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Sample records for washington metropolitan area

  1. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  2. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  3. Fear of Crime among an Immigrant Population in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackah, Yaw

    2000-01-01

    Studied fear of crime among Ghanaian immigrants in the Washington, D.C. area, taking aspects of Ghanaian culture into account. Survey responses of 300 immigrants showed that the majority of the Ghanaian immigrants experienced fear of crime, but those who had been urban residents in Ghana were less fearful, probably because they were already…

  4. A cluster analytic examination of acculturation and health status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC metropolitan area, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range:-1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  5. Information through Cooperative Action Library Services in Metropolitan Washington. Annual Report, 1975-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn, Ed.

    The Librarians Technical Committee of the Metropolitan Washington D.C. Council of Governments (COG) is responsible for developing cooperative programs among libraries in the Washington metropolitan area (including parts of Maryland and Virginia), among libraries of all types, and between libraries and other agencies. The committee facilitates use…

  6. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  7. Deployment of Low-Cost, Carbon Dioxide Sensors throughout the Washington Metropolitan Area - The Capital Climate Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.

    2016-04-01

    According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional

  8. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  9. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Seasonality in African Students Living in the Greater Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of seasonality in a vulnerable population, i.e., African students who migrated to a temperate climate. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, we hypothesized lower mood and energy, and higher appetite and weight, in fall/winter than in spring/summer. Four cohorts of African students attending a year-long nursing school program without vacation in Washington, D.C., were assessed monthly for 1 year. Forty-three subjects (mean age = 33.46 ± 6.25, consisting of predominantly females (76.7%, completed the study. The cohorts began their academic program in different seasons (one each in winter, spring, summer, and fall, inherently minimizing confounding influences on seasonality, such as academic and immigration stress, as well as allowing adjustment for an order effect. At each assessment, students completed three 100-mm visual analog scales for mood, energy, and appetite, and were weighed on a digital scale. For each standardized dependent variable, a repeated measure ANOVA was used and, if a significant effect of month was identified, averages for spring/summer and fall/winter were compared using paired ttests. In addition, a mixed model for repeated measures was applied to raw (nonstandardized data. Body weight was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer (p < 0.01. No seasonal differences in mood, energy, or appetite were found. Benefiting from certain unique features of our cohorts allowing adjustment for order effects, this is the first study to identify a seasonal variation in body weight with a peak in winter using longitudinal monthly measurements.

  10. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  11. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    resource of the river. Also, strips of riparian vegetation along the riverbank provide good areas for naturalists and birdwatching . Recreational resources...policies #1 and #2 when improvements are made costing at least 50 percent of the estimated current market value of the structure before improvements. o1 S 0...height and depth of flooding is provided in Table 1. Although depreciation values have been used in our analysis, market values also had to be considered

  12. 78 FR 10562 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... the Washington, DC, Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project. The... departures from the Washington, DC Metropolitan area airports. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy... Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more Albany-Schenectady-Troy MSA...

  15. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  16. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  17. 78 FR 29615 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes five new RNAV routes in support of the Washington, DC, Optimization of..., DC Metropolitan area airports. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC, August 22, 2013. The Director of...

  18. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  19. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  20. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California Reconnaissance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    INTERVAL (YEARS) SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN ARIA CALIFORNIA STAGE-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP SACRAMENTO RIVER AT FREMONT WEIR/WEST END SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...Wildlife Biologist/ Environmental Planner Karen Amerman Kuhn Civil Engineer/ Water Resources Plnr Patricia Roberson Environmental Studies

  1. Air quality modeling in Warsaw Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision support of air quality management needs to connect several categories of the input data with the analytical process of air pollution dispersion. The aim of the respective model of air pollution is to provide a quantitative assessment of environmental impact of emission sources in a form of spatial/temporal maps of pollutants’ concentration or deposition in the domain. These results are in turn used in assessment of environmental risk and supporting respective planning actions. However, due to the complexity of the forecasting system and the required input data, such environmental prognosis and related decisions contain many potential sources of imprecision and uncertainty. The main sources of uncertainty are commonly considered meteorological and emission input data. This paper addresses the problem of emission uncertainty, and impact of this uncertainty on the forecasted air pollution concentrations and adverse health effects. The computational experiment implemented for Warsaw Metropolitan Area, Poland, encompasses one-year forecast with the year 2005 meteorological dataset. The annual mean concentrations of the main urban pollutants are computed. The impact of uncertainty in emission field inventory is also considered. Uncertainty assessment is based on the Monte Carlo technique where the regional scale CALPUFF model is the main forecasting tool used in air quality analysis.

  2. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  3. THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF ORADEA - DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of Oradea has certain directions of development settled in accordance with the objectives of development assumed by The Local Council of Oradea on 10 March 2015 once with the approval of the strategy for development of Oradea Municipality for the period 2016 – 2020. It is very important for for the Municipality of Oradea to become, by quantifiable arguments in a relatively short period of time a real competitor of the great cities surrounding it or of Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Debrecen. Domains, in which Oradea can excel as a clear differentiator in front of its competitor, are closely related to the local traditional specific and resources. Thus, Oradea proposed to be the capital of Art Nouveau and thermal-ism. The fulfilment of this goal would definitely bring more tourists and obviously additional financial resources to the local budget. At this moment, OMA is prepared in what concerns the hotelier infrastructure and utilities for taking the new tourists. In addition, another important objective regarded at macro level for the entire OMA is the assurance of a security comfort for the citizens of the Municipality of Oradea and implicitly of the neighbouring villages. One of the objectives – Oradea, the safest city – is closely linked to another one which represents the follow-up of some successful beginnings in 2012 with the award Oradea – the green city. In the following period an increase of the surfaces covered with green spaces and recreational areas is being planned for the optimum comfort of the inhabitants and tourists of the OMA. The three main objectives mentioned above must be added to the imperative need of completing the necessary investments for the increase of the quality of life. The infrastructure for the assurance of the quality of health and education is reflected by the completed HURO programme accessed by the executive of OMA.

  4. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  5. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  6. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  7. Testing Estimates of Housing Cost Differences among US Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Easton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of six measures of housing cost differences among US metropolitan areas. Using Census data from 177 metropolitan areas, it tests the measures in two ways. First, it tests the ability of changes in the measures to predict changes in the shelter component of the metropolitan CPI from 1990 to 2000. Second, it tests the ability of the measures themselves to predict a proxy in 2000. A measure based on Fair Market Rents calculated by HUD placed second on the first test but did badly on the second. The housing component of the ACCRA index, a living cost measure frequently used by researchers, performed poorly on both tests. The top performer on both tests was a measure based on the average rent per room for a metropolitan area’s dwellings. Researchers wishing to control for living cost differences among places should consider including it in their living cost index.

  8. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  9. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  10. Nitrogen Deposition in the Greater Tehran Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salahi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of air pollution in the Tehran metropolitan area between 1992–2000 indicated that there are significant amounts of nitrate ion (NO3–, over 30 kg/ha/year, deposited as wet deposition, compared to 13 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland near the Tehran metropolitan area. The amount of NO3– in warm seasons is twofold that of cold seasons (see Fig. 1, and there was a significant difference between cold and warm seasons (Table 1. Annual wet deposition of ammonia (NH3 was 10 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland[1].

  11. Distribution of HCV genotypes in the metropolitan area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sodano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus is characterized by high genomic variability that leads to the identification of six different genotypes and many subtypes. In this work, we show the prevalence of genotypes in patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples collected in one year, analyzing differences in the distribution depending on sex and age groups.

  12. Accessibility and transit-oriented development in European metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papa, E.; Bertolini, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how urban form is related to accessibility. In particular, it explores the relationship between Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and rail-based accessibility in a metropolitan area. The following overarching questions are addressed: Does a TOD-informed urban spatial structu

  13. Simulation of Optical Packet—Switched Metropolitan Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.

  14. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  15. Incidence of Adult Illiteracy in Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Judith D.

    1976-01-01

    A study to determine the incidence of functional illiteracy in English among adults in the metropolitan area of Sydney is reported, which showed the incidence of illiteracy among Australian/English born adults to be lower than previously reported while that among non-English born is very high. (WL)

  16. Landslide Hazards in the Seattle, Washington, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex; Harp, Ed; Highland, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The Seattle, Washington, area is known for its livability and its magnificent natural setting. The city and nearby communities are surrounded by an abundance of rivers and lakes and by the bays of Puget Sound. Two majestic mountain ranges, the Olympics and the Cascades, rim the region. These dramatic natural features are products of dynamic forces-landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, glaciers, volcanoes, and floods. The same processes that formed this beautiful landscape pose hazards to the ever-growing population of the region. Landslides long have been a major cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Seattle area.

  17. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  18. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  19. Rapid Flood Evaluation Systems in Taiwan Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dar Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological issues in metropolises in Taiwan have become increasingly important because the storm water sewer systems of metropolises are frequently unable to meet the requirements of the existing and future metropolitan development. Typhoons or torrential rains that cause rainfall intensities that exceed the designed capacity of storm water sewers can result in serious flooding. The losses caused by flooding can be reduced if the areas at risk of flooding can be predicted and warnings can be issued to prompt disaster prevention and allow response units and residents to prepare before disasters occur. The primary purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative precipitation forecasting technologies [1, 2] developed by the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute to establish a rapid, stable, real-time, and automatic metropolitan area flood estimation system for predictive flooding analysis. The objects of this study are metropolitan areas in Taiwan with storm water sewer systems. The standard capacities of storm water sewer systems throughout Taiwan and the geographic information system (GIS shape files are collected and compiled. Additionally, the potential flooding areas are divided into four levels (high, medium, low, and no flooding and are compared with the rainfall warning values of the Water Resources Agency. The study combines the results of quantitative precipitation forecasts, establishes an information database (MySQL, processes Google Earth KML files, and designs a WEB GIS display interface to construct a system for estimating the flooding possibility (probability in metropolitan areas during typhoons or torrential rains. This study subsequently employs the event of Typhoon Kalmaegi for flooding estimation and display; the estimation results are consistent with the flooding survey data, indicating that the estimations made by the flooding estimation system are correct.

  20. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  1. Latin America's supercity--the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Big and still growing, Mexico City and its environs is soon to be the world's largest metropolitan area. The lure of city amenties--jobs, health care, schooling, and cheap food--and the hope of a better life bring 1000 rural migrants to Mexico City every day. Between 1950 and 1980, Mexico City grew at an annual average rate of 5.4%. Mexico City is typical of Latin American supercities, holding an impressive portion of the nation's population and commanding the lion's share of the country's economic activities. It is primarily due to the rapid growth in the northern periphery of the municipalities that Mexico City is expected to grow into the world's largest metropolitan area by the year 2000. Given the high proportion of youth relative to the total population, it is not suprising that average household sizes in Mexico City are large. About 60% to 70% of all families have no access to the formal housing market; much of the urban expansion has occurred through the emergence of squatter communities. Water may indeed be the most serious of all of Mexico City's infrastructural problems. Other problems include: 1) the government cannot meet the demands for educational buildings and personnel; 2) in 1982, 10.3% of the metropolitan population lived in extreme poverty and an additional 22.6% were unable to satisfy their basic needs; and 3) transport is a central problem. Demographic sources for Mexico are discussed.

  2. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix F. Structural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Influent Chamber L,C Filtered Water Clearwell L,C Backwash Water Holding Tank L,C Carbon Column Effluent Clearwell L,C Finished Water Clearwell C...in fiters and carbon columns, f. Clearwell levels, g. Chemical dosage rates, h. Filter and GAG backwash times, i. On-line turbidity and chlorine... Clearwell levels, b. Flows through each unit processes-recorded as gallons per 24 hours, c. Flow losses-through backwashing, sludge withdrawal, d

  3. [The metropolitan area of Guadalajara. The population growth transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo Alejandre, J

    1994-01-01

    The Guadalajara metropolitan area, containing approximately three million inhabitants in the municipios of Guadalajara, Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonala, and El Salto, has high rates of population growth due to in-migration, natural increase, and annexation of localities. The average annual rate of growth declined from 6.8% in the 1950s to 2.6% in the 1980s. Despite the decline, which can be considered an indicator of transition, the increase in absolute numbers resulting from a 2.6% rate of growth amounts to 78,000 new inhabitants each year. A change has occurred in recent decades in the migratory patterns and urban spatial distribution of Western Mexico. In-migration to the Guadalajara metropolitan zone has slowed in both absolute and relative terms. Growth of smaller and intermediate sized cities is now more rapid than is that of the metropolitan zone. Surveys in Guadalajara indicate that the proportion of in-migrants from urban areas has increased substantially. Despite the slowing pace of growth, the Guadalajara metropolitan area faces serious problems of housing, land use, transport, and urban infrastructure and services in general. Because of rapid growth and the preponderance of young people among the migrants, the problems are likely to persist for some time. Population projections suggest that 66,000 new jobs will be needed during 1990-95 and 57,000 during 1995-2000, assuming no significant increases in the proportion of women who work. An average of 2500 hectares of land will be needed every five years, nearly equivalent to the total area of the city in 1940. The number of daily trips on urban transit is projected to increase from 6 million at present to 7 million in 2005. The daily load of solid waste is expected to increase from 4000 to 5000 tons in 2005. The economic structure of the city is also changing. Commerce and small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises have lost their primacy and large national and transnational manufacturing and commercial

  4. Meteorological and Chemical Urban Scale Modelling for Shanghai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Amstrup, Bjarne; Yang, Xiaohua; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in megacities and major industrial agglomerations of China. Therefore, air quality information is important for public. In particular, the Shanghai metropolitan area is well known as megacity having severe air pollution episodes. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is applied for on-line integrated meteorology and atmospheric composition forecasting for the Shanghai region of China. The model setup includes the urban Building Effects Parameterization module, describing different types of urban districts with its own morphological and aerodynamical characteristics. The model is running in downscaling chain from regional-to-urban scales for selected periods in summer and winter having both elevated pollution levels as well as unfavorable meteorological conditions. For these periods, the effects of urbanization are analyzed for spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric and chemical/aerosols patterns. The formation and development of meteorological (air and surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, boundary layer height) and chemical/aerosol patterns (concentration and deposition) due to influence of the metropolitan area is evaluated. The impact of Shanghai region on regional-to-urban scales as well as relationship between air pollution and meteorology are estimated.

  5. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  6. Urban Seismology in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Review and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region. A substantial number of cities and large towns exist on thick sediments in western Taiwan. Larger-magnitude inland earthquakes, for example the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, can cause serious damage in urban areas. Consequently, urban seismology is of great interest to the local seismological community. The Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. It is situated over a region where the Philippine Sea plate subducts the Eurasian plate. Although seismicity in the TMA is lower than other areas of Taiwan, earthquakes still occur. Seismic risk mitigation is of grave concern in the TMA because of its high population, number of tall buildings, mass rapid transit system, and two nearby nuclear power plants. In this article, procedures for seismic risk mitigation, previous studies, core issues for future research and related topics are described and reviewed.

  7. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  8. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  9. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Methods Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish t...

  10. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  11. The Washington DC Metro Area Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.; Edens, H.; O'Connor, N.; Aulich, G.; Thomas, R.; Kieft, S.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Hall, J.; Bailey, J.

    2006-12-01

    During the spring and summer of 2006, a network of eight lightning mapping stations has been set up in the greater DC metropolitan area to monitor the total lightning activity in storms over Virginia, Maryland and the Washington DC area. The network is a joint project between New Mexico Tech, NASA, and NOAA/National Weather Service, with real-time data being provided to the NWS for use in their forecast and warning operations. The network utilizes newly available portable stations developed with support from the National Science Foundation. Cooperating institutions involved in hosting the mapping stations are Howard University, Montgomery County Community College in Rockville MD, NOAA/NWS's Test and Evaluation Site in Sterling, VA, College of Southern Maryland near La Plata MD, the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, Northern Virginia Community College in Annandale, VA, the University of Maryland at Baltimore County, and George Mason University (Prince William Campus) in Manassas, VA. The network is experimental in that its stations a) operate in the upper rather than the lower VHF (TV channel 10, 192-198 MHz) to reduce the radio frequency background noise associated with urban environments, and b) are linked to the central processing site via the internet rather than by dedicated wireless communication links. The central processing is done in Huntsville, AL, and updated observations are sent to the National Weather Service every 2 min. The observational data will also be available on a public website. The higher operating frequency results in a decrease in signal strength estimated to be about 15-20 dB, relative to the LMA networks being operated in northern Alabama and central Oklahoma (which operate on TV channels 5 and 3, respectively). This is offset somewhat by decreased background noise levels at many of the stations. The detection threshold levels range from about -95 dBm up to -80 dBm and the peak lightning signals typically extend 15

  12. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London -- but not for New York -- there is ...

  13. Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulations employing the SUBMESO model with the urban soil layer model SM2-U were performed for the model domain covering the Danish Island of Sealand and including the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Monthly and diurnal cycle variability were studied for the net radiation, sensible and storage heat fluxes, surface's temperatures, and others. These were evaluated for selected urban vs. non urban related types of covers/surfaces and urban districts such as city center, high buildings, industrial, and residential. Results showed strong effects of urban features on temporal and spatial variability. They are useful and applicable for verification of numerical weather prediction models and development of urban canopy parameterizations.

  14. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, H; Flores-Trujillo, M; Benitez, E; Arriaga, C

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4% of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  15. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  16. Convective weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Kenneth A.

    This dissertation investigates the frequency and intensity of severe convective storms, and their associated hazards, in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota. Using public severe weather reports databases and high spatial density rain gauge data, annual frequencies and return-periods are calculated for tornadoes, damaging winds, large hail, and flood-inducing rainfall. The hypothesis that severe thunderstorms and tornadoes are less likely in the central TCMA than in surrounding areas also is examined, and techniques for estimating 100-year rainfall amounts are developed and discussed. This research finds that: (i) storms capable of significant damage somewhere within the TCMA recur annually (sometimes multiple times per year), while storms virtually certain to cause such damage recur every 2-3 years; (ii) though severe weather reports data are not amenable to classical comparative statistical testing, careful treatment of them suggests all types and intensity categories of severe convective weather have been and should continue to be approximately as common in the central TCMA as in surrounding areas; and (iii) applications of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistics and areal analyses of rainfall data lead to significantly larger (25-50%) estimates of 100-year rainfall amounts in the TCMA and parts of Minnesota than those currently published and used for precipitation design. The growth of the TCMA, the popular sentiment that downtown areas somehow deter severe storms and tornadoes, and the prior underestimation of extreme rainfall thresholds for precipitation design, all act to enhance local susceptibility to hazards from severe convective storms.

  17. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  18. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  19. Water resources outlook for the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvitch, R.F.; Ross, T.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1973-01-01

    The water resources were studied within an area whose natural ground-water flow is largely towards the center of the metropolitan area. This area coincides with the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone aquifer. Thus, the general geohydrology of the area bounded by the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone (about 6,000 square miles) as it relates to the hydrology of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area is described. Greater emphasis is placed on the area underlain by the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer (about 2,000 square miles), from which approximately 75 percent of the ground-water for the metropolitan area is pumped.

  20. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  1. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since t

  2. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  3. Higher Education Marketplaces: A Comparison of Variety, Access, Dependence, and Quality in 15 Metropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluhy, Milan J.; Maidique, Modesto A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of 15 U.S. metropolitan areas illustrates that characteristics of higher education in urban marketplaces are diverse. Metropolitan areas of the west and southwest rank highest when variety, access, dependence, and quality are used to assess the marketplaces. Size, region, and strategic economic location explain some of the variations.…

  4. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  5. Cost-effective optical transponders for deployed metropolitan area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Maki; Politi, Christina (Tanya); Stavdas, Alexandros; Glentis, George-Othon; Georgoulakis, Kristina; Emeretlis, Andreas; Theodoridis, George

    2016-12-01

    Improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic components has enabled the investigation of transmitting optical channels with data rates greater than 40 Gb/s, over infrastructures that were initially supporting 10 Gb/s transport. However, for transporting high capacity channels, over long distances, considerable signal processing is necessary, with current emphasis being on digital techniques. Meanwhile in the context of optical networking where spectrally adjacent channels may cross different routes to interconnect the same source destination nodes, adaptive transmission systems become vital. This paper will suggest, compare and develop the necessary transponder technologies that enable transportation of 40 Gb/s channels over deployed Metropolitan Area optical Networks (MAN) infrastructure with emphasis on the interplay between realistic performance, feasibility and complexity/cost. Specifically it will investigate utilizing deployed optical infrastructure for transporting 40 Gb/s DQPSK channels in conjunction with various high performance, low complexity electronic equalizers that can compensate the corresponding linear impairment enhancement that accompanies this upgrade, namely Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion while they can be implemented in a single FPGA. It is shown that resource constraint performance evaluation is vital and the exact technology choice is related to the deployed infrastructure.

  6. Upscaling pollutant dispersion in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Varela, Juan R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, José

    2012-02-01

    Pollutant emission is an important problem in megacities such as Mexico City, imposing serious threats to human health and economic activity. Public policies oriented to deal with pollutant management ought to be based upon a close understanding of the transport mechanisms involved in the commonly complex network of streets and buildings. Modeling and simulation tools have proved to be useful for understanding field measurements and developing efficient monitoring strategies. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the (longitudinal and transverse) dispersion coefficients in upscaled models for pollutant transport in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). To this end, we use the method of volume averaging, which allows calculation of the dispersion coefficients by solving the associated closure problems in some representative regions of the MCMA. The results show that local geometry has an important effect upon contaminant dispersion, especially in the direction that is transverse to the pressure gradient. This suggests that, although winds can remove an important amount of atmospheric contaminants, high transversal dispersion can help in a fast spreading of contaminants within the street network.

