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Sample records for washington state orchard

  1. Leafroller parasitism across an orchard landscape in central Washington and effect of neighboring rose habitats on parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitiam of sentinel Pandemis pyrusana (Tortricidae) leafroller larvae on potted apple trees placed in apple, pear and cherry orchards within a 2000 hectare landscape mosaic in south-central Washington were measured in 1999-2000. Parasitism rates of sentinels averaged 15% in spring and 31% in summ...

  2. Geologic map of the Vancouver and Orchards quadrangles and parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor quadrangles, Clark County, Washington, and Multnomah County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Cannon, Charles M.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Evarts, Russell C.

    2016-06-03

    IntroductionThis is a 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vancouver and Orchards quadrangles and parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor quadrangles in the States of Washington and Oregon. The map area is within the Portland Basin and includes most of the city of Vancouver, Washington; parts of Clark County, Washington; and a small part of northwestern Multnomah County, Oregon. The Columbia River flows through the southern part of the map area, generally forming the southern limit of mapping. Mapped Quaternary geologic units include late Pleistocene cataclysmic flood deposits, eolian deposits, and alluvium of the Columbia River and its tributaries. Older deposits include Miocene to Pleistocene alluvium from an ancestral Columbia River. Regional geologic structures are not exposed in the map area but are inferred from nearby mapping.

  3. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  4. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  5. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  6. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Zachary P.; Wallis, Carolyn K.; Abbott, April N.; Olson, John C.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum. PMID:25609724

  7. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben Damian Elias Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Dionicio Alvarado Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim; Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio A. Guzman Plazola

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico and the USDA Forest Service - RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory has begun this year (2011) to assess which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México state, Mexico. We are employing a DNA-based...

  8. 2015 State Geodatabase for Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  10. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  11. Apple replant problem in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, N.R.; Covey, R.P. Jr.; Haglund, W.

    1978-01-01

    The growth of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Brokh.) is negatively correlated with soil arsenic and zero growth occurs at about 450 ppm total arsenic. Soil arsenic concentrations less than 150 ppm, which are frequently found in orchard soils, contribute less to the replant problem than biological factors. Growth of apple trees was increased 50% or more by preplant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) in 87.5% of the trials in 17 apple orchard soils tested. Non-specific plant pathogens in orchard soils attack cereals as well as apple seedlings, but apple orchard soils also contain an entity that specifically affects apples. This is probably the same unknown entity that is responsible for specific apple replant disease in Europe, Australia, and elsewhere.

  12. Evaluation of the Washington State Target Zero teams project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of its Target Zero strategic highway safety plan that has the goal to reduce traffic fatalities in Washington to zero by the year 2030, the State of Washington established three detachments of Washington State Patrol (WSP) troopers to f...

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  14. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  15. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Elias-Roman; R. A. Guzman-Plazola; N. B. Klopfenstein; D. Alvarado-Rosales; G. Calderon-Zavala; J. A. Mora-Aguilera; M.-S. Kim; R. Garcia-Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree mortality attributed to Armillaria root disease was assessed from 2009 to 2011 in 15 orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Incidence increased gradually every year of assessment, reaching average values of 9.7, 15.3 and 20.3% tree mortality and 23.2, 24.7 and 28.3% disease-impacted area of the orchards during 2009...

  16. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke...

  17. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  18. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  19. 77 FR 72742 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... for NO X for the TransAlta Centralia Generation LLC coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington (TransAlta). The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) submitted its Regional Haze State... at 40 CFR 50.308. On December 29, 2011 Ecology submitted an update to the SIP submittal containing a...

  20. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  1. How Washington State doctors battled it and won.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D M

    1988-03-01

    Mandatory medical assignment bills have been presented to the legislatures of 16 states since 1985, when a bill passed in Massachusetts tied acceptance of assignment to medical licensure, In November 1987, an initiative appeared on the Washington State voter's ballot asking that it be considered a consumer protection violation for physicians to charge more than Medicare's "reasonable" fee. This was the first time that the issue was presented to the registered voters of any state. This article details the way in which the Washington State Medical Association combatted the initiative and turned around an electorate that was 68% in favor, in August, to a final ballot of 63.9% opposed.

  2. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  3. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an...

  4. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  5. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  6. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  7. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... at Washington State University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the... the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. If no additional requestors come forward...

  8. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00 a.m...

  9. Financing residential energy conservation in the state of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.S.; Fairburn, W.A.

    1978-12-01

    The Washington Energy Extension Service Finance Program was commissioned for the overall purpose of facilitating and assessing the development of energy-related loan policies by financial institutions. Explicit objectives of the project are to: identify financial problems of small energy consumers in the domestic installation of energy-saving technologies; identify the financial options currently available in the State of Washington; and in concert with the financial institutions of the state, develop and analyze recommended additional programs which will benefit both consumers and financial institutions. This final report of the WEES Finance Program extends the rate-of-return analysis to include the overall required rates of return necessary to justify various commercial bank functional activities; with judicious implementation, this methodology can be a substitute for the subjective risk-assessment techniques currently utilized in the commercial banking sector. This report also considers changes that have occurred in the development of financial options related to energy-conservation measures.

  10. High School CPR/AED Training in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Palazzo, Steven J; Emery, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Describe the rates of CPR/AED training in high schools in the state of Washington after passage of legislation mandating CPR/AED training. A web-based survey was sent to administrators at 660 public and private high schools in the state of Washington. The survey was completed by 148 schools (22%); 64% reported providing CPR training and 54% provided AED training. Reported barriers to implementation included instructor availability, cost, and a lack of equipment. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample characteristics and implementation rates. Mandates without resources and support do not ensure implementation of CPR/AED training in high schools. Full public health benefits of a CPR mandate will not be realized until barriers to implementation are identified and eliminated through use of available, accessible public health resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. INCREASING TAX COMPLIANCE IN WASHINGTON STATE: A FIELD EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Govind S.; Reckers, Philip M.J.; Sanders, Debra L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a field experiment conducted in Washington State to improve compliance with the use tax and the Business and Occupation (B&O) tax. As part of the program, the Department of Revenue mailed letters that enhanced perceived detection risk and/or raised penalty awareness. Results indicated that the enforcement strategy produced a same-period improvement in use tax compliance. Subsequent year effects were not examined. Compliance with the B&O tax was unaffected.

  12. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  13. Automated external defibrillators in Washington State high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmier, Justin D; Drezner, Jonathan A; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2007-05-01

    The placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in schools and public sporting venues is a growing national trend. To determine the prevalence and use of AEDs in Washington State high schools and to examine the existing emergency preparedness for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Cross-sectional survey. High schools in Washington State. The principal at each high school in the Washington Interscholastic Activities Association (n = 407) was invited to complete a web-based questionnaire using the National Registry for AED Use in Sports (http://www.AEDSPORTS.com). The primary outcome measures studied included AED prevalence and location, funding for AEDs, AED training of school personnel, coordination of AED placement with local emergency response agencies, and prior AED use. 118 schools completed the survey (29% response rate). 64 (54%) of the schools have at least one AED on school grounds (mean 1.6, range 1-4). The likelihood of AED placement increased with larger school size (p = 0.044). 60% of AEDs were funded by donations, 27% by the school district and 11% by the school or athletic department itself. Coaches (78%) were the most likely to receive AED training, followed by administrators (72%), school nurses (70%) and teachers (48%). Only 25% of schools coordinated the implementation of AEDs with an outside medical agency and only 6% of schools coordinated with the local emergency medical system. One school reported having used an AED previously to treat SCA in a basketball official who survived after a single shock. The estimated probability of AED use to treat SCA was 1 in 154 schools per year. Over half of Washington State high schools have an AED on school grounds. AED use occurred in schools annually and was effective in the treatment of SCA. Funding of AED programmes was mostly through private donations, with little coordination with local emergency response teams. Significant improvement is needed in structuring emergency response plans and training

  14. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, has completed an... contact the Burke Museum. Repatriation of the human remains to the tribe named below may occur if no...

  15. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matioli, Andre L. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economica], e-mail: almatioli@biologico.sp.gov.br; Pallini, Angelo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: pallini@ufv.br; Tavares, Mara G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: mtavares@ufv.br

    2009-03-15

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute ({+-} 360 {mu}m long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  16. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  17. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  18. Evaluation of the Washington state target zero teams project : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In late 2006, the Washington State Patrol (WSP) assembled : a full-time, high-visibility saturation patrol called the Night : Emphasis Enforcement Team (NEET). This pilot program, : based in Snohomish County and funded by the Washington : Traffic Saf...

  19. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M Koehler; Benjamin T. Maletzke; Jeff A. Von Kienast; Keith B. Aubry; Robert B. Wielgus; Robert H. Naney

    2008-01-01

    Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington are poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we...

  20. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... the cultural items should contact Mary Collins, Director of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington...

  1. Changes in opioid prescribing for chronic pain in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Gary M; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A; Sullivan, Mark D; Wickizer, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a survey of primary care physicians and advanced registered nurse practitioners (ARNPs) in Washington State (WA) focused on changes in practice patterns and use of support tools in the prescription of opioids for the treatment of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). A convenience sample of primary care providers in WA was obtained from diverse geographic regions and health care organizations. The web-based anonymous survey was conducted in March-August 2011. Among 856 provider respondents, 623 reported treating patients with CNCP and served as the analysis sample. Most providers (72%) reported concern about opioid overdose, addiction, dependence, or diversion. Only 25% indicated concern about regulatory scrutiny. Only a small proportion of providers overall (3.3%) reported that they had stopped prescribing opioids for CNCP, but twice as many ARNPs (5.8%) as physicians (MDs and osteopaths) (2.1%) reported this. A greater proportion of physicians (70.9%) than ARNPs (40.1%) reported familiarity with the Washington State opioid dosing guidelines. Physicians in a large health plan with substantial infrastructure support reported less concern about opioids compared with providers in other settings. Of providers in Spokane (the largest city in Eastern Washington), 45% reported very low capacity to access pain specialty consultation. The vast majority of providers reported a need to access more efficient, innovative means of support and education related to treating patients with CNCP, such as telemedicine consultation. Overall, prescribing providers in WA reported ongoing concerns regarding opioid use for CNCP, but those affiliated with a health care organization with opioid prescribing guidelines and access to pain consultation were less likely to report being concerned about opioid-related problems or to have discontinued prescribing opioids.

  2. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  3. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  4. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  5. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of... Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum) has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Museum. Disposition of the human remains and the associated funerary object to the Indian tribes stated...

  6. Evidence-Based Medicine and State Health Care Coverage: The Washington Health Technology Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, David J; Blackwood, Kristy L; Adair, Whitney; Rothman, Sheila M

    2017-12-03

    To evaluate the Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program (WHTAP). Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program proceedings in Seattle, Washington. We assessed the program through observation of its proceedings over a 5-year period, 2009-2014. We conducted detailed analyses of the documents it produced and reviewed relevant literature. Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program is unique compared to other state and federal programs. It has successfully applied evidence-based medicine to health care decision making, limited by the strength of available data. It claims cost savings, but they are not substantiated. Washington State Health Technology Assessment Program is a useful model for other states considering implementation of technology assessment programs. We provide key lessons for improving WHTAP's process. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in shallow, recently recharged ground water -- Input data set for orchards/vineyards (gwava-s_orvi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the percent of orchards/vineyards land cover in the conterminous United States. The data set was used as an input data layer for a national...

  8. Washington State's Model and Programs: Applied Baccalaureate Degrees at Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    England-Siegerdt, Christy; Andreas, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    President Obama is calling for an increase in educational attainment among citizens of the United States (Obama, 2009). Prior to this national call, Washington State recognized the need to increase the educational attainment of its residents to maintain a globally competitive economy. By 2018, 67 percent of jobs in Washington will require a…

  9. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology... University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, telephone...

  10. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary items in the possession and control of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains and...

  11. 76 FR 28076 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary items that were in possession of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human...

  12. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum) has completed an inventory of human remains... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Burke Museum...

  13. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  14. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben D. Elias-Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio Anastacio Guzman-Plazola; Guillermo Calderon-Zavala; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Edo. de México and the USDA Forest Service-RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory began in 2011 to identify which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México State, México. We are employing a DNA-based approach in...

  15. Regional Analyses of Precipitation Annual Maxima in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Regional analyses of precipitation data were conducted using an index flood type methodology and probability weighted moments parameter estimates for the generalized extreme value distribution. Annual maximum series data were collected at 115 stations for durations of 2 and 6 hours and at 315 stations for the 24-hour duration. Because the climate in Washington State varies from arid to rain forest, the issues of homogeneity and region definition posed major problems. Those problems were circumvented by considering the state to be a heterogeneous superregion. Climatologically homogenous subregions within the superregion were defined in terms of mean annual precipitation (MAP) rather than geographic location. The subregional values of the coefficients of variation Cv and skew γ were found to vary systematically with MAP across the superregion. This allowed the superregional values of Cv and γ to be expressed as continuous variables instead of conventional fixed values and eliminated the boundary problems normally associated with subregion definition. The values of Cv and γ for the superregion were found to be largest for arid areas and shorter durations. Smaller values of Cv and γ were associated with humid and rain forest environments. All subregional solutions were within, or near, the extreme value type II family.

  16. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  17. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in Washington State, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K; Whittaker, Stephen G; Adams, Darrin

    2010-10-01

    Washington State workers' compensation data can be used to guide prevention efforts focused on occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Between 2000 and 2005, a total of 345 individual claims comprising 221 different exposure incidents were identified for the 6-year time period. The construction industry had 43 (20%) CO incidents, followed by wholesale trade with 32 (15%), and agriculture with 27 (12%) incidents. Fuel-powered forklifts caused 29% of all incidents, while autos/trucks/buses were responsible for 26%. The number of forklift incidents in fruit packing and cold storage companies declined significantly from 1994 through 2007 (Spearman's rho = 0.6659, p poisoning, a surveillance system that lacks extensive medical records may rely principally on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) tests. This study demonstrated that 71% of the identified workers' compensation claims had associated COHb tests. The recurrence and timing of CO poisoning as well as control of the CO-generating source were determined. Approximately 8% of all work sites had recurring CO poisoning incidents. Two percent experienced a recurrent incident within 16 days of the initial incident, and 6% experienced a recurrent incident between 16 days and 3 years after the initial incident. Sixty-seven percent of claimants exposed to CO were not in direct control of the CO-generating source; this has implications for CO prevention and underscores the need for all employees to be trained on CO hazards.

  18. Adolescent well-being in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2011-09-01

    We examined associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 10,606). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to test associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being (quality of life, depressed mood, thoughts of suicide). In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting thoughts of suicide among adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 2.32) and higher odds of low quality of life (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.43, 3.10) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.67) among adolescent boys. In 10th and 12th grades, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting low quality of life (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.79, 4.20), depressed mood (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.38) among adolescent boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of impaired well-being among adolescents, especially adolescent boys. Military, school-based, and public health professionals have a unique opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to improve the well-being of adolescents in military families.

  19. Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in Washington State, 1984-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G M; Haug, J; Heyer, N; Checkoway, H; Peck, N

    1991-06-01

    There are no published population-based studies of occupational carpal tunnel syndrome (OCTS) using a strict case definition. Most studies are either industry specific or present patient self-report of symptoms. We conducted a population-based incidence study of OCTS using the Washington State Workers' Compensation database. Incident OCTS claims were identified with paid bills for physician reported ICD codes 354.0 and 354.1. There were 7,926 incident OCTS claims identified for the years 1984-1988, which yields an industry-wide incidence rate of 1.74 claims/1,000 FTEs. The mean age (37.4 years) and female/male ratio (1.2:1) in this population differ from those reported in nonoccupational carpal tunnel studies (mean age, 51 years; female/male ratio, 3:1). The female-specific OCTS incidence rate increased significantly during the study period. The highest industry specific OCTS rates were found in the food processing, carpentry, egg production, wood products, and logging industries. Demographic differences and industry-specific rates consistent with workplace exposures suggest that OCTS is distinct from CTS occurring in nonoccupational settings. Workers' compensation data proved useful in identifying high risk industries.

  20. Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mettler, L. [US Army Corps of Engineers (United States)

    1994-06-01

    In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

  1. 75 FR 44144 - Washington: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Washington State Department of Ecology, 300 Desmond Drive, Lacey, Washington 98503, contact: Robert Rieck... definition; 040 ``manifest'' and Amendment. 70 FR 35034. definition; 040 ``manifest tracking number'' definition; 160(2)(a), 160(2)(a)(ii), 160(2)(a)(iii); 180, 180(1), 180(7), 180(7)(a) IBR 045(1), 180(7)(b...

  2. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated...

  3. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here.... 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial...

  4. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  5. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203 Parks... Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. (a... Washington State could have been acquired by a person otherwise covered by the prohibition against indirect...

  6. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population Care [$28.57 95% CI($14.00, $43.15)]. Most children enrolled in WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Booster Seat Effectiveness Among Older Children: Evidence From Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark; Carlson, Lindsay L; Rees, Daniel I

    2017-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. Children aged 8-12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8-12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  9. Flower production on clonal orchards at Oconto River Seed Orchard in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Murphy; R.G. Miller

    1977-01-01

    The Eastern Region, USDA Forest Service has been establishing and managing seed orchards to produce improved seed for the National Forests in the Lake States since 1969. This paper presents a review of the female flower production for the past 4 years in the white pine, white spruce, and black spruce clonal seed orchards.

  10. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  11. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition... ``Indian country'' as defined by 18 U.S.C. 1151, nor does it intend to limit existing rights of the State...

  12. A campaign to reduce impaired driving through retail-oriented enforcement in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Washington State Liquor Control Board (WSLCB) launched its DUI Reduction Program in 2002 with the immediate goal of reducing sales to intoxicated people through enforcement directed at bars and restaurants. The program targets those establishment...

  13. Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by Washington State hospices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Leila E; Kayes, Lucy; McCarty, Rachelle; Walkinshaw, Catharine; Congdon, Sean; Kleinberger, Janis; Hartman, Valerie; Standish, Leanna J

    To assess the use of complementary and alternative medicine in hospice care in the state of Washington. Hospices offering inpatient and outpatient care in Washington State were surveyed by phone interview. Response rate was 100%. Results indicated that 86% of Washington State hospices offered complementary and alternative services to their patients, most frequently massage (87%), music therapy (74%), energy healing (65%), aromatherapy (45%), guided imagery (45%), compassionate touch (42%), acupuncture (32%), pet therapy (32%), meditation (29%), art therapy (22%), reflexology (19%), and hypnotherapy (16%). Most hospices relied on volunteers with or without small donations to offer such services. Complementary and alternative therapies are widely used by Washington State hospices but not covered under hospice benefits. Extensive use of these therapies seems to warrant the inclusion of complementary and alternative providers as part of hospice staff, and reimbursement schedules need to be integrated into hospice care.

  14. Extent and Distribution of Old Forest Conditions on DNR-Managed State Trust Lands in Eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Miles Hemstrom; Robert Van Pelt; Joe Buchanan; Sabra Hull; Rex Crawford; Steve Curry; Walt Obermeyer

    2007-01-01

    An inventory was conducted of old forests on state trust lands in Eastern Washington managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR), in response to legislative direction (ESSB 6384, Section 189,2006). This inventory was conducted with guidance from an independent science panel, chaired by Jerry Franklin of the University of Washington. As...

  15. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  16. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  17. Quantifying the Role of Groundwater for Drought Mitigation in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A.; Barik, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 drought in Washington State had a severe impact on the more than 300 crops grown in the state, including an initial estimated loss of $86.52 million on the iconic Washington apple industry alone [Washington State Department of Agriculture, Interim Report: 2015 Drought and Agriculture, 2015]. The full agricultural impact of the 2015 Washington drought has yet to be assessed. Groundwater plays an important role in drought mitigation in Washington's agricultural industry, just as it does in California's Central Valley. However, a key difference is Washington's requirement for permit applications to use emergency drought wells; a process that occurs only after an official drought declaration. The 2001, 2005, and 2015 droughts saw significant differences in the number of emergency drought permit applications that were reported back to the state, though the severity of drought in each year did not differ to the same extreme. Understanding the drivers to using groundwater during drought will help to better manage future groundwater use in the face of more frequent and severe droughts. The goal of this study is to identify the drivers and impacts to using groundwater for drought mitigation in Washington State, by both characterizing the differences in the 2001, 2005, and 2015 droughts and estimating groundwater use in the Columbia River Basin in Washington. Preliminary results show a mismatch between groundwater use estimated from permit applications compared to modeled groundwater demand for irrigation from the coupled hydrologic and cropping systems model, VIC-CropSyst. We explore drivers of this discrepancy and its relation to drought with observation wells, reported emergency well permits, models, and remote sensing. Ultimately, this work lays the foundation to assess the economic value of groundwater to mitigate crop losses in agricultural regions, especially into the future with changing regulatory structures and climate change.

  18. The Path to Advanced Practice Licensure for Clinical Nurse Specialists in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Heather

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the history and process to obtaining advanced practice licensure for clinical nurse specialists in Washington State. Before 2016, Washington State licensed certified nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and certified nurse anesthetists under the designation of an advanced registered nurse practitioner; however, the state did not recognize clinical nurse specialists as advanced practice nurses. The work to drive the rule change began in 2007. The Washington Affiliate of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists used the Power Elite Theory to guide advocacy activities, building coalitions and support for the desired rule changes. On January 8, 2016, the Washington State Nursing Care Quality Assurance Commission voted to amend the state's advanced practice rules, including clinical nurse specialists in the designation of an advanced practice nurse. Since the rule revision, clinical nurse specialists in Washington State have been granted advanced registered nurse practitioner licenses. Driving changes in state regulatory rules requires diligent advocacy, partnership, and a deep understanding of the state's rule-making processes. To be successful in changing rules, clinical nurse specialists must build strong partnerships with key influencers and understand the steps in practice required to make the desired changes.

  19. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  20. Concussion evaluation methods among Washington State high school football coaches and athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ashley; Kaufman, Marla S; Molton, Ivan; Coppel, David B; Benson, John; Herring, Stanley A

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate awareness of concussion assessment methods and to determine whether there are differences among Washington State high school football coaches and athletic trainers in urban versus rural school districts. A Catalyst WebQ survey link was randomly sent by e-mail to varsity head football coaches, athletic trainers, and athletic directors in Washington State school districts. Survey participants were high school varsity head football coaches and athletic trainers from a total of 106 Washington State high schools. A 12-item questionnaire on Catalyst WebQ was distributed via e-mail. The survey inquired about use of the methods of concussion assessment, both on the field and for follow-up; participants' concussion education training; and familiarity with Washington State's Zackery Lystedt Law. The survey examined differences in concussion management practices between rural and urban school districts and also between coaches and athletic trainers in Washington State, specifically regarding the use of the Standardized Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) and neurocognitive testing (NCT). Twenty-seven of 48 respondents (56%) used the SCAT2 for on-the-field assessment; urban respondents were significantly more likely to use SCAT2 (P medical literature for the evaluation and management of concussions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Jonathan S; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S; Heiner, Jason D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from surge event, 35% believed the initial additional security response would not be adequate, with 26% reporting no additional security would be available within 15 minutes. Our study reveals the variability of ED security staffing and a heterogeneity of capabilities throughout Washington State. These deficiencies and vulnerabilities highlight the need for other EDs and regional emergency preparedness planners to conduct their own readiness assessments.

  2. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  3. NCLB: Local implementation and impact in southwest Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Mabry

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here is from the first two years of an ongoing and largely qualitative study to examine the impact of the No Child Left Behind federal education policy on educational practice and climate in elementary schools in two districts in southwest Washington. Based on systematic drop-in observations in classrooms and interviews with teachers and school and district administrators, data indicated that the policy had partially yielded the intended standards-based reforms but at considerable local cost. While most participating administrators described efforts to use NCLB to leverage needed change, most teachers described struggles to sustain best practice and to avoid some negative consequences to their students and schools. Administrators anticipated that resistant teachers would be nudged from the profession, and the greatest attrition among participating teachers was from the fourth-grade level at which the state’s standards-based test was administered. Fourth-grade teachers particularly expressed concern about test-related stress and test-driven curricula interfering with children’s individual needs and with their own ability to provide developmentally appropriate instruction adapted for their particular students. The validity and utility of test results was a local issue.

  4. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  5. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  6. 75 FR 34674 - Washington: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... number: (206) 553-6502 or at the Washington State Department of Ecology, 300 Desmond Drive, Lacey... ``designated Manifest Rule and Amendment. on 6/16/05 at 70 FR 35034. facility'' definition; 040 ``manifest'' definition; 040 ``manifest tracking number'' definition; 160(2)(a), 160(2)(a)(ii), 160(2)(a)(iii); 180, 180(1...

  7. 78 FR 32131 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... approving State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions submitted by the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) dated November 28, 2012. The EPA's final rulemaking approves two revisions to the SIP. First, the... related to the Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5...

  8. An Appraisal of Practices of Adult Evening Programs of Community Colleges in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Louis

    This study assessed the practices of the adult evening programs of community colleges in Washington State. From a survey of the literature, a list was made of practices recommended by writers in the field of adult education and was used in developing an appraisal instrument, which was then refined by a trial group of respondents. The refined…

  9. 78 FR 45997 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Transportation Project in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... actions taken by the FHWA and other Federal agencies that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the State Route 167 Puyallup to SR 509, Puyallup River Bridge Replacement Project, located in the City of Puyallup (Milepost 6.40) in Pierce County, Washington. The action by FHWA...

  10. Detection, seed transmission, and control of Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  11. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  12. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with...

  13. New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

  14. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... linguistic heritage, overlapping trade networks, battle alliances, shared resource protection, cooperative... items should submit a written request with information in support of the claim to the Washington State... (360) 902- 0939, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in...

  15. 78 FR 50099 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... linguistic heritage, overlapping trade networks, battle alliances, shared resource protection, cooperative... request with information in support of the request to the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the Native...

  16. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... control of the Native American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the... American ancestry. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), a relationship of shared group identity cannot be... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

  17. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the...

  18. 77 FR 23507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains...

  19. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the...

  20. 75 FR 36717 - Washington State University; Notice of Acceptance for Docketing and Opportunity for Hearing on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Washington State University Research Reactor and Order Imposing Procedures for Access to Safeguards... Manager, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone: (301) 415-0894...

