions for the steady-state cosmic-ray equation of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Gleeson, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Green's Theorem is developed for the spherically-symmetric steady-state cosmic-ray equation of transport in interplanetary space. By means of it the momentum distribution function F 0 (r,p), (r=heliocentric distance, p=momentum) can be determined in a region rsub(a) 0 . Examples of Green's functions are given for the case rsub(a)=0, rsub(b)=infinity and derived for the cases of finite rsub(a) and rsub(b). The diffusion coefficient kappa is assumed of the form kappa=kappa 0 (p)rsup(b). The treatment systematizes the development of all analytic solutions for steady-state solar and galactic cosmic-ray propagation and previous solutions form a subset of the present solutions. (Auth.)

  5. Partners In Motion And Customer Satisfaction In The Washington Dc Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    PARTNERS IN MOTION IS A PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING THE QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF TRAVEL INFORMATION TO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, THE MEDIA, AND, ULTIMATELY, TO THE TRAVELER IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA. THE PROGRAM WAS INITIA...

  6. Chemical concentrations in water and suspended sediment, Green River to Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Chapman, Elena A.

    2018-01-05

    From August 2016 to March 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected representative samples of filtered and unfiltered water and suspended sediment (including the colloidal fraction) at USGS streamgage 12113390 (Duwamish River at Golf Course, at Tukwila, Washington) during 13 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyltins, the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, water-quality field parameters were measured, and representative water samples were collected and analyzed for river suspended-sediment concentration and particle-size distribution. The results provide new data that can be used to estimate sediment and chemical loads transported by the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway.

  7. Washington Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped

  8. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs

  9. Washington Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-09-15

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped.

  10. Spin helical states and spin transport of the line defect in silicene lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mou; Chen, Dong-Hai; Wang, Rui-Qiang [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Bai, Yan-Kui, E-mail: ykbai@semi.ac.cn [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering and Hebei Advance Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2015-02-06

    We investigated the electronic structure of a silicene-like lattice with a line defect under the consideration of spin–orbit coupling. In the bulk energy gap, there are defect related bands corresponding to spin helical states localized beside the defect line: spin-up electrons flow forward on one side near the line defect and move backward on the other side, and vice versa for spin-down electrons. When the system is subjected to random distribution of spin-flipping scatterers, electrons suffer much less spin-flipped scattering when they transport along the line defect than in the bulk. An electric gate above the line defect can tune the spin-flipped transmission, which makes the line defect as a spin-controllable waveguide. - Highlights: • Band structure of silicene with a line defect. • Spin helical states around the line defect and their probability distribution features. • Spin transport along the line defect and that in the bulk silicene.

  11. City of New York v. United States Dep't of Transportation: urban radioactive waste transportation gets another green light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines the background of this suit, which invalidated a municipal law prohibiting the transportation of large quantities of radioactive waste through city streets. The analysis focuses on two major issues: (1) whether the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act gives the Department of Transportation (DOT) the rulemaking power to preempt local law, and (2) whether DOT should have prepared an environmental impact statement before rulemaking. It concludes that DOT's action was arbitrary, and suggests some intermediate actions that would aid DOT in making a more informed decision. This could include a verification of DOT environmental assessment data and a more complete analysis of human error. The case illustrates the need for a lesser degree of judicial deference to federal agency action with respect to the volatile and unpredictable area of hazardous waste transportation

  12. A Partnership for Modeling the Marine Environment of Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, a joint University of Washington - Oregon State project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. e. A... Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), a joint Washington - Oregon State project to investigate extraction of wave and tidal energy sponsored by

  13. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  14. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air transport... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transport agreements...

  15. Transportation properties of amorphous state InSb and its metastable middle phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaowen

    1990-09-01

    The variation of the substrate temperature induces the metal-semiconductor transition in the condensation InSb films at low temperatrue. The electron conduction is dominant in the metal-type amorphous InSb and the hole in semiconductor-type one. In the metal-type amorphous InSb the electron-electron is correlated under the field above 0.1T in the temperature region of liquid nitrogen. The structure relaxation leads to not only the increase of the short range order but also the change of electron structure in metal-type amorphous InSb. The first conductance jump originates mainly from the increase of Hall mobility of the carrier, i.e. the increase of the short range order, and the system relaxes from the liquid-like to the lattice-like amorphous state. The three types of the crystallization phase transition for the metal-type amorphous InSb present obviously different transportation behaviours. Both metal-type amorphous state and metastable middle phase of InSb all are one of superconducting system with the lowest carrier concentration (n 0 ∼10 18 cm -3 ). Superconducting T c of the metastable middle phase is related to the state density near Fermi surface, i.e. the higher T c corresponds to the higher state density. The quasi-two-dimensional structure is favourable to superconductivity

  16. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the shipment of low enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom from the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Assessment provides the necessary information so that a decision can be made on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact Environmental Impact Statement should be prepared for the proposed action. The proposed action is to transfer 2,592 low enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom. The billets are currently stored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action would consist of two types of activities: loading and transportation. The loading activities would include placing the billets into the appropriate containers for transportation. The transportation activities would include the tasks required to transport the containers 215 miles (344 km) via highway to the Port of Seattle, Washington, and transfer the containers aboard an ocean cargo vessel for transportation to the United Kingdom. The Department of Energy would only be responsible for conducting the loading activities. The United Kingdom would be responsible for conducting the transportation activities in compliance with all applicable United States and international transportation laws. The tasks associated with the proposed action activities have been performed before and are well defined in terms of requirements and consequences. A risk assessment and a nuclear safety evaluation were performed to address safety issues associated with the proposed action. The risk assessment determined the exposure risk from normal operation and from the maximum credible accident that involves a truck or ship collision followed by a fire that engulfs all the billets in the shipment and the release of the radiological contents of the shipment to the environment. The criticality assessment determined the nuclear safety limits for handling, transporting and storing the shipment under incident-free and accident transport conditions

  18. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  19. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  20. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.