  7. The timber resources of the Inland Empire area, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal A. Arbogast

    1974-01-01

    The latest inventory of the timber resources of the Inland Empire area of Washington indicates there are 24 billion board feet of sawtimber on 3.9 million acres of commercial forest land. Public agencies administer about 56 percent of the area and 70 percent of the sawtimber volume, farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 37 percent of the area but only...

  8. Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ernest; Garcia, Macarena C; Bastian, Brigham; Rossen, Lauren M; Ingram, Deborah D; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Yoon, Paula W; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed. 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially excess deaths are defined as deaths among persons aged leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. For example, approximately half of deaths from unintentional injury and chronic lower respiratory disease in nonmetropolitan areas were potentially excess deaths, compared with 39.2% and 30.9%, respectively, in metropolitan areas. Potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions; within regions, nonmetropolitan areas tended to have higher percentages of potentially excess deaths than metropolitan areas. Compared with metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan areas have higher age-adjusted death rates and greater percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death, nationally and across public health regions. Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths in nonmetropolitan areas might help public health departments identify emerging health problems, monitor known problems, and focus interventions to reduce preventable deaths in these areas.

  9. Recognition of management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Lalehpour

    2016-01-01

    Metropolitan areas are concentrated and dense areas filled settlements and include a central urban region with its surrounding residences. Severity and complexity of issues in metropolitan areas along with intricacy and quantity of influential factors in these areas necessitate novel approaches and innovative solutions for comprehensive strategies and management coordination of land use in these regions. The present study has taken this approach to investigate management structure and spatial...

  10. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  11. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size <63 {mu}m, which were then analyzed for 7 elements by X-ray fluorescence technique. The fundamental parameters method (FP) was applied and the simple pressed powder technique for sample preparation was used. The concentrations preliminary results of metals in the household dust were Cr, 18-188 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Mn, 119-369 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Fe, 372-1464 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Ni, 33-85 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Cu, 42-303 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Zn, 156-1369 {mu}g g{sup -1} and Pb, 26-160 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Shopper-Based Mall Equity: A Comparative Study of Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to differentiate the role of generation Y on dimensions of shopper-based mall equity (SBME for two different locations in Malaysia. SBME is the differential effect of mall knowledge on shoppers' responses to a mall's marketing activities. We validated the shopper-based mall equity measure using data generated with mall-intercept surveys in two shopping malls in Malaysia located at Kuantan, Pahang (non-metropolitan area, while Petaling Jaya, Selangor represent metropolitan area (N=564. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, descriptive statistics, and t-test. The results from t-test show that the variables i.e. mall awareness, mall environment, mall convenience, mall entertainment, and mall equity have significant difference between two selected malls. However the effect sizes (eta squared were small. Moreover, product/service quality, service quality, and mall loyalty have no significant difference between two malls.

  13. Gamma-ray and neutron background comparison of US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lee J., E-mail: lee.mitchell@nrl.navy.mil; Phlips, Bernard F., E-mail: bernard.phlips@nrl.navy.mil; Wulf, Eric A., E-mail: eric.wulf@nrl.navy.mil; Hutcheson, Anthony L., E-mail: anthony.hutcheson@nrl.navy.mil; Gwon, Chul, E-mail: chul.gwon@nrl.navy.mil; Woolf, Richard S., E-mail: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil; Polaski, Donald, E-mail: donald.polaski.ctr@nrl.navy.mil

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-ray and neutron background surveys were performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in U.S. cities, including Washington, D.C.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Richmond, Virginia; Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements covered a range of industrial, residential and commercial areas. Germanium grade gamma-ray data over the energy range of 0.05–3.0 MeV and neutron count rates with unmoderated He-3 sensitivity were recorded as a function of latitude, longitude and elevation in one second intervals. Typical Potassium Uranium Thorium (KUT) backgrounds were seen along with several anomalies. For example, a decrease in the thermal neutron flux in large urban canyons was seen and verified via Monte Carlo simulations. The data were collected to provide natural background models for simulation work. Germanium grade spectroscopy is required, because it provides sufficiently detailed isotopic information of the gamma-ray background. As expected a comparison of the background shows significant differences between the individual cities. - Highlights: • Gamma-ray and neutron background data were collected in several US metropolitan areas. • We examine the differences in the naturally occurring radioactive background. • We discuss the process of deconvolving the background data for use in future simulations. • City models are used in simulations to explain select background anomalies.

  14. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  15. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krissi M Hewitt

    Full Text Available People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples. 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils. There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009.

  16. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  18. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  19. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...

  20. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil...

  1. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  2. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  3. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  6. 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  7. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  8. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  9. Human capital growth in a cross section of U.S. metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Growth of human capital, defined as the change in the fraction of a metropolitan area's labor force with a bachelor's degree, is typically viewed as generating a number of desirable outcomes, including economic growth. Yet, in spite of its importance, few empirical studies have explored why some economies accumulate more human capital than others. This paper attempts to do so using a sample of more than 200 metropolitan areas in the United States over the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. The resul...

  10. Differences in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Girls in Metropolitan Versus Non-metropolitan Areas: Considering the Moderating Roles of Maternal Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubart, Danielle C.; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is among the first to examine metropolitan status differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion among United States adolescent girls and is unique in its focus on how maternal socioeconomic status and health care access moderate metropolitan status differences in HPV vaccination. Methods Using cross-sectional data from 3573 girls aged 12–17 in the U.S. from the 2008–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimate main and interaction effects from binary logistic regression models to identify subgroups of girls for which there are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan differences in HPV vaccination. Results Overall 34 % of girls initiated vaccination, and 19 % completed all three shots. On average, there were no metropolitan status differences in vaccination odds. However, there were important subgroup differences. Among low-income girls and girls whose mothers did not complete high school, those in non-metropolitan areas had significantly higher probability of vaccine initiation than those in metropolitan areas. Among high-income girls and girls whose mothers completed college, those in metropolitan areas had significantly higher odds of vaccine initiation than those in non-metropolitan areas. Moreover, among girls whose mothers experienced a medical cost barrier, non-metropolitan girls were less likely to initiate vaccination compared to metropolitan girls. Conclusions Mothers remain essential targets for public health efforts to increase HPV vaccination and combat cervical cancer. Public health experts who study barriers to HPV vaccination and physicians who come into contact with mothers should be aware of group-specific barriers to vaccination and employ more tailored efforts to increase vaccination. PMID:26511129

  11. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  12. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  13. Cooperative Planning in Action: The Washington Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn

    1976-01-01

    Library cooperation in the Metropolitan Washington area is described, along with its problems and successes, and the significant role special libraries can play in an ambitious intertype library cooperative. (Author/PF)

  14. Urban-rural demarcation within a metropolitan area: a methodology for using small area disaggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available and the (population) weighted land-use type to disaggregate the population from the Planning Unit level (the latter being the most up-to-date and accurate population layer) to the much finer- grained hexagon layer. This allowed not only for detailed accessibility... modelling, but also for fine-grained population disaggregation thus enabling a robust delimitation of urban, rural and dense rural settlement types within a metropolitan area. INTRODUCTION There is ongoing debate about the level of service provision...

  15. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  16. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  17. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  18. Analysis of Criteria Air Pollutant Trends in Three Mexican Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy-Edith Benítez-García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Data from the annual, seasonal, and hourly behavior of the criteria air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10 in three Mexican metropolitan areas (the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA, Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA, and Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA over the period 2000–2011 were analyzed; and compliance with Mexican air quality standards was evaluated, highlighting causes of specific episodes of high and low concentrations. Data analyzed were collected from automatic air-monitoring networks located in the MCMA (32 stations, GMA (8 stations, and MMA (5 stations. In the MCMA and MMA, correlations between wind direction and concentrations of SO2 suggest that there was a considerable contribution of trans-boundary transport from outside of these areas. Analysis of annual trends revealed large reductions of CO in the MCMA, and SO2 in the three metropolitan areas. However, the annual mean concentration of O3 increased by 47% and 42% in the GMA and MMA, respectively, from 2000 to 2011, but decreased by 13% in the MCMA from 2005 to 2010. The annual mean concentration of PM10 in the MMA was about 58% and 76% higher than that in the MCMA and GMA, respectively, from 2001 to 2010.

  19. Cancer among Arab Americans in the metropolitan Detroit area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra L; Kulwicki, Anahid; Weiss, Linda K; Fakhouri, Haifa; Sakr, Wael; Kau, Gregory; Severson, Richard K

    2004-01-01

    Detroit is home to one of the largest populations of Arab Americans outside of the Middle East, yet little is known about the cancer distribution in this ethnic group. The authors of this study created an Arab/Chaldean surname list and matched it with the Detroit SEER Registry to identify cancer cases of probable Arabic descent. We then determined proportional incidence ratios (PIR) for specific cancer sites among metropolitan Detroit Arab Americans as compared to non-Arab Whites, and contrasted the results with Middle Eastern data. Arab/Chaldean men had greater proportions of leukemia (29%), multiple myeloma (46%), liver (64%), kidney (33%), and urinary bladder (26%) cancers. Arab/Chaldean women had greater proportions of leukemia (23%), thyroid (57%), and brain (35%) cancers as compared with non-Arab White men and women. The cancers with significantly increased PIRs in the Detroit Arab/Chaldean population also are frequently diagnosed in Middle Eastern countries.

  20. Factors affecting the formation of sub-downtowns in various metropolitan areas around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Roman; Pomorov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating and compiling systematic knowledge about the factors affecting formation and specificity of urban sub-downtowns (sub-centers). Sub-downtowns are autonomous territories, identical to the downtown and located within one metropolitan area with downtown. Objects corresponding to the concepts of "Edge City", "Edgeless City", "Secondary Business District", "Mixed-Use Development" were investigated as sub-downtowns. Terrestrial and satellite images, as well as functional zoning data of more than 250 metropolitan areas in all world's regions were explored. A special form of sub-downtowns characterized by direct commercial corridor connection with central business district was found and defined as "Total Business District" concept. Eight metropolitan area types were distinguished based on sub-downtown development level criterion. These types were found to have significant relation to the specific world regions. Sub-downtowns are more frequent and diverse in countries with higher level, pace and liberalization of economic development, as well as with higher motorization rate. The closer to the coast or state border the metropolitan area is, the more likely sub-downtowns within it will be developed. In the context of continental, desert, tropical, northern maritime climates sub-downtowns are less common than in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean or Polynesian climates. In most cases, clustered (not just corridor-like) sub-downtowns are likely to be found in metropolitan areas with a population of more than 1.5-3.5 million people, depending on the geographic region of the world. The research results can improve forecasting the development and master planning of sub-downtowns in specific metropolitan areas.

  1. EVALUATION OF PRIVATE SCHOOL LOCATION IN THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  2. Landslides and engineering geology of the Seattle, Washington, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    This volume brings together case studies and summary papers describing the application of state-of-the-art engineering geologic methods to landslide hazard analysis for the Seattle, Washington, area. An introductory chapter provides a thorough description of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of Seattle. Nine additional chapters review the history of landslide mapping in Seattle, present case studies of individual landslides, describe the results of spatial assessments of landslide hazard, discuss hydrologic controls on landsliding, and outline an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides.

  3. Specifying the Determinants of Neighborhood Satisfaction: A Robust Assessment in 24 Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of households nested in census tracts in 24 metropolitan areas over four time points, this study provides a robust test of the determinants of neighborhood satisfaction, taking into account the census tract context. Consistent with social disorganization theory, the presence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity and single-parent…

  4. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  5. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument use

  6. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Heimeriks, Gaston|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291061664

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  7. Towards the societal system of innovation: The case of metropolitan areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Wintjes, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation serves many purposes. In this paper we study new varieties of innovation and innovation policy which address societal challenges in the largest cities in Europe. These metropolitan areas consistently show resounding characteristics in terms of multiplicities of innovation, governance and

  8. Place-bound versus footloose firms: wiring metropolitan areas in a policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geenhuizen, M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of modern urban systems, we are facing a shift from central cities as the major location of coordination functions, high-order services and innovative activities, to interconnected nodes at some distance in a larger metropolitan area. However, which cities in the emerging new spat

  9. Employment Profiles of Women and Minorities in 23 Metropolitan Areas, 1974. Research Report No. 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Joan, Ed.

    This study, which analyzes employment patterns of women and minorities in 23 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs), is based on reports (required by the EEOC--Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) from private employers (EEO-1 Reports) and State and local governments (EEO-4 Reports). For each SMSA, EEO-1 data are presented for 1970…

  10. Spacial economic impacts of creative industries of the metropolitan areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valdivia López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth dynamics in contemporary cities and their territorial organization are subject to the influence of economic activities associated with creative industries. In this research, we perform a spatial analysis of such creative industries across all metropolitan areas of Mexico during the period. In order to show the spatial relevance that creative industries have over the urban structure, we calculate the employment concentration of each of the sectors and subsectors with respect to the distance from the closest metropolitan area’s Central Business District. We conclude that creative industries tend to localize close to the Metropolitan Areas’ CBD and they are the ones with greater capacity to generate positive externalities on employment growth.

  11. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical....... The ocean front is historically the wealthiest region of the metropolitan area and is visually and physically separated from the Rio de Janeiro suburbs by mountains characterising a schism between two cities: the ocean front extensively provided with environmental amenities and the suburbs marked...... by environmental degradation. This condition is true, but the metropolitan dynamic goes beyond that schism and this analysis reveals the dichotomy and contradictions of the hydrographical systems where wealthy and low income neighbourhoods divide the same ecological system and deal with their environmental...

  12. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  13. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  14. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  15. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  16. Decentralization or recentralization? A question of household versus population enumeration, Canadian Metropolitan areas 1971 - 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Trudi E Bunting

    2004-01-01

    The author considers patterns of population growth and density occurring in Canadian metropolitan areas (CMAs) over the 25-year period 1971 - 96. Two different sets of data, population and household, are examined with the aid of distance-decay density gradients and enumeration of intrazonal change in census tracts defined as core area (census tracts immediately adjacent to the central business district), inner city, and suburban. Important differences are found when household data are used in...

  17. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Pierce County, Washington... sources in Pierce County, Washington. On April 16, 2012, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 77 FR...

  18. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  19. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Hsiao-Lan; Shen, Yu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    .... Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area...

  20. Evaluation on Cultivated Land Resource Ecologi-cal Service Value in Wuhan Metropolitan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua TANG; Yinghui Ll; Gangqiang CHEN; Lei YU; Sujuan Ll

    2014-01-01

    The land ecosystem service function value contains the gas regulating function value, air purification function value, water conservation value, land conser-vation value, soil nutrient conservation value and maintain biodiversity value. Based on the method of market value and the data of Hubei Statistical yearbook, cultivat-ed land resources of ecosystem service function value is 730 038.69Mil ion in 2007-2009, and 714 774.99 Mil ion in 2010-2012 in Wuhan Metropolitan Area. After three years of development, Wuhan Metropolitan Area of ecological value of cultivated land has increased by about 3.97%. From the point of each composition, the im-portance of gas regulating function of cultivated land resources and water conserva-tion function is the forefront. From the point of spatial distribution, the highest of annual average value of the cultivated land ecological was Huanggang (1.725 bil ion yuan), the lowest was Ezhou (217.868 6 mil ion yuan) in 2010-2012. From the point of space changes, the land ecological value increased only in Qianjiang city, while farmland ecological value in other cities was fal ing The conclusion is of direc-tive significance to the regional land protection policy and the farmland reasonable distribution, for Wuhan Metropolitan Area and other areas.

  1. The Amsterdam metropolitan housing market: how a prosperous metropolitan area coexists with a central city dominated by social rental housing for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Vlist, van der A.

    2002-01-01

    In this Chapter we describe the development of Amsterdam Metropolitan Housing Market over the years. We start-off with a discussion of the historicaldevelopment of Amsterdam and its suburban areas. There we address how main contextual factors like wars, financial crises and prosperity have shaped th

  2. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  3. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Dr Harrison [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Li, Huiping [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  4. The Transition of Farmland Production Functions in Metropolitan Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Tan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas of China, farmland functions have undergone tremendous changes due to rapid urbanization and rising income per capita in the past three decades. This study examines tempo-spatial changes in the farmland functions, using a case study of the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that: (1 during the past three decades, agricultural production experienced two transitions, in the years 1992 and 2003; (2 In terms of spatial differences, farmland functions of food production in Near Suburb significantly weakened. Middle Suburb produced the largest share of vegetables, while Far Suburb had the highest number of recreational farms. This case study may provide insights for large cities in China or other developing countries.

  5. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  6. Improved parameters metropolitan area network supported with all-optical network's technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradkowska, Magdalena; Kalita, Mariusz

    2006-03-01

    The advantages of all-optical network's technics make them one of main elements of the metropolitan area networks. They enable different applications in high quality mulitimedia services and guarantee a constant and reliable access to the Internet. As the growing expansion of the Internet continues in an unpredictable direction, many new solutions are expected. The major challenge is the increasing demand for flexible, transparent and customised bandwidth services for both private and business customers.

  7. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. Methods: We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietiti...

  8. From the metropolitan area to the urban sprawl: the patchiness of the territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  The paper tackles the phenomenon of the urban expansion through two concepts: metropolitan area and sprawl. The first, heir of the rational and positivist tradition of development, would lead to orderly and efficient metropolis; the second, son of the capitalist individualism and of the environmentalist emergency, considers the expanded city as one of the symbols of the process of unlimited appropriation of the space. Between these two concepts there is the short period of last crisis of the city, the two decades from 1970s to 1980s. From this moment the city is emerged acting out towards three main directions: the first is the expulsion of activities considered unessential; the second is the repossession of abandoned parts of the city and their transformation into high quality urban districts; the third is the search for new meanings and new perspectives, with the following marketing actions that appear to be central in the city’s policies. In this process it is interesting to observe that the actions regarded as positive are physically positioned in different places from the negative ones: when one talk about urban rehabilitation the mind runs to downtown or to semi-central urban areas; the same when one talk about actions on the image of the city. The final section of the paper examines the metropolitan area of Naples. The analysis is conducted by a qualitative point of view (in relation to the functional character of the metropolitan area and by a quantitative point of view (in relation to the changes of the population structure over the past 150 years. In this regard, the “analytical metropolitan area” has nothing to do with the potential administrative boundaries.

  9. Water supply and hydrosocial scarcity in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Ana Lucia; Johnsson, Rosa Maria Formiga; Carneiro,Paulo Roberto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to analyse the water supply systems in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area in the light of the hydrosocial scarcity concept and the human right to water. It also assesses how bulk water availability may aggravate this situation. We argue that water access-related problems are directly related to several aspects: the way that water and sanitation services are managed, deficiencies in planning, technical choices, and the way in which existing systems are operated. In a...

  10. Changes in Hydrological Cycle Due to Urbanization in the Suburb Of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, Akihiko; Nishiyama, J

    1998-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] The suburbs of Tokyo Metropolitan area has been experiencing heavy land use/cover changes followed by modernization of Japan. The stages of land surface alteration can be precisely monitored by satellite remote sensing data and printed maps. Image processing system and Geographic Information System are used to draw land use/cover maps, and the changes in it was discussed. After delineating the urbanization process, the changes in hydrological cycle are assessed. In this paper, chan...

  11. Gradient analysis of landscape spatial and temporal pattern changes in Beijing metropolitan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gradient based landscape metrics analysis is now widely used to study the landscape pattern changes in respond to the urbanization.In order to discover the trend of spatio-temporal changes in Beijing metropolitan area during the past 15 years,several landscape metrics are computed using a moving window along a 96 km long transect across Beijing metropolitan area from west to east.Specially,the spatial extent of sub-landscape,which is determined by the moving window’s size,is profoundly examined.The results show that the metrics varies smoothly and regularly along the selected transect when the window size is greater than 6 km×6 km,and irregularly fluctuated for the smaller window size,that the spatial and temporal landscape characteristics of Beijing city match the hypothetical framework of spatio-temporal urban sprawl in the form of alternating processes of diffusion and coalescence well,and that some new trends of the urban sprawl style in Beijing metropolitan area,such as leap-frog manner,are also detected by the gradient landscape analysis.