  1. European Earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) at the Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., was surveyed using pitfall traps at three sites at the Hanford Reach National Monument in south central Washington state. Pitfall traps were collected weekly from April 2002 through April 2003. The earwig was consistently taken during all months of the...

  2. Goat Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of the Hanford Site and Hanford National Monument, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three species of goat moths are recorded at the Hanford Nuclear Site and Hanford National Monument in south central Washington State. They are: Comadia bertholdi (Grote), 1880, Givira cornelia (Neumoegen & Dyar), 1893, and Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), 1818. The general habitat of the Hanford area...

  3. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  4. Educator and Student Diversity in Washington State: Gaps and Historical Trends. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy; Tien, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented--including in recent reports from Washington State (Professional Educator Standards Board, 2014) and several large districts across the country (Albert Shanker Institute, 2015)--that the public teaching workforce is far less racially and ethnically diverse than the student body in U.S. public schools. Washington State,…

  5. 76 FR 62868 - Washington State University; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-76

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Washington State University; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-76... No. R- 76. ADDRESSES: You can access publicly available documents related to this notice using the... License No. R-76, held by the Washington State University (WSU, the licensee), which authorizes continued...

  6. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  7. Heat-related illness in Washington State agriculture and forestry sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K

    2014-08-01

    We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers' compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995-2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009-2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet's weather station network. There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  9. Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.

  10. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  11. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in U.S. ground water used for drinking (simulation depth 50 meters) -- Input data set for orchards/vineyards (gwava-dw_orvi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the percent of orchards/vineyards land cover in the conterminous United States. The data set was used as an input data layer for a national...

  12. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Weyand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. Methods: A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Results: Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87 of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from < 20,000 to 100,000 patients and represented the entire spectrum of practice environments, including critical access hospitals and a regional quaternary referral medical center. Thirty-four of 75 (45% reported the current level of security was inadequate, based on the general consensus of their ED staff. Nearly two-thirds (63% of EDs had 24-hour security personnel coverage, while 28% reported no assigned security personnel. Security personnel training was provided by 45% of hospitals or healthcare systems. Sixty-nine of 78 (88% respondents witnessed or heard about violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48% noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient’s family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute

  13. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Listeriosis Outbreaks Linked to Soft Cheese in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen; Marsland, Paula A.; Meek, Roxanne T.; Eckmann, Kaye; Allard, Marc W.; P?rez-Osorio, Ailyn C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes has caused listeriosis outbreaks linked to soft cheese. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of seven L.?monocytogenes isolates from two possibly related outbreaks caused by soft cheese products in Washington State.

  15. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  16. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 77 FR 30467 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... TransAlta Centralia Generation LLC coal-fired power plant in Centralia, Washington (TransAlta). The... . Mail: Steve Body, EPA Region 10, Suite 900, Office of Air, Waste and Toxics, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle...: Steve Body, ] Office of Air, Waste and Toxics, AWT-107. Such deliveries are only accepted during normal...

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  19. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  20. Background concentrations of metals in soils from selected regions in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, K.C.; Prych, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Soil samples from 60 sites in the State of Washington were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude and variability of background concen- trations of metals in soils of the State. Samples were collected in areas that were relatively undisturbed by human activity from the most pre- dominant soils in 12 different regions that are representative of large areas of Washington State. Concentrations of metals were determined by five different laboratory methods. Concentrations of mercury and nickel determined by both the total and total-recoverable methods displayed the greatest variability, followed by chromium and copper determined by the total-recoverable method. Concentrations of other metals, such as aluminum and barium determined by the total method, varied less. Most metals concentrations were found to be more nearly log-normally than normally distributed. Total metals concentrations were not significantly different among the different regions. However, total-recoverable metals concentrations were not as similar among different regions. Cluster analysis revealed that sampling sites in three regions encompassing the Puget Sound could be regrouped to form two new regions and sites in three regions in south-central and southeastern Washington State could also be regrouped into two new regions. Concentrations for 7 of 11 total-recoverable metals correlated with total metals concentrations. Concen- trations of six total metals also correlated positively with organic carbon. Total-recoverable metals concentrations did not correlate with either organic carbon or particle size. Concentrations of metals determined by the leaching methods did not correlate with total or total-recoverable metals concentrations, nor did they correlate with organic carbon or particle size.

  1. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  2. Seismic Site Characterizations and Earthquake Loss Estimation Analyses for K-12 Schools in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Hayashi, K.; Norman, D. K.; Lau, T.; Scott, S.

    2016-12-01

    Washington State has the second-highest earthquake risk in the U.S. after only California, and major earthquakes in western Washington in 1946, 1949, 1965, and 2001 killed 15 people and caused billions of dollars' worth of property damage. Washington State has not been exempt from earthquake damage to school buildings. The mission of The Washington Department of Natural Resources-Division of Geology and Earth Resources is to "reduce or eliminate risks to life and property from natural hazards." We conducted active and passive seismic surveys, and estimated shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles, then determined NEHRP soil classifications using calculated Vs30m values at public schools in Thurston, Grays Harbor, Walla Walla, Chelan and Okanogan counties, Washington. We used active and passive seismic surveys: 1D and 2D MASW and MAM, P- and S-wave refraction, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V), and 2-Station SPAC (2ST-SPAC) surveys to measure Vs and Vp at shallow (0-70m) and Vs at greater (10 to 500 or 10 -3000 meters) depths at the sites, respectively. We then ran Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys along each seismic line to check possible horizontal subsurface variations between the survey line and the actual location of the school buildings. These survey results were then used for calculations of Vs30m to determine the NEHRP site classifications at school sites. These site classes were also used for determining soil amplification effects on the ground motions affecting structural damage estimations of the school buildings. These seismic site characterization results associated with structural engineering evaluations were then used as inputs in FEMA Hazus-Advanced Engineering Building Module (AEBM) analysis to provide estimated casualties, nonstructural, and structural losses. The final AEBM loss estimation along with the more detailed structural evaluations will help school districts assess the earthquake performance of school buildings in order to

  3. Teachers' response to standards-based reform: Probing reform assumptions in Washington State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Loeb

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this paper focuses on the assumptions embedded in Washington state's approach. Survey data from a representative sample of teachers suggest that the state's program of high student learning standards, aligned assessments and an accountability system has shaped teachers' instructional practice and their students' learning in ways that the state's reform theory assumes. However, teachers' concerns about student achievement and instructional supports indicate problems with the inherent logic of the state's reform regarding how well it serves a diverse student population.

  4. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  5. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  6. Work-related injuries among commercial janitors in Washington State, comparisons by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Anderson, Naomi J

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed workers' compensation (WC) data to identify characteristics related to workers' compensation claim outcomes among janitorial service workers in Washington State. We analyzed WC data from the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) State Fund (SF) from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2013, for janitorial service workers employed in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Services Sector. We constructed multivariable models to identify factors associated with higher medical costs and increased time lost from work. There were 2,390 janitorial service compensable claims available for analysis. There were significant differences in injury type and other factors by gender, age, and language preference. Linguistic minority status was associated with longer time loss and higher median medical costs. Women were estimated to account for 35% of janitorial service workers but made up 55% of the compensable claims in this study. Janitorial service workers comprise a large vulnerable occupational group in the U.S. workforce. Identifying differences by injury type and potential inequitable outcomes by gender and language is important to ensuring equal treatment in the workers' compensation process. There were significant differences in injury and individual characteristics between men and women in this study. Women had twice the estimated rate of injury to men, and were more likely to require Spanish language materials. Improving communication for training and knowledge about the workers' compensation system appear to be high priorities in this population of injured janitorial service workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  8. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  9. Fourth Time Is the Charm: Charter School Policy and the Influence of the Elite in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saultz, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, Washington was one of only eight states that did not have a charter school law in state policy heading into the Race to the Top (RTTT) competition. The RTTT competition incentivized local education agencies not only to allow charter schools, but also to increase or eliminate the cap on the number of charter schools that a state allowed to…

  10. Notes on the Life History of Macaria curvata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Southcentral Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, Dennis L.; Driver, Crystal J.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Zack, Richard S.

    2006-06-09

    Macaria curvata (Grote) (Geometridae;Ennomine) is a common species found in arid habitats of the western United States and Canada. Intensive light trapping found the moth to be one of the most commonly collected throughout the Hanford Site of southcentral Washington State. To provide larvae and adults for concurrent studies, a laboratory colony of M. curvata was established and maintained. Live, wild females were collected and allowed to oviposite on their food plant, rubber rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa var. speciosa (Hutt.) Nesom % Baird). In our southcentral Washington study area, adults generally emerge in late March and complete 4 - 5 generations throughout the season until early October when they overwinter in the pupal stage. Eggs are laid on the leaves and stems of the host plant, hatching in 6 - 10 days. The larvae undergo five instars before pupation takes place in the soil. Adult females produce and average of 131 eggs (SD = 62, N = 45). Adult females have an average wingspan of 23.4 mm (+-1.23 mm, N = 31) while males have a wingspan of 24.3 mm (+-1.3 mm, N = 55).

  11. Marijuana Legalization and Parents' Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2016-10-01

    The recent legalization of nonmedical marijuana use in several U.S. states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents' reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult nonmedical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results showed (1) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of nonmedical marijuana use to be 18; (2) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (3) wide opposition to teen use and use around one's children; and (4) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  13. Land Use Change from Biofuels Derived from Forest Residue: A Case of Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel policy in the United States is transitioning away from corn towards second-generation biofuels in part because of the debate over environmental damages from indirect land use change. We combine a spatially explicit parcel level model for land use change in Washington State with simulations for biofuel policy aimed at utilizing forest residue as feedstock. Using a spatially explicit model provides greater precision in measuring net returns to forestland and development and indicates which areas will be most impacted by biofuel policy. The effect of policy is simulated via scenarios of increasing net returns to forestry and of siting feedstock-processing plants. Our results suggest that forestland will increase from such a policy, leading to a net reduction in atmospheric carbon from indirect land use change. This is in contrast to the experience of corn ethanol where the change in carbon emissions is potentially positive and large in magnitude.

  14. Work related injuries in Washington State's Trucking Industry, by industry sector and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Williams, Jena

    2014-04-01

    The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimated economic losses associated with the destruction of plants owing to Phytophthora ramorum quarantine efforts in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.L. Dart; G.A. Chastagner

    2008-01-01

    The number and retail value of plants destroyed in Washington state nurseries due to Phytophthora ramorum quarantine efforts was estimated using Emergency Action Notification forms (EANs) issued by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service between 2004 and 2005. Data collected from EANs indicate that...

  16. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  17. Peer Group Patterns of Alcohol-Using Behaviors Among Early Adolescents in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine and cross-nationally compare the peer group patterns of alcohol-drinking behaviors among cohorts of early adolescents (ages 11-14 years) in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States. Latent transition analysis revealed that after 1 year, transitions congruent with peer influence (whereby non-drinking adolescents initiated alcohol use in the presence of drinking peers) and reverse peer influence were observed in both states; however, transitions congruent with peer selection (whereby drinking adolescents self-selected into drinking peer groups) were only observed among Victorian early adolescents. Findings were interpreted to suggest that Australian family and cultural norms that more commonly allow early adolescent alcohol use lead to a higher rate of peer selection. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  19. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 7, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The States of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, which total 248,730 square miles, compose Segment 7 of this Atlas. The area is geologically and topographically diverse and contains a wealth of scenic beauty, natural resources, and ground and surface water that generally are suitable for all uses. Most of the area of Segment 7 is drained by the Columbia River, its tributaries, and other streams that discharge to the Pacific Ocean. Exceptions are those streams that flow to closed basins in southeastern Oregon and northern Nevada and to the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. The Columbia River is one of the largest rivers in the Nation. The downstream reach of the Columbia River forms most of the border between Oregon and Washington. In 1990, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington had populations of 1.0 million, 2.8 million, and 4.9 million, respectively. The more densely populated parts are in lowland areas and stream valleys. Many of the mountains, the deserts, and the upland areas of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington lack major population centers. Large areas of Idaho and Oregon are uninhabited and are mostly public land (fig. 1) where extensive ground-water development is restricted. Surface water is abundant in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, though not always available when and where needed. In some places, surface water provides much of the water used for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural (primarily irrigation and livestock watering), and industrial purposes. In arid parts of Segment 7, however, surface water has long been fully appropriated, chiefly for irrigation. Ground water is used when and where surface-water supplies are lacking. Ground water is commonly available to shallow wells that are completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist primarily of sand and gravel but contain variable quantities of clay and silt. Many large-yield public-supply and irrigation wells and thousands of domestic wells are completed in these types of aquifers

  20. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  1. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  2. Outreach at Washington State University: a case study in costs and attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth A.; Bollen, Viktor; Bersano, Thomas M.; Mossman, Sean M.

    2016-09-01

    Making effective and efficient use of outreach resources can be difficult for student groups in smaller rural communities. Washington State University's OSA/SPIE student chapter desires well attended yet cost-effective ways to educate and inform the public. We designed outreach activities focused on three different funding levels: low upfront cost, moderate continuing costs, and high upfront cost with low continuing costs. By featuring our activities at well attended events, such as a pre-football game event, or by advertising a headlining activity, such as a laser maze, we take advantage of large crowds to create a relaxed learning atmosphere. Moreover, participants enjoy casual learning while waiting for a main event. Choosing a particular funding level and associating with well-attended events makes outreach easier. While there are still many challenges to outreach, such as motivating volunteers or designing outreach programs, we hope overcoming two large obstacles will lead to future outreach success.

  3. Two new species of Sabulina (Caryophyllaceae from Washington State, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben S. Legler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabulina basaltica and Sabulina sororia (Caryophyllaceae are described as new species endemic to Washington State, U.S.A. Sabulina basaltica is restricted to high-elevation, basalt rocks in the northeastern Olympic Mountains, and Sabulina sororia to high-elevation, dunite rocks of the Twin Sisters Range in the North Cascade Mountains. Both were previously confused with Sabulina rossii (formerly called Arenaria rossii or Minuartia rossii. Their recognition as distinct species is supported by morphological and molecular characters and disjunct geographic distributions. Both are illustrated, mapped and compared to related species. We also present a molecular phylogeny of Sabulina based on nuclear ITS and plastid trnQ-rps16 DNA with increased sampling of North American taxa. The phylogeny resolves a single clade containing all glabrous, perennial, North American Sabulina taxa including Sabulina rossii and both of the new species.

  4. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  5. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E

    2011-09-01

    Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early predictors of occupational back reinjury: results from a prospective study of workers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Benjamin J; Turner, Judith A; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M

    2013-01-15

    Prospective population-based cohort study. To identify early predictors of self-reported occupational back reinjury within 1 year after work-related back injury. Back injuries are the costliest and most prevalent disabling occupational injuries in the United States. A substantial proportion of workers with back injuries have reinjuries after returning to work, yet there are few studies of risk factors for occupational back reinjuries. We aimed to identify the incidence and early (in the claim) predictors of self-reported back reinjury by approximately 1 year after the index injury among Washington State workers with new work disability claims for back injuries. The Washington Workers' Compensation Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort provided a large, population-based sample with information on variables in 7 domains: sociodemographic, employment-related, pain and function, clinical status, health care, health behavior, and psychological. We conducted telephone interviews with workers 3 weeks and 1 year after submission of a time-loss claim for the injury. We first identified predictors (P body vibration at work, previous similar injury, 4 or more previous claims of any type, possessing health insurance, and high fear-avoidance scores. Baseline obesity was associated with reduced odds of reinjury. No other employment-related or psychological variables were significant. One-fourth of the workers who received work disability compensation for a back injury self-reported reinjury after returning to work. Baseline variables in multiple domains predicted occupational back reinjury. Increased knowledge of early risk factors for reinjury may help to lead to interventions, such as efforts to reduce fear avoidance and graded activity to promote recovery, effective in lowering the risk of reinjury.

  7. The Orchard points at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (orchard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 56 points representing the bubblers of mid-point of planting spots in the orchard at Pipe Spring National Monument,...

  8. Trails, Other, Major multi-use recreation trails in Washington County including the Ice Age National Scenic Trail and the Eisenbahn State Trail., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Trails, Other dataset current as of 2013. Major multi-use recreation trails in Washington County including the Ice Age National Scenic Trail and the Eisenbahn State...

  9. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Washington. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Listeriosis Outbreaks Linked to Soft Cheese in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Marsland, Paula A; Meek, Roxanne T; Eckmann, Kaye; Allard, Marc W; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C

    2017-09-07

    Listeria monocytogenes has caused listeriosis outbreaks linked to soft cheese. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of seven L. monocytogenes isolates from two possibly related outbreaks caused by soft cheese products in Washington State. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  11. Collateral visibility : A socio-legal study of police body camera adoption, privacy, and public disclosure in Washington State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce

    Law enforcement use of body-worn cameras has recently become a subject of significant public and scholarly debate. This article presents findings from a socio-legal examination of the legal and social implications of body-worn camera adoption by two police departments in Washington State. In

  12. Washington State Services for Children with Deaf-Blindness. Final Project Report, October 1, 1992-September 30, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Marcia

    This report describes activities and accomplishments of the Washington State Services for Children with Deaf-Blindness 3-year, federally supported program to provide technical assistance and training to families and service providers of approximately 140 children with deaf-blindness. Specific outcomes are listed for each of the project's 11…

  13. 75 FR 1724 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of... grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin, and provides growers... recommendation will include an analysis of the pertinent factors and issues, including the impact of a proposed...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment Service Delivery Problems and Solutions in Rural Areas of Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.

    This study investigates prevention and treatment programs that deal with rural child sexual abuse in the State of Washington. A survey of 61 rural service providers examined agencies, services provided, problems faced in service delivery, and innovative solutions to those problems. The study compares responses from three types of agencies (mental…

  15. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ...: the definition of ``Handle''; and regulations concerning ``Marketing Policy'' and ``Grower Diversion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 930 AGENCY...

  16. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  17. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  18. Promoting Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Practices: A Washington State Learning Collaborative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, Emily; Johnson, Donna; Knox, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Hospital breastfeeding support practices can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Learning collaboratives are an increasingly common strategy to improve practices in health care and have been applied to breastfeeding in many cases. The aims of this study of the Evidence-Based Hospital Breastfeeding Support Learning Collaborative (EBBS LC) were to describe the perceptions of participants regarding the process and effectiveness of the EBBS LC, describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and identify additional actions and resources needed in future learning collaboratives. Qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 key staff who represented 16 of the 18 participating hospitals. The learning collaborative was perceived positively by participants, meeting the expectations of 9 and exceeding the expectations of 4 persons interviewed. The most beneficial aspect of the program was its collaborative nature, and the most difficult aspect was the time required to participate as well as technological difficulties. The key barriers were staff time, staff changes, cost, and the difficulty of changing the existing practices of hospitals and communities. The key facilitating factors were supportive management, participation in multiple breastfeeding quality improvement projects, collecting data on breastfeeding outcomes, tangible resources regarding the Ten Steps, and positive community response. Participants in the EBBS LC stated that they would like to see the Washington State Department of Health create a resource-rich, centralized source of information for participants. This learning collaborative approach was valued by participants. Future efforts can be guided by these evaluation findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Snacking and oral health habits of Washington state WIC children and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faine, M P; Oberg, D

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the snacking and oral hygiene habits of Washington State WIC children and their caregivers. In a structured interview, 84 caregivers reported that their children, 12 to 48 months of age, were snacking two to three times daily. Nutritious foods--milk, fruit juice, crackers, bananas, apples and cheese--were the most frequenty reported snacks. However, 38 percent of children were given highly cariogenic raisins for snacks once or more times per week. Snack foods were purchased most often by caregivers because they were healthful or the child's favorite. Putting their child to bed with a bottle was a regular practice of one-fourth of the group. Caregivers stated that not brushing the teeth and sugar intake were the main causes of cavities. One-fourth of the children did not have their teeth cleaned by an adult and 17 percent did not appear to receive adequate fluoride. Tooth decay or bleeding gums when brushing were commonly reported dental problems of caregivers. One-half of WIC caregivers had not visited a dentist in the last year, whereas, 91 percent of WIC children had never had a dental examination.

  20. Improving the quality of workers' compensation health care delivery: the Washington State Occupational Health Services Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickizer, T M; Franklin, G; Plaeger-Brockway, R; Mootz, R D

    2001-01-01

    This article has summarized research and policy activities undertaken in Washington State over the past several years to identify the key problems that result in poor quality and excessive disability among injured workers, and the types of system and delivery changes that could best address these problems in order to improve the quality of occupational health care provided through the workers' compensation system. Our investigations have consistently pointed to the lack of coordination and integration of occupational health services as having major adverse effects on quality and health outcomes for workers' compensation. The Managed Care Pilot Project, a delivery system intervention, focused on making changes in how care is organized and delivered to injured workers. That project demonstrated robust improvements in disability reduction; however, worker satisfaction suffered. Our current quality improvement initiative, developed through the Occupational Health Services Project, synthesizes what was learned from the MCP and other pilot studies to make delivery system improvements. This initiative seeks to develop provider incentives and clinical management processes that will improve outcomes and reduce the burden of disability on injured workers. Fundamental to this approach are simultaneously preserving workers' right to choose their own physician and maintaining flexibility in the provision of individualized care based on clinical need and progress. The OHS project then will be a "real world" test to determine if aligning provider incentives and giving physicians the tools they need to optimize occupational health delivery can demonstrate sustainable reduction in disability and improvements in patient and employer satisfaction. Critical to the success of this initiative will be our ability to: (1) enhance the occupational health care management skills and expertise of physicians who treat injured workers by establishing community-based Centers of Occupational

  1. Longitudinal effects of school drug policies on student marijuana use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-05-01

    We examined the longitudinal effect of schools' drug policies on student marijuana use. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions.

  2. Opioid Prescribing Laws and Emergency Department Guidelines for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Tracy L; Nwude, Azuka C

    2016-06-01

    Rising mortality rates, increased opioid prescription abuse, and a perceived need to provide practitioners with structured guidance in opioid prescribing have prompted the Washington State Legislature to establish new legal standards of practice regarding chronic non-cancer pain management. Clinicians are required to conduct a detailed physical examination and health history prior to treatment. Risk assessments for abuse and detailed periodic reviews of treatment are required at least every 6 months. Those considered "high risk" or who have significant psychiatric comorbidities will be required to sign and follow a written agreement or pain contract, obtain their pain prescriptions from a single provider, and submit to biological drug screening. Unless an exemption exists, patients prescribed > 120 mg of morphine-equivalents daily, considered severe pain nonresponders, necessitating dosage escalation, diagnosed with multifaceted mental health-related comorbidities, demonstrating diagnostic ambiguity, and/or requiring significant treatment individualization are referred to a pain specialist. Episodic care settings should refrain from supplying opioids to chronic pain patients whenever possible. The ER is for Emergencies coalition instituted the Seven Best Practices program throughout the state to reduce unnecessary visits, coordinate prescribing practice, reduce Medicaid expenditures, and improve overall patient care. The state reported approximately $33.65 million in savings in 2013 through the use of these practices and converting Medicaid participants from fee-for-service to managed care plans. Similar legislation to complement clinical practice guidelines is expected to be enacted in other states. It is vital that practitioners comprehend the new guidelines and make appropriate adjustments in their opioid prescribing habits. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  3. Implementation of Washington State's zero tolerance law: patterns of arrests, dispositions, and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Blackman, Kenneth; Voas, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    Zero tolerance (ZT) laws have been effective in reducing alcohol-related crashes among underage drivers. However, enforcement in some states has not been rigorous, and ZT offenses may not be viewed as serious offenses. On July 1, 1994, the state of Washington implemented a ZT law that allowed police to request a test for alcohol on suspicion of either a ZT or driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offense. The present study examined effects of the ZT law on arrests and case dispositions among underage offenders as a function of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and post-law patterns of recidivism. Times-series analyses examined the effects of the ZT law on trends in arrests of underage drivers between 1991 and 1999. Based on arrest records matched with driver's license records, the effects of the law on dispositions of alcohol-related offenses among underage drivers were examined, and rates of recidivism among underage offenders were examined for the period following the ZT law. There was a substantial increase in arrests of underage drivers beginning immediately after implementation of the ZT law, especially among drivers with low BACs. The types of court or administrative dispositions received by underage offenders changed markedly after the ZT law was implemented. Underage offenders with lower BACs became far more likely to receive alcohol-related convictions and/or license suspensions. However, the percentage of underage offenders with higher BACs receiving DUI convictions declined as some of these offenders received the lesser ZT disposition. After the ZT law, underage offenders with BACs of 0.10 g/dL or higher were more likely to recidivate than those with lower BACs, but appreciable proportions of drivers were re-arrested for another alcohol offense, whatever the BAC and however they were penalized. Implementation of Washington's law indicates that a ZT law can increase the likelihood that an underage person will be sanctioned for drinking and driving. However

  4. Severe injury among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Catherine J; Rivara, Frederick P; Cummings, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The authors' anecdotal experience at a regional Level I trauma center was that Hispanic children were overrepresented among burn patients, particularly among children with burns due to scalding from hot food. This study describes injury incidence and severity among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white infants, children, and adolescents with serious traumatic injuries in Washington State. Data from the Washington State Trauma Registry for 1995-1997 were used to identify injured individuals aged injury incidence rates for Hispanic children relative to non-Hispanic white children were calculated using denominator estimates derived from U.S. Census Bureau population data. Hispanic children and non-Hispanic white children were also compared on several measures of severity of injury. In 1995-1997, serious traumatic injuries were reported to the Registry for 231 Hispanic children aged white children (56 per 100,000 person-years), yielding an overall rate ratio (RR) of 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8, 1.1). Motor vehicle crashes and falls accounted for one-third to one-half of the injuries for each group. Infants, children, and adolescents identified as Hispanic had higher rates of injuries related to hot objects (i.e., burns) (RR=2.3; 95% CI 1.3, 4.1), guns (RR=2.2; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.3), and being cut or pierced (RR=3.5; 95% CI 2.2 to 5.5). The Hispanic group had a lower injury rate for motor vehicle accidents (RR=0.7; 95% CI 0.5, 0.9). Mortality rates were similar (RR=1.1; 95% CI 0.7, 1.7). The mean length of hospital stay was 5.5 days for the Hispanic group and 8.8 days for the non-Hispanic white group (difference=3.3 days; 95% CI -0.7, 7.4). The study found little difference between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white infants, children, and adolescents in the burden of traumatic pediatric injury. However, burns, guns, drowning, and being pierced/cut appeared to be particularly important mechanisms of injury for Hispanic children. More specific investigations targeted toward

  5. Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Christine R; Bekemeier, Betty; Storey-Kuyl, Marni

    2016-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State," found on pages 212-219, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe supports and barriers to adopting population-focused care in public health nursing

  6. 77 FR 76173 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...'' to a single source or small group of sources, i.e., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment... (ECA) on the west coast of the United States and Canada were taken into account in the 2018 emission estimates (ECA Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI). These emissions are outside the modeling domain but may...

  7. A practical framework for regulating for-profit recreational marijuana in US States: Lessons from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, John T; Kagan, Raanan; Murphy, Patrick J; Esrick, Josh

    2017-04-01

    Despite the federal prohibition against marijuana, state-level recreational use appears to be moving forward. Public opinion is shifting. Following well-publicized state-legalization in Washington and Colorado, states across the US have begun considering similar measures. Since the 2016 election, over 21% of Americans now live in places where recreational marijuana is state-legal, and over 63% of the country permits medical or recreational use at the state level. This paper does not consider whether states should legalize marijuana nor does it weigh all regulatory options available to states. Instead, it considers how states can create a practical framework to regulate recreational marijuana, particularly in a climate of federal uncertainty where marijuana remains illegal. We draw lessons from Colorado and Washington-assuming that other states will adopt similar models and employ commercial, for-profit systems. Considering both the variety of goals that states could adopt and how they interact, we offer recommendations in five areas: cultivation, production, and processing; sale, consumption, and possession; taxes and finance; public health and safety; and governance. We recommend that states implement a relatively restrictive regulatory approach, with a single market for recreational and medical marijuana, if appropriate. This should make marijuana laws easier to enforce, help reduce diversion, and satisfy federal guidance. Moreover, drawing from Colorado and Washington's experience, we suggest a flexible system with robust data collection and performance monitoring that supports a thorough evaluation. This should allow states to "learn as they go"-a must, given the uncertainty surrounding such policy shifts. Of course, a tightly regulated approach will have drawbacks-including a significant illegal market. But political experience teaches that states will be better off loosening a tight market than attempting to tighten a loose one. We also consider a potential

  8. The 2015 drought in Washington State: a harbinger of things to come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; Xiao, Mu; Engel, Ruth; Livneh, Ben; Abatzoglou, John T.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Washington State experienced widespread drought in 2015 and the largest burned area in the observational record, attributable in part to exceptionally low winter snow accumulation and high summer temperatures. We examine 2015 drought severity in the Cascade and Olympic mountains relative to the historical climatology (1950–present) and future climate projections (mid-21st century) for a mid-range global greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Although winter precipitation was near normal, the regional winter temperature anomaly was +2.1 °C (+2.0σ) in 2015, consistent with projections of a +2.3 °C (+2.2σ) temperature change and near normal precipitation in the future, relative to the climatology. April 1 snow water equivalent in 2015, ‑325 mm (‑1.5σ), and the future, ‑252 mm (‑1.1σ), were substantially lower than the climatology. Wildfire potential, as indicated by dead fuel moisture content, was higher in 2015 than mid-21st century mean projections. In contrast to most historical droughts, which have been driven by precipitation deficits, our results suggest that 2015 is a useful analog of typical conditions in the Pacific Northwest by the mid-21st century.

  9. Zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality and zooplankton samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean zooplankton assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most zooplankton species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the zooplankton assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of zooplankton assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.

  10. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  11. Washington State's alcohol ignition interlock law: effects on recidivism among first-time DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Leaf, William A; Farmer, Charles M; Eichelberger, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of changes to Washington State's ignition interlock laws: moving issuance of interlock orders from courts to the driver licensing department in July 2003 and extending the interlock order requirement to first-time offenders with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) below 0.15 percent ("first simple driving under the influence [DUI]") in June 2004. Trends in conviction types, interlock installation rates, and 2-year cumulative recidivism rates were examined for first-time convictions (simple, high-BAC, test refusal DUI; deferred prosecution; alcohol-related negligent driving) stemming from DUI arrests between January 1999 and June 2006. Regression analyses examined recidivism effects of the law changes and interlock installation rates. To examine general deterrent effects, trends in single-vehicle late-night crashes in Washington were compared with trends in California and Oregon. After the 2004 law change, the proportion of simple DUIs declined somewhat, though the proportion of negligent driving convictions (no interlock order requirement) continued an upward trend. Interlock installation rates for first simple DUIs were 3 to 6 percent in the year before the law change and one third after. Recidivism declined by an estimated 12 percent (e.g., expected 10.6% without law change vs. 9.3% among offenders arrested between April and June 2006, the last study quarter) among first simple DUI offenders and an estimated 11 percent (expected 10.2% vs. 9.1%) among all first-time offenders. There was an estimated 0.06 percentage point decrease in the recidivism rate for each percentage point increase in the proportion of first simple DUI offenders with interlocks. If installation rates had been 100 vs. 34 percent for first simple DUI offenders arrested between April and June 2006, and if the linear relationship between rates of recidivism and installations continued, recidivism could have been reduced from 9.3 to 5.3 percent. With installation rates of

  12. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  13. Practice patterns among male and female general dentists in a Washington State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D

    2005-06-01

    Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.

  14. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P 5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  16. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  17. Modeling the Mental Health Workforce in Washington State: Using State Licensing Data to Examine Provider Supply in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Patanian, Miriam M.; Larson, Eric H.; Lishner, Denise M.; Mauksch, Larry B.; Katon, Wayne J.; Walker, Edward; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Context: Ensuring an adequate mental health provider supply in rural and urban areas requires accessible methods of identifying provider types, practice locations, and practice productivity. Purpose: To identify mental health shortage areas using existing licensing and survey data. Methods: The 1998-1999 Washington State Department of Health files…

  18. Nitrogen deposition effects on diatom communities in lakes from three National Parks in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.

  19. Seismic attenuation structure of the Seattle Basin, Washington State from explosive-source refraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Wilcock, W.S.D.; Pratt, T.L.; Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We used waveform data from the 1999 SHIPS (Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound) seismic refraction experiment to constrain the attenuation structure of the Seattle basin, Washington State. We inverted the spectral amplitudes of compressional- and shear-wave arrivals for source spectra, site responses, and one- and two-dimensional Q-1 models at frequencies between 1 and 40 Hz for P waves and 1 and 10 Hz for S waves. We also obtained Q-1 models from t* values calculated from the spectral slopes of P waves between 10 and 40 Hz. One-dimensional inversions show that Qp at the surface is 22 at 1 Hz, 130 at 5 Hz, and 390 at 20 Hz. The corresponding values at 18 km depth are 100, 440, and 1900. Qs at the surface is 16 and 160 at 1 Hz and 8 Hz, respectively, increasing to 80 and 500 at 18 km depth. The t* inversion yields a Qp model that is consistent with the amplitude inversions at 20 and 30 Hz. The basin geometry is clearly resolved in the t* inversion, but the amplitude inversions only imaged the basin structure after removing anomalously high-amplitude shots near Seattle. When these shots are removed, we infer that Q-1 values may be ???30% higher in the center of the basin than the one-dimensional models predict. We infer that seismic attenuation in the Seattle basin will significantly reduce ground motions at frequencies at and above 1 Hz, partially countering amplification effects within the basin.

  20. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  1. Attitudes of family physicians in Washington state toward physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, L Gary; Norris, Thomas E; Lishner, Denise M

    2003-01-01

    The topic of physician-assisted suicide is difficult and controversial. With recent laws allowing physicians to assist in a terminally ill patient's suicide under certain circumstances, the debate concerning the appropriate and ethical role for physicians has intensified. This paper utilizes data from a 1997 survey of family physicians (FPs) in Washington State to test two hypotheses: (1) older respondents will indicate greater opposition to physician-assisted suicide than their younger colleagues, and (2) male and rural physicians will have more negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide than their female and urban counterparts. A questionnaire administered to all active FPs obtained a 68% response rate, with 1074 respondents found to be eligible in this study. A ZIP code system based on generalist Health Service Areas was used to designate those practicing in rural versus urban areas. One-fourth of the respondents overall indicated support for physician-assisted suicide. When asked whether this practice should be legalized, 39% said yes, 44% said no, and 18% indicated that they did not know. Fifty-eight percent of the study sample reported that they would not include physician-assisted suicide in their practices even if it were legal. Responses disaggregated by age-groups closely paralleled the group overall. There was a significant pattern of opposition on the part of rural male respondents compared to urban female respondents. Even among those reporting support for physician-assisted suicide, many expressed reluctance about including it in their practices. These findings highlight the systematic differences in FP attitudes toward one aspect of health care by gender, rural-urban practice location, and other factors.

  2. Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: a new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P; Carlisle, Maureen H; Bergen, Silas; Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2014-03-01

    Early land plant fossils can be challenging to interpret due to their morphological simplicity and often fragmentary nature. Morphometric techniques using commonly preserved characters might increase diagnostic value of such material. To evaluate the utility of morphometrics in assessing morphospecies boundaries in the Devonian, we compared degrees of variation within the cosmopolitan lycopsid genus Leclercqia with that of living relatives (Lycopodium-Spinulum spp.) Of particular interest was determining whether a new morphotype of Leclercqia from the Middle Devonian Chilliwack flora of Washington State fell within or outside the range of variation of previously described species. Morphological variation of Leclercqia was assessed across the geographic range of the genus using six vegetative and three reproductive characters. The new morphotype and two previously described species (L. complexa, L. andrewsii) were compared using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Extant Lycopodium-Spinulum species and variants were similarly analyzed to assess inter- vs. intraspecific variation in living lycopsids. The LDA comparisons of Lycopodium-Spinulum yielded notable morphological disparity between species but substantial overlap between intraspecific variants. Among the fossils, LDA separates the new morphotype, Leclercqia complexa, and L. andrewsii to a similar degree as Lycopodium and Spinulum species. Based on these results and further study, we describe a new species of Leclercqia: Leclercqia scolopendra Benca et Strömberg sp. nov. Morphometric analyses can aid in informing taxonomic assignment of fragmentary early land plant fossils using readily preserved features, even in the absence of reproductive structures. Applications of this approach to the Chilliwack flora suggest Leclercqia displayed greater morphological variation, taxonomic diversity, and biogeographic extent than previously thought.

  3. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  4. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  6. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  7. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NODC Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  8. Valley fever: finding new places for an old disease: Coccidioides immitis found in Washington State soil associated with recent human infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Hurst, Steven; Hill, Heather; Gade, Lalitha; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Ralston, Cindy; Roe, Chandler; Barker, Bridget M; Goldoft, Marcia; Keim, Paul; Wohrle, Ron; Thompson, 3rd, George R; Engelthaler, David M; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture to demonstrate persistent colonization of soils by Coccidioides immitis, an agent of valley fever, in Washington State linked to recent human...

  9. "Good Teaching for All Students?": Sheltered Instruction Programming in Washington State Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Crissa; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    Many in the field of language policy have called for studies that connect policy texts at the macro level with their interpretations in districts, schools, and classrooms at the micro level. The purpose of this study is to trace Washington's educational language policy through the layers of interpretation to educational practice to see how the…

  10. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  11. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... members of Southern Coast Salish tribes. Historical and anthropological sources (Deur 2009, Mooney 1896...) 685-3849, email [email protected] , and Lourdes Henebry-DeLeon, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington University, 400 East University Way, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7544, telephone (509) 963-2671, email...

  12. 78 FR 50443 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... delta area. Historical and anthropological sources (Amoss 1978, Mooney 1896, Spier 1936, Swanton 1952... Washington, Box 35101, ] Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY..., WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email [email protected] , by September 18, 2013. After that date, if...

  13. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... the southern end. This area falls within the Southern Lushootseed language group of Salish cultures... Lake Washington south of the mouth of the Sammamish River. This area falls within the Southern Lushootseed language group of Salish cultures. The Sammamish people primarily occupied this area (Ruby and...

  14. Rural Youth in Washington State: Sociological Studies, 1954-1974. Bulletin 818.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Walter L.

    Data that were collected at various times during the period 1952-1971 were brought together to portray some of the important norms that guided the attitudes and actions of high school and college students in Washington. Family culture and delinquency data collected from 3,242 high school students in 1957, 1958, and 1959 dealt with teenage…

  15. An update on microsatellite genotype information of Phytophthora ramorum in Washington State nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Coats; Gary Chastagner; Norm Dart; Meg M. Larsen; Niklaus J.. Grunwald

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum was first detected in a Washington nursery in 2003 and has since been positively identified in 46 nurseries, three non-nursery water sites, and three landscape sites. Thirteen nurseries have tested positive for 2 consecutive years and four nurseries have been positive for 3 consecutive years, despite the completion of the U...

  16. Recidivism Rates for Two Education Programs' Graduates Compared to Overall Washington State Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Charles E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Recidivism rates for graduates of two correctional education programs in Washington were compared with statewide rates for all inmates released 1985-1987. Recidivism rates showed significant improvement when exposure to educational programs was extensive enough for individuals to receive diplomas and certificates. (JOW)

  17. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... by David Munsell. The collection was transferred from the University of Washington Anthropology...-human bone, stone, and shell; 1 lot plant material mixed with human bone; 1 lot stone; and 26 level bags... Anthropology Department to the Burke Museum in the 1970s, and was formerly accessioned in 1996 (Burke Accn...

  18. 77 FR 59649 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... sites and are considered part of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Area. Material culture observed at the... with Native American Coast Salish material culture. Oral history indicates that Orcas Island was... transferred to the Burke Museum by the University of Washington Anthropology Department in 1991 and were...

  19. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., of the Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, during the excavation of site 45-SJ-105... Juan County Sheriff's Department sent the remains to the Department of Anthropology, University of... material. No known individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects are present. Ethnographic...

  20. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  1. Impact of Peer Substance Use on Middle School Performance in Washington. Interim Report to the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse, Department of Social and Health Services, State of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Richard N.

    This report examines the influence of peer substance use on school performance among 7th grade students in Washington State. The study consisted of two components. The first examined the relationship between substance use and school performance and explored the factors that affect school performance. The second examined the ways variables such as…

  2. Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Lasher, John P.; Lamb, Andrew P.; Mahan, Shannon; Foit, Franklin F.; Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ∼500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ∼10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.

  3. The Fort Lewis maternity care project: a pioneering program for enlisted military families in a Prewar Washington State Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nena J

    2014-01-01

    The Fort Lewis maternity project begun in Tacoma, Washington in 1941, was considered a pioneering project that met the identified maternal/child health care needs of enlisted military families. From the outset, local medical leaders as well as Children's Bureau advisors intended that the project would provide physician-managed pregnancy as well as hospital births and that public health nursing would play a critical role in this maternal/child initiative. The project proved so successful that the model of care established under this program was reinterpreted to meet similar needs for military families in other states as America entered World War II.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Injury at Harvest in Mid-Atlantic Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Stallings, Jonathan W; Leskey, Tracy C; Krawczyk, Greg; Polk, Dean; Butler, Bryan; Bergh, J Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), injury to late-season apple cultivars was measured at harvest in 2011 and 2012 in commercial orchards in four mid-Atlantic states. In each orchard block, a border zone (adjacent to woods), an interior zone (near orchard center), and an intermediate zone (between border and interior zones) comprised 1-3 tree rows per zone, depending on block size. Just before commercial harvest, 10 fruit were sampled from the upper, middle, and lower third of the canopy from five trees in each zone. After 3-5 wk in cold storage, fruit were examined for external and internal injury, and severity of internal injury (number of injury sites per fruit) from H. halys. A zero-inflated negative binomial model accounted for significant variation among the orchards and showed that apples from the upper canopy of border zone trees had the highest probability of experiencing external and internal injury. A minor interaction was detected among the orchards and zones for injury prevalence and severity, but there was no evidence of an orchard showing less expected injury in the border zone compared with other zones. Adjusting for orchard-to-orchard variation, differences in injury distributions among the zones and canopies were primarily due to injury prevalence rather than expected injury severity. The implications of these results to scouting and managing H. halys in eastern apple orchards are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Williams, Edwina; Kerr, William C; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Ye, Yu

    2017-11-27

    In 2012 Washington State ended a wholesale/retail monopoly on liquor, permitting sale of spirits in stores with > 10,000 square feet. Implementation resulted in average price increases, but also five times the stores selling liquor. As part of a privatization evaluation, we studied pre-post and between-store-type purchase experiences. A 2010 Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) survey of liquor purchasers (n = 599), and the 2014 baseline of a repeated telephone survey (1,202 residents; n = 465 purchasers), each included 10 LCB questions on satisfaction with purchase experiences, each attribute with graded response scale A = 4 to D = 1 and F (0 = fail). Analyses used t-tests for satisfaction differences by time and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 2014 between-store satisfaction-level differences. Five purchase features were rated more favorably after privatization (ps operating hours, and checkout speed) were highest for liquor superstores, while location convenience favored grocery and drug stores, and price satisfaction favored wholesale (Costco) stores, with staff knowledge highest at liquor stores. Satisfaction with liquor purchases increased after privatization for half the consumer experiences. Availability (location convenience and store hours) was important to liquor purchasers. Such results are relevant to sustained support for the policy of privatizing spirits retail monopolies.

  7. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Fractions in Response to Cover Crops in an Orange Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Éder Rodrigues de Oliveira; Judyson de Matos Oliveira; Francisco Alisson da Silva Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cultivation of cover crops intercropped with fruit trees is an alternative to maintain mulch cover between plant rows and increase soil organic carbon (C) stocks. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil total organic C content and labile organic matter fractions in response to cover crop cultivation in an orange orchard. The experiment was performed in the state of Bahia, in a citrus orchard with cultivar ‘Pera’ orange (Citrus sinensis) at a spacin...

  8. Predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Court Pre-Screen Assessment in the Netherlands: the development of a new scoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Screen Assessment (WSJCA pre-screen) in the Netherlands. Previous research conducted in the United States showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen to be modest, as is the case with the predictive validity

  9. Predictive Validity of the Washington State Juvenile Court Pre-Screen Assessment in the Netherlands : The Development of a New Scoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; van der Laan, Peter H.

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Screen Assessment (WSJCA pre-screen) in the Netherlands. Previous research conducted in the United States showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen to be modest, as is the case with the predictive validity

  10. Impact of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål, in Mid-Atlantic Tree Fruit Orchards in the United States: Case Studies of Commercial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C. Leskey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercial orchards in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were surveyed weekly in 2010 and 2011 for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug and the injury caused to both apple and peaches. Among tested sampling techniques, pyramid traps baited with the aggregation pheromone of Plautia stali Scott, methyl-(2E,4E,6Z-decatrienoate, yielded the most brown marmorated stink bug adults and nymphs, followed by visual observations. Brown marmorated stink bugs began to feed on apples and peaches soon after fruit set and continued to feed on fruit throughout the growing season. Injury to apple was relatively inconsequential until after mid-June, whereas feeding on peaches resulted in immediate economic injury as the surface became distorted, dented, discolored, and the flesh beneath turned brown. Significantly more apples were injured and with greater severity in 2010 than in 2011. Likewise, percent injury on the exterior portion of each apple plot was significantly greater than injury reported from the interior in both years. Growers increased the number of insecticide applications nearly 4-fold from 2010 to 2011. In addition to the increased number of targeted insecticide applications, growers also reduced the interval between treatments in 2011. A metric was created to compare the relative intensity of each grower's commercial management program between seasons and amongst each other.

  11. Uncovering a missing demographic in trauma registries: epidemiology of trauma among American Indians and Alaska Natives in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Megan J; Dankovchik, Jenine; Weiser, Thomas; Cheng, Tabitha; Bigback, Kristyn; Knaster, Elizabeth S; Sugerman, David E

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate racial misclassification in a statewide trauma registry and to describe the epidemiology of trauma among the Washington American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population. We performed probabilistic record linkage between the Washington Trauma Registry (2005-2009) and Northwest Tribal Registry, a dataset of known AI/AN. AI/AN patients were compared with caucasians on demographic, injury and clinical outcome factors. A multivariable model estimated odds of mortality. Record linkage increased ascertainment of AI/AN cases in the trauma registry 71%, from 1777 to 3039 cases. Compared with caucasians, AI/AN trauma patients were younger (mean age=36 vs 47 years, pISSs were similar (ISS >15: 21.4% vs 20.5%, p=0.63), and no difference was observed in mortality after adjustment for covariates (p=0.58). Linkage to a state trauma registry improved data quality by correcting racial misclassification, allowing for a comprehensive description of injury patterns for the AI/AN population. AI/AN sustained more severe injuries with similar postinjury outcomes to caucasians. Future efforts should focus on primary prevention for this population, including increased use of seat belts and child safety seats and reduction of interpersonal violence and suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell

    2013-01-01

    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  13. Examination of the Divergence in Trends for Adolescent Marijuana Use and Marijuana-Specific Risk Factors in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Charles B; Guttmannova, Katarina; Cambron, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    As marijuana laws have become more permissive, survey data on adolescents in the United States have shown an increase in marijuana-specific risk factors, particularly in the proportion of youth who do not perceive marijuana use as harmful. Prevalence of marijuana use among youth, however, has changed little. Using representative data from Washington State, which has legalized medical and nonmedical marijuana for adults, we examined two competing hypotheses to account for this divergence in population trends. Data were from 2000 to 2014 biennial Washington State surveys of 10th-grade students. First, we assessed whether associations between marijuana use and marijuana-specific risk factors have weakened over time. Second, we examined whether decreases in alcohol and cigarette use can account for the lack of expected increase in marijuana use prevalence. Despite stability in marijuana use prevalence, there were increases in marijuana-specific risk factors of low perceived harm, youth favorable attitudes about use, and perceived community attitudes favorable to use. Associations between marijuana use and marijuana use predictors varied little across time; if anything, the positive association between low perceived harm and marijuana use grew stronger. Decreases in prevalence of alcohol and cigarette use largely accounted for stability in marijuana use during a period when marijuana risk factors increased. Decreases in other types of substance use or in the underlying, common risk for substance use may have mitigated effects of increases in marijuana-specific risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, and Paenibacillus polymyxa isolated from a Pinot noir wine from Western Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cosmos, Nicolas H; Watson, Bruce A; Fellman, J K; Mattinson, D S; Edwards, Charles G

    2017-10-01

    This report provides the first confirmed evidence of Bacillus-like bacteria present in a wine from Washington State. These bacteria were isolated from a 2013 Pinot noir wine whose aroma was sensorially described as being 'dirty' or 'pond scum.' Based on physiological traits and genetic sequencing, three bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (strain NHO-1), Bacillus pumilus (strain NHO-2), and Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain NHO-3). These bacteria grew in synthetic media of low pH (pH 3.5) while some survived ethanol concentrations up to 15% v/v. However, none tolerated molecular SO2 concentrations ≥0.4 mg/l. Growth of strains NHO-1 and NHO-3 in a Merlot grape juice resulted in increases of titratable and volatile acidities while decreases in titratable acidity were noted for NHO-2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  16. A case-control study of boat-related injuries and fatalities in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempski, Sarah; Schiff, Melissa; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda

    2014-08-01

    To identify risk factors associated with boat-related injuries and deaths. We performed a case-control study using the Washington Boat Accident Investigation Report Database for 2003-2010. Cases were fatally injured boat occupants, and controls were non-fatally injured boat occupants involved in a boating incident. We evaluated the association between victim, boat and incident factors and risk of death using Poisson regression to estimate RRs and 95% CIs. Of 968 injured boaters, 26% died. Fatalities were 2.6 times more likely to not be wearing a personal flotation device (PFD) and 2.2 times more likely to not have any safety features on their boat compared with those who survived. Boating fatalities were more likely to be in a non-motorised boat, to have alcohol involved in the incident, to be in an incident that involved capsizing, sinking, flooding or swamping, and to involve a person leaving the boat voluntarily, being ejected or falling than those who survived. Increasing PFD use, safety features on the boat and alcohol non-use are key strategies and non-motorised boaters are key target populations to prevent boating deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations – from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. Methods We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Results Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Conclusions Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets

  18. Innovation in patient-centered care: lessons from a qualitative study of innovative health care organizations in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter; Conrad, Douglas A; Hernandez, Susan E; Watts, Carolyn; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2012-12-14

    Growing interest in the promise of patient-centered care has led to numerous health care innovations, including the patient-centered medical home, shared decision-making, and payment reforms. How best to vet and adopt innovations is an open question. Washington State has been a leader in health care reform and is a rich laboratory for patient-centered innovations. We sought to understand the process of patient-centered care innovation undertaken by innovative health care organizations - from strategic planning to goal selection to implementation to maintenance. We conducted key-informant interviews with executives at five health plans, five provider organizations, and ten primary care clinics in Washington State. At least two readers of each interview transcript identified themes inductively; final themes were determined by consensus. Innovation in patient-centered care was a strategic objective chosen by nearly every organization in this study. However, other goals were paramount: cost containment, quality improvement, and organization survival. Organizations commonly perceived effective chronic disease management and integrated health information technology as key elements for successful patient-centered care innovation. Inertia, resource deficits, fee-for-service payment, and regulatory limits on scope of practice were cited as barriers to innovation, while organization leadership, human capital, and adaptive culture facilitated innovation. Patient-centered care innovations reflected organizational perspectives: health plans emphasized cost-effectiveness while providers emphasized health care delivery processes. Health plans and providers shared many objectives, yet the two rarely collaborated to achieve them. The process of innovation is heavily dependent on organizational culture and leadership. Policymakers can improve the pace and quality of patient-centered innovation by setting targets and addressing conditions for innovation.

  19. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  20. Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed

  1. FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENTS FOR PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE OF APPLE ORCHARDS BY APPLYING VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZBANCĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to determine correctly the investments required to establish apple orchards, as well as to point out the best option to ensure the quality, productivity and competitiveness of the relevant products. The feasibility of investments for planting apple orchards is considered according to the following method: preparation of investment budgets for planting and maintenance of apple orchards before fructification for three technologies of fruit cultivation (traditional, intensive and super-intensive, the budget for the apple orchard during the fructification period, and the comparison of the obtained results of calculation. The traditional orchard technology is more extensive, easier to implement, needs least investments per hectare and has lower economic effects, the intensive technology needs large investments per hectare and, therefore, allows obtaining more advantageous economic results, while the super-intensive technology is the most expensive, implies the greatest investments per hectare, and allows obtaining the best economic results. Given the above-listed findings, it may be concluded that intensive orchards allow obtaining apples of homogenous calibre and quality, have a high productivity per hectare, at lower costs, and benefit from state subsidies.