  12. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  13. Retaining nurses in metropolitan areas: insights from senior nurse and human resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M; Halter, Mary; Gale, Julia; Harris, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the views of senior nurse and human resource managers of strategies to retain hospital nurses in a metropolitan area. Against a global shortage, retaining nurses is a management imperative for the quality of hospital services. Semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed. Metropolitan areas have many health organisations in geographical proximity, offering nurses choices in employer and employment. Senior nurse and human resource managers recognised the complexity of factors influencing nurse turnover, including those that 'pulled' nurses out of their jobs to other posts and factors that 'pushed' nurses to leave. Four themes emerged in retaining nurses: strategy and leadership, including analysis of workforce and leavers' data, remuneration, the type of nursing work and career development and the immediate work environment. In contexts where multiple organisations compete for nurses, addressing retention through strategic leadership is likely to be important in paying due attention and apportioning resources to effective strategies. Aside from good human resource management practices for all, strategies tailored to different segments of the nursing workforce are likely to be important. This metropolitan study suggests attention should be paid to strategies that address remuneration, progressing nursing careers and the immediate work environment. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Zone: Between a Growth Pole and a Deprived Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DRANCA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth pole strategy has proved to be one of the main tools that the EU is using in its idealistic pursuit of economic and social cohesion across Europe. The objective behind this concept is reducing regional economic and social disparities by directing the investments towards a location presenting a growth pole potential, which will at its turn spread the development in the surrounding economical space. However, reducing the inter-regional disparities often claims an ironical, if not cynical, price to pay: the increase of intra-regional disparities, at least for a first stage. In Romania’s case, this price seems to be paid in vain, as neither the Government nor the metropolitan level appears to have correctly understood the purpose and the mechanism of the Regional Operational Program. A major confusion has been made between the potential of a growth pole and the existence of a growth pole, and as a consequence, investments designed for underdeveloped areas are now addressing developed areas. In the case of the Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Zone, the situation has worsened due to the contrasting economic and demographic profiles both within the rural part and as compared to the urban part. The spreading development potential is denied by the unfeasible and undemocratic associative structure of the Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Zone, which is leaving the rural zone no tool at all to protect itself, let alone follow its interest.

  15. Sound Governance in the Development of Mamminasata Metropolitan Areas in South Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction of development in Indonesia has strongly integrated with the concept of good governance started from the strengthening of international market that is both imperialist and colony thereby contradicting to the tradition of developing countries. This leads to the establishment of sound governance as an alternative concept to improve the government's capacity to innovate in policy and administration. The development of Mamminasata Metropolitan area in South Sulawesi province experiences difficulties in implementing the coordination, integration, synchronization and cannot accommodate the whole event in order to realize the interconnection of development across districts / cities, whereas the central government makes this as a National Strategic Areas (KSN and leading area in the East Indonesia. This study aims to explore and analyze the sound governance practices in the development program of Mamminasata Metropolitan area focusing on five dimensions, namely process, structure, values, management, and policy. The results show that 1 in the process dimension, the stakeholders involved in the Mamminasata development program establish inter-regional cooperation and coordinate externally and internally of the area ranging from planning to the implementation of development activities; 2 in the structure dimension, the government has established clear organization and regulation in regulating the development process. 3 in the value dimension, Mamminasata development program is based on the responsiveness of local government and has up-holded justice in accordance with the potential of each area; 4 in the management dimension, the government personnel has already had knowledge about the Mamminasata concept, but they are still experiencing problems in the use of technology because of limited resources; and 5 in the policy dimension, the government has encouraged the public to participate directly in policy making and implementation of

  16. Food Insecurity, a Determinant of Obesity? - an Analysis from a Population-Based Survey in the Paris Metropolitan Area, 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Caillavet, France; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    .... : We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort study, a longitudinal population-based, representative health and socioepidemiological survey of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area...

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  18. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...

  19. Assessing post apartheid settlement growth patterns using remote sensing and GIWS: A case study of Cape Town metropolitan area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, DL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The significant land-use change in South African metropolitan areas, due to urbanization, created challenges of spatial development planning, infrastructure and service provision. This paper outlines the change detection analysis method applied...

  20. Perceptions of High School Principals about Teacher Motivation in in the Metropolitan Area of Medellin, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Arellano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is an exploratory research with the purpose of measuring perceptions High School principals have about teachers’ motivation in four specific areas: facilities and institutional resources, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and social impacts. In this article, perceptions of principals working in public and private schools are compared. The authors designed and applied a five Likert-scale questionnaire to determine the perceptions of principals about motivation in their teacher staffs; the tool was implemented in fifty-one schools of the Metropolitan Area of Medellín, Colombia. Data show a higher favorability (i.e., categories with a better score in private schools than in public ones.

  1. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  2. The design of gated communities in São Paulo metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rett Lemos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as study object the formation of a kind of residential urban landscape spread in a large number of Brazilian cities, in special those around the Sao Paulo metropolitan area: the gated communities destined to a population with average and high income. The premise that it deals with a type of appropriation of urban ground related since the middle of the 1970‘s when internal adjustments in real estate market were implemented, and to the standards of growth of the São Paulo metropolitan area, specifically its process of dispersion, excites the necessity of identify the characteristics and specially the effects to the rest of the urban space that are been spread in terms never seen. Twenty eight enterprises launched between 1994 and 2005 in the metropolitan area are analyzed. The set of case studies involves from communities settled in the rural zones to the urban areas; in common is the fact that are enterprises created by a private entrepreneur to subdivide an only one private property, and the management of the internal space by proper codes. The analysis was developed in two scales: at a first moment, it was restricted in the internal spaces, appointing the planning methods and the distribution standards of the open areas, the volumetric occupations, and the leisure equipments; in the following one, were analyzed the neighbor landscape, identifying the main characteristics of the fabric urban and the not constructed natural environment.

  3. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  4. Space-time variations of human capital assets across U.S. metropolitan areas, 1980 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the changing structure of human capital in U.S. metropolitan regions from 1980 to 2000. Data are drawn from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Intensive empirical investigation leads to three main conclusions. First, forms of human capital in the United States are becoming more oriented to labor tasks that call for cognitive-cultural skills. Second, cognitive-cultural skills are accumulating most intensively in large metropolitan areas. Third, physical or practical forms of human capital are increasingly being relegated to smaller metropolitan areas. That said, important residues of human capital, focused on physical or practical tasks, remain a durable element of the economies of large metropolitan areas. I offer a brief theoretical explanation of these results.

  5. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  6. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  7. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  8. Metro U.S.A. Data Sheet: Population Estimates and Selected Demographic Indicators for the Metropolitan Areas of the United States. Special edition of the United States Population Data Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This poster-size data sheet presents population estimates and selected demographic indicators for the nation's 281 metropolitan areas. These areas are divided into 261 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), reporting units which replace the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)…

  9. State and metropolitan area-based amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laurie; Rechtman, Lindsay; Jordan, Heather; Ritsick, Maggie; Sanchez, Marchelle; Sorenson, Eric; Kaye, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to develop state and metropolitan area-based surveillance projects to describe the characteristics of those with ALS and to assist with evaluating the completeness of the National ALS Registry. Because the literature suggested that ethnic/racial minorities have lower incidence of ALS, three state and eight metropolitan areas were selected to over-represent ethnic/racial minorities to have a sufficient number of minority patients. Project activities relied on reports from medical providers and medical records abstraction. The project areas represented approximately 27% of the U.S. The combined racial and ethnic distribution of these areas is 64.4% white, 16.0% African-American, 6.7% Asian, and 28.3% Hispanic. Most neurologists did not diagnose or provide care for ALS patients. The number of unique patients reported was close to expected (5883 vs. 6673). Age and gender distribution of patients was similar to the literature. The crude average annual incidence rate was 1.52 per 100,000 person-years, CI 1.44-1.61, and the 2009 prevalence rate was 3.84 per 100,000 population, CI 3.70-3.97. In conclusion, this study represents the largest number of clinically diagnosed ALS patients reported by neurologists in the U.S. Comparison of these data with those in the National ALS Registry will help evaluate the completeness of administrative databases.

  10. Appreciation of housing policies in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roberta Zanon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the interpretation of partial search results on the "Right to Housing: applicability and effectiveness of legal instruments in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR" since 2012 in the Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The context of social housing production in Londrina, from the years 1980 provides analysis allowance and reflection on the implementation of social housing policy in the city, especially in the 2000s programs, in particular with the implementation of the Residential Vista Bela by Minha Casa Minha Vida Program, one of the largest housing projects in Brazil, handed out the population in 2011 and 2012.

  11. Revolutionary landscapes: the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Carmo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the mural paintings made by the PCTP/MRPP in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, in the aftermath of the 1974 Portuguese revolution. Drawing on Erwin Panofsky’s iconographic method of interpretation, murals are explored from an integrated landscape approach that combines two perspectives: landscapes as representations and landscapes as material artifacts. Findings suggest that the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings translated the visual ideology of social transformation and revolution underlying its politics. Furthermore, they also crystallized performative revolutionary landscapes, in the sense that they materialized acts of collective artistic citizenship, in which the social space of mural production played a fundamental role.

  12. Landscape dynamics analysis in Iasi Metropolitan Area (Romania using remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÃTÃLIN CÎMPIANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the observation and quantification of land cover changes in Iasi Metropolitan Area during 1993-2009. The analysis is centered upon the built-up space dynamics and includes the detection of its extension directions and the measurement of its structural changes by landscape metrics. In order to obtain the land cover data, some remote sensing images were processed by supervised classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. In the end of the study, a synthetic statistical analysis of the change dynamics is performed at commune level, in order to compare the administrative units by the intensity of land cover dynamics.

  13. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  14. Assessment of Landslide Susceptibility by Decision Trees in the Metropolitan Area of Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Nefeslioglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the possible application of decision tree in landslide susceptibility assessment. The study area having a surface area of 174.8 km2 locates at the northern coast of the Sea of Marmara and western part of Istanbul metropolitan area. When applying data mining and extracting decision tree, geological formations, altitude, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, heat load and stream power index parameters are taken into consideration as landslide conditioning factors. Using the predicted values, the landslide susceptibility map of the study area is produced. The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map has been obtained as 89.6%. According to the results of the AUC evaluation, the produced map has exhibited a good enough performance.

  15. Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Tang, Tian; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003-2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2-23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission.

  16. Simulation of Land Use Changes in Metropolitan Suburban Area: A Case Study of Sholinganallur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanamala, S.; Sekar, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning for a city is a complex activity involving assumptions on likely development. It is also a complex system wherein the planners need to recognize various influencing parameters. Verifying the factors influencing development over a period of time, that too for a vast area of metropolitan city is a herculean task. In order to keep them in control, planners need tools and techniques which may be handy to operate, allowing the planners at the beginning itself to have alternative plans as well as interim evaluation of the achievement of a plan. Absence of such a tool in the hands of the planners forces a plan to be monolithic and left with no interim evaluation. This research has identified four variables which highly influence land use change namely accessibility to transportation network; physical quality and land availability; proximity to work places; and plans and policies. A simulation model is developed to validate these variables for the suburbs of Chennai Metropolitan Area. Land use scenario for residential land use are simulated for the sub urban area-Sholinganallur for the years 1980, 1991, 2006 and 2011. Over 65 % agreement is observed in residential land use between the actual land use and the simulated extents.

  17. Chieti-Pescara Metropolitan Area: International Migrations, Residential Choices and Economic Deconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Montanari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of human mobility – with reference to the migratory component – has taken on specific significance during the last decade, particularly with regard to the concept of place. This paper considers the subject in relation to residential and economic deconcentration. The specific point of reference is the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the central part of Italy’s Adriatic coast. The research was carried out through quantitative analysis of official data from population censuses and register offices. The results highlight the links between movements of residents and those of firms, in which foreign residents show distinctive behaviour. The residential choices made by foreigners in the area are based on economic reasons and are primarily linked to housing and transport costs. Their communities tend to be concentrated in specific zones of the metropolitan area and in specific districts of the cities, as a consequence of a feeling of belonging and solidarity. Although there are no clear signs of segregation phenomena, the native population tends to avoid mingling with foreigners from marginal countries.

  18. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  19. Geographical Distribution and Cluster Detection of Childhood Leukemia in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Garibaldi-Covarrubias, Roberto; Romo-Rubio, Hugo; Soto-Sumuano, Leonardo; Ruiz-Chávez, Carlos Fernando; Suárez-Arredondo, Mijail; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in childhood. Analyzing the spatial distribution of acute leukemia may generate the identification of risk factors. To study the incidence rate of acute leukemia, its geographic distribution, and cluster detection in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico. We included children under 15 years of age diagnosed with acute leukemia during the period 2010-2014 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. Each case was geo-referenced to street level to latitude and longitude coordinates using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS). Spatial clusters were found in the location of the acute leukemia cases applying the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm with R statistical software. A total of 269 cases of leukemia were registered, 227 (84%) were acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 42 (16%) acute myeloblastic leukemia. The mean age was 6 ± 4 years. The mean incidence of acute leukemia was 6.44 cases/100,000 inhabitants: El Salto 10.12/100,000, Guadalajara 7.55/100,000, and Tlaquepaque 6.74/100,000. The DBSCAN found three clusters, all located within the municipality of Guadalajara. The incidence of acute leukemia in our population is higher than that in Canada and the USA. We found three spatial clusters of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the municipality of Guadalajara, suggesting the presence of local predisposing factors.

  20. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  1. Gender differences in psychological reactions to Hurricane Sandy among New York Metropolitan Area residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2015-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a natural disaster of large proportions--a category 3 storm at its peak intensity that struck New York Metropolitan Area on October, 2012. The death and destruction caused by a hurricane can rise numerous of mental health vulnerabilities such as, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Gender has been identified as one critical variable that can impact vulnerability to adverse effects of trauma, as well as how these reactions are managed. The present research provides an evaluation of gender differences regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms, recollections of national disasters and fears of future negative life events. It also aims to explore information seeking and sources of assistance that were utilized during Hurricane Sandy. An online survey sample of 1,000 people from New York Metropolitan Area completed a battery of self-report questionnaires four weeks after the storm. Results revealed that recollections of national disaster and fear of future events were found to be significantly different among women compared to men. Additionally, women were more inclined toward information seeking through Facebook than men, although no gender differences emerged when examining sources of support. The results indicate that disaster practitioners should tailor gender sensitive interventions.

  2. Probabilistic Analysis of Drought Spatiotemporal Characteristics in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyuan Cai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial characteristics of meteorological drought have been investigated to provide a framework of methodologies for the analysis of drought in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area (BTHMA in China. Using the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI as an indicator of drought severity, the characteristics of droughts have been examined. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area was divided into 253 grid-cells of 27 × 27km and monthly precipitation data for the period of 1960–2010 from 33 meteorological stations were used for global interpolation of precipitation using spatial co-ordinate data. Drought severity was assessed from the estimated gridded RDI values at multiple time scales. Firstly, the temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts were analyzed, and then drought severity-areal extent-frequency (SAF annual curves were developed. The analysis indicated that the frequency of moderate and severe droughts was about 9.10% in the BTHMA. Using the SAF curves, the return period of selected severe drought events was assessed. The identification of the temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts in the BTHMA will be useful for the development of a drought preparedness plan in the region.

  3. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-09-28

    There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietitian Yahoo group, and the Hunter College Nutrition and Food Sciences student and alumni listserv (NFS-L) over a 4 year period. Keywords were identified using job categories defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) compensation and benefits survey. This served as a starting point to enumerate the types of positions that have been posted for the New York metropolitan area in recent years. Four hundred and twelve (412) unique job postings were recorded. Various educational levels, credentials, and skills desired by these employers were identified, assessed, and compared with similar data from the "supply side" reports from AND. The credentials and skills most desired by employers are similar to some of the learning objectives set forth for DPD and DI programs by ACEND, but not entirely congruent. The need for both client/customer focus and computer literacy may be implicit in the standards, but a more overt inclusion of these skills would likely be of benefit to ensure these are inculcated into every program and student.

  4. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Daiane; Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Vetoratto, Gerson; Amaro, Taís Guarienti; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malassezia yeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease.

  5. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  6. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. Methods: We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietitian Yahoo group, and the Hunter College Nutrition and Food Sciences student and alumni listserv (NFS-L) over a 4 year period. Keywords were identified using job categories defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) compensation and benefits survey. This served as a starting point to enumerate the types of positions that have been posted for the New York metropolitan area in recent years. Results: Four hundred and twelve (412) unique job postings were recorded. Various educational levels, credentials, and skills desired by these employers were identified, assessed, and compared with similar data from the “supply side” reports from AND. Conclusions: The credentials and skills most desired by employers are similar to some of the learning objectives set forth for DPD and DI programs by ACEND, but not entirely congruent. The need for both client/customer focus and computer literacy may be implicit in the standards, but a more overt inclusion of these skills would likely be of benefit to ensure these are inculcated into every program and student. PMID:26755482

  7. An integrated approach for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from 100 U.S. metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Samuel A.; Matthews, H. Scott; Azevedo, Inês L.; Hendrickson, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Cities have become key players in climate change mitigation policy. To develop their climate policies, cities need good assessments of their current and future emissions. We use publically available national datasets to develop an integrated approach for estimating GHG emissions at the metropolitan level over time, between multiple locations, and across sectors. We estimate consistent production-based GHG emissions for the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States in 2014. We find that total 2014 metropolitan CO2 emissions range from 4.1 million metric tons in Lancaster, Pennsylvania to nearly 170 million metric tons in the Houston, Texas; with an overall average of 27 million metric tons. The top 20 absolute emitters and top 20 per capita emitters only overlap for 9 locations. Per capita emissions also show a wide variation: from 5 metric tons per person in the Tucson, Arizona to 65 metric tons per person in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana; with an overall average of 14 metric tons per person. We also compute estimates for 2002 and 2011 and compare to our 2014 emission estimates. Across all locations analyzed, average total emissions increased by 3% and average per capita emissions decreased by 14%. Where possible, we also compare our emission estimates to those reported by the cities in their climate action plans and find an average absolute difference between our estimates and those reported by the cities of 5.6 metric tons CO2 per person, likely due to temporal and scope differences between the two estimates. Our integrated emission estimation approach complements bottom-up approaches typically employed by municipalities and helps practitioners divert their attention and resources away from continuous emission accounting toward more impactful emission mitigation efforts.

  8. Real-time earthquake shake, damage, and loss mapping for Istanbul metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zülfikar, A. Can; Fercan, N. Özge Zülfikar; Tunç, Süleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The past devastating earthquakes in densely populated urban centers, such as the 1994 Northridge; 1995 Kobe; 1999 series of Kocaeli, Düzce, and Athens; and 2011 Van-Erciş events, showed that substantial social and economic losses can be expected. Previous studies indicate that inadequate emergency response can increase the number of casualties by a maximum factor of 10, which suggests the need for research on rapid earthquake shaking damage and loss estimation. The reduction in casualties in urban areas immediately following an earthquake can be improved if the location and severity of damages can be rapidly assessed by information from rapid response systems. In this context, a research project (TUBITAK-109M734) titled "Real-time Information of Earthquake Shaking, Damage, and Losses for Target Cities of Thessaloniki and Istanbul" was conducted during 2011-2014 to establish the rapid estimation of ground motion shaking and related earthquake damages and casualties for the target cities. In the present study, application to Istanbul metropolitan area is presented. In order to fulfill this objective, earthquake hazard and risk assessment methodology known as Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, which was developed for the Euro-Mediterranean region within the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology EC-FP6 project, was used. The current application to the Istanbul metropolitan area provides real-time ground motion information obtained by strong motion stations distributed throughout the densely populated areas of the city. According to this ground motion information, building damage estimation is computed by using grid-based building inventory, and the related loss is then estimated. Through this application, the rapidly estimated information enables public and private emergency management authorities to take action and allocate and prioritize resources to minimize the casualties in urban areas during immediate post-earthquake periods. Moreover, it

  9. Assessment of the aerosols distribution in the Bucharest metropolitan area in relation with health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Dida, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series satellite images and in- situ monitoring of particle matter PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in an effort to qualitatively assess distribution of aerosols in the greater Bucharest area during 2010-2011 period. It was found that PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols exhibit their highest concentration mostly in the central part mainly due to road traffic as well as in the industrialized parts outside of city's centre. An epidemiological study examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants in metropolitan agglomeration of Bucharest used ambient air pollution measurements like as PM10 and PM2.5 levels as a proxy for personal exposure levels. The measurements of environmental concentrations of particulate matter air pollutants have been correlated with health effects on respiratory health status of school children in urban/periurban areas of Bucharest.

  10. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  11. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  12. Potential projects in the metropolitan area of the Valley of Mexico for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, G. [Universidad nacional autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This presentation describes the environmental characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City, provides a statistical summary of energy consumption and emissions by the transport, industry, residential, and agricultural sectors of the economy, and some of the strategies designed to deal with the unique environmental problems of the area, including plans to extend subway transportation and interurban train lines, conversion of trucks and buses to natural gas, installation of catalytic converters in private vehicles, replacement of old trucks and cars. The role of environmental indicators and CDM in the fight against greenhouse gas emissions and climate change from the Mexican perspective are also reviewed. The scarcity of economic resources is shown to be the greatest barrier to sustained progress towards the realisation of these objectives.

  13. The Potential of Periurban Areas for the Resilience of Metropolitan Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present as an organic structure the outcomes from various pieces of research and consulting activities developed over the last few years (2011-2015. Shared topics are: urban-rural partnerships, food planning, metropolitan polices and the territorial resilience of periurban areas. In the first part (the core of the paper the paper underlines critical questions and establishes needs so as to move towards a new approach to development processes in periurban areas. The paper uses some key concepts to present the main outcomes: 1. Understanding complexity (multiscales in space and dynamics (multiscales in time; 2. Identifying all the resources and opportunities; 3. Crosscutting and multi-issues. In the second part (in the final part the paper proposes the “Ecotone” metaphor to support innovation in the approach to periurban areas. It is a “zone of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics uniquely defined by space and time scales and by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems” (Hansen et al, 1992. In these terms, periurban areas may be assumed to be ecotonal zones of transition between urban and rural or natural systems. Using the concept of “ecotonal buffer of transition” to approach the periurban systems it is possible to connect main needs and critical questions underlined to a homogeneous framework and to emphasise on the strategic role that the peri-urban systems play for the future development of metropolitan regions oriented to a improvement of resilience of socio-ecosystems. In the final part the paper focuses on the governace of urban rural partnerships and research perspectives.