  2. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of 2......D laser scanner data by a least square algorithm. The three derivative free filters are compared to an EKF based localization method on a typical run covering four rows in the orchard. The Matlab R toolbox Kalmtool is used for easy switching between different filter implementations without the need...

  3. Advanced Course Enrollment and Performance in Washington State: Comparing Spanish-Speaking Students with Other Language Minority Students and English-Only Speakers. REL 2017-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Havala; Bisht, Biraj; Motamedi, Jason Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    Students who take advanced courses in high school are more likely to enroll and persist in college. This report describes patterns in advanced coursetaking among three groups of students in Washington state: Spanish-speaking students, other language minority students whose primary or home language is not Spanish, and English-only speakers. This…

  4. Teaching to the Rainbow: Washington State University Plays a Leading Role in Grooming New Teachers To Work with Kids of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brian; Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Pavel, Michael; Laguardia, Armando

    2002-01-01

    Faculty members at Washington State University's College of Education discuss their work in cultural diversity, focusing on school and classroom strategies to assist limited-English-speaking students, the importance of one's culture in developing language skills, American Indian students' learning styles and behaviors and the need for teacher…

  5. EDUCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AND EXPECTATIONS OF HIGH SCHOOL JUNIORS AND SENIORS IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. FINAL REPORT, PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOWLES, ROY T.; SLOCUM, WALTER L.

    THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE EDUCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL PLANS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO DO NOT EXPECT TO OBTAIN A COLLEGE DEGREE, WERE IDENTIFIED. DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM JUNIORS AND SENIORS OF 28 HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. THIS DATA CONSISTED OF (1) INFORMATION DRAWN FROM SCHOOL RECORDS,…

  6. Assessment of the Joint Food Science Curriculum of Washington State University and the University of Idaho by Graduates and Their Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephanie; McCurdy, Alan; Roy, Sharon; Smith, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two recent graduates from the joint food science program of Washington State Univ. (WSU) and The Univ. of Idaho (UI) and 12 of their employers participated in a survey study to assess food science program outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the joint curriculum in its ability to prepare undergraduate students for critical…

  7. Parasitism on Eriosoma lanigerum (Homoptera: Aphididae by Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae on apple orchards, in Fraiburgo county, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil Parasitismo de Eriosoma lanigerum (Homoptera: Aphididae por Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em pomares de macieira, em Fraiburgo, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann by Aphelinus mali (Hald. was evaluated in apple orchards cultivated with the varieties Gala and Fuji in Fraiburgo County, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Colonies of the woolly apple aphid were evaluated during one year on 16 apple trees of each variety, starting in August 1999. The number of aphids at the mummy stage or presenting the orifice of the parasitoid emergence was recorded. Results have shown that A. mali parasitized more than 50% of the woolly apple aphids and occurred during the four seasons. It was concluded that that under these conditions no chemical control against the aphid is necessary for the apple varieties Gala and Fuji.O parasitismo de pulgão lanígero por Aphelinus mali (Hald. foi avaliado em pomares de macieira, contendo as variedades Gala e Fuji, em Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina. Foram avaliadas colônias de pulgão lanígero em 16 plantas de cada variedade, durante um ano, iniciando-se em agosto de 1999. Foi anotado o número de pulgões que se apresentavam no estágio de múmia ou apresentavam o orifício de emergência do parasitóide. Os resultados mostraram que A. mali parasitou mais de 50% dos pulgões lanígeros, nas quatro estações do ano. Concluiu-se que, nestas porcentagens de parasitismo, não é necessária nenhuma intervenção química para o controle do pulgão lanígero, em ambas as variedades.

  8. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  9. A web-based decision support system to enhance IPM programs in Washington tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Brunner, Jay F; Grove, Gary G; Petit, Brad; Tangren, Gerald V; Jones, Wendy E

    2010-06-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) decision-making has become more information intensive in Washington State tree crops in response to changes in pesticide availability, the development of new control tactics (such as mating disruption) and the development of new information on pest and natural enemy biology. The time-sensitive nature of the information means that growers must have constant access to a single source of verified information to guide management decisions. The authors developed a decision support system for Washington tree fruit growers that integrates environmental data [140 Washington State University (WSU) stations plus weather forecasts from NOAA], model predictions (ten insects, four diseases and a horticultural model), management recommendations triggered by model status and a pesticide database that provides information on non-target impacts on other pests and natural enemies. A user survey in 2008 found that the user base was providing recommendations for most of the orchards and acreage in the state, and that users estimated the value at $ 16 million per year. The design of the system facilitates education on a range of time-sensitive topics and will make it possible easily to incorporate other models, new management recommendations or information from new sensors as they are developed.

  10. Foreign-born care givers in Washington State nursing homes: characteristics, associations with quality of care, and views of administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Katherine; Pletz, Anna Maria; Katz, Aaron; Hagopian, Amy

    2015-06-01

    Following national trends, Washington State relies heavily on foreign-born workers to provide long-term care. Our study assesses state nursing facility characteristics, quality ratings, and the views of facility administrators about the implications of an increasing number of foreign-born employees. We used independently available data to supplement a survey of nursing home administrators. Nearly half of the administrators reported difficulty hiring U.S.-born job applicants. Three in four administrators reported problems related to language differences, and just more than a third reported challenges related to cultural and/or religious differences. Nonetheless, the proportion of foreign-born employees was positively associated with independent facility quality ratings. Almost half of the administrators reported discrimination by patients/clients toward their foreign-born workers. Quality ratings were negatively associated with for-profit, chain, or multi-ownership status. The proportion of foreign-born employees in nursing facilities may be associated with improved performance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Evaluating progress in reducing workplace violence: trends in Washington State workers' compensation claims rates, 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Rauser, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    This study reports trends in the pattern of injuries related to workplace violence over the period 1997-2007. It tracks occupations and industries at elevated risk of workplace violence with a special focus on the persistently high claims rates among healthcare and social assistance workers. Industry and occupational incidence rates were calculated using workers' compensation and employment security data from Washington State. Violence-related claims rates among certain Healthcare and Social Assistance industries remained particularly high. Incidents where workers were injured by clients or patients predominated. By contrast, claims rates in retail trade have fallen substantially. Progress to reduce violence has been made in most of the highest hazard industries within the Healthcare and Social Assistance sector with the notable exception of psychiatric hospitals and facilities caring for the developmentally disabled. State legislation requiring healthcare workplaces to address hazards for workplace violence has had mixed results. Insufficient staffing, inadequate violence prevention training and sporadic management attention are seen as the key barriers to violence prevention in healthcare/social assistance workplaces.

  12. FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENT IN CHERRY ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZBANCĂ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to correctly determine the investments required to establish cherry orchard, as well as to point out the best option to ensure the quality, productivity and competitiveness of the relevant products. The feasibility of investments for planting cherry orchards is considered according to the following method: preparation of investment budgets for planting and maintenance of cherry orchards before fructification for three technologies of fruit cultivation (traditional, intensive and super-intensive, the budget for the cherry orchard during the fructification period, and the comparison of the obtained results of calculation. The traditional orchard technology is more extensive, easier to implement, needs least investments per hectare and has lower economic effects, the intensive technology needs large investments per hectare and, therefore, allows obtaining more advantageous economic results, while the super-intensive technology is the most expensive, implies the greatest investments per hectare, and allows obtaining the best economic results. Given the above-listed findings, it may be concluded that intensive orchards allow obtaining cherrys of homogenous quality, have a high productivity per hectare and at lower costs.

  13. Regional precipitation-frequency analysis and spatial mapping for 24-hour and 2-hour durations for Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an update of the information contained in the precipitation-frequency atlas published by the US National Weather Service in 1973. Data collection for the NWS study ended in 1966 while this study uses the current data base which more than doubles the record length used in the NWS study. Washington State has highly variable topography and climate; in particular Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP varies from over 260 inches a year to less than 7 inches. Steep high mountain ranges provide very wet slopes as well as pronounced rain shadows with large climate changes occurring in relatively short distances. In addition there are four distinct sources for the atmospheric moisture needed for precipitation which gives rise to complex seasonal and spatial interactions. The PRISM mapping system used in this study has greatly improved the spatial mapping of precipitation and increased the reliability of estimates of precipitation in the broad areas between precipitation measurement stations. Further, the development and use of regional L-Moments has greatly improved the reliability of precipitation magnitude-frequency estimates, particularly for the rarer and more extreme storms. Washington State could be specified adequately by 12 regions for the purposes of estimating the 2-hour and 24 hour precipitation frequencies. Within each region algorithms were developed for L-CV and L-Skewness expressed as functions of the MAP. The GEV distribution was acceptable statistically for all regions up to the 1 in 500 recurrence interval, beyond which the four-parameter Kappa distribution is recommended. The estimated changes in precipitation magnitudes for a given frequency as regional boundaries were crossed were found to be small, and well within the expected differences likely from sampling errors. An interesting transition zone was observed at the eastern edge of the Cascade foothills, associated with the maxima having a seasonal change from autumn

  14. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  15. 78 FR 42905 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... FR 27944, May 19, 2010 (determination of attainment of the PM- 10 standard in Coso Junction..., California area); 72 FR 14422, March 28, 2007 (Miami, Arizona area); 75 FR 27944, May 19, 2010 (Coso Junction... determination of attainment for Coso Junction). CAA section 189(c)(1) of subpart 4 states that: Plan revisions...

  16. Explaining Teachers' Instructional Use of State Assessment Data: A Multilevel Study of High School Teachers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monpas-Huber, Jack B.

    2010-01-01

    Accountability policies imply much about high school teachers' abilities and willingness to use state assessment data to improve instruction. This study asked what teacher- and school-level variables best predict how frequently teachers use state assessment data and how much instructional benefit they derive from use of data. Research has…

  17. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.

    2015-04-01

    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  19. Bullying and Quality of Life in Youths Perceived as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual in Washington State, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Janice F.; Huang, Jon Y.; Lazarakis, Nicholas C.; Edwards, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between perceived sexual orientation (PSO), bullying, and quality of life (QOL) among US adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 27 752). Bullying status was characterized as never bullied, bullied because of PSO, or bullied for other reasons. Survey-weighted regression examined differences in QOL, depressed mood, and consideration of suicide by bullying status. Results. Among male students, 14%, 11%, and 9% reported being bullied because of PSO in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, respectively; and among female students, 11%, 10%, and 6%. In all gender and grade strata, being bullied because of PSO was associated with lower QOL scores and increased the odds of depressed mood or consideration of suicide. Moreover, the magnitudes of these associations were greater than for being bullied for other reasons. Conclusions. Bullying because of PSO is widely prevalent and significantly affects several facets of youth QOL. Bully-prevention or harm-reduction programs must address bullying because of PSO. PMID:23678925

  20. Going from Microbial Ecology to Genome Data and Back: Studies on a Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Mormile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (~pH 9.8 and saline (~14 to 140 g liter-1 lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years and the extremely high sulfide level (~140 mM in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. H. hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment.

  1. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melious, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

  2. Latino residential segregation and self-rated health among Latinos: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Molina, Yamile; Wu-Georges, Samantha; Idris, Ayah; Thompson, Beti

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between Latino residential segregation and self-rated health (SRH) is unclear, but might be partially affected by social capital. We investigated the association between Latino residential segregation and SRH while also examining the roles of various social capital measures. Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012–2014) and U.S. Census data were linked by zip code and zip code tabulation area. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of good or better SRH by Latino residential segregation, measured by the Gini coefficient, and controlling for sociodemographic, acculturation and social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control. The Latino residential segregation – SRH relationship was convex, or ‘U’-shaped, such that increases in segregation among Latinos residing in lower segregation areas was associated with lower SRH while increases in segregation among Latinos residing in higher segregation areas was associated with higher SRH. The social capital measures were independently associated with SRH but had little effect on the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. A convex relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH could explain mixed findings of previous studies. Although important for SRH, social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control might not account for the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. PMID:27173739

  3. Widespread detection of human- and ruminant-origin Bacteroidales markers in subtidal waters of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyafuso, Zack S; Baxter, Anne E; Hall, Jason E; Naman, Sean M; Greene, Correigh M; Rhodes, Linda D

    2015-09-01

    Rising populations around coastal systems are increasing the threats to marine water quality. To assess anthropogenic fecal influence, subtidal waters were examined monthly for human- and ruminant-sourced Bacteroidales markers at 80 sites across six oceanographic basins of the Salish Sea (Washington State) from April through October, 2011. In the basins containing cities with individual populations>190,000, >50% of sites were positive for the human marker, while in the basins with high densities of dairy and cattle operations, ∼30% of sites were positive for the ruminant marker. Marker prevalence was elevated in spring (April and May) and fall (October) and reduced during summer (June through September), corresponding with seasonal precipitation. By logistic regression, the odds of human marker detection increased with percentage of adjacent catchment impervious surface, dissolved nitrate concentration, and abundance of low nucleic acid bacteria, but decreased with salinity and chlorophyll fluorescence. The odds of ruminant marker detection increased with dissolved ammonium concentration, mean flow rate for the nearest river, and adjacent shoreline length. These relationships are consistent with terrestrial to marine water flow as a transport mechanism. Thus, Bacteroidales markers traditionally used for identifying nearby sources can be used for assessing anthropogenic fecal inputs to regional marine ecosystems.

  4. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  5. Bullying and quality of life in youths perceived as gay, lesbian, or bisexual in Washington State, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald L; Bell, Janice F; Huang, Jon Y; Lazarakis, Nicholas C; Edwards, Todd C

    2013-07-01

    We examined the association between perceived sexual orientation (PSO), bullying, and quality of life (QOL) among US adolescents. We analyzed data from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 27,752). Bullying status was characterized as never bullied, bullied because of PSO, or bullied for other reasons. Survey-weighted regression examined differences in QOL, depressed mood, and consideration of suicide by bullying status. Among male students, 14%, 11%, and 9% reported being bullied because of PSO in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, respectively; and among female students, 11%, 10%, and 6%. In all gender and grade strata, being bullied because of PSO was associated with lower QOL scores and increased the odds of depressed mood or consideration of suicide. Moreover, the magnitudes of these associations were greater than for being bullied for other reasons. Bullying because of PSO is widely prevalent and significantly affects several facets of youth QOL. Bully-prevention or harm-reduction programs must address bullying because of PSO.

  6. Clinical risk factors for death after release from prison in Washington State: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Stern, Marc F; Yamashita, Traci E; Mueller, Shane R; Baggett, Travis P; Blatchford, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While mortality rates after prison release are high, little is known about clinical risk factors for death. We sought to identify risk and protective factors for all-cause and accidental poisoning (overdose) death. Nested case-control study of people released from prison. Washington State Department of Corrections, Washington, USA. Cases (699 all-cause deaths, of which 88 were among women, and 196 additional overdose deaths, of which 76 were among women) between 1999 and 2009 matched 1 : 1 to controls on sex, age and year of release using risk set sampling. Prison medical charts were abstracted for clinical information. Independent associations between clinical characteristics and all-cause and overdose mortality were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Key independent risk factors for all-cause mortality included homelessness [odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 2.23], injection drug use (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.06), tobacco use (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.13), cirrhosis (OR = 4.42, 95% CI = 1.63, 11.98) and psychiatric medications before release (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.71, 3.30). Independent risk factors for overdose mortality included substance use disorder (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.32, 4.11), injection drug use (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.53, 3.86), panic disorder (OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.62, 9.21), psychiatric prescriptions before release (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.55, 3.85) and problems with opiates/sedatives (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.63). Substance use disorder treatment during the index incarceration was protective for all-cause (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.91) and overdose (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.90) mortality. Injection drug use and substance use disorders are risk factors for death after release from prison. In-prison substance use disorder treatment services may reduce the risk.

  7. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  8. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  9. Impact of implementing the Washington State ergonomics rule on employer reported risk factors and hazard reduction activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Silverstein, Barbara; Polissar, Nayak; Neradilek, Blazej

    2009-01-01

    In Washington State an ergonomics rule was adopted in 2000 that focused on primary prevention. The implementation process followed a 6-year phase-in schedule where employers came into compliance based upon their size and industry. In late 2003 the rule was repealed by an industry-funded voter initiative. Evaluating the implementation of this rule offers a unique opportunity to observe the general deterrent effect of a new public health regulation and to study how employers and workers responded to new requirements. Weighted survey regression methods were used to analyze the results from three employer surveys covering more than 5,000 workplaces administered in 2001, 2003, and 2005. These were compared to a baseline employer survey conducted in 1998 before the rule was promulgated. Questions covered the following topics: WMSDs experienced at the workplace; levels of employee exposure to musculoskeletal hazards; steps being taken, if any, to address these hazards; results of these steps; and sources of ergonomic information/assistance used. From 1998 to 2003 there was a reduction in reported exposures among workplaces in the highest hazard industries. Following the rule's repeal, however, hazard exposures increased. While more workplaces reported taking steps to reduce exposures between 1998 and 2001, this gain was reversed in 2003 and 2005. Employers who took steps reported positive results in injury and absenteeism reduction. Large workplaces in the high hazard industries were more active in taking steps and used a wide variety of resources to address ergonomics issues. Small employers relied more on trade associations and the state. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  11. Effects of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school performance and connection: a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes. State-representative student samples were surveyed in 2002 (grade 7; N = 1858) and followed up annually to 2004 (grade 9) in both sites. Students completed a modified version of the Communities That Care survey to report alcohol use, school outcomes, and risk and protective factors. Response rates were above 74% and retention rates exceeded 98% in both places. Controlling for grade 7 risk factors, grade 7 current alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking were associated with grade 8 school suspension. Grade 7 current and frequent alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking were linked to grade 9 truancy. In fully adjusted analyses, associations between early alcohol use and academic failure and low school commitment did not remain. Although alcohol use is one factor influencing school performance and connection, there are other risk factors that need to be targeted to improve school outcomes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  12. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the

  13. Effect of conventional and organic orchard floor management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of conventional and organic orchard floor management practices on enzyme activities and microbial counts in a 'Cripp's Pink'/M7 apple orchard. André H. Meyer, John Wooldridge, Joanna F. Dames ...

  14. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  15. Promoting Employee Health Through an American Cancer Society Program, The CEOs Challenge, Washington State, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Parrish, Amanda T; Kohn, Marlana; Hammerback, Kristen; McMillan, Becca; Hannon, Peggy A

    2015-12-17

    Evidence-based practices in the workplace can increase levels of healthy eating, cancer screening, physical activity, and tobacco cessation but are underused, even in large workplaces. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of The CEOs Challenge, a program developed by the American Cancer Society to promote implementation and maintenance of health-promoting, evidence-based workplace practices by large companies. Use of 17 evidence-based practices by 17 companies in the Washington State Chapter of the American Cancer Society's CEOs Against Cancer network was assessed via survey and scored from 0 to 100. Companies received a written report of their baseline performance, followed by at least quarterly consultations with American Cancer Society staff members trained to assist in implementation of these practices. Follow-up performance was measured at 1 year. At baseline, implementation scores were 54.8 for cancer screening, 46.5 for healthy eating, 59.8 for physical activity, and 68.2 for tobacco cessation. At follow-up, scores increased by 19.6 for cancer screening, 19.4 for healthy eating, 16.0 for physical activity, and 9.4 points for tobacco cessation. The CEOs Challenge is a promising approach to chronic disease prevention via the workplace. It brings together one of the nation's largest health-promoting voluntary agencies with the nation's largest employers to promote evidence-based practices targeted at the most common causes of disease and death. The program increased the adoption of these practices and was well-accepted.

  16. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411

  17. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Hickman, Mikael Anne; Rosenberg, Dori E; Phelan, Elizabeth A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2015-06-11

    Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8-0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97). Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk.

  18. Turbulent energy losses during orchard heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a heated orchard floor, sampled wind component in the vertical direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent heat flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the heat lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of heat loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.

  19. Evaluating physical habitat and water chemistry data from statewide stream monitoring programs to establish least-impacted conditions in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Siri K.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Larson, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Various GIS-generated land-use predictor variables, physical habitat metrics, and water chemistry variables from 75 reference streams and 351 randomly sampled sites throughout Washington State were evaluated for effectiveness at discriminating reference from random sites within level III ecoregions. A combination of multivariate clustering and ordination techniques were used. We describe average observed conditions for a subset of predictor variables as well as proposing statistical criteria for establishing reference conditions for stream habitat in Washington. Using these criteria, we determined whether any of the random sites met expectations for reference condition and whether any of the established reference sites failed to meet expectations for reference condition. Establishing these criteria will set a benchmark from which future data will be compared.

  20. Sustainable design guidelines to support the Washington State ferries terminal design manual : assessment of copper and zinc adsorption to lignocellulosic filtration media using laboratory and field scale column tests for the purpose of urban stormwater r

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report represents the third and final phase of a three-part effort aimed at providing Sustainable Design Guidelines for : Washington State Ferry terminals, specifically addressing the efficacy for removal of copper and zinc using a biobased filt...

  1. Process evaluation of a regional public health model to reduce chronic disease through policy and systems changes, Washington State, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Lina P; Mason, Caitlin; Allen, Claire L; Vu, Thuy; Nandi, Paj; Santiago, Patti Migliore; Hannon, Peggy A

    2015-03-19

    Although the regionalization of public health systems has been well documented in the case of emergency preparedness, there is little literature on the application of regional approaches to other aspects of public health. From 2011 through 2014 the Washington State Department of Health implemented a Community Transformation Grant to support community-level policy and systems changes to decrease chronic disease risk factors and increase access to clinical preventive services. The Department of Health implemented the grant through a regional model, grouping 32 of the state's 35 local health jurisdictions into 5 regions. Our process evaluation identifies the challenges and facilitators to Community Transformation Grant planning and implementation. We conducted 34 key informant interviews with people directly involved in the implementation of the Community Transformation Grant. We interviewed state and local partners, including representatives from each region, the Department of Health, external consultants, and regional partners. We collected data from October 2013 through July 2014. Challenges for planning, building, and implementing a regional model for chronic disease prevention included stakeholder buy-in, regional geography, and communication; facilitators included shared regional history and infrastructure, strong leadership, collaborative relationships, shared vision and goals, sufficient funding, and direct technical assistance and training. Lessons learned in Washington State provide a foundation for other states interested in using a regional approach to reduce chronic disease risk. Policy and systems changes require adequate time, funding, and staffing. States and funders should work closely with local leaders to address these challenges and facilitators.

  2. Microsatellite analysis of the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum in Washington state nurseries, landscapes, and waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Coats; Marianne Elliott; Gary Chastagner

    2017-01-01

    Microsatellite analysis initially identified genetic variations within the NA1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora ramorum; however, in Washington nurseries, the genetic population of P. ramorum has shifted and is now dominated by two other lineages, NA2 and EU1. In this study, recently identified markers that are more variable, and...

  3. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural item. The National...

  4. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  5. Family indices for seed-orchard selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene Namkoong

    1966-01-01

    Many seed orchard programs include a stage at which clones or seedlings are culled on the basis of progeny tests. Though breeding systems which involve progeny testing differ in efficiency, they all provide information on an individual's breeding value through its own performance and that of parental or seedling relatives. A combined index on any one trait, using...

  6. Autonomous Rule Based Robot Navigation In Orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2010-01-01

    Orchard navigation using sensor-based localization and exible mission management facilitates successful missions independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This is especially important while driving between tight tree rows where the GPS coverage is poor. This paper suggests localization ...

  7. Predicting the timing of cherry blossoms in Washington, DC and Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Uran; Mack, Liz; Yun, Jin I; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Cherry blossoms, an icon of spring, are celebrated in many cultures of the temperate region. For its sensitivity to winter and early spring temperatures, the timing of cherry blossoms is an ideal indicator of the impacts of climate change on tree phenology. Here, we applied a process-based phenology model for temperate deciduous trees to predict peak bloom dates (PBD) of flowering cherry trees (Prunus×yedoensis 'Yoshino' and Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan') in the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC and the surrounding Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change. We parameterized the model with observed PBD data from 1991 to 2010. The calibrated model was tested against independent datasets of the past PBD data from 1951 to 1970 in the Tidal Basin and more recent PBD data from other locations (e.g., Seattle, WA). The model performance against these independent data was satisfactory (Yoshino: r(2) = 0.57, RMSE = 6.6 days, bias = 0.9 days and Kwanzan: r(2) = 0.76, RMSE = 5.5 days, bias = -2.0 days). We then applied the model to forecast future PBD for the region using downscaled climate projections based on IPCC's A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Our results indicate that PBD at the Tidal Basin are likely to be accelerated by an average of five days by 2050 s and 10 days by 2080 s for these cultivars under a mid-range (A1B) emissions scenario projected by ECHAM5 general circulation model. The acceleration is likely to be much greater (13 days for 2050 s and 29 days for 2080s) under a higher (A2) emissions scenario projected by CGCM2 general circulation model. Our results demonstrate the potential impacts of climate change on the timing of cherry blossoms and illustrate the utility of a simple process-based phenology model for developing adaptation strategies to climate change in horticulture, conservation planning, restoration and other related disciplines.

  8. Predicting the timing of cherry blossoms in Washington, DC and Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uran Chung

    Full Text Available Cherry blossoms, an icon of spring, are celebrated in many cultures of the temperate region. For its sensitivity to winter and early spring temperatures, the timing of cherry blossoms is an ideal indicator of the impacts of climate change on tree phenology. Here, we applied a process-based phenology model for temperate deciduous trees to predict peak bloom dates (PBD of flowering cherry trees (Prunus×yedoensis 'Yoshino' and Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan' in the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC and the surrounding Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change. We parameterized the model with observed PBD data from 1991 to 2010. The calibrated model was tested against independent datasets of the past PBD data from 1951 to 1970 in the Tidal Basin and more recent PBD data from other locations (e.g., Seattle, WA. The model performance against these independent data was satisfactory (Yoshino: r(2 = 0.57, RMSE = 6.6 days, bias = 0.9 days and Kwanzan: r(2 = 0.76, RMSE = 5.5 days, bias = -2.0 days. We then applied the model to forecast future PBD for the region using downscaled climate projections based on IPCC's A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Our results indicate that PBD at the Tidal Basin are likely to be accelerated by an average of five days by 2050 s and 10 days by 2080 s for these cultivars under a mid-range (A1B emissions scenario projected by ECHAM5 general circulation model. The acceleration is likely to be much greater (13 days for 2050 s and 29 days for 2080s under a higher (A2 emissions scenario projected by CGCM2 general circulation model. Our results demonstrate the potential impacts of climate change on the timing of cherry blossoms and illustrate the utility of a simple process-based phenology model for developing adaptation strategies to climate change in horticulture, conservation planning, restoration and other related disciplines.