  14. Modeling the climatic effects of urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna; Zhang, Xuezhen; Yan, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    In this analysis, the weather research and forecasting model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model is used to simulate the climatic impacts of urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, which has experienced significant expansion in its urban areas. Two cases examining current landscapes and the sensitivity test of urban areas replaced by cropland have been carried out to explore the changes in the surface air and atmospheric boundary structure. The impact of urbanization on annual mean surface air temperature has been found to be more than 1 °C in urban areas, and the maximum difference is almost 2 °C. The change in near-surface level temperature is most pronounced in winter, but the area influenced by urbanization is slightly larger in summer. The annual mean water vapor mixing ratio and wind speed are both reduced in the urban area. The effect of urbanization can only heat the temperature inside the urban boundary layer, below 850 hPa. The modeling results also indicate that the underlying surface thermal forces induced by the "urban heat island" effect enhance vertical air movement and engenders a convergence zone over urban areas. The convergence at low level together with the moisture increases in the layer between 850 and 700 hPa triggered the increase of convective precipitation.

  15. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    against the backgrounid of rapid growth following World War 11, and the ensuing * technological, economic, social, and political changes of that period...Arkosic Sandstone and Red Shale with Conglomerate Basaltic Rock - Diabase and Gabbro in Sills and Dikes Piedmont Plateau Phyllites - Fine Grained Mica...Epidote Amphibolite - Metamorphosed Gabbro Wissahicken Formation - Coarse Mica Schist and Mica Gneiss Massive to Gneissic Granitic Rocks COASTAL

  16. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix G. Non-Structural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    filter Filter Media Dual-media Backwash Max. Rate 23,000 Design Time 8 min. Surf ace Wash Yes Finished Water Storage Underfilter Yes, limited Clearwell 22...Chlorine added at head of clearwell . Chemicals and Storage Bulk storage of FeCl3 and lime. 7 . .. -p. .-. I . . - - WSSC - PATUXENT WATER FILTRATION...backwash storage tank Max. Rate 13,500 gpm Design Time 3-6 min. Surface Wash No, to be added in renovation Finished Water Storage Clearwell Yes, 7 tanks

  17. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix B. Plan Formulation, Assessment, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Behavoir Mod. 0 0 0 0 Outdoor Behavoir Mod. 0 0 0 0 Non-Residential Behavoir Mod. 0 0 0 0 Siphon-Jet Toilets 22,690 57,487.9 86,258.7 16,643.6 Shower...financial, organizational , and political influences often represent the overriding factors which determine the success or failure " of any proposed plan

  18. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how differences in governance might affect environmental quality. We conceptualize possible linkages in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly by using the change in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance may then influence water quality directly through riparian restoration resulting from monitoring results and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate evidence to substantiate these linkages. Our results showed that changes in monitoring regimes and land development patterns differed in response to differences in growth management policy and environmental governance systems. Our results also showed similarities in environmental quality responses to varying governance systems. For example, we found that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (e.g., increases in DO and reductions in bacteria counts) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in water temperature over time, despite an expansion of these urban areas of more than 20 % over 24 years. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefited indirectly from land use policy. A combination of long-term legacy effects of land development, and a

  19. Sachet drinking water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

  20. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buor, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of water, hours spent fetching water during scarcity and age are the main factors influencing women's health in the metropolis during water scarcity. In both the core and periphery, the water-related problem influencing health is hours spent fetching water during scarcity. An empirical model on water needs and women's health has emerged from the survey. Recommendations have been made on strategies to ensure regular volume of surface water, effective management of scarce water resources with the participation of women, and ensuring gender equity in domestic services.

  1. [A study of factors related to contraceptive dropout: colored women in the metropolitan area of Capetown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, M

    1985-06-01

    There is concern over persons who fail to attend family planning clinics without reason. The represents 1 of the major stumbling blocks to a successful family planning program. The author investigated factors associated with clinic dropout among black women in a metropolitan area (Capetown, South Africa). Almost 1/2 of those who ceased to attend had a good reason for doing so. The main findings regarding the other defaulters included a lack of motivation among black women to prevent uplanned pregnancies through temporary contraception and that the program may not have met all of the public needs. In this regard, specific reference is made to the need of those women who no longer bring their youngest child to the child health clinic as family planning services are usually integrated into such a clinic. (author's modified)

  2. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  3. Healthy communities: the challenge of social capital in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena

    2009-03-01

    The debate about social environment, sustainability and health has been highlighted by the interest in social capital. It has been suggested that social capital varies from place to place and that such variations are relevant for explaining variations in health. This paper explores the association between neighbourhood social capital (making a distinction between linking, bonding and bridging social capital) and self-rated health. The study has involved 4,577 residents in 143 neighbourhoods of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between social capital and self-rated health. The results show that social capital was strongly associated with self-rated health, even after an adjustment for individual attributes. It is not possible to divorce health planning from urban planning and from the promotion of social capital. A sense of place, identity and belonging needs to be at the core of all healthy planning interventions.

  4. A decade of lead monitoring in schoolchildren in the metropolitan area of Monterrey NL, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Santos-Guzmán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the blood lead concentration and associated risk factors in schoolchildren during 1998 and 2008. Materials and methods. A blood lead screening was conducted in schoolchildren of 6-12 years of age, enrolled in 17 elementary schools of the metropolitan area of Monterrey, México, during 1998 and 2008. Results. The mean blood lead level were 9.6 ± 3.0 (μg/dL range of 3.18 to 20.88 in 1998 and 4.5±4.8 μg/dL (range of 3.3 to 53.7 showing a 2.1-times reduction in blood lead levels (p menor que 0.01. Conclusions. This reduction in blood lead levels demonstrate environmental and industrial control improvements and the benefits of fading out the leaded gasoline during the 1990´s.

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition.Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007.Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1.Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PB­CRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Objetive: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative De­partment of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  7. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  8. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

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    K. Ishii

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  9. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  10. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  11. The metropolitan area as a knee-jerk response to the multilevel governance and its derived national public decisions

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    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper objectifies the first part of a larger projects aiming at establishing a public decision-making map pertaining to the negative externalities in the framework of the economic approach of subsidiarity in the multilevel governance (the case of Romania. The first part of the larger research project refers to testing whether the economic theory of the European Union multilevel governance, with its core consisting in the subsidiarity principle, puts more pressure on the national public decisions (more specifically those related to specific market failures, though it interferes with all state’s functions and their specific decisions.Our research thesis begins by establishing whether the relationship between the local political elites and public governance at the level of towns and communes is considered a very straight forward, even obvious relationship. The political parties, by means of the publicly and democratically-elected officials (mayors and local council-members, make the most important decisions concerning public affairs (i.e. pertaining to a market failure examined by a second stage of the project.In an attempt to modernize the Romanian administrative system, to make public administration more dynamic, flexible and pro-active, the local political leaders decided the development of a new type of structure, the metropolitan area. The metropolitan areas, due to the constraints of the law, were established as associative organizations, composed of several administrative-territorial units.The paper at hand presents the establishment of the metropolitan areas in Romania as a political decision to associate towns and communes, in view of gaining access to better-performance instruments for local economic development. The emergence of the metropolitan areas in our country is strongly connected with the local political elites, the local political actors representing, in fact, the engine of the metropolitan structures and regional

  12. Epidemiology and surveillance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in two large metropolitan areas in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Jhaqueline; Roberts, Eric; Paulukonis, Susan; Collins, Natalie; English, Paul; Kaye, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to provide demographic profiles and incidence estimates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in two diverse California metropolitan areas: Los Angeles County (LA) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA). Data were retrospectively collected from multiple sources. Case eligibility criteria included residency in SFBA or LA, and treatment for or diagnosis of ALS between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. Overall incidence rates as well as age-, gender-, race- and ethnicity-specific rates were calculated. We identified 539 ALS cases in SFBA and 545 in LA; 618 were incident cases. Cases were more likely to be male and white. There were considerably more cases (p < 0.05) in LA who were foreign-born (LA, 22%; SFBA, 15%), black (LA, 10%; SFBA, 6%) or Hispanic (LA, 19%; SFBA, 10%). Conversely, the age adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000) were higher in SFBA for whites (LA, 1.40; SFBA, 2.49) and Hispanics (LA, 0.66; SFBA, 1.57) compared with LA. General case demographics and incidence rates in these two areas were similar to published studies. However, the differences between the two areas raise questions about how factors such as geography, access to care, and referral patterns may affect case ascertainment and diagnosis.

  13. Mortality, material deprivation and urbanization: exploring the social patterns of a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Paula; Costa, Claudia; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme

    2015-06-09

    Socioeconomic inequalities affecting health are of major importance in Europe. The literature enhances the role of social determinants of health, such as socioeconomic characteristics and urbanization, to achieve health equity. Yet, there is still much to know, mainly concerning the association between cause-specific mortality and several social determinants, especially in metropolitan areas. This study aims to describe the geographical pattern of cause-specific mortality in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), at small area level (parishes), and analyses the statistical association between mortality risk and health determinants (material deprivation and urbanization level). Fourteen causes have been selected, representing almost 60% of total mortality between 1995 and 2008, particularly those associated with urbanization and material deprivation. A cross-sectional ecological study was carried out. Using a hierarchical Bayesian spatial model, we estimated sex-specific smoothed Standardized Mortality Ratios (sSMR) and measured the relative risks (RR), and 95% credible intervals, for cause-specific mortality relative to 1. urbanization level, 2. material deprivation and 3. material deprivation adjusted by urbanization. The statistical association between mortality and material deprivation and between mortality and urbanization changes by cause of death and sex. Dementia and MN larynx, trachea, bronchus and lung are the causes of death showing higher relative risk associated with urbanization. Infectious and parasitic diseases, Chronic liver disease and Diabetes are the causes of death presenting higher relative risk associated with material deprivation. Ischemic heart disease was the only cause with a statistical association with both determinants, and MN female breast was the only without any statistical association. Urbanization level reduces the impact of material deprivation for most of the causes of death. Men face a higher impact of material deprivation and

  14. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  15. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  16. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  17. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  18. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  19. Lessons for major system change: centralization of stroke services in two metropolitan areas of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Ramsay, Angus; Perry, Catherine; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Stephen; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony; Tyrrell, Pippa; Wolfe, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to identify the factors influencing the selection of a model of acute stroke service centralization to create fewer high-volume specialist units in two metropolitan areas of England (London and Greater Manchester). It considers the reasons why services were more fully centralized in London than in Greater Manchester. In both areas, we analysed 316 documents and conducted 45 interviews with people leading transformation, service user organizations, providers and commissioners. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to compare the processes underpinning change in each area, with reference to propositions for achieving major system change taken from a realist review of the existing literature (the Best framework), which we critique and develop further. In London, system leadership was used to overcome resistance to centralization and align stakeholders to implement a centralized service model. In Greater Manchester, programme leaders relied on achieving change by consensus and, lacking decision-making authority over providers, accommodated rather than challenged resistance by implementing a less radical transformation of services. A combination of system (top-down) and distributed (bottom-up) leadership is important in enabling change. System leadership provides the political authority required to coordinate stakeholders and to capitalize on clinical leadership by aligning it with transformation goals. Policy makers should examine how the structures of system authority, with performance management and financial levers, can be employed to coordinate transformation by aligning the disparate interests of providers and commissioners. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  1. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

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    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  2. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

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    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    for new MCGs were: proximity to the road network inside residential areas, suitable land use, not high land capability. In this way it has been defined for each municipality the number of MCGs to be realized and their area, and located the potentially suitable sites. Choosing between the identified suitable areas, the new MCGs were homogeneously located on the territory of each municipality in order to ensure adequate coverage of residential areas; the degree of coverage has been verified through a service area analysis. The proposed method seems to be useful for the MCGs settlement at metropolitan/provincial level.

  3. Morlet Wavelet Analysis of ML >= 3 Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

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    Kou-Cheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ML >= 3 earthquakes (ML = local magnitude that occurred in the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA from 1973 - 2013 are selected to study the dominant seismicity period of this area. The epicentral distribution and temporal sequences of earthquake magnitudes are simply described. These earthquakes can be divided into two groups: one for events shallower than 40 km and one for events deeper than 60 km. Shallow earthquakes are located mainly in the 0 - 10 km depth range north of 25.1°N,25.1°N, and down to 35 km for those south of 25.1°N.25.1°N. Deep events are located in the subduction zone, with a dip angle of about 70°.70°. The Morlet wavelet technique is applied to analyze the dominant periods of temporal variations in numbers of monthly earthquakes in the shallow and deep ranges for three magnitude ranges, i.e., ML >= 3, 4, and 5. The results show that for shallow earthquakes the dominant periods are 15.4, 30.8, 66.1, and 132.2 months when ML >= 3 and 30.8 months when ML >= 4; while for deep earthquakes, the dominant periods are 16.5 and 141.7 months when ML >= 3 and 141.7 months when ML >= 4. The dominant period cannot be obtained for both shallow and deep ML >= 5 earthquakes.

  4. Water Quality Characteristics of Three Rain Gardens Located Within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

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    Sarah Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS at three locations in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota to assess the effect that bioretention areas, or rain gardens, have on water quality. The rain gardens are located at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA, City of Hugo, and City of Woodbury. These sites were chosen because of their similar ages, differences in design, surrounding land use, precipitation patterns, and geology. This article reports the statistical analysis of six years of data obtained from these three sites. The data characterizes the water quality of the inflow, overflow, vadose zone, and groundwater of each rain garden. Nutrients analyzed included chloride, total suspended solids, ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrate, and phosphorus. Lysimeters and wells had significantly lower nutrient concentrations compared to inflow for most nutrients. Increased nitrate occurred in the vadose zone at Woodbury and Hugo, suggesting some production of nitrate within the soil profile; however, groundwater beneath the rain gardens contained significantly lower concentrations of nitrate compared to the inflow, providing evidence of nitrate removal at deeper depths. Phosphorus concentrations were reduced in overflow and groundwater, with the exception of dissolved phosphorus at MLA. Rain garden and background wells often contained similar nutrient concentrations, suggesting that the rain gardens had little impact on the local ground water supplies. This unique six year study provides consistent evidence of the ability of these three rain gardens to reduce nutrient concentrations from urban stormwater.

  5. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

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    de Souza Luiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  6. Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of Drought in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Areas in China

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    Wanyuan Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought identification and assessment are essential for regional water resources management. In this paper, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were evaluated based on monthly precipitation data from 33 synoptic stations during the period of 1960–2010. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan areas (BTHMA (1965, 1997, and 2002. The modified Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI was applied to capture the drought patterns and to estimate the drought severity at 33 meteorological stations. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to identify three different drought subregions R1, R2, and R3 based on the monthly precipitation values in BTHMA, which is located in southeast, north, and south of BTHMA, respectively. The year 1965 was the driest and 1964 was the wettest during the observed period. The characteristics of drought were analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the RDI-12 values and the frequency of drought for the three identified regions. The percentage of years characterized by drought was 13.73% for R1, 16.50% for R2, and 15.53% for R3. 66.91% of drought belongs to the near normal drought category. The obtained results can aid to improve water resources management in the area.

  7. Distribution of Platinum group elements in road dust in Beijing metropolitan area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; ZHU Ruo-hua; SHI Yan-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Dust samples collected from the Beijing metropolitan area (China) were evaluated to determine the distribution and the concentration of platinum group elements (PGEs). The dust particles that were smaller than 100 mesh size fraction (150 μm) were analyzed after aqua regia digestion. Concentrations[RL2] of Pt, Rh, and Pd were found to be between 3.96 and 356.3 ng/g, 2.76 and 97.11 ng/g, and 0.1 and 124.9 ng/g, respectively, in the urban areas of Beijing, whereas for the background samples collected from the suburbs of Beijing, the concentration of Pt, Pd, and Rh were very low and ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 ng/g, 0.5 to 1.4 ng/g, and 0.8 to 2.2 ng/g, respectively. The[RL3] distributions of PGEs in road dust were an accurate reflection of the levels of pollution and were found to match with the local traffic conditions. A strong positive correlation was established among all the elements found in road dust. This suggests that emissions of abraded fragments from vehicle exhausts may be the source of the high concentration of Pt, Rh, and Pd in road dust along the main roads of Beijing.

  8. Intermunicipal inequities in access and use of secondary health services in the metropolitan area of Curitiba

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    Sandra Lúcia Vieira Ulinski Aguilera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and analyze inequities in the access to specialized services in the municipalities of the metropolitan area of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. This is an ecological study. In its preparatory stage, this study focused on the socioeconomic, epidemiologic, healthcare network and sectoral financing network profiles of the 26 municipalities comprising this area. Factor analysis was employed to obtain the six principal components, and a synthetic index was calculated from them, allowing municipalities to be ranked according to living conditions and health situation. Primary data was collected from 24 municipalities, regarding their capacity, directed and repressed demand of specialized healthcare services. The context analysis revealed accentuated intermunicipal inequities. The synthetic index allowed municipalities to be classified in four relatively homogeneous groups regarding living and health conditions. Municipalities located in Vale do Ribeira obtained the worse outcomes for the Living Conditions and Health Situation Synthetic Index, as well as the higher repressed demand for specialized healthcare services. The geographical distance from the capital showed to contribute to worse living and health conditions and greater difficulties in access to healthcare services.

  9. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  10. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  11. Characterization of the producers of organic vegetables distributed in the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Camacho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the population of producers that distribute organic vegetables in the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM of Costa Rica, a semi-structured survey was applied to 30 of them in different outlets from November 2013 to February 2014. They were classified into 3 groups: the first, with over 10 years’ experience and dedicated exclusively to this activity, uses family labor, plants about one hectare, and diversifies production; they are unionized and certified and have the lowest schooling, as compared to the other groups. The producers of the second group are characterized by around 7 years in the activity and almost exclusive dedication; make little use of family labor; plant less than half a hectare; are not necessarily unionized and / or certified; have an intermediate school level. The third group corresponds to producers with fewer years of experience in this activity and the lowest dedication to it; they make less use of family labor; have a smaller planting area and littlediversified crop production; may or may not be unionized and / or certified and have a higher education level. It is concluded that production of organic vegetables is a growing market, which requires external support in the form of loans and technical assistance in order to consolidate, and even compensation for environmental services produced; if these conditions are fulfilled, it will be possible to witness in coming years an important growth of the sector.

  12. Chemical Associations of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc in Household Dust of Kathmandu Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Raj Shakya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust samples were collected from roadside houses of seven major locations in Kathmandu metropolitan area and trace element compositions was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Results show significant concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd in the test household dusts as compared to the undisturbed (control area. The mean concentrations of all the studied locations were found to be 76.2 mg/kg for Zn, 40.6 mg/kg for Pb, 29.9 mg/kg for Cr, 23.9 mg/kg for Ni and 8.2 mg/kg for Cd, respectively. Increase in these trace metals in the dust can most likely be attributed to rapid urbanization, increased vehicle emissions to the atmosphere and other anthropogenic sources. Elevated Zn abundance in household dust probably originates from traffic sources. Besides, enrichment factor reveals that the household dust was most severely affected by Cd in almost all the locations. Also, correlations between metal levels in dust samples for all the metals were investigated.

  13. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 33 CFR 334.1215 - Port Gardner, Everett Naval Base, naval restricted area, Everett, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Gardner, Everett Naval Base... REGULATIONS § 334.1215 Port Gardner, Everett Naval Base, naval restricted area, Everett, Washington. (a) The area. The waters of Port Gardner and East Waterway surrounding Naval Station Everett beginning at Point...

  15. Aerosol particulate matter in the Baltimore metropolitan area: Temporal variation over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben; Wesloh, Daniel; Powers, Richard J; Hoff, Raymond

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the sources of fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM(2.5)) composition for the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area, covering a 6-year period (2008-2013). Data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) were used for the identification of eight chemical speciation clusters (factors), which, as a percentage of the average concentration, were identified as secondary sulfate (31.9%), secondary nitrate (14.3%), gasoline (17.4%), diesel (10.1%), soil (4.0%), biomass burning (11%), marine aerosol (4.1%), and industrial processing (7.2%). The results show predominant influence from vehicle emissions transiting major highways I-695 and I-95 located in the vicinity of the sampling site. Strong influence on PM2.5 mass from biomass burning was found in the first 2 years (2008-2009) due to particulate matter remnants from forest fire events in North Carolina and a strong contribution in 2013 that was due mainly to wood burning during winter. Sulfate, nitrate, soil, and marine aerosol fractions registered very low variability over the 6-year period analyzed. In addition, this study shows a significant reduction in particulate matter from industrial origins after a major industrial source in Baltimore shut down. The results obtained from Baltimore were compared with those from the Beltsville, Maryland, sampling station located 25 miles south of Baltimore for 2011 and 2012, where good agreement was found for most of the factors. This paper presents the first long-term aerosol speciation analysis in a Mid-Atlantic United States metropolitan area, which is essential for the air quality management agencies in order to revise regulations and reduce human exposure to adverse air quality conditions. The results suggest that although a declining trend in the overall PM2.5 was observed, no significant tendency was observed in the identified sources besides exceptional events such as the impact of

  16. Urban Dynamism within the Vienna-Bratislava Metropolitan Area: Improving Regional Competitiveness and the Constructed Regional Advantage Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Brzica

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Bratislava metropolitan area (BMA and its strategic positioning within the broader cross-border metropolitan area (VBMA. It provides a review of the internal/external urban dynamism of bma and other processes ongoing within VBMA. We introduce the constructed regional advantage (CRA concept and indicate factors which contribute to the higher socio-economic dynamics of Bratislava and VBMA. Our focus is on two inter-related areas: industrial sector development and urban dynamics. The idea is that only a sufficient level of urban dynamics allows VBMA to generate an adequate complexity of activities, which can promote regional competitiveness. The CRA concept is used here for better understanding of existing developmental factors in territorial cooperation. It allows one to look at various knowledge bases existing in vbma and to show that regional similarities/ complementarities can contribute to dynamic changes within this area.

  17. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán; Carolina Rojas Quezada

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted reg...

  18. Ozone weekend effects in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei metropolitan area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ozone weekend effect (OWE was first investigated in the metropolitan area of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH, China, using in situ measurements from the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Network from July 2009 to August 2011. The results indicate that there is an obvious weekly periodical variation in the surface ozone concentration based on 24 h averaged value. There is a lower ozone concentration from Wednesday to Friday (weekday and a higher concentration from Saturday to Monday (weekend over the entire study area. NOx also displays weekly cycle, with the maximum level occurring on weekdays and the minimum level on weekends, especially later on Sunday night and early Monday morning. This pattern may be responsible for the higher concentration of ozone on weekends. Additionally, the vertical variations in O3 and NOx from the 8 m 47 m, 120 m and 280 m observation platforms on the 325 m Beijing meteorological tower displayed obvious weekly cycles that corresponded to the surface results. A smaller decrease in VOCs (a proxy for CO and much lower NOx concentrations on the weekend may lead to higher VOC/NOx ratio, which can enhance the ozone production efficiency in VOC-regime areas. Additionally, a clear weekly cycle in the fine aerosol concentration was observed, with maximum values occurring on weekdays and minimum values occurring on weekends. Higher concentrations of aerosol on weekdays can reduce the UV radiation flux by absorption or scattering, which leads to a decrease in the ozone production efficiency. A significant weekly cycle in UV radiation, in consistent with the aerosol concentration, was discovered at the BJT site, validating the assumption. A comprehensive understanding of the ozone weekend effect in the BTH area can provide deep insights into controlling photochemical pollution.

  19. Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Martínez-Trejo, Lida; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; García-Arreola, María Elena

    2014-10-01

    The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m(-3) (minimal value 1 pg m(-3) maximal value 79 pg m(-3)). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC.

  20. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  2. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of using natural gas in vehicles of the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.; Trinidad-Garcia, H.G.; Diaz, L.; Perdomo, V.; Castillo, H.; Schifter, I. [Istituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) authorities the transport sector causes 75% of total pollutant emissions to the atmosphere, that is why to mitigate pollution several programs focus on reducing emissions from mobile sources, one of these programs promotes the use of Natural Gas (NG) in vehicles of the MCMA instead of gasoline or diesel. This work shows the cost-benefit analysis results of this program. The analysis considered the period 1999-2014. Projections for the MCMA vehicular fleet, and for the type and number of vehicles that would switch from gasoline or diesel to NG were made. To obtain the change in exhaust emissions, measurements were performed using the U. S. Federal Test Procedure 75 in vehicles consuming gasoline and NG Vehicle conversion, conversion shops, and gas station costs were considered in the analysis The estimated benefits stemmed from fuel price and efficiency differential, vehicle taxes, maintenance costs, and pollutant emission reductions. The Benefit/Cost ratio found was 3.79, and the vehicles suggested for conversion were those of intensive use circulating exclusively in the MCMA. Even though ozone formation simulations were done using the CIT trajectory model, the changes in ozone concentrations observed were smaller than the model resolution, mainly because the change in ozone precursors due to the fuel change in some of the MCMA vehicles, was less than 1% of total emissions. (authors)

  4. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  5. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  6. [Bullying in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega López, María Guadalupe; González Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Valle Barbosa, María Ana; Flores Villavicencio, María Elena; Vega López, Agustín

    2013-08-01

    This paper seeks to determine the prevalence of victims of school bullying among youth enrolled in public secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico and to identify the factors associated with being a victim of bullying in the period 2009-2011. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out. A multistage probability sampling was designed for the public secondary schools, in which 1,706 students between 11 and 16 years old were studied. A questionnare with four sections was applied in order to identify victims of bullying. A logistic regression model was then used to measure the association between the factors analyzed and being a victim of bullying. The prevalence of school bullying was 17.6% (95% CI 15.8; 19.5). Personal factors, such as the feeling of not being accepted by peers or not spending much time with friends, were the factors with the strongest statistically significant association with being a victim of bullying.

  7. [Prevalence of urinary and anal incontinence in women from metropolitan area of Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Espinoza, Claudia Josefina; Flores Carreras, Oscar; García de Alba García, Javier E; Velázquez Castellanos, Patricia Inés; González Ruiz, María Isabel; Márquez Allegre, René

    2006-06-01

    Female urinary and anal incontinence are common entities in pelvic floor dysfunction. The most frequently age affected range from 45 to 69 years. Previous studies performed in the United States report a prevalence of 24-62% for urinary incontinence and 3-60% for anal incontinence. To determine the prevalence of these disorders in the Guadalajara metropolitan area because we do not know it. A transversal and various stage study was performed recollecting blocks first, then houses, finally interviewing women and applying a structured questionnaire with somatometric and social-demographic data and also clinical-pathological antecedents. The data obtained was registered and processed first manually then using Excel and Epi-Info software. The group of women interviewed (n = 352) were between 15-85 years. The majority were married, housewives, 33% with grammar school, 23% finished high school, 25% professionists and 19% did not finish school; with an average of three pregnancies and with a body mass index (BMI) positive for overweight and obesity. The prevalence for urinary incontinence was 27.8% and anal incontinence of 3.4%. These are results compatible with those reported in the United States. Women living in Guadalajara have the same behavior that European and American women about prevalence of urinary incontinence. We recommend the performance of this type of studies in other states of this country in order to enrich the present information.

  8. Environmental non-governmental organizations – The actions of civil society in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Mara WOLSKY CARNEIRO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at achieving a diagnosis of the major actions of the environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs that actuate in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. It also studies the relations established by these organizations to build a place socially fair and environmental sustainable. In order to do that the main activities of these organizations in the last decades were raised through interviews with their representatives, visitations to the central office and verification of the institutional documents available. The paper explains that the NGOs search to make actions that raise a sustainable model of development, since they understand that the State reduced the participation in this sector and that the people gave them power for it. To achieve so, they need to create a net of relationships between the community, the private and public agents and the NGOs, with the objective of learn the problems, point at the solutions and to develop environmental interventions models to legitimize their actions. That way, the territoriality that these organizations seek to create depend of integrated decisions and of a continuous search of people, information and mobilization, to set up news socials actors and to ensure the development of the activities of these organizations.

  9. Competitive advantages of SMEs. The case of the Lodz Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dorozynski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs play a major role in economic growth in developed and developing countries. For example, in the European Union, SMEs contribute to over 99% of all enterprises and more than 100 million jobs, representing 67% of private sector employment. In the Lodz Metropolitan Area (LMA SMEs play a decisive role in economic development and their economic condition translates into the condition of the sub-region. Hence, the main objective of the paper is the assessment of SMEs operations in the LMA by the identification of development factors and barriers to economic activity. The paper uses the results of a direct study of the group of 171 small and medium sized enterprises conducted in 2012. We applied various statistical tools useful in processing data from questionnaires, e.g. cross-sectional analysis, averages, variation coefficients, Cramer’s V, and internal consistency coefficient Cronbach’s alpha. The paper goes on to discuss the competitiveness of goods and services produced by companies included in the study by making reference to theories of sources of competitive advantage. Its important part will be devoted to the assessment of SMEs operating conditions taking account of 30 factors that facilitate or hamper business activity. The analysis will also cover enterprises’ opinions on selling opportunities in a medium-term perspective. These opinions will be presented in various cross-sectional studies.

  10. A helminthological survey of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A L; Ockens, N W; Kapel, C M; Monrad, J

    1996-09-01

    Sixty-eight red foxes were collected from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen and examined for helminth infections. Standard faecal flotations for intestinal parasites gave the following results: Strongyle eggs (75.0%), Capillaria eggs (36.8%), Toxocara eggs (23.5%), Taenia eggs (1.5%), and coccidia oocysts (2.9%). Gastrointestinal helminths were collected from 21 of the 68 foxes with the following specimens found: Uncinaria stenocephala (85.7%), Toxocara canis (81.0%), Taenia spp. (38.1%), Mesocestoides lineatus (23.8%) and Polymorphus spp. (9.5%). Faeces of 39 foxes were examined by the Baermann method for larvae of cardiopulmonary worms with 20 foxes (51.3%) being infected. Fourteen foxes (35.9%) were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, 11 (28.2%) were infected with Crenosoma vulpis, and 5 foxes (12.8%) were infected with both species. Muscle digestion of diaphragms from the 68 foxes indicated that none harboured larvae of Trichinella spiralis.

  11. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  12. Income, social stratification, class, and private health insurance: a study of the Baltimore metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Parsons, P E

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of inequalities and access to health care have used income as the sole indicator of social stratification. Despite the significance of social theory in health insurance research, there are no empirical studies comparing the ability of different models of social stratification to predict health insurance coverage. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis using a variety of theory-driven indicators of social stratification and assess the relative strength of the association between these indicators and private health insurance. Data were collected in a 1993 telephone interview of a random digit dialing sample of the white population in the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indicators of social stratification included employment status, full-time work, education, occupation, industry, household income, firm size, and three types of assets: ownership, organizational, and skill/credential. The association between social stratification and private health insurance was strongest for those having higher household incomes, having attained at least a bachelor's degree, and working in a firm with more than 50 employees, followed by being an owner or manager, and by being employed. The addition of education and firm size improved the prediction of the household income model. The authors conclude that studies of inequalities in health insurance coverage can benefit from the inclusion of theory-driven indicators of social stratification such as human capital, labor market segmentation, and control over productive assets.

  13. Spatial patterns of use of health services in the Kingston metropolitan area, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W; Phillips, D R

    1990-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of distance, transport and accessibility on the use of health services in Kingston, Jamaica. It reviews various factors affecting the use of health care with particular reference to Third World cities and presents results from a case study of utilization in the Kingston Metropolitan Area. Three pairs of sites of contrasting social status were selected and 50 respondents questioned in each about spatial patterns of primary health care (PHC) attendance. Types of facility attended, mode of transport, travel times, distance and frequency of utilization were discussed. Some distinctive differences appeared between low and high status site respondents with regard to distances to facilities and travel times, which were almost always higher for the low status respondents. Most respondents were not using their nearest facilities, for varying reasons which included, for poorer respondents, need to attend frequently distant public facilities and, for wealthier respondents, loyalty to old family doctors and use of company-related doctors. The mobility of the higher status respondents afforded them considerable choice of locations used for health care and their attendance was much more convenient than that of lower status respondents. Utilization rates were somewhat higher in the high status sites although not to the extent found by some earlier studies in similar settings.

  14. An intelligent surveillance platform for large metropolitan areas with dense sensor deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-06-07

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  15. An exploratory study of healthcare strategic planning in two metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kaissi, Amer A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about empirical variation in the extent to which healthcare organizations conduct formal strategic planning or the extent to which strategic planning affects performance. Structural contingency and complexity science theory offer differing interpretations of the value of strategic planning. Structural contingency theory emphasizes adaptation to achieve organizational fit with a changing environment and views strategic planning as a way to chart the organization's path. Complexity science argues that planning is largely futile in changing environments. Interviews of leaders in 20 healthcare organizations in the metropolitan areas of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, and San Antonio, Texas, reveal that strategic planning is a common and valued function in healthcare organizations. Respondents emphasized the need to continuously update strategic plans, involve physicians and the governing board, and integrate strategic plans with other organizational plans. Most leaders expressed that strategic planning contributes to organizational focus, fosters stakeholder participation and commitment, and leads to achievement of strategic goals. Because the widespread belief in strategic planning is based largely on experience, intuition, and faith, we present recommendations for developing an evidence base for healthcare strategic planning.

  16. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, nitrates, and other chemicals in well water in the Fresno-Clovis Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, H

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the spatial and temporal distribution of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, nitrate, and several other organic and inorganic chemicals in large community wells in the Fresno-Clovis Metropolitan Area and estimated the lifetime cancer risk associated with exposure to tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene. By 1992-1993, investigators found the industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene in 34 wells and found trichloroethylene in 16 wells. All wells had detectable levels of nitrate. In addition, investigators found radon, arsenic, cadmium, iron, manganese, trihalomethanes, and several other volatile organic chemicals in the wells, but only radon and arsenic posed a significant health risk. In 1995, 16 wells were closed because chemicals were found in them. Twenty-six of 248 (10.5%) active wells and 24 of 43 (55.8%) closed wells contained multiple contaminants, excluding nitrate. Between 1988 and 1993, concentrations of trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and nitrates increased in selected wells. Daily, monthly, and bimonthly variations in the concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and nitrate were often considerable. Granulated activated carbon filtration reduced trichloroethylene levels in well water by 91%-95%, and the author examined its usefulness as a remedial measure. Estimated lifetime cancer risks for tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were 1 excess cancer death per 9.5 million people and 1 excess death per 250 million, respectively. The author also included recommendations for the conduct of further epidemiological and environmental studies.

  17. Assessing sustainability in real urban systems: the Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Area in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mejía, Alejandra M; Eason, Tarsha N; Cabezas, Heriberto; Suidan, Makram T

    2012-09-04

    Urban systems have a number of factors (i.e., economic, social, and environmental) that can potentially impact growth, change, and transition. As such, assessing and managing these systems is a complex challenge. While, tracking trends of key variables may provide some insight, identifying the critical characteristics that truly impact the dynamic behavior of these systems is difficult. As an integrated approach to evaluate real urban systems, this work contributes to the research on scientific techniques for assessing sustainability. Specifically, it proposes a practical methodology based on the estimation of dynamic order, for identifying stable and unstable periods of sustainable or unsustainable trends with Fisher Information (FI) metric. As a test case, the dynamic behavior of the City, Suburbs, and Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) of Cincinnati was evaluated by using 29 social and 11 economic variables to characterize each system from 1970 to 2009. Air quality variables were also selected to describe the MSA's environmental component (1980-2009). Results indicate systems dynamic started to change from about 1995 for the social variables and about 2000 for the economic and environmental characteristics.

  18. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6% geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3% of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon.

  19. An Intelligent Surveillance Platform for Large Metropolitan Areas with Dense Sensor Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A. Alonso-López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform’s control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.. The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  20. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  1. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  2. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  3. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  4. Ozone weekend effects in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Hu, B.; Ji, D. S.; Liu, Z. R.; Tang, G. Q.; Xin, J. Y.; Zhang, H. X.; Song, T.; Wang, L. L.; Gao, W. K.; Wang, X. K.; Wang, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ozone weekend effect (OWE) was first investigated in the metropolitan area of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China, using in situ measurements from the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Network from July 2009 to August 2011. The results indicate that there is an obvious weekly periodical variation in the surface ozone concentration. There is a lower ozone concentration from Wednesday to Friday (weekday) and a higher concentration from Saturday to Monday (weekend) at all the locations of the study. NOx also displays a weekly cycle, with the maximum level occurring on weekdays and the minimum level on weekends, especially later on Sunday night and early Monday morning. This pattern may be responsible for the higher concentration of ozone on weekends. Additionally, the vertical variations in O3 and NOx from the 8 m, 47 m, 120 m and 280 m observation platforms on the 325 m Beijing meteorological tower displayed obvious weekly cycles that corresponded to the surface results. A smaller decrease in volatile organic compounds (VOCs; using CO as a proxy) and much lower NOx concentrations on the weekend may lead to higher VOC / NOx ratio, which can enhance the ozone production efficiency in VOC-limited regime areas. Additionally, a clear weekly cycle in the fine aerosol concentration was observed, with maximum values occurring on weekdays and minimum values occurring on weekends. Higher concentrations of aerosol on weekdays can reduce the UV radiation flux by scattering or absorbing, which leads to a decrease in the ozone production efficiency. A significant weekly cycle in UV radiation, consistent with the aerosol concentration, was discovered at the Beijing meteorological tower site (BJT), validating the assumption. A comprehensive understanding of the ozone weekend effect in the BTH area can provide deep insights into controlling photochemical pollution.

  5. Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyzanowski Michal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. Methods Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter 10 as a surrogate of total air pollution. Results The estimated proportion of all cause mortality, sudden infant death syndrome (normal birth weight infants only and respiratory disease mortality (normal birth weight attributable to PM10 above a chosen reference value of 12.0 μg/m3 PM10 was 6% (95% confidence interval 3–11%, 16% (95% confidence interval 9–23% and 24% (95% confidence interval 7–44%, respectively. The expected number of infant deaths per year in the selected areas was 106 (95% confidence interval 53–185, 79 (95% confidence interval 46–111 and 15 (95% confidence interval 5–27, respectively. Approximately 75% of cases were from areas where the current levels are at or below the new U.S. PM2.5 standard of 15 μg/m3 (equivalent to 25 μg/m3 PM10. In a country where infant mortality rates and air pollution levels are relatively low, ambient air pollution as measured by particulate matter contributes to a substantial fraction of infant death, especially for those due to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory disease. Even if all counties would comply to the new PM2.5 standard, the majority of the estimated burden would remain. Conclusion Given the inherent limitations of risk assessments, further studies are needed to support and quantify the relationship between infant mortality and air pollution.

  6. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR LEWIS COUNTY, WASHINGTON AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Martinico, Francesco, E-mail: fmartinico@dau.unict.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: > Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. > NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). > NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. > Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). > By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  8. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests,...

  9. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  10. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  11. Risk to a Changing Climate in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    The issue of climate change has dominated the atmospheric sciences agenda in recent decades. The concern about an increase in climate related disasters, mainly in large population centers, has led to ask whether they are mainly due to changes in climate or in vulnerability.The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is an example of megalopolis under high climate risk, where floods, landslides, health problems, high air pollution events, socioeconomic droughts are becoming important environmental and social problems. As urbanization spreads and population increases exposure to natural hazards increases, and so the magnitude of risk to a changing climate and the negative impacts. Since the late nineteenth century, in the MCMA an average maximum temperature could be around 22°C, whereas today it is about 24.5ºC. That is, the increase in the average temperature in Mexico City is around 3°C in a hundred years. But there are areas where an increase in the average temperature is similar in only thirty years. The heating rate of the city can vary depending on the change in land use. Areas that conserve forested regions in the process of urbanization tend to warm less than areas where the transformation into concrete and cement is almost complete. Thus, the climate of the MCMA shows important changes mainly in relation to land use changes. Global warming and natural climate variability were also analyzed as possible forcing factors of the observed warming by comparing low frequency variations in local temperature and indices for natural forcing. The hydrological cycle of the MCMA has also changed with urbanization. The "bubble of hot air" over the urban area has more capacity to hold moisture now than before the UHI. However, the increased risk to floods, heat or drought appears to be related not only to more frequent intense climatic hazards induced by the urbanization effect. This process also induces increased vulnerability to a changing climate. The establishment of

  12. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Weigel, Jay F.; Bruchmiller, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, and San Antonio.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, began studies in the Houston metropolitan area in 1964. The program was expanded in 1968 to include collection of water-quality data. The objectives of the Houston urban-hydrology study are as follows:To determine, on the basis of historical data and hydro!ogic analyses, the magnitude and frequency of flood peaks and flood volumes.To determine the effect of urban development on flood peaks and volumes.To ascertain the variation in water quality for different flow conditions and different seasons.This report, the sixteenth in a series of reports to be published annually, is primarily applicable to objective 2. The report presents hydro!ogic data collected in the Houston urban area for the 1979 water year (October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979).A report by Johnson and Sayre (1973) utilized records collected from 1965 to 1969 to make a study of the effects of urbanization on floods in the Houston area. The report also summarizes various basin parameters. A report by Waddell, Massey, and Jennings (1979) presents data on computed runoff from the Houston area and computed concentrations and loads of selected waterquality constituents combined in the inflow to Galveston Bay. The study utilized a variation of the "STORM" model developed by the Hydro!ogic Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. A report prepared by Li scum and Massey (1980) presents a technique for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in the Houston area from drainage areas, bank-full conveyance, and percentage of urban development.A definition of terms related to streamflow, water quality, and other hydrologic data, as used in this report, are defined in "U.S. Geological Survey, Water-resources data for Texas, volume 2, 1979."To facilitate the

  13. Spatial variation in particle number size distributions in a large metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Mejía

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Air quality studies have indicated that particle number size distribution (NSD is unevenly spread in urban air. To date, these studies have focussed on differences in concentration levels between sampling locations rather than differences in the underlying geometries of the distributions. As a result, the existing information on the spatial variation of the NSD in urban areas remains incomplete. To investigate this variation in a large metropolitan area in the southern hemisphere, NSD data collected at nine different locations during different campaigns of varying duration were compared using statistical methods. The spectra were analysed in terms of their modal structures (the graphical representation of the number size distribution function, cumulative distribution and number median diameter (NMD. The study found that with the exception of one site all distributions were bimodal or suggestive of bimodality. In general, peak concentrations were below 30 nm and NMDs below 50 nm, except at a site dominated by diesel trucks, where it shifted to around 50 and 60 nm respectively. Ultrafine particles (UFPs contributed to 82–90% of the particle number, nanoparticles (<50 nm to around 60–70%, except at the diesel traffic site, where their contribution dropped to 50%. Statistical analyses found that the modal structures heterogeneously distributed throughout Brisbane whereas it was not always the case for the NMD. The discussion led to the following site classification: (1 urban sites dominated by petrol traffic, (2 urban sites affected by the proximity to the road and (3 an isolated site dominated by diesel traffic. Comparisons of weekday and weekend data indicated that, the distributions were not statistically different. The only exception occurred at one site, where there is a significant drop in the number of diesel buses on the weekend. The differences in sampling period between sites did not affect the results. The statistics instead suggested

  14. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-07-22

    The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  15. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  16. Dynamics of thermal inversions on Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R.; Tereshchenko, I.; Perez, D. A.; Lizarraga, S. J.; Thermal Inversions, Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara

    2013-05-01

    This work attempts an analysis of the dynamics of the meteorological variables in the lower troposphere in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (ZMG), Jalisco, Mexico. It was used the radiosonde database 2000-2012, and a classification of synoptic situations typical for different inversions occurring. Preliminary results indicate that surface temperature inversions dominate the climate of the study area, mainly recorded two times during the year. An investment without matching the rainy season and covers the months of June to September where investments are recorded at a frequency below 41%. And a station with investments in the type of radiation surface which covers the months of January to May and November to December, with a frequency above 86% in October as month leaving transition with a frequency of 64%. As surface temperature inversions which most affect human activity in the ZMG by not allowing the dispersion of pollutants, the results show that these investments have a thickness ranging from 50 to 250 meters high, covering this range for 85% of the investments registered with respect to the temperature difference between the base and the apex of the observed reversal of between 1°C to 12°C, where the average is 5°C and 7 °C. While this shows that during most of the year there are temperature inversions in the ZMG, this does not mean that every day you will have concentration of pollutants above the norm, this is due to the influence of synoptic scale phenomena mainly to a combination of large anticyclonic systems of the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic, affecting mostly Mexico during the months of December to February, alternating with waves of Western middle latitudes.