  9. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  10. Characteristics of home care workers who leave their jobs: a cross-sectional study of job satisfaction and turnover in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, Sahar; Jacoby, Daniel; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining a stable and motivated home care workforce has become a top policy priority. We surveyed 402 former home care workers in Washington State. We compared these "leavers" to current home care workers recently surveyed. Those who left the profession were more highly educated, had higher household income, and were more likely to be White. Those newly employed have better benefits, wages, hours, and career mobility than in their home care jobs. The low status and poor pay of home care workers may result in the inability of the profession to retain those who face better prospects.

  11. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY 88. Part 5. (Air Force Academy, Colorado-Washington, DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Security Classification) All Prime Contract Awards by State or Countr,, Placer and Contractol.) FY 88- Part 5, (Air Force Academy, Colorado-Washington...N I wo- I -~ 0 4’DN mqO O01Oj0ro) (01N -c’ 0 4𔃺oo (1V(DWW CY w I I01- I -4 qr NO0-4M-M-4( N -4 sJ UflI w0P-- a -4 .4 aMor - IC c CC C cC Mor- 1o 0 0 0

  12. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 19 (Aberdeen, Washington - Vega Baja, Puerto Rico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Inciude Security Classification) ’r,.-r me Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY 85, [ :’൛ (Aberdeen, Washington - Vega. Baja ...82174)44 .00000 m0-4 MO0000 .00 ’- I1 m(413L V -4 -44" 44 4 4 - tALLA -140) .-4LALA W)< -4 L 030)004 I m (D m4>- m4>. -400000 0(00 000 v (D(0D K u’ 4 UCCD

  13. Valley fever: finding new places for an old disease: Coccidioides immitis found in Washington State soil associated with recent human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Hurst, Steven; Hill, Heather; Gade, Lalitha; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Ralston, Cindy; Roe, Chandler; Barker, Bridget M; Goldoft, Marcia; Keim, Paul; Wohrle, Ron; Thompson, George R; Engelthaler, David M; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture to demonstrate persistent colonization of soils by Coccidioides immitis, an agent of valley fever, in Washington State linked to recent human infections and located outside the endemic range. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed genetic identity between isolates from soil and one of the case-patients. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  15. La marihuana recreativa en los estados de Colorado y Washington y la incapacidad del Gobierno de Estados Unidos para hacer cumplir las leyes federales y las convenciones de drogas dentro de su país/The Recreational Marihuana in the States of Colorado and Washington and the Inability of the U.S. Government to Enforce Federal Laws and Drug Conventions within Their Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco E Thoumi

    2013-01-01

      This article studies the recreational marihuana policies of Colorado and Washington State and the constitutional conflicts between federal and state powers that make it very difficult for the federal...

  16. The extent of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation state along the Washington-Oregon continental shelf margin in late summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Hales, B. R.; Juranek, L.; Greeley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Washington-Oregon continental shelf region is exposed to conditions of low aragonite saturation state during the late spring/early summer upwelling season. However, the extent of its evolution in late summer/early fall has been largely unknown. Along this continental margin, ocean acidification, upwelling, biological productivity, and respiration processes in subsurface waters are major contributors to the variability in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and aragonite saturation state. The persistence of water with aragonite saturation state echinoderms, and pteropods. In the late summer of 2012 we studied the extent of acidification conditions employing shipboard cruises and profiling gliders. We conducted several large-scale chemical and hydrographic surveys of the region in order to better understand the interrelationships between these natural and human-induced processes and their effects on aragonite saturation. We will compare the results of these new surveys with our previous work in 2011 and 2007.

  17. Row Following in Pergola Structured Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    robots must perform is traversing the rows . Many of the past implementations of row following in orchards have been developed for rows where the...including the presence of tall weeds, hanging branches, undulating terrain and varying geometry- make following the rows a challenging problem. This...paper presents solutions for finding the row centreline in pergola structured environments, in the presence of real world variability. A 3D laser

  18. Geomorphic response of the North Fork Stillaguamish River to the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott A.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mastin, Mark C.; Foreman, James R.

    2017-08-03

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington mobilized 8 million cubic meters of unconsolidated Pleistocene material, creating a valley‑spanning deposit that fully impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River. The river overtopped the 8-meter high debris impoundment within 25 hours and began steadily incising a new channel through the center of the deposit. Repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport measurements, bedload transport models, and observations of downstream channel change were used to document the establishment of that new channel through the landslide and assess the potential for downstream aggradation or channel change that might increase downstream flood hazards.Efficient erosion of the landslide deposit, associated with the steep knickzone formed by the downstream edge of the deposit, resulted in the re-establishment of a 20–40 meters wide, deeply inset channel through the entire deposit by May 2014, 2 months after the landslide. The mean water-surface elevation of the channel through the landslide decreased 7 meters during that 2-month period, and was about 1 meter above the pre-landslide profile in July 2014. The 2014–15 flood season, which included flows near the 0.5 annual exceedance probability discharge (2-year flood), widened the channel tens of meters, and further lowered the water-surface profile 0.5 meter. The planform position evolved slowly as a result of 5–20-meter high banks predominantly composed of clay-rich, cohesive lacustrine material. Erosion of the landslide deposit delivered a total of 820 thousand metric tons of sediment to the North Fork Stillaguamish River over the 18 months following the landslide. The sediment delivery from the deposit was predominantly fine grained: 77 percent (by mass) of the eroded material was silt or clay (less than 0.063 millimeter [mm]), 19 percent sand (0.063–2 mm), and 4 percent pebbles and cobbles (greater than 2 mm).Over the 18 months following the

  19. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain : a comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, M.A.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Cerdà, A.

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard

  20. Expanded public notice: Washington State notice of intent for corrective action management unit, Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document is to serve notice of the intent to operate an Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), adjacent to the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington, as a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 264.552. The ERDF CAMU will serve as a management unit for the majority of waste (primarily soil) excavated during remediation of waste management sites on the Hanford Facility. Only waste that originates from the Hanford Facility can be accepted in this ERDF CAMU. The waste is expected to consist of dangerous waste, radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Mixed waste contains radioactive and dangerous components. The primary features of the ERDF could include the following: one or more trenches, rail and tractor/trailer container handling capability, railroads, an inventory control system, a decontamination building, and operational offices.

  1. Straddling the Columbia: a constitutional law professor's musings on circumventing Washington State's criminal prohibition on compensated surrogacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolas, Peter

    2014-01-01

      The law in many states has long been hostile to gay parenting, with some states prohibiting adoption in the first instance by gay individuals or same-sex couples, and other states prohibiting so...

  2. Use of Marijuana and Other Substances Among Pregnant and Parenting Women With Substance Use Disorders: Changes in Washington State After Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Therese M; Graham, J Christopher; Carlini, Beatriz H; Ernst, Cara C; Brown, Natalie Novick

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization. Most study participants reported complete abstinence from alcohol and nonprescription drugs at program exit. Among those who were still using substances, women who completed the intervention after marijuana legalization were significantly more likely to report marijuana use at program exit compared with women who completed the intervention before marijuana legalization. Across both cohorts (pre- and post-legalization), we found a positive association of exit marijuana use with alcohol, illegal methadone, other opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use; even when we controlled for historical period, the association with some of these substances with marijuana use remained evident. Independent of marijuana use, we saw increased use during the post-legalization period of alcohol, illicit methadone, and other opioids. Marijuana use at exit from the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) increased significantly after marijuana legalization in the state. Women who were not abstinent from marijuana at program exit were likely to report use of other substances as well. Our study design demonstrates an association but does not allow us to conclude that marijuana use leads to other substance use among this sample of women with a history of polysubstance use.

  3. Monitoring plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations in apple and peach orchards in the mid-Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to four trap types in commercial and unsprayed apple and peach orchards. Trap types included black pyramid and clear Plexiglas panel traps deployed outside the orchard 2 m from the border row, and branch-mimicking cylinder and trunk-mounted screen traps attached to trees in the border row. Bait treatments evaluated in conjunction with each trap type included the synthetic fruit volatile benzaldehyde, the aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid (GA), benzaldehyde in combination with GA, and an unbaited control treatment. In commercial apple orchards, significantly more plum curculio were captured in traps baited with benzaldehyde + GA compared with traps baited with other treatments. Furthermore, significantly more plum curculio were captured by screen traps baited with benzaldehyde + GA compared with unbaited control traps. Significantly more plum curculio were captured by screen traps compared with other trap types in an unsprayed apple orchard. Very few captures were recorded in commercial peach orchards. Dissections of trapped females indicate that bivoltine populations are present in the mid-Atlantic. In general, correlations between timing and amount of trap captures and timing and amount of fruit injury inflicted concurrently or 1 wk after trap captures were very weak for all trap types and bait combinations. Our results agree with previous studies in the northeastern United States in which trap captures are increased by presence of semiochemical baits but fail to serve as reliable tools to determine need for and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio.

  4. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  5. Navigation and Tree Mapping in Orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for estimating tree positions is presented. The sensors used for the algorithm is GNSS and LIDAR, and data is collected in an orchard with grapefruit trees while driving along the rows. The positions of the trees are estimated using ellipse fitting on point clouds. The average accuracy for the center point estimation is 0.2 m in the along track direction and 0.35 m in the across track direction. The goal of the tree mapping algorithm is create a database of individu...

  6. Navigation and Tree Mapping in Orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Andersen, Jens Christian

    In this paper an algorithm for estimating tree positions is presented. The sensors used for the algorithm is GNSS and LIDAR, and data is collected in an orchard with grapefruit trees while driving along the rows. The positions of the trees are estimated using ellipse fitting on point clouds....... The average accuracy for the center point estimation is 0.2 m in the along track direction and 0.35 m in the across track direction. The goal of the tree mapping algorithm is create a database of individual trees, and be the basis for creation of a graph map that can be used for mission planning...

  7. Spread of endosepsis in calimyrna fig orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailides, T J; Morgan, D P

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT Pollination of the edible fig (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna) is mediated by a small symbiotic wasp, Blastophaga psenes, that inhabits the syconium cavity of the spring crop of fig pollinator trees (caprifigs). These fig wasps also carry propagules, mainly of Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium spp., which cause endosepsis, from pollinator figs to the edible Calimyrna figs in California. Spread of endosepsis was studied in one experimental and up to four commercial Calimyrna fig orchards from 1989 through 1995. The incidence of endosepsis in fruit collected from the tree canopy at either 2.0 m (high) height, from the north and south of the tree canopy, and from the outer (direct sunlight) and inner (shaded) canopy were similar. More wasps were captured in fig trees located 3.5 to 10 m east or west of the source than in trees 48 to 63 m from the source. In addition, significantly more wasps entered the syconia of trees closest (9 to 12.7 m) to the source than the syconia of the second or third trees (18 to 38.2 m) from the source. Endosepsis decreased with distance from the source, decreasing faster to the south than in other directions from the source. In addition, the disease-vectoring wasps decreased with increased distance from the source, which also described the disease spread from the contamination source for most directions, with a sharper decline south of the source. A 3-year study in three commercial Calimyrna orchards showed there is no secondary spread of fig endosepsis in the field. Although endosepsis can complete as many cycles (three to four) as its vector in fig pollinator trees, in Calimyrna figs it is considered a monocyclic disease. Because fig wasp pollinators prefer to stay close to the contamination source when receptive Calimyrna figs are available in close proximity, only disease sources (caprifigs trees) found among Calimyrna trees or at a distance less than 50 m from the borders of Calimyrna orchards

  8. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  9. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  10. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Isolates from Dairy Cattle and Humans in New York and Washington States Reveals Source and Geographic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Laura M; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk; Siler, Julie; Warchocki, Steven; Kent, David; Lyalina, Svetlana; Davis, Margaret; Sischo, William; Besser, Thomas; Warnick, Lorin D; Pereira, Richard V

    2017-06-15

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica can be spread from cattle to humans through direct contact with animals shedding Salmonella as well as through the food chain, making MDR Salmonella a serious threat to human health. The objective of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing to compare antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Newport, and Dublin isolated from dairy cattle and humans in Washington State and New York State at the genotypic and phenotypic levels. A total of 90 isolates were selected for the study (37 S Typhimurium, 32 S Newport, and 21 S Dublin isolates). All isolates were tested for phenotypic antibiotic resistance to 12 drugs using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. AMR genes were detected in the assembled genome of each isolate using nucleotide BLAST and ARG-ANNOT. Genotypic prediction of phenotypic resistance resulted in a mean sensitivity of 97.2 and specificity of 85.2. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistance was observed only in human isolates (P New York State differed from those from Washington State based on the presence/absence of plasmid replicons, as well as phenotypic AMR susceptibility/nonsusceptibility (P Salmonella enterica and associated AMR determinants, which can be transferred to humans through different routes. Previous studies have sought to assess the degree to which AMR livestock- and human-associated Salmonella strains overlap, as well as the spatial distribution of Salmonella's associated AMR determinants, but have often been limited by the degree of resolution at which isolates can be compared. Here, a comparative genomics study of livestock- and human-associated Salmonella strains from different regions of the United States shows that while many AMR genes and phenotypes were confined to human isolates, overlaps between the resistomes of bovine and human-associated Salmonella isolates were observed on numerous occasions, particularly for S Newport. We have also shown that whole

  12. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Wen, Jun

    2004-03-01

    Liquidambar changii Pigg, Ickert-Bond & Wen sp. nov. (Altingiaceae) is established for anatomically preserved, middle Miocene infructescences from Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA. Specimens are spherical, ∼2.5 cm in diameter, and have ∼25-30 tightly packed, bilocular fruits per head. Fruits are 3.4-4.7 mm wide × 2.6-3.5 mm long and wedge shaped, fused at the base, and free distally. Each locule contains 1-2 mature, elongate seeds proximally and 5-9 aborted seeds of more irregular shape distally. Mature seeds are 1.5 mm long × 1.2 mm wide, elongate, and triangular transversely, with a slight flange. Seeds have a seed coat for which three zones can be well defined, a uniseriate outer palisade layer, a middle region of isodiametric cells comprising most of the integument, and a uniseriate inner layer of tangentially elongate cells lining the embryo cavity. Liquidambar changii is most similar to the eastern Asian L. acalycina H.-T. Chang on features of infructescence, fruit, and seed morphology and quite unlike the North American L. styraciflua L. and other species. Such a close relationship between these two species supports a Beringian biogeographic track between eastern Asia and western North America during the Miocene. Previous phylogenetic and allozyme analysis of modern Liquidambar demonstrates a close relationship between North American-western Asian taxa and suggests a North Atlantic biogeographic track in the middle Miocene. Together, these biogeographic tracks underscore the complexity of the biogeographic history of the Altingiaceae in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the Neogene.

  13. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  14. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, M.A.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard

  15. Association of Xylella fastidiosa with Yield Loss and Altered Fruit Quality in a Naturally Infected Rabbiteye Blueberry Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a number of plants in the southeastern United States, including southern highbush blueberry, but little was known concerning its potential impact in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum). In a naturally infected orchard in Louisiana, mean yields of X. fastidi...

  16. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  17. CLUSTERS OF TASKS PERFORMED BY WASHINGTON STATE FARM OPERATORS ENGAGED IN SEVEN TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION--GRAIN, DAIRY, FORESTRY, LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, HORTICULTURE, AND GENERAL FARMING. REPORT NO. 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO OBTAIN UP-TO-DATE FACTS ABOUT CLUSTERS OF TASKS PERFORMED BY WASHINGTON STATE FARM OPERATORS ENGAGED PRIMARILY IN PRODUCING GRAIN, LIVESTOCK, DAIRY COMMODITIES, POULTRY, FOREST PRODUCTS, HORTICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND GENERAL FARMING COMMODITIES. FROM A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 267 FARMERS REPRESENTING THOSE CATEGORIES…

  18. Characterization and Extraction of Uranium Contamination Perched within the Deep Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B. A.; Rohay, V. J.; Benecke, M. W.; Chronister, G. B.; Doornbos, M. H.; Morse, J.

    2012-12-01

    A highly contaminated perched water zone has been discovered in the deep vadose zone above the unconfined aquifer during drilling of wells to characterize groundwater contamination within the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington. The perched water, which contains nitrate, uranium, and technetium-99 at concentrations that have exceeded 100,000 μg/L, 70,000 μg/L, and 45,000 pCi/L respectively, is providing contamination to the underlying unconfined aquifer. A perched zone extraction well has been installed and is successfully recovering the contaminated perched water as an early remedial measure to reduce impacts to the unconfined aquifer. The integration and interpretation of various borehole hydrogeologic, geochemical, and geophysical data sets obtained during drilling facilitated the delineation of the perching horizon and determination of the nature and extent of the perched contamination. Integration of the borehole geologic and geophysical logs defined the structural elevation and thickness of the perching low permeability silt interval. Borehole geophysical moisture logs, gamma logs, and sample data allowed detailed determination of the elevation and thickness of the oversaturated zone above the perching horizon, and the extent and magnitude of the radiological uranium contamination within the perching interval. Together, these data sets resolved the nature of the perching horizon and the location and extent of the contaminated perched water within the perching zone, allowing an estimation of remaining contaminant extent. The resulting conceptual model indicates that the contaminated perched water is contained within a localized sand lens deposited in a structural low on top of a semi-regional low-permeability silt layer. The top of the sand lens is approximately 72 m (235 ft) below ground surface; the maximum thickness of the sand lens is approximately 3 m (10 ft). The lateral and vertical extent of the

  19. Miocene to present deformation rates in the Yakima Fold Province and implications for earthquake hazards in central Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Kelsey, Harvey; Blakely, Richard; Möller, Andreas; Styron, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Yakima fold province (YFP), located in the Cascadia backarc of central Washington, is a region of active distributed deformation that accommodates NNE-SSW shortening. Geodetic data show modern strain accumulation of 2 mm/yr across this large-scale fold province. Deformation rates on individual structures, however, are difficult to assess from GPS data given low strain rates and the relatively short time period of geodetic observation. Geomorphic and geologic records, on the other hand, span sufficient time to investigate deformation rates on the folds. Resolving fault geometries and slip rates of the YFP is imperative to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure, including a large nuclear waste facility and hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Yakima Rivers. We present new results on the timing and magnitude of deformation across several Yakima folds, including the Manastash Ridge, Umtanum Ridge, and Saddle Mountains anticlines. We constructed several line-balanced cross sections across the folds to calculated the magnitude of total shortening since Miocene time. To further constrain our structural models, we include forward-modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data. We estimate total shortening between 1.0 and 2.4 km across individual folds, decreasing eastward, consistent with geodetically and geologically measured clockwise rotation. Importantly, we find that thrust faults reactivate and invert normal faults in the basement, and do not appear to sole into a common décollement at shallow to mid-crustal depth. We constrain spatial and temporal variability in deformation rates along the Saddle Mountains, Manastash Ridge and Umtanum Ridge anticlines using geomorphic and stratigraphic markers of topographic evolution. From stratigraphy and geochronology of growth strata along the Saddle Mountains we find that the rate of deformation has increased up to six-fold since late Miocene time. To constrain deformation rates along other Yakima folds

  20. Information technology feasibility study for the Washington State commercial vehicle information systems and networks (CVISN) pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-08

    The CVISN Pilot Project will prototype the use of a comprehensive interface to state and federal motor carrier data systems and will deliver real-time, decision-making information to weigh stations and commercial vehicle enforcement officers. In addi...

  1. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  2. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  3. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  4. Assessment method for epithermal gold deposits in Northeast Washington State using weights-of-evidence GIS modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleneus, D.E.; Raines, G.L.; Causey, J.D.; Bookstrom, A.A.; Frost, T.P.; Hyndman, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The weights-of-evidence analysis, a quantitative mineral resource mapping tool, is used to delineate favorable areas for epithermal gold deposits and to predict future exploration activity of the mineral industry for similar deposits in a four-county area (222 x 277 km), including the Okanogan and Colville National Forests of northeastern Washington. Modeling is applied in six steps: (1) building a spatial digital database, (2) extracting predictive evidence for a particular deposit, based on an exploration model, (3) calculating relative weights for each predictive map, (4) combining the geologic evidence maps to predict the location of undiscovered mineral resources and (5) measuring the intensity of recent exploration activity by use of mining claims on federal lands, and (6) combining mineral resource and exploration activity into an assessment model of future mining activity. The analysis is accomplished on a personal computer using ArcView GIS platform with Spatial Analyst and Weights-of-Evidence software. In accord with the descriptive model for epithermal gold deposits, digital geologic evidential themes assembled include lithologic map units, thrust faults, normal faults, and igneous dikes. Similarly, geochemical evidential themes include placer gold deposits and gold and silver analyses from stream sediment (silt) samples from National Forest lands. Fifty mines, prospects, or occurrences of epithermal gold deposits, the training set, define the appropriate a really-associated terrane. The areal (or spatial) correlation of each evidential theme with the training set yield predictor theme maps for lithology, placer sites and normal faults. The weights-of-evidence analysis disqualified the thrust fault, dike, and gold and silver silt analyses evidential themes because they lacked spatial correlation with the training set. The decision to accept or reject evidential themes as predictors is assisted by considering probabilistic data consisting of weights and

  5. "I wasn't texting; I was just reading an email …": a qualitative study of distracted driving enforcement in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Paul E; Blanar, Laura; Kirk, Annie Phare; Freedheim, Amy; Kaufman, Robert; Hitchcock, Laura; Maeser, Jennifer D; Ebel, Beth E

    2017-06-01

    In response to the rise of distracted driving, many countries and most US states have adopted laws to restrict the use of handheld phones for drivers. Specific provisions of each law and the overall social mores of distracted driving influence enforceability and impact. Identify multilevel interdependent factors that influence distracted driving enforcement through the perspective of police officers. We conducted focus group discussions with active duty law enforcement officers from three large Washington State counties. Our thematic analysis used descriptive and pattern coding that placed our findings within a social ecological framework to facilitate targeted intervention development. Participants reported that the distracted driving law posed challenges for consistent and effective enforcement. They emphasised the need to change social norms around distracted driving, similar to the shifts seen around impaired driving. Many participants were themselves distracted drivers, and their individual knowledge, attitude and beliefs influenced enforcement. Participants suggested that law enforcement leaders and policymakers should develop and implement policies and strategies to prioritise and motivate increased distracted driving enforcement. Individual, interpersonal, organisational and societal factors influence enforcement of distracted driving laws. Targeted interventions should be developed to address distracted driving and sustain effective enforcement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The Consistencies and Vagaries of the Washington State Inventory of Evidence-Based Practice: The Definition of "Evidence-Based" in a Policy Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Lyon, Aaron R; Aos, Steve; Trupin, Eric W

    2017-01-01

    As states increasingly establish the importance of evidence-based practice through policy and funding mandates, the definition of evidence-based practice can have a significant impact on investment decisions. Not meeting established criteria can mean a loss of funding for established programs and the implementation disruption of programs without a strong research base. Whether the definition of "evidence-based" is influenced by these high stakes contexts is an interesting question that can inform the larger field about the value and utility of evidence-based practice lists/inventories for disseminating knowledge. In this paper we review the development of the Washington State Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based and Promising Practices as a case study for the process of defining evidence-based practice in a policy context. As part of this study we also present a comparison of other well-known evidence-based practice inventories and examine consistencies and differences in the process of identifying and developing program ratings.

  7. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  8. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  9. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Withdrawal of a proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service...

  10. Narrative report : 1973 [Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Narrative report : 1967. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Furbearer Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly...

  13. Narrative report : 1969. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Inventory Plan outlines the strategy, techniques and purpose of a wildlife inventory on the Refuge. Futhermore the...

  15. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : May - August, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  18. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : January - April, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  1. Narrative report : 1966. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  2. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : January - April, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Narrative report : 1965. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by...

  4. Narrative report : 1971. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  5. Narrative report : 1970. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  6. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : May - August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1951. The report begins by...

  8. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by...

  9. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by...

  10. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : May - August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by...

  12. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by...

  13. FruitGrowth - Gasburning in Orchards - Environment friendly weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Keld Kjærhus; Duzel, Jasmin; Nielsen, Søren Hundevadt

    Gas burning makes treatment of weed organic. The new ENVO-DAN burner saves 40% gas and treats ½ meter in width. It can be mounted on a standard lawn tractor, orchard tractor or a mobile robot.......Gas burning makes treatment of weed organic. The new ENVO-DAN burner saves 40% gas and treats ½ meter in width. It can be mounted on a standard lawn tractor, orchard tractor or a mobile robot....

  14. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  15. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  19. Differences in cause of death of Washington State veterans who did and did not use Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Charles; Boyko, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the cause of death in the veteran population, although more is known about the cause of death in Vietnam veterans or veterans receiving mental health services. This article compares characteristics and causes of death in Washington State veterans who did and did not use Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services in the 5 years prior to death. This study included 62,080 veterans who died between 1998 and 2002, of whom 21% were users of VA healthcare services. The veterans who used VA healthcare services were younger, more often men, less educated, more often divorced, and more often smokers than the veterans who did not use VA healthcare services. Both female and male veterans who used VA healthcare services were more likely to die from drug- and/or alcohol-related causes. These findings suggest that the VA patient population is socially disadvantaged and more severely affected by substance-use disorders compared with veterans who do not use VA healthcare services.

  20. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The data...

  1. Genetic gain and gene diversity of seed orchard crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyu-Suk [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2001-07-01

    Seed orchards are the major tool for deploying the improvement generated by breeding programs and assuring the consistent supply of genetically improved seed. Attainment of genetic gain and monitoring of gene diversity through selection and breeding were studied considering the factors: selection intensity; genetic value; coancestry; fertility variation; and pollen contamination. The optimum goal of a seed orchard is achieved when the orchard population is under an idealized situation, i.e., panmixis, equal gamete contributions from all parental genotypes, non-relatedness and no pollen contamination. In practice, however, due to relatedness among parents, variation in clonal fertility and ramet number, and gene migration from outside, the realized genetic gain and gene diversity deviate from the expectation. In the present study, the genetic value of seed orchard crops (genetic gain, G) could be increased by selective harvest, genetic thinning and/or both. Status number (N{sub S}) was used to monitor the loss of gene diversity in the process of forest tree domestication, and calculated to be reasonably high in most seed orchards. Fertility of parents was estimated based on the assessment of flowering or seed production, which was shown to be under strong genetic control. Variation in fertility among orchard parents was a general feature and reduced the predicted gene diversity of the orchard crop. Fertility variation among parents could be described by the sibling coefficient ({psi}). {psi} was estimated to be 2 (CV = 100% for fertility). In calculating {psi}, it was possible to consider, besides fertility variation, the phenotypic correlation between maternal and parental fertilities, and pollen contamination. Status number was increased by controlling parental fertility, e.g., equal seed harvest, mixing seed in equal proportions and balancing parental contribution. By equalizing female fertility among over-represented parents, it was possible to effect a

  2. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  3. Auditing Access to Outpatient Rehabilitation Services for Children With Traumatic Brain Injury and Public Insurance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Molly M; Thompson, Leah; Quistberg, D Alex; Haaland, Wren L; Rhodes, Karin; Kartin, Deborah; Kerfeld, Cheryl; Apkon, Susan; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-09-01

    To identify insurance-based disparities in access to outpatient pediatric neurorehabilitation services. Audit study with paired calls, where callers posed as a mother seeking services for a simulated child with history of severe traumatic brain injury and public or private insurance. Outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Sample of rehabilitation clinics (N=287): 195 physical therapy (PT) clinics, 109 occupational therapy (OT) clinics, 102 speech therapy (ST) clinics, and 11 rehabilitation medicine clinics. Not applicable. Acceptance of public insurance and the number of business days until the next available appointment. Therapy clinics were more likely to accept private insurance than public insurance (relative risk [RR] for PT clinics, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; RR for OT clinics, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.57; and RR for ST clinics, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.62), with no significant difference for rehabilitation medicine clinics (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.34). The difference in median wait time between clinics that accepted public insurance and those accepting only private insurance was 4 business days for PT clinics and 15 days for ST clinics (P≤.001), but the median wait time was not significantly different for OT clinics or rehabilitation medicine clinics. When adjusting for urban and multidisciplinary clinic statuses, the wait time at clinics accepting public insurance was 59% longer for PT (95% CI, 39%-81%), 18% longer for OT (95% CI, 7%-30%), and 107% longer for ST (95% CI, 87%-130%) than that at clinics accepting only private insurance. Distance to clinics varied by discipline and area within the state. Therapy clinics were less likely to accept public insurance than private insurance. Therapy clinics accepting public insurance had longer wait times than did clinics that accepted only private insurance. Rehabilitation professionals should attempt to implement policy and practice changes to promote equitable access to care. Copyright © 2017

  4. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  5. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  6. Associations between adolescent drinking and driving involvement and self-reported risk and protective factors in students in public schools in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Jennifer C; Bensley, Lillian S; Van Eenwyk, Juliet

    2004-03-01

    This study examines associations between self-reported drinking and driving or being a passenger of a drinking driver and risk and protective factors in a general population of adolescents. We used a two-staged sampling procedure to survey 2,955 students in Washington State public schools in Grades 9-12. Students were asked if they were a passenger of, or had been, a drinking driver in the previous month. They were also asked about individual, parent, school and community risk and protective factors. Comparisons were made using hierarchical polychotomous logistic regression, entering age and gender and parent, school and community protective factors at the first step and individual risk factors at the second step. Driving after drinking in the previous month was reported by 12.1% of respondents and riding with a drinking driver was reported by an additional 17.6% of respondents. At the first step, driving after drinking was more likely and riding with a drinking driver was less likely among youth who were age 16 or older, and male students were more likely than female students to report driving after drinking. Parent, school and community support were each significantly associated with less driving after drinking, and school support was significantly associated with less riding with drinking drivers. At the second step, higher quantity and frequency of drinking, more smoking cigarettes and drug use and less seat belt use were each associated with both drinking and driving and riding with drinking drivers. Gun carrying was also associated with driving after drinking. Drinking and driving behaviors were associated with risk and protective factors in the community, school, family and individual. Pilot prevention programs should test the effectiveness of reducing drinking and driving involvement by addressing such factors.

  7. Declining rates of work-related overexertion back injuries among union drywall installers in Washington State, 1989-2008: Improved work safety or shifting of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester J; Marshall, Stephen W; Casteel, Carri; Richardson, David B; Brookhart, M Alan; Cameron, Wilfrid

    2014-02-01

    Construction workers are at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal back disorders, and research suggests medical care and costs associated with these conditions may be covered by sources other than workers' compensation (WC). Little is known about the back injury experience and care seeking behavior among drywall installers, a high-risk workgroup regularly exposed to repetitive activities, awkward postures, and handling heavy building materials. Among a cohort of 24,830 Washington State union carpenters (1989-2008), including 5,073 drywall installers, we identified WC claims, visits for health care covered through union-provided health insurance and time at risk. Rates of work-related overexertion back injuries (defined using WC claims data) and health care utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders covered by private health insurance were examined and contrasted over time and by worker characteristics, stratified by type of work (drywall installation, other carpentry). Drywall installers' work-related overexertion back injury rates exceeded those of other carpenters (adjusted IRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.48-1.78). For both carpentry groups, rates declined significantly over time. In contrast, rates of private healthcare utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders were similar for drywall installers compared to other carpenters; they increased over time (after the mid-1990s), with increasing years in the union, and with increasing numbers of work-related overexertion back injuries. Observed declines over time in the rate of work-related overexertion back injury, as based on WC claims data, is encouraging. However, results add to the growing literature suggesting care for work-related conditions may be being sought outside of the WC system. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factors influencing densities of non-indigenous species in the ballast water of ships arriving at ports in Puget Sound, Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, J.R.; Lawrence, D.J.; Ferm, N.C.; Tear, L.M.; Smith, S.S.; Herwig, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanographic characteristics and the presence of international shipping in Puget Sound, Washington, USA contribute to its vulnerability to non-indigenous species (NIS) invasions. To evaluate NIS arriving in ballast water, zooplankton was sampled in 380 ballast tanks of ships after they entered Puget Sound. Taxa were classified into a higher risk group of coastal organisms (including known NIS), and a lower risk group of largely oceanic species. Most ships reported conducting mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE). However, despite state regulations requiring BWE, and apparent compliance by ship operators, most sampled tanks from both transpacific and coastal routes had coastal zooplankton densities exceeding internationally proposed discharge standards. BWE efficiency models and controlled before-and-after BWE experiments indicate that BWE consistently removes most coastal zooplankton. However, this study found that although the empty-refill method of BWE significantly reduced coastal plankton compared with un-exchanged tanks, the flow-through method did not, and in either case remaining coastal plankton densities presented appreciable risks of introducing NIS. Densities of high risk taxa were consistently and significantly higher from US domestic trips dominated by tank ships carrying ballast water from California, and lower in samples from trans-Pacific trips dominated by container ships and bulk carriers with ballast from Asia. These findings are probably a result of the dense and diverse NIS assemblages present in California and other US west coast estuaries and the comparatively short transit times between them and Puget Sound. While it appears that BWE can effectively replace NIS with less risky ocean species, new reporting, verification, and operational procedures may be necessary to enhance BWE efficacy. In the long-term, the introduction of ballast water treatment technologies may be required to significantly reduce the discharge of risky organisms from

  9. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  10. Police officers' and paramedics' experiences with overdose and their knowledge and opinions of Washington State's drug overdose-naloxone-Good Samaritan law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Green, Caleb J; Beletsky, Leo; Schoeppe, Jennifer A; Coffin, Phillip O; Kuszler, Patricia C

    2013-12-01

    Opioid overdoses are an important public health concern. Concerns about police involvement at overdose events may decrease calls to 911 for emergency medical care thereby increasing the chances than an overdose becomes fatal. To address this concern, Washington State passed a law that provides immunity from drug possession charges and facilitates the availability of take-home-naloxone (the opioid overdose antidote) to bystanders in 2010. To examine the knowledge and opinions regarding opioid overdoses and this new law, police (n = 251) and paramedics (n = 28) in Seattle, WA were surveyed. The majority of police (64 %) and paramedics (89 %) had been at an opioid overdose in the prior year. Few officers (16 %) or paramedics (7 %) were aware of the new law. While arrests at overdose scenes were rare, drugs or paraphernalia were confiscated at 25 % of the most recent overdoses police responded to. Three quarters of officers felt it was important they were at the scene of an overdose to protect medical personnel, and a minority, 34 %, indicated it was important they were present for the purpose of enforcing laws. Police opinions about the immunity and naloxone provisions of the law were split, and we present a summary of the reasons for their opinions. The results of this survey were utilized in public health efforts by the police department which developed a roll call training video shown to all patrol officers. Knowledge of the law was low, and opinions of it were mixed; however, police were concerned about the issue of opioid overdose and willing to implement agency-wide training.

  11. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    due to special events in the area to include Washington Redskins football , Washington National baseball, and other events held in the Washington, D.C...The technological 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 17 methods involved using television and video

  12. The importance of traditional orchards for breeding birds: The preliminary study on Central European example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Orchards are parts of agriculture and apart from their economic role they may preserve biodiversity in highly transformed farmlands. An increasing intensity of orchards management is known to be threat for some species, especially pollinators and birds. On the other hand, the biodiversity of abandoned orchards was hardly investigated. Here, I present a survey of orchards in Poland to estimate how bird's diversities differ in response to the intensity of orchards management. In 2014, 66 orchards of three types - abandoned, extensively and intensively managed - were investigated. Bird species' richness and abundance were found to be highest in abandoned orchards but overall bird diversity and species composition in abandoned did not differ from these found in extensively managed orchards. In abandoned and extensively managed orchards, hollow-dwellers and insectivores (with some rare old-forest associated species) dominated, whereas in intensively managed orchards the most diverse were ground-dwellers. Among the several selected environmental features, the highest impact on bird diversity was related to the tree diversity, abundance of older trees, presence of multilayer understory and heterogeneous surrounding. The preliminary study point that traditional orchards could play a important role for wood-dwelling species in agriculture and because of that the removal or replacement of all traditional orchards by intensively managed orchards should be avoided and needs of orchard protection should be implemented into Agri-Environmental Schemes/High Nature Value farming systems and possibly also into habitat directive of EU. Unfortunately, the number of abandoned and extensively managed orchards is declining from agricultural landscapes, and traditional orchards are replaced by conventional fruit plantations.

  13. Herpetofaunal assemblages of a lowland broadleaf forest, an overgrown orchard forest and a lime orchard in Stann Creek, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Russell; Strine, Colin T

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring ecological impacts of the expanding agricultural industry in Belize is an important step in conservation action. To compare possible alterations in herpetofaunal communities due to these anthropogenic changes, trapping arrays were set in a manicured orchard, a reclaimed orchard and a lowland broadleaf forest in Stann Creek district at Toucan Ridge Ecology and Education Society (TREES). Trapping efforts were carried out during the rainy season, from June to September, 2016, during which time the study site was hit by a category one hurricane between sampling sessions. Trapping yielded 197 individual herpetofauna and 40 different species overall; 108 reptile captures (30 species) and 88 amphibian captures (ten species). Reptiles and amphibians were more abundant in the lowland broadleaf forest and the manicured orchard area. Amphibian species diversity was relatively similar in each habitat type. Reptile captures were most diverse in the Overgrown Orchard Forest (OGF) and Overgrown Orchard Riparian Forest (OGR) and least diverse in the Lowland Broadleaf Forest (LBF). The findings of this study suggest that reptile and amphibian sensitivity to anthropogenically altered areas is minimal when enveloped by natural habitat buffers, and additionally, that extreme weather events have little impact on herpetofauna communities in the area.

  14. Herpetofaunal assemblages of a lowland broadleaf forest, an overgrown orchard forest and a lime orchard in Stann Creek, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Gray

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and monitoring ecological impacts of the expanding agricultural industry in Belize is an important step in conservation action. To compare possible alterations in herpetofaunal communities due to these anthropogenic changes, trapping arrays were set in a manicured orchard, a reclaimed orchard and a lowland broadleaf forest in Stann Creek district at Toucan Ridge Ecology and Education Society (TREES. Trapping efforts were carried out during the rainy season, from June to September, 2016, during which time the study site was hit by a category one hurricane between sampling sessions. Trapping yielded 197 individual herpetofauna and 40 different species overall; 108 reptile captures (30 species and 88 amphibian captures (ten species. Reptiles and amphibians were more abundant in the lowland broadleaf forest and the manicured orchard area. Amphibian species diversity was relatively similar in each habitat type. Reptile captures were most diverse in the Overgrown Orchard Forest (OGF and Overgrown Orchard Riparian Forest (OGR and least diverse in the Lowland Broadleaf Forest (LBF. The findings of this study suggest that reptile and amphibian sensitivity to anthropegnically altered areas is minimal when enveloped by natural habitat buffers, and additionally, that extreme weather events have little impact on herpetofauna communities in the area.

  15. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  16. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  17. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  18. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  19. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head

    1983-01-01

    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...

  20. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  1. Yield mapping, soil fertility and tree gaps in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Molin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current high competition on Citrus industry demands from growers new management technologies for superior efficiency and sustainability. In this context, precision agriculture (PA has developed techniques based on yield mapping and management systems that recognize field spatial variability, which contribute to increase profitability of commercial crops. Because spatial variability is often not perceived the orange orchards are still managed as uniform and adoption of PA technology on citrus farms is low. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial variability of three factors: fruit yield, soil fertility and occurrence of plant gaps caused by either citrus blight or huanglongbing (HLB in a commercial Valencia orchard in Brotas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data from volume, geographic coordinates and representative area of the bags used on harvest were recorded to generate yield points that were then interpolated to produce the yield map. Soil chemical characteristics were studied by analyzing samples collected along planting rows and inter-rows in 24 points distributed in the field. A map of density of tree gaps was produced by georeferencing individual gaps and later by counting the number of gaps within 500 m² cells. Data were submitted to statistical and geostatistical analyses. A t test was used to compare means of soil chemical characteristics between sampling regions. High variation on yield and density of tree gaps was observed from the maps. It was also demonstrated overlapping regions of high density of plant absence and low fruit yield. Soil fertility varied depending on the sampling region in the orchard. The spatial variability found on yield, soil fertility and on disease occurrence demonstrated the importance to adopt site specific nutrient management and disease control as tools to guarantee efficiency of fruit production.

  2. Restoration seed reserves for assisted gene flow within seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.S. Echt; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate and declining forest populations imperil the future of certain forest tree species. To complement forest management and genetic conservation plans, we propose a new paradigm for seedling seed orchards: foster genetic mixing among a variety of seed sources to increase genetic diversity and adaptive potential of seed supplies used for forest restoration...

  3. Economic capabilities of Polish orchard farms in 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sobierajewska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is investigation of the economic situation in orchard farms 3 years after accession to the European Union. For measurement of economic situation were used matrix relations between Return of Sales and technological effectiveness. The study backed up the results from the Polish FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network.

  4. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Bramlett

    1977-01-01

    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  5. Kalmtool used for laser scanner aided navigation in orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lars Valdemar; Hansen, Søren; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns localisation of an autonomous tractor in an orchard environment, with the purpose of designing a localisation solution to be compared with GPS. The localisation is based on an estimate found by an extended Kalman filter, which fuses measurements from encoders and gyro with row...

  6. Derivative free Kalman filtering used for orchard navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localisation is investigated. Three different filters are tested on real life data from an autonomous tractor running in an orchard environment. The localisation algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features...

  7. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: Sustainability or abandonment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, F.; Jones, N.; Fleskens, L.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old)

  8. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in tejocote (Crataegus mexicana) orchard soils and their pathogenicity against Rhagoletis pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Reyes, E; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Sánchez-Escudero, J; Nieto-Angel, R

    2014-11-01

    To determine the abundance and diversity of entomopathogenic fungi in tejocote orchard soils and evaluate their ability to infect Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh., the main pest of tejocote. Surveys were made in two locations in Mexico state and two in Puebla state. Soil from selected locations was baited for entomopathogenic fungi with Galleria mellonella (L.). All isolates were identified morphologically to genus level and to species level using Bloc and elongation factor 1-α gene sequence information, respectively; Beauveria bassiana ((Bals.-Criv.) Vuill.), B. pseudobassiana (S.A. Rehner & Humber) and Metarhizium robertsii (J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber) were found, with B. bassiana being the most abundant and widely distributed. Pathogenicity of five selected B. bassiana isolates and three M. robertsii isolates was evaluated against larvae and pupae of R. pomonella. All isolates infected larvae resulting in an average mortality of 35%. Pupae were not susceptible; however, adults emerging from inoculated pupae did die due to infection. At least three species of entomopathogenic fungi are present in the soil from tejocote orchards, with B. bassiana being the most abundant and widely distributed. Rhagoletis pomonella larvae were more susceptible to infection than pupae. Our study has produced new information about the distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in cultivated soils from this region of North America, contributing to a better understanding of their natural occurrence and underpinning the development of biological control approaches. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  10. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  11. Prevalence of marijuana and other substance use before and after Washington State's change from legal medical marijuana to legal medical and nonmedical marijuana: Cohort comparisons in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Hanson, Koren; Gross, Thomas J; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of states have new legislation extending prior legalization of medical marijuana by allowing nonmedical marijuana use for adults. The potential influence of this change in legislation on adolescent marijuana and other substance use (e.g., spillover or substitution effects) is uncertain. We capitalize on an ongoing study to explore the prevalence of marijuana and other substance use in 2 cohorts of adolescents who experienced the nonmedical marijuana law change in Washington State at different ages. Participants were 8th graders enrolled in targeted Tacoma, Washington public schools and recruited in 2 consecutive annual cohorts. The analysis sample was 238 students who completed a baseline survey in the 8th grade and a follow-up survey after the 9th grade. Between the 2 assessments, the second cohort experienced the Washington State nonmedical marijuana law change, whereas the first cohort did not. Self-report survey data on lifetime and past-month marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol use were collected. Multivariate multilevel modeling showed that cohort differences in the likelihood of marijuana use were significantly different from those for cigarette and alcohol use at follow-up (adjusting for baseline substance initiation). Marijuana use was higher for the second cohort than the first cohort, but this difference was not statistically significant. Rates of cigarette and alcohol use were slightly lower in the second cohort than in the first cohort. This exploratory study found that marijuana use was more prevalent among teens shortly after the transition from medical marijuana legalization only to medical and nonmedical marijuana legalization, although the difference between cohorts was not statistically significant. The findings also provided some evidence of substitution effects. The analytic technique used here may be useful for examining potential long-term effects of nonmedical marijuana laws on adolescent marijuana use and substitution or

  12. Exploring the potential for foreign-trained dentists to address workforce shortages and improve access to dental care for vulnerable populations in the United States: a case study from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To address dental workforce shortages in underserved areas in the United States, some States have enacted legislation to make it easier for foreign dental school graduates to become licensed dentists. However, the extent to which foreign dental school graduates will solve the problem of dental workforce shortages is poorly understood. Furthermore, the potential impact that foreign-trained dentists have on improving access to dental care for vulnerable patients living in dental Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) and those enrolled in public insurance programs, such as Medicaid, is unknown. The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary understanding of the practice behaviors of foreign-trained dentists. The authors used Washington State as a case study to identify the potential impact foreign dental school graduates have on improving access to dental care for vulnerable populations. The following hypotheses were tested: a) among all newly licensed dentists, foreign-trained dentists are more likely to participate in the Medicaid program than U.S.-trained dentists; and b) among newly licensed dentists who participated in the Medicaid program, foreign-trained dentists are more likely to practice in dental HPSAs than U.S.-trained dentists. Methods The authors used dental license and Medicaid license data to compare the proportions of newly licensed, foreign- and U.S.-trained dentists who participated in the Medicaid program and the proportions that practiced in a dental HPSA. Results Using bivariate analyses, the authors found that a significantly lower proportion of foreign-trained dentists participated in the Medicaid program than U.S.-trained dentists (12.9% and 22.8%, respectively; P = 0.011). Among newly licensed dentists who participated in the Medicaid program, there was no significant difference in the proportions of foreign- and U.S.-trained dentists who practiced in a dental HPSA (P = 0.683). Conclusions Legislation that makes it

  13. Heat exposure and productivity in orchards: Implications for climate change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiller, Grant; Krenz, Jennifer; Ebi, Kristie; Hess, Jeremy J; Fenske, Richard A; Sampson, Paul D; Pan, Mengjie; Spector, June T

    2017-11-02

    Recent studies suggest that heat exposure degrades work productivity, but such studies have not considered individual- and workplace-level factors. Forty-six tree-fruit harvesters (98% Latino/a) from 6 orchards participated in a cross-sectional study in central/eastern Washington in 2015. The association between maximum measured work-shift wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT max ) and productivity (total weight of fruit bins collected per time worked) was estimated using linear mixed-effects models, adjusting for relevant confounders. The mean (standard deviation) WBGT max was 27.9°C (3.6°C) in August and 21.2°C (2.0°C) in September. There was a trend of decreasing productivity with increasing WBGT max , but this association was not statistically significant. When individual- and workplace-level factors were included in the model, the association approached the null. Not considering individual, work, and economic factors that affect rest and recovery in projections of the effects of climate change could result in overestimates of reductions in future productivity and underestimate risk of heat illness.

  14. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  15. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  16. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  17. Bird diversity and abundance in organic and conventional apple orchards in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naoki

    2016-09-28

    Many studies have investigated the benefits of agri-environmental schemes, such as organic farming, on biodiversity conservation in annual systems, but their effectiveness in perennial systems is less well understood, particularly in bird communities in temperate regions of Asia. This study examined the effects of organic farming practices on species richness and abundance of breeding birds in apple orchards in northern Japan. Bird counts were conducted in six pairs of organic and conventional orchards during the breeding season in April and May 2015. The total species richness of birds, estimated by sample- and coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves, was greater in organic orchards than in conventional orchards. Among the three dietary guilds (insectivore, granivore, and omnivore), only insectivorous species were more abundant in organic orchards than in conventional ones. This study offers the first quantitative evidence that organic farming can be beneficial for enhancing the diversity of birds, particularly of insectivores, in fruit orchards in Japan.

  18. Interception of rainfall in a hedgerow apple orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miranda, R. A. Calheiros; Butler, D. R.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements of incident rainfall for an orchard, and throughfall and stemflow under the crowns of apple trees are presented for a 3-month period. The variability of throughfall under a single tree and between trees is assessed and equations to estimate interception loss, throughfall and stemflow from incident rainfall are given. During the period of assessment, the overall interception loss in the rows was about 15% of the incident rainfall.

  19. Arthropods on Abandoned Apple Trees: Comparison of Orchard Versus Alley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Psota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of arthropods on abandoned apple trees was studied in 2010 and 2011. The research was carried out in South Moravia (Czech Republic. Two sites were selected within this area – apple trees (Malus domestica in an alley along a road and an abandoned apple orchard. At each location, arthropods were collected from 5 separate trees. Deltamethrin was applied into the treetops using a fogger. The killed arthropods were collected 15 minutes after the application. From among the collected data, 48 families were determined in accordance with a generalized linear model with a logarithmic-link function and Poisson distribution. As a result it was found that 33 families have significantly higher abundance in the abandoned orchard and 9 families in the alley. According to the Shannon-Wiener index, diversity of families was higher in the alley in both years (2010: H’ = 3.016, 2011: H’ = 3.177 compared to the abandoned orchard (2010: H’ = 2.413, 2011: H’ = 3.007.

  20. Phosphorus fractions in apple orchards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P applications at dosages higher than the necessary may cause P buildup in the soil labile fractions and, consequently, pollution of water sources. This study aimed to assess accumulation of P fractions as well as the parameters of adsorption isotherms in soil profiles having a history of application of phosphate fertilizers and cultivated with apple trees. Soil samples were collected from an area with no history of cultivation and 2 apple orchards cultivated for 8 (P8 and 18 (P18 years, in the city of Urubici, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Soil samples were air dried, sieved in a 2-mm mesh, and subjected to chemical analyses (P adsorption besides P chemical fractionation. Applications of phosphate fertilizers to the orchards, particularly P18, increased the inorganic and organic concentrations of P in all fractions. The distribution of P in organic and inorganic forms in the planted soils was similar to the distribution observed for the native vegetation soil. The highest inorganic labile P fraction, the lowest maximum P adsorption capacity, and the highest equilibrium concentration values at P18 are indicators of a higher environmental pollution risk of the orchards soils compared to the native soil.

  1. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  2. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  3. A survey of Lolium rigidum populations in citrus orchards: Factors explaining infestation levels

    OpenAIRE

    Atanackovic, Valentina; Juárez Escario, Alejandro; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Torra Farré, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The presence of herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum in Mediterranean (Spanish) citrus orchards was reported in 2005 and it poses a serious threat to crop management. The main objective of this research was to investigate which components could be responsible for the persistence of annual ryegrass populations in Mediterranean mandarin and orange orchards. This is the first study regarding L. rigidum populations in Mediterranean citrus orchards. Surveys were con- ducted in 55 comme...