  17. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  18. Not a Pretty Picture: Toxics in Art Supplies in Washington, DC Area Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pamela

    A study revealed that some of the art and craft supplies being used by most Washington, D.C. area public school districts (City of Alexandria, Arlington and Fairfax counties--Virginia; Montgomery and Prince George's counties--Maryland; and the District of Columbia) contained toxic ingredients which could cause serious, long-term damage, sterility,…

  19. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County... (CAA) requirements related to the Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate... Tacoma-Pierce County Clean Air Task Force, an advisory committee of community leaders, citizen...

  20. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  1. Robust Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression: Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted ...

  2. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    M. Crippa; P. F. DeCarlo; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C; M. F. Heringa; R. Chirico; POULAIN L.; F. Freutel; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; Marco, C. F.; M. Elsasser; Nicolas, J.B.; N. Marchand; Abidi, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36%) and nitrate (28–29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%),...

  3. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    M. Crippa; P. F. DeCarlo; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C; M. F. Heringa; R. Chirico; POULAIN L.; F. Freutel; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; C. F. Di Marco; M. Elsasser; N. José; N. Marchand; Abidi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36%) and nitrate (28–29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%),...

  4. Water-resources-related information for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District planning area, Wisconsin, 1970-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Morgan A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the stream corridors of the MMSD planning area by initially compiling existing data and using the compiled information to develop 3-year baseline and long-term monitoring plans. This report is one of the products of Phase I of the Corridor Study.

  5. Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2008-07-07

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and

  6. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  7. An overview of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shim, Jae-Kwan; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    The Weather Information Service Engine (WISE), launched project of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), aims to operate the urban meteorological observation network from 2012 to 2019 and to test and operate the application weather service (e.g., flash flood, road weather, city ecology, city microclimate, dispersion of hazardous substance etc.) in 2019 through the development of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis Prediction System(ASAPS) for the production of storm-scale hazard weather monitoring and prediction system. The WISE institute has completed construction of 31 urban meteorological observation cities in Seoul metropolitan area and has built a real-time test operation and verification system by improving the ASAPS that produces 1 km and 6 hour forecast information based on the 5 km forecast information of KMA. Field measurements of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) was conducted in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea from August 22 to October 14, 2016. Involving over 70 researchers from more than 12 environmental and atmospheric science research groups in South Korea, WUSOC2016 focused on special observations, severe rain storm observations using mobile observation car and radiosonde, wind profile observations using Wind Doppler Lidar and radiosonde, etc., around the Seoul metropolitan area. WUSOC2016 purpose at data quality control, accuracy verification, usability check, and quality improvement of ASAPS at observation stations constructed in WISE. In addition, we intend to contribute to the activation of urban fusion weather research and risk weather research through joint observation and data sharing.

  8. Urban enhancement of the heat waves in Madrid and its metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, F.; Rasilla, D.

    2009-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a worldwide phenomenon that causes an increase of the temperatures in the centre of the cities. The process of urbanization has developed an intense urban heat island in Madrid, with temperature differences up to 10°C higher than the surrounding rural environment. Such differences may potentially increase the magnitude and duration of heat waves within cities, exacerbating their most negative effects over human health, particularly by night, as it deprives urban residents of the cool relief found in rural areas. In this contribution we study the long term trends on warm extreme temperature episodes in the Madrid metropolitan area, and their impact at local scale, on the onw city of Madrid. For the first task, we have compared maximum and minimum temperatures from rural (Barajas and Torrejón) and urban (El Retiro, Cuatro Vientos, Getafe) stations from 1961-2008; for the second one a local network of automated meteorological stations inside the city provided hourly data from the 2002-2004 years. Finally, the 2003 heat wave is used as an example of the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and ozone concentrations during those extreme episodes. Our results show a regional increase in the frequency and duration of those extreme warm episodes since the end of the 80´s, although their absolute magnitude remains unchanged. The urban environment exacerbates the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures during the night-time hours, as it is shown by the above average number of tropical nights (> 20°C) inside the urban spaces, simultaneous to the increasing trend of maximum temperatures. Besides, the diversity of urban morphologies introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas. The regional meteorological conditions associated to these warm episodes, characterized also by low wind speed

  9. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the

  10. HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women from Buenos Aires metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Zapiola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected pregnant woman treated in Buenos Aires metropolitan area (period 2008-2014. A total of 136 women with viral load = 500 copies/ml were included: 77 (56.6% were treatment-naïve and 59 (43.4% were antiretroviral-experienced patients either with current (n: 24 or previous (n = 35 antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic baseline resistance was investigated in plasma of antiretroviral-naïve patients and antiretroviral-experienced patients. The resistance mutations were identified according to the lists of the World Health Organization and the International Antiviral Society, respectively. Frequencies of resistance associated mutations detected in 2008-2011 and 2012-2014 were compared. A total of 37 (27.2% women presented at least one resistance associated mutation: 25/94 (26.5% in 2008-2011 and 12/42 (28.5% in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05. Among naïves, 15 (19.5% had at least one mutation: 10/49 (20.4% in the period 2008-2011 and 5/28 (17.8% in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05. The resistance mutations detected in naïves were associated with non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, being K103N the most common mutation in both periods. In antiretroviral experienced patients, 22/59 (37.3% had at least one resistance mutation. This study demonstrates a high frequency of resistance associated mutations which remained stable in the period analyzed. These levels suggest an increased circulation of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistant strains in our setting compared to previous reports from Argentina

  11. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  12. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  13. Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Manes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 and Particulate Matter (PM have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7, all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

  14. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2005- 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, E.; Reyes, E.; Blanco, S.; Perez, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Retama, A.; Muñoz, R.; Ramos, R.; Paramo, V. H.; Gutiérrez, V.; Cárdenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    One of the main air quality problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are the high ozone levels, resulting from the photochemical reactions among precursors such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The MCMA air quality monitoring network includes 19 NOx and 19 O3 monitoring sites. However, no routine VOC monitoring is carried out. This work presents results of a field campaign done from September 2005 to September 2006 in the MCMA. 24 hours integrated samples were obtained every six days in five different sites, considered representative of the northwest, northeast, southeast, southwest, and center of the MCMA. Samples were obtained in stainless steel canisters adapted with a programmable flow controller. Analyses were done using a GC-FID to identify 57 VOCs following USEPA-TO-14A. A total of 354 samples were obtained corresponding to 62 sampling days. On the average, highest concentrations were found in the center, whereas lowest concentrations were found at the southwest. However, the overall maximum concentration (741 ppbV) was determined at the northeast site, and the overall minimum concentration (27 ppbV) was determined at the southwest site. At all sites, propane, butane, acetylene and toluene were the compounds found at highest concentrations. The main source for propane and butane is LPG, whereas for acetylene and toluene are combustion and evaporation of gasoline. It was found that southwest site is significantively different from the rest of all sites. A short field campaign was also done during 5 days in November-December 2005 with 3 periods of 3hrs integrated samples.

  15. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  16. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  17. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  18. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  19. Longitudinal study of microbial diversity and seasonality in the Mexico City metropolitan area water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-09-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply.

  20. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  1. Urban and peri-urban flood impact change: the case of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès, Maria; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Marcos, Raül; Llasat, Maria del Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Floods are the most important natural hazard in the world. Nowadays, mitigation and adaptation strategies to reduce the impact that climate change will have on them, are a priority in most government agendas. Recent reports from the IPCC (2012, 2014) still show significant uncertainty associated with future projections of precipitation extremes. This uncertainty is higher when referred to floods and even larger when interactions with society and the changes in vulnerability are considered. Consequently, there is now a call to treat floods from a holistic perspective that integrates bottom-up (from impact and vulnerability) and top-down (from hazard) approaches (Hall et al., 2014). The study of flood risk in urban and peri-urban areas is complex and involves multiple factors. This is the case of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), which concentrates 43% of total population of Catalonia in less than 2% of the whole territory. The impervious soil has grown more than 200% from 1956 to 2009 (resulting in higher values of runoff), the population has increased more than 80% in the same period and, simultaneously, an improvement of the drainage system and flood prevention has been developed. As a result, we have seen that the flood risk evolution in the area holds a strong link to these human changes. Actually, floods in this region are usually due to drainage problems, flash floods in ungauged torrential catchments and, only in some occasions, river floods are produced (i.e. the Llobregat River on September 1971). But, in all the cases they are due to heavy precipitations. The main objective of the contribution is assessing the relationship between precipitation in the AMB and the social impacts produced. In order to do it, different impact indicators have been proposed, such as the population affected or the duration of the flood event (Merz et al., 2010). These indicators have been implemented for the different cases analyzed, which affected AMB for the period

  2. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy, which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are

  3. Projected temperature-related deaths in ten large U.S. metropolitan areas under different climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Kate R; Haykin, Leah; Eliot, Melissa N; Schwartz, Joel D; Gasparrini, Antonio; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-10-01

    There is an established U-shaped association between daily temperature and mortality. Temperature changes projected through the end of century are expected to lead to higher rates of heat-related mortality but also lower rates of cold-related mortality, such that the net change in temperature-related mortality will depend on location. We quantified the change in heat-, cold-, and temperature-related mortality rates through the end of the century across 10 large US metropolitan areas. We applied location-specific projections of future temperature from over 40 downscaled climate models to exposure-response functions relating daily temperature and mortality in 10 US metropolitan areas to estimate the change in temperature-related mortality rates in 2045-2055 and 2085-2095 compared to 1992-2002, under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We further calculated the total number of deaths attributable to temperature in 1997, 2050, and 2090 in each metropolitan area, either assuming constant population or accounting for projected population growth. In each of the 10 metropolitan areas, projected future temperatures were associated with lower rates of cold-related deaths and higher rates of heat-related deaths. Under the higher-emission RCP 8.5 scenario, 8 of the 10 metropolitan areas are projected to experience a net increase in annual temperature-related deaths per million people by 2086-2095, ranging from a net increase of 627 (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 239, 1018) deaths per million in Los Angeles to a net decrease of 59 (95% eCI: -485, 314) deaths per million in Boston. Applying these projected temperature-related mortality rates to projected population size underscores the large public health burden of temperature. Increases in the heat-related death rate are projected to outweigh decreases in the cold-related death rate in 8 out of 10 cities studied under a high emissions scenario. Adhering to a lower greenhouse gas emissions

  4. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  5. Metropolitan Washington Airport Investment Requirements,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    play an important part of this a check of schedules at various airports and other studies have provided a dwell time for each size aircraft. 2/ I... Auto Parking $1,000/Space $5,000/Space Y$ 83/L.F. - Two lane (25 fo ot total width) @ $30.00/S.Y. $167/L.F. = Four lane (50 foot total width) @ $30.00...Allegheny, American, Eastern, Northwest, TransWorld and United comprise the Main Terminal airline tenants with Braniff, Delta, National and Piedmont

  6. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  7. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  9. Metropolitan Development Districts, Emporia-Lyon County Metropolitan Planning Area, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  10. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  11. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  12. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  13. Biological assessment of streams in the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area, Indiana, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.

    2004-01-01

    During 1999?2001, benthic invertebrates and fish were sampled to describe biological communities in the White River and selected tributaries in the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area in Indiana. Twelve sites (six on the White River and six on tributaries) were sampled biannually for benthic invertebrates and annually for fish. The information complements water-chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works in the study area. Evaluation of the habitat for sites in the study area was done, using a Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) developed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The QHEI scores basin and habitat characteristics for each site, with a maximum possible score of 100. Higher scores indicate better habitat conditions for biotic communities. The QHEI scores for sites on the White River ranged from 55 at the Harding site to 71 at the Waverly site; scores on the tributaries ranged from 45 on Pogues Run to 82 on Williams Creek. A total of 151 taxa were identified from the benthic-invertebrate samples. The Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index scores for sites on the White River ranged from 0 at the Harding site to 15 at the Nora site. The Nora site, which is upstream from Indianapolis, generally scored the highest of all White River sites. Sites in the immediate vicinity of Indianapolis scored the lowest and indicate a negative effect on benthic-invertebrate communities in that reach. EPT Index scores increased in the farthest downstream reaches, which indicate that water-quality conditions had improved in comparison to sites in Indianapolis. For the tributary sites, EPT Index values ranged from 0 at Pogues Run to 16 at Buck Creek. Tributary sites on Fall Creek, Pleasant Run, and Pogues Run consistently scored 7 or lower; sites on Buck Creek, Eagle Creek, and Williams Creek scored 7 or higher. Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) scores ranged from 4.9 (good) to 9.6 (very poor) for the White River sites and from 5

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  15. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  16. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  17. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18~March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19~March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19~March plume and to help interpret

  18. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  19. Lack of spatial variation of endotoxin in ambient particulate matter across a German metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Verena; Carty, Cara L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    In this study, we describe the spatial variation of endotoxin across an urban setting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. We also identify potential sources of endotoxin that account for between-site variability and compare endotoxin levels in particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cut-off diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) and of 10 μm (PM 10). In 1999-2000, we collected PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Munich urban air and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Using Teflon filters and Harvard impactors, PM 2.5 was collected at 40 outdoor monitoring sites across Munich and PM 10 at a subset of these sites ( n=12). Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 PM 2.5 samples and 48 PM 10 samples. We visited and characterized the surrounding 100 m of each site for potential endotoxin sources. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration for all sites was 1.46 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.21-1.77) and at the subset of the sites was 1.30 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% CI: 1.01-1.67 EU mg -1 PM 2.5). Endotoxin levels in PM 10 were higher, 3.91 EU mg -1 PM 10 (95% CI: 3.03-5.03 EU mg -1 PM 10), than in PM 2.5 and were moderately correlated, r=0.51. All endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were endotoxin levels (MR: 1.30 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and 1.13 for EU m -3 PM 2.5) than sites with no identified sources. Based on the ranges of endotoxin levels at the different sites, we found very little spatial variation in ambient endotoxin concentrations across the metropolitan area of Munich using inverse distance weighting method (IDW) methods ( R2=0.013 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and R2=0.020 for EU m -3 PM 2.5). Potential sources of endotoxin surrounding the sites only partly explained the variation seen.

  20. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  1. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  2. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina MEZZARI

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.A prevalência de dermatófitos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RS, foi analisada de modo retrospectivo durante o período de junho de 1981 a junho de 1995. As espécies de dermatófitos foram isoladas de amostras de pele, pêlos e unhas, em duas instituições de Porto Alegre: Serviço de Micologia de Insituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul, que atende predominantemente as classes sociais B e C e Laboratório Weinmann, que atende predominantemente as classes sociais A e B. Observou-se o predomínio do dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum (55.33% seguido pelo Trichophyton mentagrophytes (21.46%. Os dados coletados foram

  3. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  4. Low temperature geothermal resource evaluation of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widness, S.

    1983-11-01

    The study area is located in portions of Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Franklin counties of eastern Washington. The area is representative of a complex stratigraphic and geohydrologic system within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Fluid temperature data were collected by three different agencies. The Geological Engineering Section (WSU) at Washington State University, runs a continuous fluid temperature (FT) log as part of a complete suite of geophysical logs. The US Geological Survey (USGS) runs a continuous fluid FT log in conjunction with caliper and natural-gamma logs. Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DNR), have cooperated in gathering FT data. The DNR-SMU data were collected by taking temperature measurements at 5 m intervals. Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) and bottom-hole depths (BHD) of selected wells in the study area are given. A technique developed by Biggane (1982) was used to determine the geothermal gradients within the area. A least squares linear regression analysis of the relationship between the BHT and BHD was used to determine the geothermal gradient of a given well data group (WDG).

  5. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  6. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  7. Ozone Concentrations Patterns over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, C. R.; Carvalho, V. S.; Martins, L. D.; Freitas, E. D.; Andrade, M.

    2009-05-01

    Eleven years of ozone concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the tropospheric ozone behavior since 1996 up to 2006 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP covers an area of 8.051 square kilometers, where approximately 19 million people live, and represents the most important economic region of Brazil. The main sources of pollutants in the MASP are the vehicles, which are responsible for more than 95% of CO, NOX and HC emission according to the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB). These pollutants are strictly correlated with ozone formation through a complex mechanism that depends mainly on a nonlinear mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The ozone concentrations are also affected by meteorological conditions, as solar radiation that will be important for the photolysis, and by transport processes from/to other regions. The established maximum hourly National Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is frequently violated in the MASP. According to CETESB, during the last five years the annual average of NAAQS violations was 65 days. It is important to emphasize that during this period a substantial increase in the number of vehicles was observed. So far, there is no study available in the literature which evaluates the complete historical time series of the ozone concentration data collected in the air quality monitoring network of the MASP. In this study, data from 12 air quality monitoring stations distributed over the MASP were evaluated. In general, annual mean concentrations of primary pollutants decreased on the last two decades mostly due to the Brazilian Vehicular Emission Control Program (PROCONVE). The program by itself was responsible for a drop of almost 70% of vehicular emissions. However, ozone annual mean concentrations do not reveal the same trend. Among 10 air quality monitoring sites four of it presented a reduction of ozone concentration values while the others six presented

  8. Community Supported Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Empirical Evidence for Project Feasibility in the Metropolitan Area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationships between urbanization and farm-styles in the city belt. Our analysis is based on a case study in the protected area of the Campi Flegrei Regional Park situated in the north-western part of the Neapolitan metropolitan area, which is a peri-urban rural area with severe environmental management problems. Our results from the empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish the farms of the area into three behavioural-social groups on the basis of specific features, in order to identify the best suited type of farm for the strategic implementation of the CSA. A market scenario was predicted for each of them without any intervention

  9. An Urban Heat Island Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka, Based on Landsat Data (1997–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Ranagalage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at the expense of vegetation cover, surface urban heat island (SUHI forms and becomes more intense. The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA, Sri Lanka, is one of the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan regions in South Asia. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature (LST in the CMA in the context of the SUHI phenomenon using Landsat data. More specifically, we examined the relationship of LST with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI at three time points (1997, 2007 and 2017. In addition, we also identified environmentally critical areas based on LST and NDVI. We found significant correlations of LST with NDVI (negative and NDBI (positive (p < 0.001 across all three time points. Most of the environmentally critical areas are located in the central business district (CBD, near the harbor, across the coastal belt, and along the main transportation network. We recommend that those identified environmentally critical areas be considered in the future urban planning and landscape development of the city. Green spaces can help improve the environmental sustainability of the CMA.

  10. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction..., that establishes five RNAV routes in support of the Washington, DC, Optimization of Airspace and..., Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202)...

  11. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  12. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianistcki, M. [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Dallarosa, J. [Laboratorio de Ecologia, UFRGS (Brazil); Sauer, C.; Teixeira, C.E. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, FEPAM, RS (Brazil); Silva, J. da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.b [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub <2.5}). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM{sub <2.5}) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM{sub <2.5}).