  4. Evaluation of phenotypic traits and blight-resistance in an American chestnut backcross orchard in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cipollini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata was once a cultural, ecological, and economic staple of hardwood forests of the Eastern United States; however, chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica has severely threatened its significance. The American Chestnut Foundation (TACF is a non-profit organization that has focused on backcross breeding as a means of restoring C. dentata to the wild. A major goal of this breeding program has been to introduce blight resistance from Chinese chestnut [Castanea mollissima ] while recovering “American chestnut” morphology by backcrossing with C. dentata. The Berry College backcross orchard, in northwest Georgia, was the first such orchard established by TACF with the goal of producing advanced hybrids derived from crosses with wild C. dentata from Georgia (part of TACF’s state chapter program. In 2008, three lines of third backcross (BC3 hybrids were planted at the orchard along with F1, C. mollissima, and C. dentata controls. The theoretical model for the backcross breeding program predicts intermediate blight resistance, at best, in BC3 trees, along with an otherwise American chestnut morphology. This paper focuses on the degree to which this combination of desired traits has been found among the first lines of BC3 trees generated in Georgia. Trees were inoculated with blight in May 2013 (at age 4–5 yrs, and blight resistance was evaluated in October 2013 and March 2014 and used to calculate an average blight-susceptibility index (BSI. In September 2013, branch samples were collected and used to evaluate 20 leaf, stem, and bud traits known to differ consistently between C. mollissima and C. dentata. The average of standardized scores for morphological traits was used as an index of species identity (ISI for each tree. On average, BC3 lines showed significant morphological differences when compared with Chinese chestnut lines, nesting morphologically with American chestnuts. Each BC3 line contained

  5. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  6. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  7. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Tufted Puffin Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey is key to assessing the status and trends of Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) on their breeding colonies within Washington State and, with additional...

  8. The method for breeding and genetic assessment of Scotch pine clones at forest seed orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Raevsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast height growth selection usually considered as the basic type of Scotch pine breeding strategy. Due to this fact height growth of pine clones usually is taken as the first key feature. In the view of good seed production there is only one indicator that could be adopted as having summarized effect reflecting the real contribution of a clone to the whole seed orchard yield. This is an average number of full seeds per tree (ramet. This trait is the second most important one after the height growth ability feature. The way of two-trait breeding program with the aforesaid features seemed to be the most suitable for Scotch pine. Main theses of 4-stages complex assessment procedure have been formulated concerning Scotch pine vegetative progenies grown at seed orchards. It was stated that this system of breeding and genetic assessment is based on correlations found for habitus and reproductive features of Scotch pine clones along with the height growth ability of their seed progenies. In the first stage pine clones meeting the criteria (≥ X + 0.5σx regarding height growth are to be selected. In the second stage, clones with hard tapering stem and crown formed by long and thick branches have to be discarded. At this stage, such feature as «mean diameter of three thickest limbs at the height of 1.5–2.0 m» became the key factor. Its mean value for selected clones must not be by 1–2 % higher than for general clone set. In the third stage a complex of reproductive features for clones that have passed the previous stages are taken into account. The trait «average number of full seeds per ramet» is the key feature in this stage according to the criteria (≥ X . The fourth stage implies that progeny trials with open-pollinated progenies ought to be laid down to calculate the general and specific combining ability. It has been concluded that high intensive selection of clones grown at the I-stage seed orchards promotes a substantial genetic gain

  9. The Impact of Interstate Migration on Human Capital Development in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Washington State is a leader in the innovation economy largely due to the combination of aerospace, software, and biomedical industries centered in the greater Seattle area; and, the state's high level of international trade. Despite Washington's national ranking, the state is overly reliant on importing educated workers from other states and…

  10. Integrated pest management in apple orchards in the Netherlands : a solution for selective control of tortricids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reede, de R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Field trials to compose a coherent system of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for apple orchards in the Netherlands were started in 1967, when the 12 ha apple orchard "De Schuilenburg" at Kesteren became available for experiments on IPM. Natural control of one of the most severe pests under

  11. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  12. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  13. Effects of apple orchard management strategies on the great tit (Parus major) in southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Toubon, Jean-François; Boivin, Thomas; Sauphanor, Benoît

    2005-11-01

    The impact of conventional, organic, and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies of apple orchards on the reproduction of the great tit Parus major was investigated during a three-year period in southeastern France. The colonization process, egg-laying dates, clutch sizes, and fledging success were similar among pairs of P. major nesting in orchards conducted under the three studied management strategies. However, the mean number of young produced per ha (orchard productivity) was significantly higher in organic orchards than in both conventional and IPM orchards. Such divergences between both fledging success and orchard productivity primarily resulted from higher densities of P. major nesting pairs, but also from lower rates of nest abandonment during incubation in organic orchards. We suggest that intensive pesticide use under both IPM and conventional managements may have resulted in a substantial reduction in insect prey availability that enhanced intraspecific competition, which then led to failure in reproduction in pairs with low competitive ability. Our results highlight the relevance of P. major in assessing the environmental impact of apple orchard management strategies.

  14. Who's driving?: Separating Fire, CO2, and Climate Change Influences on Vegetation and Carbon Dynamics on MC2 Results for Western Oregon and Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, T.; Bachelet, D. M.; Ferschweiler, K.

    2016-12-01

    For Oregon and Washington west of the Cascade Mountain crest, results from the MC2 global dynamic vegetation model have projected a shift in potential vegetation type from predominantly conifer to predominantly mixed forest over the 21st century, with a shift from mixed to conifer in some areas. Carbon stocks have been projected to fall over this period. We ran MC2 using the CCSM4 RCP 8.5 climate future downscaled to 2.5 arc minute resolution with 5 different configurations: no fire; assumed ignitions without fire suppression; assumed ignitions with fire suppression; assumed ignitions with fire suppression and with CO2 concentration held at the preindustrial level; and stochastic ignitions without fire suppression. Results show that vegetation change is the result of climate change alone, while carbon is influenced by both fire occurrence and CO2-induced increased water use efficiency. While model results do not indicate a large change in carbon dynamics concomitant with the shift in vegetation, it is reasonable to expect that a change in conditions resulting in such a change in vegetation type would stress the existing vegetation resulting in some mortality and loss of live carbon.

  15. Integrating cellular automata, artificial neural network and fuzzy set theory to simulate threatened orchards: Application to Maragheh, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azari, M; Tayyebi, A; Helbich, M; Ahadnejad Reveshty, M

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes challenge the growth of orchards areas in many cities in Iran. In Maragheh orchards are crucial ecological, economical, and tourist sources. To explore orchards threatened by urban expansion, this study aims, first, to develop a new model by coupling cellular automata and

  16. Residues of copper and sulphur on fruits from organic orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Matteazzi, Aldo; Casera, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Copper und sulphur compounds are listed in annex 2b of the EC regulation 2091/92 and are used in organic orchards to control scab, mildew and sooty blotch also during summer time. In Italy, copper compounds have a waiting period from 20 days between last treatment and harvest, for sulphur compounds it differs and can reach until 30 days for lime sulphur. The trials carried out showed that using the recommended low dosages for copper and lime sulphur it should not be a problem t...

  17. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain: A comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, M A; Cammeraat, L H; Cerdà, A

    2017-03-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other six were conventionally managed, and for each of these six study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots and the other three drip irrigated systems. The outcome of the studied parameters was that soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregate stability were higher for organic farms. Bulk density and pH were only significantly different for organic farms when drip irrigation was applied in comparison with flooded plots. C/N ratio did not vary significantly for the four treatments. Although there are some points of discussion, this research shows that a combination of different management decisions leads to improvement of a couple of soil quality parameters. Organic management practices were found to be beneficial for soil quality, compared to conventional management for soils with comparable textures and applied irrigation water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in native forests and orchards in two counties of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy A. do Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta análise faunística comparativa das espécies de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em armadilhas McPhail (junho a dezembro de 2002 com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%. Foram comparadas a riqueza de espécies e a estrutura populacional entre ambientes de mata e pomar dos municípios de Palmas e Porto Nacional, TO. Foram capturados 1.748 indivíduos de espécies de três gêneros de Tephritidae: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 e Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. De Lonchaeidae foram capturadas espécies de três gêneros: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 e Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Dezenove espécies de Anastrepha foram coletadas, sendo a maioria dos indivíduos (69,1% de A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Não houve diferença significativa (P This paper presents comparative and faunistic analysis of the species of fruit flies captured in McPhail traps (from June to December 2002 baited with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed. Species richness and the patterns of population are compared between forest and orchard environments and between the counties of Palmas and Porto Nacional. A total of 1,748 individuals of Tephritidae belonging to species of three genera were collected: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 and Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. Species of three genera of Lonchaeidae were also captured: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 and Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and nineteen species of the genus Anastrepha were collected. Most of the collected individuals (69.1% belonged to A. obliqua (Macquart, 1935. The average numbers of tephritid individuals in Palmas and native forests were significantly lower than Porto Nacional and orchards, respectively. According to the Shannon diversity index (H' and test t used for comparing the fruit flies fauna among the environments, it was verified that only one comparison showed

  19. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  20. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Fractions in Response to Cover Crops in an Orange Orchard

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    Francisco Éder Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of cover crops intercropped with fruit trees is an alternative to maintain mulch cover between plant rows and increase soil organic carbon (C stocks. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil total organic C content and labile organic matter fractions in response to cover crop cultivation in an orange orchard. The experiment was performed in the state of Bahia, in a citrus orchard with cultivar ‘Pera’ orange (Citrus sinensis at a spacing of 6 × 4 m. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The following species were used as cover crops: Brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbes – BRAQ, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum – MIL, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis – JB, blend (50 % each of jack bean + millet (JB/MIL, and spontaneous vegetation (SPV. The cover crops were broadcast-seeded between the rows of orange trees and mechanically mowed after flowering. Soil sampling at depths of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m was performed in small soil trenches. The total soil organic C (SOC content, light fraction (LF, and the particulate organic C (POC, and oxidizable organic C fractions were estimated. Total soil organic C content was not significantly changed by the cover crops, indicating low sensitivity in reacting to recent changes in soil organic matter due to management practices. Grasses enabled a greater accumulation of SOC stocks in 0.00-0.40 m compared to all other treatments. Jack bean cultivation increased LF and the most labile oxidizable organic C fraction (F1 in the soil surface and the deepest layer tested. Cover crop cultivation increased labile C in the 0.00-0.10 m layer, which can enhance soil microbial activity and nutrient absorption by the citrus trees. The fractions LF and F1 may be suitable indicators for monitoring changes in soil organic matter content due to changes in soil management practices.

  1. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  2. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2006-01-01

    This data set shows orchard locations in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia where arsenical pesticides were likely used. The orchard locations are based on air photos and topographic maps prepared using information from the time period of extensive use of arsenical pesticides between the 1920s and 1960s. An orchard's presence in this data set does not necessarily indicate the use of arsenical pesticides on the site or that elevated arsenic and metal concentrations are present. Arsenical pesticides may have been used on part, or none, of the land and, under current land use, the land may have been remediated and no longer contain elevated arsenic and metal concentrations in soil. The data set was created to be used in an assessment of soil contamination related to past use of arsenical pesticides in orchards in the northern part of the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia. Previous studies have documented that elevated concentrations of arsenic, lead, and sometimes copper occur in the soils of former apple orchards (Veneman et al., 1983; Jones and Hatch, 1937). Arsenical pesticide use was most extensive and widespread in agricultural applications from the 1920s to the late 1950s, and largely ceased agricultural use by the early 1960s in the nation. During this time period, lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical pesticide (Peryea, 1998), particularly in apple orchards. Other metal-bearing pesticides, such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris Green), Bordeaux Blue (a mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide), and organic mercury fumigants were used to a lesser degree in orchards (Peryea, 1998; Shepard, 1939; Veneman et al., 1983). During the time arsenical pesticides were extensively used, federal and state pesticide laws did not require farmers to keep accurate records of the quantity, location, and type of arsenical pesticides used on their property, thus the quantity and distribution

  3. Nutritive Value of Persian Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. Orchards

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    Fatemeh Amini-Noori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnut (Corylus avellna L. is one of the important nut crops in world. The harvesting of hazelnuts is done either by hand or by manual or mechanical raking of fallen nuts in Iran. Common hazel is widely cultivated for its nuts, including in commercial orchards in Europe, Turkey, and Iran. There are some genotypes of hazelnut in Iran that their growing areas are limited to Gillan, Aredbil, Mazandaran, Golestan, Zanjan and Qazvin Provinces. Varieties, location, composition of soils, usage of fertilizer and irrigation affect the fatty acid, mineral and vitamin composition of hazelnuts, and consequently influence the nutritional value and quality of the product. Therefore, the objective of this study was evaluation of protein, crude fiber, and fatty acids in samples in Tarem and Rudsar County farmlands as two economically important provinces. Samples were collected during the harvest season in 2015 from 10 different distinguished cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard. The chemical and physical properties (crude protein, total fat, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, refractive index were analyzed according to AOAC methods. In investigation on these two varieties, the highest fatty acid had oleic acid with 85.026% in Rudsar (Gillan and 83.226% in Tarem samples. Evaluation of 420 hazelnut seedling samples reveals that Rudsar variety samples have more protein, ash and carbohydrate while crude fiber percentage in Tarem variety is more. The results of this research reveals that geographical conditions affect the nutritional value of hazelnut significantly (p <0.05.

  4. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. Part 4A--Appendix to Nutrition and Food Availability. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 20, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings on nutrition and food availability are comprised of the testimony of a number of experts and representatives of such organizations as the State of Washington Food and Nutrition Council; National Livestock and Meat Board; Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Union of America; Self Help and Rural Economic Support Inc.; North American…

  5. California's Effort to Improve Almond Orchard Crop Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanden, B. L.; Fulton, A. E.; Munk, D. S.; Ewert, S.; Little, C.; Anderson, F.; Connell, J. H.; Rivera, M.; Orang, M. N.; Snyder, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Almonds are a major agricultural commodity in California and optimal irrigation management is important for production, protecting the environment, and long term water resources planning. While evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are widely used for water resource planning, it is used less for "realtime" irrigation management for several reasons. One problem is the lack of confidence in the crop coefficient (Kc) values that are used with reference ET (ETo) to estimate well-watered crop ET (ETc). This is especially true for orchard crops. Until recently, the Kc values used to estimate the ETc of most orchard crops in California were derived using measurements of applied water, runoff, and soil water content depletion with the assumption that the trees were transpiring at a rate that was not restricted by water availability. For decades, a typical midseason Kc value used for clean-cultivated almond orchards was 0.90. Recently, a study was conducted by the University of California and the California Department of Water Resources to improve the Kc estimates for almond orchards; helping growers improve their on-farm water management for better production and less adverse impacts on the environment. Field experiments were conducted in four locations (Butte, Fresno, Kern, and Tehama Counties) spanning 1000 km north to south within the Central Valley of California over somewhat different climates. California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather stations were used with the ASCE-EWRI standardized reference evapotranspiration equation for short canopies to determine ETo. Latent heat flux (LE), in all four orchards, was estimated using the residual of the energy balance equation: LE=Rn-G-H from measured net radiation (Rn), ground heat flux (G), and sensible heat flux (H) using surface renewal and eddy covariance measurements. The LE was divided by the latent heat of vaporization (L) to determine ETc. In three years of measurements in Kern County, the data

  6. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2011-08-01

    Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips.

  7. Whole genome sequencing analyses of Listeria monocytogenes that persisted in a milkshake machine for a year and caused illnesses in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhen; P?rez-Osorio, Ailyn; Wang, Yu; Eckmann, Kaye; Glover, William A.; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; Chen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2015, in addition to a United States multistate outbreak linked to contaminated ice cream, another outbreak linked to ice cream was reported in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It was a hospital-acquired outbreak linked to milkshakes, made from contaminated ice cream mixes and milkshake maker, served to patients. Here we performed multiple analyses on isolates associated with this outbreak: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole genome single nucleotide polymo...

  8. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Potential in Nectarine Orchards under Different Reclamation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixiang WANG; Boqi WENG; Jing YE; Chengji WANG; Cenwei LIU; Yanchun LI

    2017-01-01

    The Red Soil Hilly Region in South China,where there is a high capacity of carbon (C),and the land use and vegetation cover change greatly,is an important ecological area in the world,and has an important impact on the global carbon cycle and the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric CO2.To better evaluate the effects of reclamation systems in orchards converted from grasslands on soil carbon sequestration,we investigated soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stable C isotope (δ13C) composition in three nectarine orchards at Yuchi Experimental Station in South China.Compared with the sloping clean tillage orchard and terraced clean tillage orchard,SOC content in the terraced orchard with grass cover was increased by 14.90% to 38.49%,and 7.40% to15.33%,respectively.During the 14 years after orchard establishment,the soil organic matter sources influenced both δ13C distribution with depth and carbon replacement.SOC turnover of the upper soil layer in the terraced orchard with grass cover (a mean 63.05% of replacement in the 20 cm after 14 years) was 1.59 and 1.41 times larger than that of the sloping clean tillage orchard and terraced clean tillage orchard under subtropical conditions,respectively.The equilibrium value of soil organic carbon in the three treatments ranged from 16.067 to 25.608 g/kg under the experimental conditions.The equilibrium value of soil organic carbon in the surface layer under grass cover was 54.801 t/hm2,and the carbon sequestration potential was 24.695 1 t/hm2.

  9. George Washington: A Grounded Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highway, Suite 1204·, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC......a broad array of experiences, enabled him to become a leader who profoundly affected those around him. George Washington reflected a man of the

  10. Dinâmica populacional e evolução de dano de Triozoida limbata (Hemiptera: Psillydae em goiabeira, em Jaboticabal, SP Population dynamic and evolution of damage of Triozoida limbata (Hem.: Psillydae in guava orchard in Jaboticabal city, State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Colombi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, conhecer a dinâmica populacional de Triozoida limbata em um pomar de goiaba submetido ao uso mínimo de inseticida no município de Jaboticabal - SP. Para o estudo da flutuação populacional e a evolução do dano do psilídeo foram analisadas quinzenalmente vinte plantas do pomar, no período de março de 2005 a junho de 2006. Para cada planta foram avaliadas dez folhas contendo o sintoma do ataque do psilídeo. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o número de ninfas e a porcentagem de dano causado nas folhas, de acordo com uma escala de notas. Esses parâmetros foram analisados em histogramas e correlacionados com os fatores meteorológicos. A densidade populacional do psilídeo aumentou com o surgimento das brotações e apresentou uma correlação positiva com a temperatura. O dano do psilídeo acompanhou a densidade populacional da praga. As maiores densidades populacionais de psilídeo ocorrem nos meses de setembro a novembro; e as menores entre os meses de maio a julho.The present work aimed at learning the population dynamic of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein, 1918 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in a guava orchard submitted to the minimum use of insecticide in Jaboticabal - SP. For the study of population fluctuation and the evolution of damage from the psillid we analyzed 20 plants of the orchard biweekly, during the period from March 2005 to June 2006. For each plant we evaluated 10 leaves containing the symptom of the attack from the psillid. The evaluated parameters were the number of nymphs and the percentage of damage caused in the leaves, in accordance with a scale of notes. These parameters were analyzed in histograms and correlated to the meteorological factors. The population density of the psillid increased considerably with the approach of the spring and presented a positive correlation with the temperature. The level of damage of the psillid accompanied the population density of the pest. According to

  11. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes: orchard meadows in Germany (1968-2009.

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    Tobias Plieninger

    Full Text Available Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts.

  12. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  13. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  14. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  15. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  16. Narrative report : January thru April, 1960. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  18. NWHL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lead poisoning was demonstrated to occur in Canada geese using Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge during the 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program. Necropsies...

  19. Narrative report : September thru December, 1960. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  20. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : January thru April, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : May thru August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : May through August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by...

  3. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : May through August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Narrative report : September thru December, 1961. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  6. Narrative report : January through April, 1962. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Narrative report : September thru December, 1958. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  8. Narrative report : May 1, thru August 31, 1960. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Narrative report : May through August, 1963. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Narrative report : May 1 thru August 31, 1962. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Narrative report : January thru April, 1961. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Narrative report : May thru August, 1961. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeire, Theresa M; Davis, Frank W; Duggan, Jennifer M; Crooks, Kevin R; Boydston, Erin E

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  14. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014-Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Crab Orchard Wildlife Refuge for the CY 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID software and...

  15. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  16. Narrative report : January through April, 1963. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calender year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calender year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calender year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : January thru April, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Water Management Plan : Fiscal Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this...

  2. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Crab Orchard Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  3. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  5. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. Narrative report : September 1 thru December 31, 1962. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. Wildlife- including...

  7. Infestation dynamics of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in citrus orchards as affected by edaphic and climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Francisco Ferraz; Silva, Suely Xavier de Brito; de Andrade, Eduardo Chumbinho; Almeida, Décio de Oliveira; da Silva, Tibério Santos Martins; Soares, Ana Cristina Fermino; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2015-08-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous mite that transmits important phytoviruses, such as coffee ringspot virus, passion fruit green spot virus and Citrus leprosis virus C. To characterise the dynamics of the probability and the rate of B. phoenicis infestation in response to edaphic and climatic factors, monthly inspections were performed in nine orchards in a citrus region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, for 35 months. Three fruits per plant were examined using a magnifying glass (10×) on 21 plants distributed along a "W"-shaped path in each orchard. Meteorological data were collected from a conventional station. To determine the correlations among the climatic variables, the data were analysed using Spearman correlations. Variables were selected by principal component analysis, and those that contributed the most to differentiate the groups were evaluated via a Mann-Whitney test. Using the quantile-quantile method, the limit values for the following climatic variables were determined: temperature (24.5 °C), photoperiod (12 h), relative humidity (83%), evapotranspiration (71 mm) and rainy days (14 days). The combination of longer days, higher temperatures, lower relative humidity levels and lower evapotranspiration increased the probability of B. phoenicis infestation, whereas successive rain events decreased that risk. Infestation rates were negatively affected by relative humidity levels above 83% and were positively affected by a decreasing available soil-water fraction and increasing insolation and photoperiod.

  8. Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Occurrence, Fungal Associations, and Management Trials in New York Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Arthur M; Breth, Deborah I; Tee, Elizabeth M; Cox, Kerik D; Villani, Sara M; Ayer, Katrin M; Wallis, Anna E; Donahue, Daniel J; Combs, David B; Davis, Abagail E; Neal, Joshua A; English-Loeb, Forrest M

    2017-10-01

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) has caused increasing damage in high-density New York apple orchards since 2013, resulting in tree decline and death. We documented their occurrence and timing in > 50 orchards using ethanol-baited traps from 2014 to 2016. First captures ranged from 48 to 83 degree days (base 10 °C) from 1 January. Captures were numerically higher at the orchard-woods interface than within the orchard interior, but differences were not significant in locations with lower populations. Control using insecticide trunk sprays was tested in potted, waterlogged apple trees placed in orchards and nurseries, and inside wooded areas adjacent to orchards. A verbenone repellent was used in combination with trunk sprays to improve control. Overall, insecticide sprays were inconsistent and marginal in preventing new infestations. Chlorpyrifos significantly reduced infestations versus lambda-cyhalothrin and untreated trees at one location in the 2015 orchard trials, and versus untreated trees at one location in the 2016 nursery trials, but otherwise performed no better than other treatments. The addition of verbenone to either the check or permethrin treatments resulted in significantly fewer attack sites containing brood at one orchard site in 2016. Chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin significantly reduced the number of attack sites containing adults compared with untreated trees at one nursery trial location in 2016, but were otherwise ineffective in reducing numbers of trees in other locations and infestation categories. We found several fungal and bacterial species associated with X. germanus and its infestation of apples. These microbes likely play a minimal role in apple decline. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmati, M; Gh. Davarynejad; M. Bannayan Awal; Azizi, M

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta) under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress), 180 (moderate stress) and 90 (severe stress) m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potenti...

  10. Preventing and Coping with School Violence. A Resource Manual for Washington School Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Education Association, Federal Way.

    This handbook was designed to serve as a resource guide for Washington State school employees. It provides a beginning framework for addressing violence in schools, districts, and communities. It outlines Washington State laws regarding school violence, suggests curriculum resources for preventing violent acts and dealing constructively with…

  11. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

    2013-02-01

    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management.

  12. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  13. Estimated Water Use in Washington, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Water use in the State of Washington has evolved in the past century from meager domestic and stock water needs to the current complex requirements of domestic-water users, large irrigation projects, industrial plants, and numerous other uses such as fish habitat and recreational activities. Since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has, at 5-year intervals, compiled data on the amount of water used in homes, businesses, industries, and on farms throughout the State. This water-use data, combined with other related USGS information, has facilitated a unique understanding of the effects of human activity on the State's water resources. As water availability continues to emerge as an important issue in the 21st century, the need for consistent, long-term water-use data will increase to support wise use of this essential natural resource. This report presents state and county estimates of the amount of public- and self-supplied water used for domestic, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power purposes in the State of Washington during 2005. Offstream fresh-water use was estimated to be 5,780 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Domestic water use was estimated to be 648 Mgal/d or 11 percent of the total. Irrigation water use was estimated to be 3,520 Mgal/d, or 61 percent of the total. Industrial fresh-water use was estimated to be 520 Mgal/d, or 9 percent of the total. These three categories accounted for about 81 percent (4,690 Mgal/d) of the total of the estimated offstream freshwater use in Washington during 2005.

  14. Whole genome sequencing analyses of Listeria monocytogenes that persisted in a milkshake machine for a year and caused illnesses in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn; Wang, Yu; Eckmann, Kaye; Glover, William A; Allard, Marc W; Brown, Eric W; Chen, Yi

    2017-06-15

    In 2015, in addition to a United States multistate outbreak linked to contaminated ice cream, another outbreak linked to ice cream was reported in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It was a hospital-acquired outbreak linked to milkshakes, made from contaminated ice cream mixes and milkshake maker, served to patients. Here we performed multiple analyses on isolates associated with this outbreak: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, species-specific core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST), lineage-specific cgMLST and whole genome-specific MLST (wgsMLST)/outbreak-specific cgMLST. We also analyzed the prophages and virulence genes. The outbreak isolates belonged to sequence type 1038, clonal complex 101, genetic lineage II. There were no pre-mature stop codons in inlA. Isolates contained Listeria Pathogenicity Island 1 and multiple internalins. PFGE and multiple whole genome sequencing (WGS) analyses all clustered together food, environmental and clinical isolates when compared to outgroup from the same clonal complex, which supported the finding that L. monocytogenes likely persisted in the soft serve ice cream/milkshake maker from November 2014 to November 2015 and caused 3 illnesses, and that the outbreak strain was transmitted between two ice cream production facilities. The whole genome SNP analysis, one of the two species-specific cgMLST, the lineage II-specific cgMLST and the wgsMLST/outbreak-specific cgMLST showed that L. monocytogenes cells persistent in the milkshake maker for a year formed a unique clade inside the outbreak cluster. This clustering was consistent with the cleaning practice after the outbreak was initially recognized in late 2014 and early 2015. Putative prophages were conserved among prophage-containing isolates. The loss of a putative prophage in two isolates resulted in the loss of the AscI restriction site in the prophage, which contributed to their Asc

  15. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  16. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bryophytes on Bramley’s Seedling trees in East of England apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Whitelaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic bryophytes on apple trees were investigated in relation to a selection of tree characteristics. Management of orchard trees for fruit production affects the habitats available for colonisation and growth of epiphytes on trunks and branches. Bryophytes recorded on Bramley’s Seedling apple trees in orchards in Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire showed a high level of similarity in species composition between the orchards. The similarity between orchards was, however, much reduced when relative species cover on the trees was taken into account. Twenty three species were recorded on the 71 trees sampled for detailed investigation. Tree structure, as determined by management, explained about 10% of the observed variation in bryophyte cover. Within that, trunk girth and distance to nearest neighbouring orchard trees were the most important factors. This information is of value to orchard managers aiming to become more proactive in managing their habitats for the benefit of biodiversity.