  13. Strategic spatial planning in the era of crisis: Current trends and evidence from the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic spatial planning has enjoyed widespread implementation since the 1990s, especially in urban and metropolitan areas, having its focus on promoting their competitiveness and sustainability. Nowadays, the effects of economic crisis, together with growing environmental and technological risks, trigger the vulnerability of these areas and stress the need for resilience. This paper examines the role of strategic spatial planning in promoting metropolitan resilience in the era of crisis. It is argued that this type of planning is capable of supporting the adaptation of territorial systems to crisis-induced risks, as is, for instance, the case of planning for climate change. This is further analyzed in light of four of the key aspects of the new strategic spatial planning, namely its principles, content, process, and utilization of resources. The paper draws evidence from the case of Greece and examines the abovementioned aspects of the recently prepared new Regulatory Plan for the Thessaloniki greater area. The first results of this examination show that, provided there is political will which allows for necessary adjustments, the Plan has the potential to incorporate the dimension of resilience. The elaboration and exploitation of the strategic nature of the Plan and of its sustainable development principle constitute key elements of a resilience-oriented approach.

  14. [Results of a survey on organ donation and transplantation in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Romero, Luz Consuelo; García-García, Guillermo; Aguirre-Jaúregui, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge of and disposition towards organ and tissue donation for transplantation among the adult population of metropolitan Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. A survey was conducted by personal interview with street-recruited persons over 18 years of age using a 29-item questionnaire. Metropolitan Guadalajara was divided into four municipalities and a proportional number of interviews was assigned to each one based on number of inhabitants, socio-economic stratum, age and gender. Four hundred individuals were interviewed. Approximately 80% knew about organ donation and 65% knew that it was legal; however, only 24% had discussed the topic with their relatives. Seventy-one percent did not know how to donate organs and only 25% knew about organ donor cards. On the other hand, 66% were willing to donate, 16.5% would not donate and 17% were undecided. Bodily mutilation was the main reason (40%) given to not donate. 89% would authorize organ donation from a deceased relative, assuming the relative had previously expressed the desire to donate; on the contrary, only 29% would give such an authorization without their relative's prior consent. Finally, 65% considered the driver's license an adequate mean to express their desire to donate and 50% considered the information the mass media disseminated on the subject to be insufficient. The majority of the metropolitan Guadalajara population knew about organ donation and would be willing to donate their organs. However, a high percentage did not know how to donate and considered the information disseminated on the subject insufficient. An on-going mass media campaign could resolve this matter and hopefully increase organ donation among this population.

  15. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1301 Section 165.1301 Navigation and... REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access... Washington—Regulated Navigation Area. The following is a regulated navigation area—All of the following...

  16. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  17. Contribution of urban runoff in Taipei metropolitan area to dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Jien, Shih-Hao; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chen, Yao-Te; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS). DIN concentrations in the downstream (urban) reaches are substantially elevated. The upstream tributaries annually discharge ∼2709 t DIN to the downstream reaches. However, the DIN discharge off the downstream reaches rises to ∼17,918 t, resulting from the contribution of RWPS-collected water, i.e., ∼14,632 t, and the effluents of two WWTP, i.e., ∼577 t. RWPS-collected water inherently contains the contribution of atmospheric deposition, ∼2937 t DIN. This finding implies that ∼11,695 t (∼66 % of the downstream output) DIN flux off the Danshui River is from urban runoff and can be attributed to human activities in the Taipei metropolitan area. To improve the water quality in the Danshui River, water quality controls in urban runoff are important.

  18. Customer’s perception towards product quality of automotive SMEs operating in Metropolitan areas, and consideration of environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines customer’s perception towards product quality of automotive SMEs operating in the Durban metropolitan areas and identifies how small and medium enterprises (SMEs in South Africa (SA contribute significantly to job creation, wealth, social stability, economic growth and reduction of poverty. Product quality of automotive SMEs requires serious attention, as it can have ecological environmental impact leading to the negative economic growth contributed by the industry. The study is aimed to understand the factors affecting automotive SMEs in order to help entrepreneurs to improve product quality and examining the customer’s perception towards product quality. The study was conducted in Durban metropolitan areas using the survey method. The sample size of the study was 120 SMEs selected using convenience sampling with respondents completing the questionnaire. A combined method of both quantitative and qualitative techniques was employed, while the analysis of data was done using the Statistics Package for Social Scientists (SPSS version 23.0. The findings of the study revealed that lack of managerial skills and development negatively compromises product quality of the automotive sector. Also the results revealed that the absence of financial support from financial institutions delays the improvement of stock in the business, as this is an obstacle resulting in the unsustainability of the SMEs. Further research with larger samples and the consideration of other cities is recommended.

  19. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Evaluation of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell Area, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widness, Scott

    1983-11-01

    The study area is located in portions of Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Franklin counties of eastern Washington. The area is representative of a complex stratigraphic and geohydrologic system within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The regional piezometric surface and stratigraphic units dip towards the southwest. Fluid temperature data were collected by three different agencies. The Geological Engineering Section (WSU) at Washington State University, runs a continuous fluid temperature (FT) log as part of a complete suite of geophysical logs. The US Geological Survey (USGS) runs a continuous fluid FT log in conjunction with caliper and natural-gamma logs. Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DNR), have cooperated in gathering FT data. The DNR-SMU data were collected by taking temperature measurements at 5 m intervals. Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) and bottom-hole depths (BHD) of selected wells in the study area are given in table 2. Some of the BHT data in table 2 may vary from those previously reported by WSU. These discrepancies are the result of changes in the calibration method of the FT tool. A technique developed by Giggane (1982) was used to determine the geothermal gradients within the area. A least squares linear regression analysis of the relationship between the BHT and BHD was used to determine the geothermal gradient of a given well data group (WDG). Well data groups were selected on the premises of geographic proximity, position within the regional groundwater flow system, land slope azimuth, and land slope dip. Some data points have been excluded from the linear regression analysis on the basis of factors such as duplicate logging of the same hole, down-hole flow, holes not logged to total depth, and questionable FT tool responses.

  20. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  1. The marketing management of cities and metropolitan areas: from product orientation to marketing orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO MANUEL GÓMEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing principles in the administration of cities has been usually reduced to the use of the communication tools to try to diffuse the city’s image among the different target publics. At the same time, the development of cities has habitually been based on the endowment of infrastructures and singular buildings, by means of relatively opaque strategic planning processes. From a marketing vision, we consider indispensable to base the development of cities on the active citizenship participation, as well as in the empowerment of the tangible and intangible aspects. In the case of the Metropolitan Bilbao, the strategic plan that has been developed in the last decade was centred on tangible elements, while the new plan puts a special emphasis on the intangible aspects and civic participation.

  2. Ozone forming potential and sulfur effects on in-use vehicles of the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest urban areas of Mexico cities have witnessed high levels of air pollution in the past few decades. The most important air pollutants are ozone and particulate matter with levels that are still far above current air quality standard, In this work we studied exhaust and evaporative emissions of Mexico City metropolitan area (MAMC) vehicles using fuels in which sulfur content was varied from 89×10-6 to 817×10-6, and calculated the ozone forming potential of emissions as well as the specific reactivity of the exhaust for each average fleet-fuel combinations. Data on emission levels were compared to those obtained in 2000 for the same vintage of vehicles. The almost twofold increase in emissions found could be due to degradation of the exhaust emissions control systems.

  3. The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. M. Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for water sustainability requires not only a combination of technical and managerial responses, but also firm action against socioeconomic injustices and political inequalities. The recognition of the politicised nature of water problems deserves particular attention in areas marred by long-term trends of environmental degradation and social exclusion. A case study of the Baixada Fluminense, an urbanised wetland in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, illustrates the challenge to reverse unsustainable practices in situations where water problems have been politically and electorally exploited. The research made use of an interdisciplinary approach to assess past and present initiatives that have attempted, but systematically failed, to restore river ecology and improve water services. The empirical results have important implications for water policy making and urban planning.

  4. Looking for the role of nature experiences in planning and decision making: a perspective from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Faehnle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public experiences of everyday environments influence well-being and quality of life and effective planning for these environments can promote social sustainability. This article discusses how residents’ values related to urban nature areas are as important as ecological and technical issues and can inform urban nature planning and decision making. We first provide a generic review of residents’ values and meanings regarding urban nature. We then outline practices for obtaining data on these values and meanings and present examples from the Helsinki (Finland Metropolitan Area. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges that nature experiences bring to planning and decision making and highlights why and how insights generated as a result of residents’ participation should be included in the knowledge base for planning decisions.

  5. An Analytic Network Process approach for siting a municipal solid waste plant in the Metropolitan Area of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan Pascual; García-García, Fernando; Pascual-Agulló, Amadeo

    2010-05-01

    In this paper the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is applied to select the best location for the construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) plant in the Metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Selection of the appropriate MSW facility location can be viewed as a complex multicriteria decision-making problem that requires an extensive evaluation process of the potential MSW plant locations and other factors as diverse as economic, technical, legal, social or environmental issues. The decision-making process includes the identification of six candidate MSW plant sites and 21 criteria grouped into clusters for the construction of a network. Two technicians of the Metropolitan Waste Disposal Agency acted as decision makers (DMs). The influences between the elements of the network were identified and analyzed using the ANP multicriteria decision method. Two different ANP models were used: one hierarchy model (that considers AHP as a particular case of ANP) and another network-based model. The results obtained in each model were compared and analyzed. The strengths and weaknesses of ANP as a multicriteria decision analysis tool are also described in the paper. The main findings of this research have proved that ANP is a useful tool to help technicians to make their decision process traceable and reliable. Moreover, this approach helps DMs undertake a sound reflection of the siting problem.

  6. Supply and demand of jobs for young people in the metropolitan area of Goiânia (2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliane Prudente Nunes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the conceptual aspects of employment and unemployment in Brazil and the state Goiás, as theoretical support for understanding the phenomenon on the offer and search of jobs by young people in the metropolitan region of Goiânia (GO. The importance of this research is justified by the fact that unemployment is a major problem in the contemporary world, particularly in Brazil, which has been facing a mismatch between population growth and the supply and demand of employment. The article discusses the socio-cultural universe of unemployed youth, seeking to examine how the different dimensions of family and school life interfere with their performance, encouraging or hindering their inclusion in the workplace. It also evaluates the relation between the highest labor supply of unskilled work, low education rate among young people who are seeking employment and workers' skills required by entrepreneurs. It starts with reference anchored in Bourdieu, Enguita and Mannheim, as well as resorting to government officials. The data are based on empirical research with young people and entrepreneurs in the metropolitan area of Goiânia.JEL-Code | J21; J82; R12.

  7. Policy and reality of Environmentally Sensitive Areas in Whitman County, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.

    1988-05-01

    The Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) promotes the conservation of natural resources through procedural review of proposed actions which may impact natural systems. There are, however, many actions specifically exempt from the SEPA review process. Since many exempt actions could have significant adverse effects on natural resources at one location and not another, the SEPA statute contains a provision that enables local governments to designate Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Within the ESAs, these potentially adverse activities are subject to SEPA review. Local governments have complete control over the exact definition of the ESA criteria and the types of local projects exempt from SEPA. Whitman County, the most productive wheat-producing county in Washington, has recognized the need for conservation of its natural resources in its comprehensive plan but has not implemented the ESA provision. A representative watershed within Whitman County was used as a case study to identify areas which would qualify for ESA status. In these areas, specific soil, water, and biological characteristics or resources were identified as sensitive to certain common land uses. Significant differences were found between state and county policies regarding ESAs and actual conditions within the watershed. It may be more effective for the state to manage ESAs on a consistent and regional basis.

  8. Mountain Land Use Planning of Metropolitan Suburbs: the Case of the Jinyun Mountain and Its Surrounding area, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jingan; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti

    2005-01-01

    Open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain region, has been increasingly becoming the coupling mosaic structure of industrial actions and landscape behaviors. However, the local governments, when making land use planning, often aim at economic development, and rarely refer to the coordination of compatibilities and conflicts between industrial actions and landscape behaviors in the mosaic structure. In this study land use in the Jinyun Mountain and its surrounding area, Chongqing is adjusted by gray multi-objective programming approach and local-level decision-making process to cope with conflicts between objectives for human welfare and objectives for landscape conservation. The results indicate that: 1) the compatibilities and conflicts among different behavior characters and different landscape types result in the compatibilities of landscape to human behavior; 2) a land use planning in the study area is produced based on the sustainable land use and social-eco development, which pays more attention to the resources and environment constraints and economic objectives, and follows the distribution law of rare resources; 3) in the study area, cultivated land of 1,207.27 ha can meet the demands for food and byproducts by the residents there, orchard land and forestland of 632.55 ha, 2,276.61 ha, respectively can provide enough space for the local people to improve their living structure and meet their demands for recreational activities, and urban residential land, rural residential land, mining land and transportation land of 1,107.60 ha, 120.27 ha, 162.48 ha, 100.91 ha, respectively can satisfy the resident's economic development and infrastructures; 4) the equilibrium among industrial actions, landscape accessibility and ecological conservation can be obtained by analyzing the possible impacts of human activities on landscape ecological process in open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain areas.

  9. Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; McInerney, P A

    2006-11-01

    Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban Metropolitan Area. The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the hospital workplace experiences that had contributed to the resignations of Registered Nurses in the Durban Metropolitan Area. The broad perspective governing this research is qualitative in nature. The researcher employed a phenomenological approach specifically because the researcher was interested in identifying, describing and understanding the subjective experiences of individual nurses at the two Private and two Provincial health care institutions selected to participate in the study - in respect of their decision (s) to resign from their employment, and/or to leave the nursing profession. Two semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant by the researcher. The researcher applied the principle of theoretical saturation and a total of fifteen participants were interviewed and thirty interviews were conducted. Experiential themes and subthemes in the data were identified by a process of meaning condensation, and the data were managed by means of a qualitative software package - NVIVO (QSR - NUD*IST). The resignations of registered nurses in the Durban Metropolitan Area were found to be linked to their respective hospital workplace experiences. These experiences related to their physical working conditions and environment and included the following: unsupportive management structures, autocratic and dehumanizing management styles, negative stereotypy of nurses and the nursing profession, lack of autonomy in the workplace, professional jealousies and fractures within the profession, sub-optimal physical working conditions and shortage of staff, equipment and lack of appropriate surgical supplies, concerns regarding occupational safety e.g. the increasing exposure of health care personnel to HIV and AIDS; lack of opportunities for promotion or continuing one

  10. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  11. Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of

  12. Shallow Groundwater Movement in the Skagit River Delta Area, Skagit County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2009-01-01

    Shallow groundwater movement in an area between the lower Skagit River and Puget Sound was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology with the identification of areas where water withdrawals from existing and new wells could adversely affect streamflow in the Skagit River. The shallow groundwater system consists of alluvial, lahar runout, and recessional outwash deposits composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. Upland areas are underlain by glacial till and outwash deposits that show evidence of terrestrial and shallow marine depositional environments. Bedrock exposures are limited to a few upland outcrops in the southwestern part of the study area, and consist of metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Water levels were measured in 47 wells on a quarterly basis (August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, and May 2008). Measurements from 34 wells completed in the shallow groundwater system were used to construct groundwater-level and flow-direction maps and perform a linear-regression analysis to estimate the overall, time averaged shallow groundwater-flow direction and gradient. Groundwater flow in the shallow groundwater system generally moves in a southwestward direction away from the Skagit River and toward the Swinomish Channel and Skagit Bay. Local groundwater flow towards the river was inferred during February 2008 in areas west and southwest of Mount Vernon. Water-level altitudes varied seasonally, however, and generally ranged from less than 3 feet (August 2007) in the west to about 15 feet (May 2008) in the east. The time-averaged, shallow groundwater-flow direction derived from regression analysis, 8.5 deg south of west, was similar to flow directions depicted on the quarterly water-level maps. Seasonal changes in groundwater levels in most wells in the Skagit River Delta follow a typical pattern for shallow wells in western Washington. Water

  13. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  14. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  15. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood levels and related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, E. [Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Ballabriga, A.; Dominguez, C. [Centre d`Investigacions en Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Vall d`Hebron Hospitals, School of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals` age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22{+-}0.011 {mu}mol/l (mean{+-}S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals` age (BPb=0.08+0.05xage; r=0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb>0.48 {mu}mol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve=0.5052, IC 95%=0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries

  16. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  17. Evaluation of chloride mass balance of pore water as an indicator of groundwater recharge to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Pasten, Ernesto; Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is the third largest metropolitan area and one of the most important industrial sites of Mexico. Groundwater constitutes 40% of the water supply to this urban area. This supply is under constant stress due to the population increase. The unsaturated zone at six sites along two cross-sections was characterized to evaluate the potential of chloride concentration as an indicator of recharge. The selected sites include the range of topographic elevations, vegetation, and annual precipitation of the study area. In each site, boreholes up to 5 m deep were drilled and soil was sampled every 0.5 m. The grain size of each soil sample was determined and pore water extracted to determine the water content percentage, and the chloride, sulfate and nitrate concentration of the pore water. The undersaturated zone consists of alluvial deposits with an average gravel and sand content greater than 60% for all but one of the sampling sites. The pore water content varies from 0.4 to 25% by weight with a decreasing trend as depth increases in areas with agriculture. Sulfate has the highest anion concentration in the pore waters, ranging from 42 to 45,000 mg/L and no apparent distribution pattern along the soil profile columns. Chloride concentration ranges from 8 to 3600 mg/L with an increase in concentration below 1.5 m depth in all the profiles. Chloride and sulfate concentrations with depth are directly correlated suggesting a common input, possibly dissolution-precipitation of evaporite minerals from nearby outcrops or an anthropogenic input. Hence, it is unlikely that chloride behaves as a conservative ion. As a result, its concentration is not likely to be a good indicator of groundwater recharge. Finally; the nitrate concentration ranges from 2 to 96 mg/L nitrate, without a clear pattern along the soil profiles. Low concentration of nitrate in the soil profiles below agricultural areas may suggest denitrification as suggested

  18. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  19. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions.

  20. The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The results suggest that abundant sidewalks, dense bus stops, easily accessible commercial establishments, and ample green land space are potentially effective to enhance walking among the elderly, albeit to varied degrees. The compact urban form, which is considered as walkability in the western context, may not necessarily play a positive role in Zhongshan’s context. The findings provide insights into the policy-making to promote sustainable transportation modes and the design of interventions on health promotion of the elderly in China.

  1. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  2. Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Chen, Z; Bi, C; Li, Y; Teng, J; Wang, L; Xu, S

    2010-03-01

    A set of toxic metals, i.e. As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, in urban and suburban SDSs were investigated comparatively in the biggest metropolitan area of China, Shanghai. Results showed that all of the metals except As were accumulated greatly, much higher than background values. Geo-accumulation index indicated that metal contamination in urban SDSs was generally heavier than that in suburban SDSs. Potential ecological risk index demonstrated that overall risks caused by metals were considerable. Cd contributed 52% to the overall risk. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that in urban SDSs, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr were related to traffic and industry; coal combustion led to elevated levels of Hg; soil parent materials controlled As contents. In suburban SDSs, Pb, Cu, As and Cd largely originated from traffic pollution; Zn, Ni and Cr were associated with industrial contaminants; Hg was mainly from domestic solid waste.

  3. Robust Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression: Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the "sprawling" nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs.

  4. Land potential appraisal for urban land reserve based on GIS:A case of metropolitan area in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-hao; QIU Dao-chi; Hae-young Bae

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization, land banking has become an important means for rational land use and land configuration optimizing. Rational urban land reserve and supply plan are keys for an urban land banking. GIS has been used to model urban growth, growth at the rural-urban fringe specifically. This paper identifies that the urban land banking potential can be evaluated based on RS and GIS technology. 10 indicators were chosen in the integrated index system. As a case of Metropolitan area in Chongqing, urban land banking potential was evaluated based on RS and GIS technology. With GIS, two steps can help to finish potential analysis of land banking. One is goal driven process, such as the process of planning and definition; the other step is data-driven process, such as the process of Manipulating. The results are used to establish the current land banking plan.

  5. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  6. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  7. 78 FR 53237 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Services, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone... Register a notice of ] proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish two new RNAV routes in the Washington,...

  8. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in growing metropolitan areas: a synthetic view through the coupled natural and human system lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent, growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining a coupled human and natural system (CHANS). We conceptualize feedback loops in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly, using the metric of changes in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance then influences water quality directly through, for example, changes in the monitoring regime and riparian restoration and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate these hypotheses by presenting evidence of these linkages. Our results show that changes in monitoring regimes and land use differed in response to differences in governance systems. On the other hand, property sale prices increased in response to water quality improvement for both studied watersheds. Our results show that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (i.e. DO) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in changes in water temperature over time. While urban areas expanded more than 20% over 24 yr, water temperature did not change. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefitted indirectly from land use policy. A combination of a long-term legacy effect of land development and a relatively short history of riparian restoration in both the Portland

  9. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in growing metropolitan areas: a synthetic view through the coupled natural and human system lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent, growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining a coupled human and natural system (CHANS. We conceptualize feedback loops in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly, using the metric of changes in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance then influences water quality directly through, for example, changes in the monitoring regime and riparian restoration and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate these hypotheses by presenting evidence of these linkages. Our results show that changes in monitoring regimes and land use differed in response to differences in governance systems. On the other hand, property sale prices increased in response to water quality improvement for both studied watersheds. Our results show that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (i.e. DO in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in changes in water temperature over time. While urban areas expanded more than 20% over 24 yr, water temperature did not change. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefitted indirectly from land use policy. A combination of a long-term legacy effect of land development and a relatively short history of riparian restoration in

  10. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  11. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8 districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard of 20% or more, and eleven (11 districts show 10%-20% and six (6 districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%. For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14 districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  13. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  14. To Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization---Research on the Construction and Planning of Metropolitan Suburban Rural Tourism Scenic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyue LlU; Kaiyu Ll; Qianqian TANG; Lei WANG; Yan Ll

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between rurality and urbanization, tradition and modernity, in-dustry and environmental resource in the rural tourism have become major difficul-ties of its sustainable development in China. This paper analyzed the characteristics and difficult situations of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, put forward four kinds of region-city functions in the development of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, and researched on the construction of rural tourism scenic areas in metropolis sub-urb—"to Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization"—as the fol owing as-pects :the space organization mode, localization, social organization and manage-ment , the product organization and spatial planning modes and contents.