  17. Forest statistics for northeast Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Hazard

    1963-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of six northeast Washington counties: Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman. The collection of field data was made during the years 1957 to 1961 in three separate inventory projects.

  18. Design of integrated hydrologic, hydrodynamic, and biogeophysical modeling studies for the Skagit River basin in Washington State and prospects for implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Khangaonkar, T. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Skagit River basin supplies the largest freshwater input to the Puget Sound in western WA and is an important economic and cultural resource in WA state and the Pacific Northwest region as a whole. Hydrologic variability and extremes (floods and low flows) in the Skagit and associated water temperature and sediment source and transport regimes are profoundly affected by climate (temperature, precipitation, snow cover) and land cover (urbanization, vegetation cover, and loss of glaciers). Flood inundation, salinity, and sediment deposition and transport are also expected to be substantially affected by sea level rise. Biological systems (salmon, steelhead, tidal marshland, shellfish, etc.) will respond to these complex and interlinking effects in ways that are only partly understood at the current time. In this talk we discuss the design of proposed integrated research combining observed (and projected future) data characterizing basin climate, land cover, and river channel and estuary characteristics with sophisticated physically based simulation models of hydrologic, water management, hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, and biological (riverine and intertidal) elements of the basin. Although the costs of fully integrated studies are very high (which is an obstacle to implementation) we have assembled an integrated research team and are currently seeking long term funding to carry out a fully integrated assessment of the effects of changing regional climate on glacial recession, river flow, flood inundation, water temperature, salinity, sediment generation and transport processes and related biochemical and ecosystem function in the Skagit River basin and estuary for both the 20th century (1916-2006) and future scenarios for the 21st century. The results of these integrated studies will provide crucial inputs to a wide range of related investigations, including ongoing ecological studies in the Skagit estuary and delta related to habitat restoration efforts

  19. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  20. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  1. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the agricultural management of citrus orchard in the Valencia region in E Spain, is changing from traditionally irrigated and managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. It is not known what is the effect of such changes on soil quality and hope to shed some light with this study on this transition. It is known that the drip-irrigated orchards built in sloping terrain increase soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009; Li et al., 2014) and that agricultural management such as catch crops and mulches reduce sediment yield and surface runoff (Xu et al., 2012; ), as in other orchards around the world (Wang et al., 2010; Wanshnong et al., 2013; Li et al., 2014; Hazarika et al., 2014): We hypothesize that these changes have an important impact on the soil chemical and physical properties. Therefor we studied the soil quality of 12 citrus orchards, which had different land and irrigation management techniques. We compared organic (OR) and conventional (CO) land management with either drip irrigation (DRP) or flood irrigation (FLD). Soil samples at two depths, 0-1 cm and 5-10 cm, were taken for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. These parameters included soil chemical parameters, bulk density, texture, soil surface shear strength and soil aggregation. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other 6 were conventionally managed, and for each of these 6 study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots (FLD) and the other three drip irrigated systems (DRP) In total 108 soil samples were taken as well additional irrigation water samples. We will present the results of this study with regard to the impact of the studied irrigation systems and land management systems with regard to soil quality. This knowledge might help in improving citrus orchard management with respect to maintaining or improving soil quality to ensure sustainable agricultural practices. References Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and

  2. The fifth International Geological Congress, Washington, 1891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 5th International Geological Congress (IGC), the initial meeting in North America, was the first of the three IGCs that have been held in the United States of America (USA). Of the 538 registrants alive when the 5th IGC convened in Washington, 251 persons, representing fifteen countries, actually attended the meeting. These participants included 173 people from the USA, of whom forty-two represented the US Geological Survey (USGS). Fourteen of the US State geological surveys sent representatives to Washington. Eight participants came from other countries in the Western Hemisphere - Canada (3), Chile (1), Mexico (3), and Peru (1). The sixty-six European geologists and naturalists at the 5th IGC represented Austro-Hungary (3), Belgium (3), Britain (12), France (7), Germany (23), Norway (1), Romania (3), Russia (8), Sweden (4), and Switzerland (2). The USGS and the Columbian College (now the George Washington University) acted as the principal hosts. The American Association for the Advancement of Science and then the Geological Society of America (GSA) met in the Capital immediately before the Congress convened (26 August-1 September 1891). The 5th IGC's formal discussions treated the genetic classification of Pleistocene rocks, the chronological correlation of clastic rocks, and the international standardization of colors, symbols, and names used on geologic maps. The third of those topics continued key debates at the 1st through 4th IGCs. The GSA, the Korean Embassy, the Smithsonian Institution's US National Museum, the USGS, and one of the two Secretaries-General hosted evening receptions. Field excursions examined Paleozoic exposures in New York (18-25 August), Cretaceous-Pleistocene localities along the Potomac River south of Washington (30 August), and classic Precambrian-Pleistocene sequences and structures in the Great Plains, Yellowstone, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin (2-26 September), with optional trips to the Grand Canyon (19-28 September) and Lake

  3. Spray Irrigation Effects on Surface-Layer Stability in an Experimental Citrus Orchard during Winter Freezes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Martsolf, J. David

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Gainesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface-layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. It was found that surface-layer lapse rates were lower during irrigation periods than under similar conditions when irrigation was not occurring, indicating a greater degree of vertical mixing of surface-layer air with air from above treetops, as a result of local convective overturning induced by the condensation heating of water vapor released at the nozzles of the sprinklers. This provides an additional explanation to the well-accepted heat of fusion release effect, of how undertree irrigation of a citrus orchard during a freeze period helps protect crops

  4. Wildflower Plantings Do Not Compete With Neighboring Almond Orchards for Pollinator Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Ward, Kimiora L; Artz, Derek R; Boyle, Natalie K; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Williams, Neal M

    2017-06-01

    The engineering of flowering agricultural field borders has emerged as a research and policy priority to mitigate threats to pollinators. Studies have, however, rarely addressed the potential that flowering field borders might compete with neighboring crops for pollinator visits if they both are in bloom at the same time, despite this being a concern expressed by growers. We evaluated how wildflower plantings added to orchard borders in a large (512 ha) commercial almond orchard affected honey bee and wild bee visitation to orchard borders and the crop. The study was conducted over two consecutive seasons using three large (0.48 ha) wildflower plantings paired with control orchard borders in a highly simplified agricultural landscape in California. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and wild bee visitation to wildflower plots were at least an order of magnitude higher than to control plots, but increased honey bee visitation to wildflower plots did not lead to any detectable shifts in honey bee visitation to almond flowers in the neighboring orchard. Wild bees were rarely observed visiting almond flowers irrespective of border treatment, indicating a limited short-term potential for augmenting crop pollination using wild bees in highly simplified agricultural landscapes. Although further studies are warranted on bee visitation and crop yield from spatially independent orchards, this study indicates that growers can support bees with alternative forage in almond orchards without risking competition between the wildflower plantings and the crop. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilszczańska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum Vittad., has become a new agricultural alternative in Poland. For rural economies, the concept of landscaping is often considerably more beneficial than conventional agriculture and promotes reforestation, as well as land-use stability. Considering examples from France, Italy, Hungary and Spain, truffle cultivation stimulates economic and social development of small, rural communities. Because there is no long tradition of truffle orchards in Poland, knowledge regarding the environmental factors regulating the formation of fruiting bodies of T. aestivum is limited. Thus, knowledge concerning ectomycorrhizal communities of T. aestivum host species is crucial to ensuring successful Burgundy truffle production. We investigated the persistence of T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae on roots of hazel (Corylus avellana L. and oak (Quercus robur L. and checked the host-species influence on community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The study was conducted in an experimental plantation located in eastern Poland and established in 2008. We demonstrated that the number of fungal taxa was not significantly different between oak and hazel. However, the species composition differed between these two host trees. During the three-year study, we observed that species richness did not increase with the age of the plantation.

  6. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    ground and is an important area for waterfowl, long-billed curlew, grouse, grasshopper sparrow, and the white-tailed jackrabbit. Much of the natural...fetotoxicity, and mutagenicity (diquat has been shown to increase DNA synthesis in human cell cul- tures). Public exposure should be limited to the...Pesticide induced DNA damage and its repair in cultured human cells. Mutation Research, 42, pp. 161-174. - Harto R. W. ettal., 1977, In Vitro Assessment

  7. 76 FR 27848 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...The Department of Agriculture is adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that added an exemption to the marketing order for Oregon-Washington pears that provides for the sale of fresh pears directly to consumers without regard to regulation. For each customer, the interim rule provided an exemption for consumer- direct sales of up to 220 pounds of fresh pears per transaction, for home use only, made directly at orchards, packing facilities, roadside stands, or farmers' markets without regard to the marketing order's assessment, reporting, handling, and inspection requirements. This action is intended to provide increased marketing flexibility to small pear handlers, while facilitating the sale of fresh, local pears directly to consumers.

  8. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  9. The effects of cultural practice methods on fruit orchard rehabilitation after flooding crisis in Songkhla province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaweerawan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To rehabilitate the fruit orchards exposed to flooding crisis that occurred in year 2000 in Songkhla province, an investigation of the effects of cultural practice methods was done in the farmers’ orchards at 2 experimental sites (at Tumbol Kho Hong and Tumbol Kuan Lang, Amphur Hat Yai. The first site, at Tumbol Kho Hong, was mixed cropping (durian, longkong and mangosteen. The second site, at Tumbol Kuan Lang, was a monocrop of pummelo orchard. The experiment was comprised a stratified sampling method with 3 treatments: 1 control, 2 fertilization (15-15-15, 8-24-24 and 13-13-21 and soil improvement with humic acid (S and 3 foliar application (glucose was applied with 16-12-0+micronutrients+extracted seaweed and 7-13-34+12.5Zn+extracted seaweed+Ca-B spraying with fertilization and soil improvement (F+S. The results from the both experimental sites showed that the F+S treatment exhibited the best result. This promoted the plant growth and yield of fruit trees. In addition, the other orchards surrounding the experimental sites were surveyed. It was noticeable that fruit trees grown in raising-beds could recover and exhibit normal fruit bearing. This pointed out that the impact of flooding on fruit orchards would be possibly alleviated by a drainage system.

  10. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-09-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios. PMID:24638986

  12. Deep subsoiling of a subsurface-compacted typical hapludult under citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil management practices which increase the root depth penetration of citrus are important to the longevity and yield maintenance of this plant, especially in regions where long periods of drought are common, even in soil conventionally subsoiled to a depth of 30-40 cm, when the orchard was first established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of subsoiling on the physical and hydric properties of a Typical Hapludult and fruit yield in a 14-year-old citrus orchard located in Piracicaba, SP. The treatments consisted of: no-subsoiling (with no tilling of the soil after the orchard was planted; subsoiling on one side of the plant lines (SUB. 1; and subsoiling on both sides of the plant lines (SUB. 2. The subsoiling treatments were carried out 1.5 m from the plant lines and to a depth of 0.8 m. Soil samples were taken 120 days after this operation, at four depths, in order to determine physical and hydric properties. Fruit yield was evaluated 150 days after subsoiling. Subsoiling between the plant lines of an old established citrus orchard alters the physical and hydric properties of the soil, which is reflected in increased soil macroporosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and reduced soil bulk density, critical degree-of-compactness and penetration resistance. The improvements in the physical and hydric properties of the soil were related to an increase in fruit number and orchard yield.

  13. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  14. 美國華盛頓州一所小學多元文化課程實施之個案研究 A Case Study on the Multicultural Curriculum Practices of an Elementary School in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    洪麗卿 Li-Ching Hung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在探究目前美國華盛頓州一所小學國小階段多元文化教育課程之實施情形,以轉化為臺灣實施多元文化課程之建議參考。本研究運用學校民族誌以美國華盛頓州西雅圖學區一所具移民族群多樣性之K-5公立小學為研究場域進行八個月的田野研究,藉由參與觀察、深入訪談和文件分析等方法蒐集資料。研究發現有三:一、個案學校採用多元、去中心化、建構的課程提供課程解放和文化回應空間;二、個案學校之多元文化教育融入課程偏重轉化模式;三、學生主體意識的開展立基於學生參與班級經營和民主教育的扎根。最後,根據研究發現提出對臺灣國小階段多元文化課程實施之啟示。 This study aimed at exploring the implementation of a multicultural curriculum in an elementary public school in Washington State in the United States. The study involved an ethnographic case study of one K-5 elementary public school with a high degree of ethnic diversity among its students. The researcher spent 8 months engaging in the field. Multiple methods of data collection, including participant observation, data analysis, and interviews, were applied. The findings of the study are as follows: First, pluralistic, ecentralized, constructive curricular consciousness provided wiggle room for curriculum deliberation and cultural response. Second, a transformative approach to the integration of multicultural content into the curriculum was frequently used in the case school. Finally, the development of students’ subjective consciousness was achieved by focusing students’ participation on class management and democratic education. The paper provides three suggestions for the promotion of multicultural education and the improvement of multicultural curriculum practices in the Taiwan context.

  15. Booker T. Washington's Educational Contributions to Contemporary Practices of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Booker T. Washington's educational contributions to contemporary practices of sustainable development. In particular, the article looks at Washington's contributions in the areas of economic sustainability and entrepreneurship, character development, and aesthetics. As states continue to contemplate and evaluate the value of…

  16. Integrated Digital English Acceleration (I-DEA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington state has a large and rapidly growing foreign-born population. In 2011, immigrants made up 16.5 percent of Washington's civilian employed workforce, up from 7.1 percent in 1990. These new arrivals create jobs by forming businesses, spending income in local economies and raising employers' productivity. Thanks to project I-DEA…

  17. Forest health monitoring in California, Oregon, and Washington: results and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Busing

    2000-01-01

    From 1992 to 1997, standardized plots were established at about 500 sites in California, Oregon, and Washington as part of the national Forest Health Monitoring program. In California, 197 plots were established from 1992 to 1995; in Oregon and Washington, a total of 304 plots were established in 1997. Summarization of baseline data by state reveals similarities and...

  18. Forest fire weather and computed fire occurrence in western Oregon and western Washington in 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1960-01-01

    Fire season severity in 1960 was about average in western Washington but was very high in western Oregon. Severity of the entire season in both States was slightly greater than in 1959. Although spring was less severe, both summer and fall were slightly more severe than comparable parts of the previous fire season. Spring fire danger in western Washington was as low as...

  19. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  20. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  1. Differences in leaf litter, ascospore production and infection of pear scab (Venturia pirina) in Dutch organic orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.G.H.; Jansonius, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011 the amounts of leaf litter and ascospore production per unit of leaf litter area in 7 organic pear orchards throughout the Netherlands were measured. In one of the orchards, adapted managements strategies were implemented, being grass/clover that is grown as ground cover on the

  2. Progress report: effects of fertilization on vegetative growth and early flowering and fruiting of seed orchard black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Dorn; L. R. Auchmoody

    1974-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedling seed orchards are now being established on the Allegheny and Monongahela National Forests (Fig. 1). It has been estimated that ten to twenty years may be required from the time that a seed orchard is established until it begins to produce large quantities of seed. Therefore, anything that could be done to...

  3. Compatibility of breeding for increased wood production and longterm sustainability: the genetic variation of seed orchard seed and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Johnson; S. Lipow

    2002-01-01

    Because breeding imposes strong artificial selection for a narrow suite of economically important traits, genetic variation is reduced in seedlings derived from operational seed orchards. Both quantitative genetics theory and studies of allozyme variation show that seed orchards contain most of the genetic diversity found in natural populations, although low-frequency...

  4. Scolytinae in hazelnut orchards of Turkey: clarification of species and identification key (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Celal; Knizek, Milos; Hulcr, Juri

    2017-01-01

    Hazelnut, a very important cash crop in Turkey, is frequently colonized by bark and ambrosia beetle species (Scolytinae). Some scolytine species may cause economic damage while other species do not; therefore, proper identification is important in orchard management. Extensive sampling demonstrated that the most common pest species in Turkey's hazelnut orchards are Anisandrus dispar, Xylosandrus germanus, and Xyleborinus saxesenii. Hypothenemus eruditus can also be common, but only colonizes branches that are already dead. Lymantor coryli, Hypoborus ficus, Taphrorychus ramicola, and Taphrorychus hirtellus are rare and do not causes damage to live plants. Xyleborinus saxesenii appears to have been frequently misidentified and misreported as either L. coryli or Xyleborus xylographus. The former is rare, and the latter probably does not occur in Turkey. To avoid future misidentifications, a dichotomous identification key is provided for bark and ambrosia beetles of hazelnut orchards in Turkey.

  5. Scolytinae in hazelnut orchards of Turkey: clarification of species and identification key (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Tuncer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnut, a very important cash crop in Turkey, is frequently colonized by bark and ambrosia beetle species (Scolytinae. Some scolytine species may cause economic damage while other species do not; therefore, proper identification is important in orchard management. Extensive sampling demonstrated that the most common pest species in Turkey’s hazelnut orchards are Anisandrus dispar, Xylosandrus germanus, and Xyleborinus saxesenii. Hypothenemus eruditus can also be common, but only colonizes branches that are already dead. Lymantor coryli, Hypoborus ficus, Taphrorychus ramicola, and Taphrorychus hirtellus are rare and do not causes damage to live plants. Xyleborinus saxesenii appears to have been frequently misidentified and misreported as either L. coryli or Xyleborus xylographus. The former is rare, and the latter probably does not occur in Turkey. To avoid future misidentifications, a dichotomous identification key is provided for bark and ambrosia beetles of hazelnut orchards in Turkey.

  6. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  7. Study and identification of dominant Rodents of orchards and farms in West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalilaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 34 individuals (24♂♂10♀♀ were collected from apple orchards, alfalfa fields of Urmia, Salmas, Khoy, Makoo, Miyandoab, Shahindej and Tekab of West Azerbaijan. Different methods as live traps, snap traps and hand were used to collect samples. Morphology, skull and karyotype of live specimens were used for identification of species. Some samples got taxidermy as Museum samples. All samples were belonged to Microtus. Among 53 world species, two species M. arvalis and M. socialis are hazardous in orchards and alfalfa fields of West Azerbaijan province. Two species of Microtus were collected from Salmas and Tekab. Those were new records for this region that are in the process of identification. Ellobius and Mus musculus is the other damaging genera in the orchards and the fields near the mountains and fields.

  8. Tourist orchards: an opportunity for sustainable development tourism in Romanian traditional fruit growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian traditional fruit growing areas are spaces that, given the transition from a centralized economy to a market economy, have accumulated multiple dysfunctions, whose solving requires the identification of viable solutions, matching local potential and preserving traditional specificity at the same time. The article analyzes how the tourist orchard model, developed successfully in China could be implemented in Romanian traditional fruit growing areas. Also the evolution of the Chinese tourist orchard is presented, highlighting the stages of its development and paying special attention to the current stage that witnesses the solid consolidation of the extant niche of tourist orchards, as part of the Chinese tourism. This consolidation has led to several large metropolitan areas (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in China standing out on the international market.

  9. Effects of capacity constraints on the motion pattern of an autonomous orchard sprayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, D.D.; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Orchard farming operations are very promising for automated systems implementation due to the semi-controlled environment that they are executed. Researches on autonomous orchard vehicles have been madden from many research teams the last years. Although, there is a lot of work that has been done...... which computes the routes that the vehicle has to follow as well as the optimal locations of the facilities in order to minimize the total operation's time. An autonomous tractor was used as the test platform. For the off-line testing of the planned operations as well as for the evaluation...... concerning the navigation of these vehicles, there is a lack of efficient mission planning for the operations that they execute. In this paper, orchard operations with capacity restrictions, such us spraying operation, are studied. For this kind of operations, a combinatorial optimization method is used...

  10. A monitoring study to assess the acute mortality effects of indoxacarb on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in flowering apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Dinter, A.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the indoxacarb 300 g kg-1 WG, Steward 30WDGTM, on the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in apple orchards, a monitoring study was conducted in Dutch apple orchards in April/May 2004. Before apple flowering began, two honey bee colonies were placed in each orchard to investigate

  11. FERTILITY VARIATION of Melaleuca cajuput subspcajuputi AND ITS IMPLICATION IN SEED ORCHARD MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khomsah Kartikawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information about fertility variation of flowering trees in seed orchard including determining the quality of seed production and estimating the genetic diversity are still lacking. This paper evaluates fertility variation, effective population size and genetic diversity among cajuput trees in seedling seed orchard at Paliyan, Gunungkidul for optimizing seed orchard management. A total of 160 trees were observed in three flowering periods of 2011-2013. The fertility based on the number of flowers and fruits were registered for each tree at the age of 12, 13 and 14 years. Results show that there are similar patterns of fertility after three years observation. Sibling coefficients (Ψ which show fertility variation during three flowering periods are 1.39, 1.25 and 1.43 respectively. They show deviation from random mating, because of individual imbalance for producing flowers and fruits. However, the number of fertile trees was comparatively higher at 2011. More than 15 families of effective population size were recorded each year and supported more than 75% individuals in seed orchard to contribute flowers and seeds. High value of genetic diversity was calculated based on fertility variation (0.965, 0.967 and 0.957, respectively. Fertility variation led to consequence on seed deployment, including seeds of fertile families which should be collected equally and mixed to compose equal proportion of seeds and to avoid domination of highly fertility families and genetic drift. Silvicultural treatments in seed orchard management were indispensable to promote fertility uniformity and to increase effective population size in seed orchard for obtaining maximal genetic gain.

  12. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  13. [Carbon Source Utilization Characteristics of Soil Microbial Community for Apple Orchard with Interplanting Herbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-fei; Fang, Kai-kai; Wang, Zhi-kang; Li, Hui-ke; Mao, Peng-juan; Zhang, Xiang-xu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    As soil fertility in apple orchard with clean tillage is declined continuously, interplanting herbage in orchard, which is a new orchard management model, plays an important role in improving orchard soil conditions. By using biolog micro-plate technique, this paper studied the functional diversity of soil microbial community under four species of management model in apple orchards, including clear tillage model, interplanting white clover model, interplanting small crown flower model and interplanting cocksfoot model, and the carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial community were explored, which could provide a reference for revealing driving mechanism of ecological process of orchard soil. The results showed that the functional diversity of microbial community had a significant difference among different treatments and in the order of white clover > small crown flower > cocksfoot > clear tillage. The correlation analysis showed that the average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index were all highly significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, and Shannon index was significantly positively correlated with soil pH. The principal component analysis and the fingerprints of the physiological carbon metabolism of the microbial community demonstrated that grass treatments improved carbon source metabolic ability of soil microbial community, and the soil microbes with perennial legumes (White Clover and small crown flower) had a significantly higher utilization rate in carbohydrates (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, D-Mannitol, β-Methyl-D-Glucoside), amino acids (Glycyl-L-Glutamic acid, L-Serine, L-Threonine) and polymers (Tween 40, Glycogen) than the soil microbes with clear tillage. It was considered that different treatments had the unique microbial community structure and peculiar carbon source utilization characteristics.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  15. 75 FR 71139 - Land Acquisitions; Puyallup Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., lying Northerly of Primary State Highway No. 1. Except 62nd Avenue East. PARCEL B: (0420067016..., Township 20 North, Range 4 East of the W.M., in Pierce County, Washington, lying South of the South line of...

  16. 78 FR 67027 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... vehicular traffic attending football games at Husky Stadium at the University of Washington, Seattle... football traffic. Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520) provides three navigational openings... television scheduling, the time for the game is not currently available. The deviation allows the floating...

  17. 1954 forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1954-01-01

    For the second successive fire season forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington was far below normal severity. The low danger is reflected in record low numbers of fires reported by forestry offices of both States and by the U. S. Forest Service for their respective protection areas. Although spring and fall fire weather was near normal, a rain-producing...

  18. 1955 forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1955-01-01

    While fire-weather severity remained low for the third successive year in western Washington, 1955 brought near normal fire weather to western Oregon for the first time since 1952. Temperatures were cooler than normal throughout the season in both half States, with record or near record lows for April, May, and July. April, July, and October were unusually rainy while...

  19. Libraries in Washington: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/washington.html Libraries in Washington To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Bellingham PeaceHealth St. Joseph Medical Center Library 2901 Squalicum Parkway Bellingham, WA 98225 360-788- ...

  20. Multivariate analysis applied to the study of the relationship between soil and plant properties in a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos Silva Terra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, the municipality of Pelotas is responsible for 90 % of peach production due to its suitable climate and soil conditions. However, there is the need for new studies that aim at improved fruit quality and increased yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship that exists between soil physical properties and properties in the peach plant in the years 2010 and 2011 by the technique of multivariate canonical correlation. The experiment was conducted in a peach orchard located in the municipality of Morro Redondo, RS, Brazil, where an experimental grid of 101 plants was established. In a trench dug beside each one of the 101 plants, soil samples were collected to determine silt, clay, and sand contents, soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, and volumetric water content in the 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers, as well as the depth of the A horizon. In each plant and in each year, the following properties were assessed: trunk diameter, fruit size and number of fruits per plant, average weight of the fruit per plant, fruit pulp firmness, Brix content, and yield from the orchard. Exploratory analysis of the data was undertaken by descriptive statistics, and the relationships between the physical properties of the soil and of the plant were assessed by canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that the clay and microporosity variables were those that exhibited the highest coefficients of canonical cross-loading with the plant properties in the soil layers assessed, and that the variable of mean weight of the fruit per plant was that which had the highest coefficients of canonical loading within the plant group for the two years assessed.