  15. Driving factors for attracting creative knowledge workers in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The views of high-skilled employees, managers and transnational migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pethe, H.; Bontje, M.; Pelzer, P.

    2009-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of three previous studies which analysed the attractiveness of the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (AMA) for three groups: creative knowledge workers and graduates, managers in selected creative knowledge industries and transnational migrants in the creative knowledge industry

  16. Mental Health, Health, and Substance Abuse Service Needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Thomas L.; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining…

  17. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA, the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR and ordinary least squares (OLS for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed. The explanatory variables investigated are: illiterate population, rural housing, alternative housing, homes with a motorised vehicle, public transport routes, and connectivity. Our results identify that approximately 4.1% of the population have unfavourable or very unfavourable accessibility to public hospitals, which correspond to rural areas located south of CMA. Application of a local GWR model (0.87 R2 adjusted helped to improve the settings over the use of traditional OLS methods (multiple regression (0.67 R2 adjusted and to find the spatial distribution of both coefficients of the explanatory variables, demonstrating the local significance of the model. Thus, accessibility studies have enormous potential to contribute to the development of public health and transport policies in turn to achieve equality in spatial accessibility to specialised health care.

  18. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization on Regional Climate Change: A Case Study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced rapid urbanization since 1978, and the dramatic change in land cover is expected to have significant impacts on the climate change. Some models have been used to simulate the relationship between land use and land cover change and climate change; however, there is still no sufficient evidence for the impacts of urbanization on the regional climate. This study aims to identify the impact of urban land use change on regional temperature and precipitation in summer in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan area during 2030–2040 based on the analysis of the simulation results of WRF model. Firstly, we analyzed the land use change and climate change during 1995–2005 in the study area. The impacts of future urbanization on regional climate change were then simulated. The results indicate that urbanization in this area has affected the regional climate and has the potential to increase temperature and precipitation in the summer of 2030–2040. These research results can offer decision-making support information related to future planning strategies in urban environments in consideration of regional climate change.

  19. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  20. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  1. Environmental hazard and ecological infrastructure construction of hilly city: a case of metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Weibo; Zhu Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipally, as an example. Chongqing, located at the tail area of the Three Gorges Reservoir, is a typically in-land hilly city in China. A series of serious eco-environmental hazard affecting hilly city have appeared: the forest landscape has been fragmented; the stability of ecological system has not been maintained; soil erosion has been serious; geological disasters have become more and more frequented; the phenomenon of citv "heat islands" is obvious." and environmental pollution is worsened with low physical self-puri-ficatian. All of the hazards above will affect ecological security of the tail area the the Three Gorges Reservoir and sus-tainable development of Chongqing. In order to guarantee ecological security and health of Chongqing and the Three Gorges Reservoir, the countermeasures for ecological infrastructure construction are put forward: quickly drawing up ecological infrastrueture planning of Chongqing Municipality, strengthening the integration and continuation of hilly, water spatial pattern, maintaining the diversity and stability of local ecosystem, establishing the green space system in-cluding suburban forest farmland and green space, recovering wetland ecosystem, optimizing industrial structure and urrban spatial distribution, developing recycling economy, establishing ecological infrastrucmre monitoring network and information forecast system, carrying out ecological management for Chongqing Municipality and so on.

  2. Raptors of the Hanford Site and nearby areas of southcentral Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Rogers, L.E.

    1981-05-01

    This report is concerned with the birds of prey which use the Hanford Site not only during the nesting season but throughout the year. An ecological treatment of five nesting owls (great horned, long-eared, short-eared, barn and burrowing) and five nesting hawks (marsh hawk, red-tailed hawk, Swainson's hawk, prairie falcon and American kestrel) is provided and supportive information on non-nesting species is presented. Factors which control raptor densities and population dynamics throughout all seasons of the year are discussed. Information is also provided for raptors from other areas of southcentral Washington in order to yield a comprehensive picture of how the Hanford Site fits in with regional bird of prey populations. The following were the objectives of this study: (1) to determine the numbers of birds of prey nesting on the Hanford Site, (2) to document the reproductive chronology of each nesting raptor species, (3) to provide analyses of food habits of birds of prey on the Hanford Site coupled with prey abundance data, (4) to determine the productivity of the dominant large birds of prey on the Hanford Site, (5) to determine the distribution and land use patterns of all raptors on the Hanford Site, (6) to determine the kinds and relative abundance of non-nesting raptors on the Hanford Site and adjacent areas of southcentral Washington (7) to document present land use practices on the Hanford Site and their effects on raptors, (8) to document radionuclide levels in birds of prey on the Hanford Site, and (9) to determine the role of birds of prey in radioecological monitoring.

  3. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  4. Salmonella Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Backyard Poultry Owners Residing in Seattle, Washington and the Surrounding Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauber, K; Fowler, H; Lipton, B; Meschke, J S; Rabinowitz, P

    2017-02-01

    Raising poultry flocks in urban backyard settings is becoming increasingly popular across the United States, but carries a risk of zoonotic infection. In the United States from 1990 to 2014, 53 outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry have been documented resulting in 2611 known illnesses, 387 known hospitalizations and five known deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2015a, http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/resources/dont-play-chicken-with-your-health-poster-24x36_508.pdf). A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed to better understand knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban backyard poultry owners regarding Salmonella risk and prevention. The study included a survey of bird health, animal husbandry and hygiene practices, and knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to Salmonella risk. Participants were videotaped while caring for their birds, and the recordings were transcribed using notational analysis to determine whether reported practices differed from observed practices. The results indicated that while a large proportion of participants knew that exposure to Salmonella is an inherent risk associated with raising poultry and harvesting eggs, their reported and observed practices would not consistently reduce risk of transmission of Salmonella and other zoonotic diseases. Approximately one in four participants reported performing practices that increase risk of inoculation, such as snuggling and kissing birds or eating/drinking near them. None of the participants were observed kissing their birds on video; however, snuggling (holding birds to clothes) or touching their face during routine care was observed in approximately two-thirds of the video recordings. The video data provided a unique opportunity to compare reported practices with actions recorded during site visits. While the differences were not statistically significant, findings from our study suggest that flock owners may not accurately report the frequency with which risky practices are performed during routine animal care. Education and outreach targeting backyard flock owners should aim to improve husbandry and hygiene practices and reduce risk of zoonotic diseases associated with raising poultry in the backyard setting. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, W.L.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  6. Ensemble simulations of the urban effect on a summer rainfall event in the Great Beijing Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2015-02-01

    The Great Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA), located in North China, is one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world. In this study, ensemble simulations are conducted to investigate the urban effects on a summertime heavy rainfall event in the GBMA. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that couples with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used for the ensemble simulation. Results show that the ensemble simulation with a realistic land-use representation of urban areas (i.e. control run) can well reproduce the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the rainfall event. The simulated total precipitation agrees well with observation. Compared with the sensitivity ensemble simulation, in which the urban area is replaced by cropland, the control run generates more precipitation over the southwest of Beijing, while less rainfall is found in the area to the northeast of Beijing. This result suggests that the underlying urban surface and urban canopy physics in the surface layer have remarkable impacts on precipitation. The stronger upward motion along with larger convergence and more moisture transportation caused by the urban dynamic and thermodynamic effects directly contribute to the differences in rainfall distribution between the control run and the sensitivity run. In addition, the urban effects are found to slow the cold front movement due to the intense warm air over the urban area, leading to a delayed occurrence of the peak rainfall. However, the slow-moving cold front over the urban area enhances the maximum precipitation intensity. The evolution of the rainfall pattern during the intensification period of the precipitation event is dependent on the movement of the cold front in both the control and sensitivity experiments, indicating that urban effects tend to modify the precipitation distribution and influence the temporal variation of the rainfall process.

  7. Public space in the housing estates of Poznan metropolitan area: design strategy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article was prepared on the basis of research conducted at the Faculty of Architecture at Poznan University of Technology. It constitutes an introduction to the subject of regeneration of housing areas in the Poznan Municipal Area in order to familiarize the reader with the method of socio-spatial analysis in relation to public space in housing estates.

  8. 75 FR 37245 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...(b) is used in a much more limited fashion, only applying that criterion to those potential... estimates. The urbanized areas and urban clusters used in the 2018 update will be those delineated with 2010... delineated urbanized area of at least 50,000 population or a Census Bureau delineated urban cluster of...

  9. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred

    1986-01-01

    Hydro!ogic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  10. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  11. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  12. Linfomas no Hodgkin: Área metropolitana de Bucaramanga Non-Hodgkin lymphomas from Bucaramanga metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto García Ramírez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Ninguna neoplasia ha generado tanta confusión en sus sistemas de clasificación como los linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH. Una correcta tipificación es necesaria para el diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento. Objetivos: clasificar los LNH del registro poblacional de cáncer del área metropolitana de Bucaramanga. Pacientes y métodos: SSe realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal, utilizando como población los pacientes con LNH del área metropolitana de Bucaramanga de enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas y de inmunohistoquímica en bloques de parafina. Se utilizo la clasificación de linfomas de la OMS. Resultados: Se estudiaron 320 pacientes y se encontró predominio de la enfermedad en la 6ª y 7ª década. La distribución por género fue mayor en hombres con 61,26% y mujeres 45,6%. El sitio anatómico de compromiso más frecuente fue ganglios cervicales con 25,6%. La mayoría expresaron antígenos B, 86,8%, y T, 1,8%. El subtipo más frecuente fue difuso de célula grande en el 29,6%. Conclusiones: La mayoría los LNH del área metropolitana de Bucaramanga son de linajes B, nodales y de célula grande difuso. Fue evidente el uso limitado de otras técnicas para la clasificación de estas neoplasias en nuestra región. Salud UIS 2011; 43(1: 39-47Introduction: There is not a neoplasm that has generated such confusion on its classification system such as the Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma. An adequate classification is necessary for diagnosis, prognostic and treatment. Objectives: To classify the NHL from the Bucaramanga metropolitan area poblational cancer registry. Patients and methods: An observational cross-sectional study was made, using as population the patients with NHL from the Bucaramanga metropolitan area from January 2000 until December 2006. The information was obtained from the clinical records and inmunohistochemistry in paraffin blocks. The WHO lymphoma

  13. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    TABLE A-3a LOG-LOG TRANSFORMATION OF A POLY-CURVE FIT 2" (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cape Girardeau Cape Girardeau Year County City Jackson RSA ± ’ Hinterland...2030 92,700 72,600 15,700 1,800 2,600 1/ RSA : Remaining Study Area 2/ Hinterland: Remaining County Area 3/ Columns 2, 3, and 4 from the Study Area...4) football /soccer -33 fields; (5) baseball/softball - nine fields; (6) basketball - seventeen courts; sixteen swimming pools; (8) tent camping - 84

  14. Motorways in Metropolitan Areas: The Northwestern Growth of Florence and the Urban Use of Motorway A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Cutini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and more prominent activities to shift towards this developing area, which is today one of the most attractive parts of the whole settlement, counterbalancing the representativeness and the touristic attractiveness of the historic center of Florence. This paper is concerned with the use of space syntax in order to reconstruct the genesis of the configurational geography of Florence. Configurational values at different dates will be cross-referenced with vehicular traffic data, so as to pinpoint the actual inclusion of the motorway A1, touching Florence on its western side, within the urban grid of Florence and its influence in the distribution of local traffic flows. Aside from this case study, this method can be extended to the general issue of the management of motorways in metropolitan areas. More in general, this approach is proposed as a suitable tool for interconnecting spatial issues and traffic questions, so as to concur in bridging the gap between urban design, focused on the morphologic features of blocks and buildings, and transport analysis, strictly concerned with the distribution of movement flows on the street network.

  15. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in a risk area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.P. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF at 6-month intervals. The dog's owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178-238, and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.

  16. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-01-11

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  17. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  18. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  19. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  20. Seismic wavefield imaging in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, based on the replica exchange Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Masayuki; Nagao, Hiromichi; Nagata, Kenji; Ito, Shin-ichi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hori, Muneo; Hirata, Naoshi

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas. To reduce these secondary disasters, it is important to rapidly evaluate seismic hazards by analyzing the seismic responses of individual structures due to the input ground motions. Such input motions are estimated utilizing an array of seismometers that are distributed more sparsely than the structures. We propose a methodology that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain the seismic wavefield to be input into seismic response analysis. This study adopts the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for the estimation of the seismic wavefield together with one-dimensional local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests show that the REMC method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The REMC method well reproduces the seismic wavefield consistent with the true one. In contrast, the ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce the true wavefield even at low frequencies. This indicates that it is essential to take both physics-based and data-driven approaches into consideration for seismic wavefield imaging. Then the REMC method is applied to the actual waveforms observed by a dense seismic array MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), in which 296 accelerometers are continuously in operation with several kilometer intervals in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The estimated wavefield within a frequency band of 0.10-0.20 Hz is absolutely consistent with the observed waveforms. Further investigation suggests that the seismic wavefield is successfully

  1. Seasonality, ambient temperatures and hospitalizations for acute exacerbation of COPD: a population-based study in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pere Almagro,1 Carme Hernandez,2,3,7 Pable Martinez-Cambor,4,5 Ricard Tresserras,2,6 Joan Escarrabill2,7 1Acute Geriatric Care Unit, Internal Medicine, University Hospital Mútua de Terrasa, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Respiratory Disease Management Plan, Department of Health of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia, Observatory of Respiratory Therapy, 3Integrated Care Unit, Medical and Nursing Management, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Barcelona, 4Oficina de Investigación Biosanitaria de Oviedo, Asturias, Spain; 5Universidad Autonoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 6Health Department, 7Chronic Diseases Care Program, Hospital Clinic, Hospital Clínic & REDISSEC (Health Services Research on Chronic Patients Network, Barcelona, Spain Background: Excluding the tropics, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are more frequent in winter. However, studies that directly relate hospitalizations for exacerbation of COPD to ambient temperature are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature on the number of hospitalizations for COPD.Methods: This was a population-based study in a metropolitan area. All hospital discharges for acute exacerbation of COPD during 2009 in Barcelona and its metropolitan area were analyzed. The relationship between the number of hospitalizations for COPD and the mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures alongside comorbidity, humidity, influenza rate, and environmental pollution were studied.Results: A total of 9,804 hospitalization discharges coded with COPD exacerbation as a primary diagnosis were included; 75.4% of cases were male with a mean age of 74.9±10.5 years and an average length of stay of 6.5±6.1 days. The highest number of admissions (3,644 [37.2%] occurred during winter, followed by autumn with 2,367 (24.1%, spring with 2,347 (23.9%, and summer with 1,446 (14.7%; P<0.001. The maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were associated similarly with the

  2. Strong Ground Motions Generated by the February 11, 2014 Tatunshan Earthquake in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong-motion seismograms from the 11 February, 2014 Tatunshan earthquake were recorded at stations around the source area. These recordings were used to analyze the strong-motion characteristics in the area. The largest peak ground acceleration (PGA values of 100.7, 93.4, and 66.6 cm sec-2 in the vertical, EW, and NS directions, respectively, were recorded at station TAP056, about 4.9 km to the northwest of the epicenter. The PGA decays fast with distance, indicating high attenuation in the Tatun volcanic area. The PGA ratio of vertical to horizontal ground motions decreases with increasing epicenter distance. The PGA values in the EW component are larger than those in the NS component. This might be associated with the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The spectral accelerations decrease rapidly with increasing period.

  3. Validating the accuracy of GIS-based accessibility analysis in determining public primary health care demand in metropolitan areas: conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available -Based Accessibility Analysis in Determining Public Primary Health Care Demand in Metropolitan Areas Hunadi Mokgalaka July 2014 Contents • Service access planning • GIS-based accessibility analysis • Key challenges to application • Methodology... • Accessibility modelling - improved means of measuring facility access and of identifying poorly served areas and backlogs (spatially) • Inform long term plans • Measure progress w.r.t. service delivery of services • Assist in setting service standards...

  4. Consumption of Advanced Internet Services in the Enterprises Sector: the Spread of Telework in the Metropolitan Area of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos MACÍA ARCE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the pillars of the technological revolution that began in the seventies was the development of the Internet. This network has evolved in such a way that it now forms a complex structure that radically changed the social and economic dynamics at the end of century XX. Nowadays, new technologies allow anything from communication and information exchange to the realization of complex financial transactions, all from anywhere in the world and almost instantaneously. In spite of the widespread use of the Internet, there are still territories and inhabitants, mostly emplaced in remote rural areas, who live outside of this technological revolution. By contrast, urban areas enjoy a privileged position in the dissemination of the information society by concentrating most of the telecommunications infrastructure and monopolize the most qualified people. But there are many disparities in terms of diffusion of new technologies and these will transfer, in turn, to the enterprise sector which is the subject of this research. The differences in the use of new technologies and more specifically the use of advanced services on the Internet are related to the sector where the population is employed and its level of training. One of the advanced services offered by the Network is teleworking. Nowadays there are companies that offer their employees the opportunity to develop their professional activities outside their headquarters, using their homes as an alternative or call centers enabled with computers and Internet access. The purpose of this research is the study of the consumption of Internet advanced services by companies in the metropolitan area of Madrid, analyzing the spread of telework in more detail,a potential offered by new technologies and which may modify the current pattern of mobility in the main urban areas because it is from here where big companies are guiding the global economy.

  5. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wahlgren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery, as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  6. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Luiz; Almeida Maria; Lima Danilo DF; Bettiol Heloísa; Guimarães Alzira Maria DN; Ribeiro Eleonora RO; Silva Antônio; Gurgel Ricardo Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance ...

  7. Truckee Meadows (Reno-Sparks Metropolitan Area) Nevada: Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Creek, the largest tributary in the Reno area, originates at the outlet of Washoe Lake, a large flat depression that receives any runoff originating...pollutants, and other chemicals; and c) decompose organic materials by microbiota on and in wetland sediments. FWS estimates 14 percent of the Truckee River

  8. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Hutchinson, J.S.; Paul, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, and Houston. Studies have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  9. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... economic vitality and preserves a healthy environment; and 4. Supporting the long-range vision, goals, and... regional transit investment that supports economic vitality, preserves the environment, preserves... environment. Areas of investigation include, but are not limited to, transportation, land use,...

  10. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in central Europe is one of the assumed effects of climate change, which occurs with large seasonal and regional differences in its magnitude. The extent of loss depends on natural parameters (e.g. topography and vegetation) as well as on socio-economic factors like urbanized and industrialized areas and population density. Dangerous cascade effects appear, if critical infrastructure like the electrical power supply is affected. In some cases mudflows and flash floods cause inundated or undercut roads and cause a high demand for fast and effective assistance of the authorities. The civil protection in Germany is based on a federal system with a bottom-up command-structure and responsibility to the local community. Commonly this responsibility is taken by the fire brigades and civil protection units of the community or district. After heavy rainfall in an urban area, numerous incidents and emergency calls appearing at a time are overstressing the human and technical resources of the fire brigades within the local authority frequently. In this study, a method of comprehensive evaluation of meteorological data and the operation data from local fire brigades shall be developed for the Rhine-Main-Area in order to identify particular affected spots of heavy rain and bundle resources of the fire brigades. It is to be found out if the study area contains regions with a particularly high exposure to heavy rain and high application numbers of the fire department and whether there is a relationship of rainfall and frequency of use. To evaluate particular local effects on the fire brigades capability, a brief analysis of the meteorological data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) as well as the evaluation of the incident data of the affected fire brigades, is used to frame a realistic approach. In particular fire brigade operation data can be used accordingly to describe the intensity of the aftermath when heavy precipitation strikes a certain

  11. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senar, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly strategy in the long–term, policy makers should assess issues such as the extent of damage, feasibility/cost benefit analysis, and public opinion so as to avoid greater damage and loss in the future.

  12. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Arroyo, L.; Torre, I.; Gordo, O.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha) bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly strategy in the long–term, policy makers should assess issues such as the extent of damage, feasibility/cost benefit analysis, and public opinion so as to avoid greater damage and loss in the future. (Author)

  13. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  14. The characteristics of agricultural practices in Bang Kachao area, the Bangkok metropolitan fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Khaokhrueamuang, Amnaj

    2014-01-01

    Bang Kachao area, a conserved green zone in the southern part of Bangkok, has been recently well-known asone of the tourist destinations for rural tourism at a short distance to the city, which are mostly based on thetourism resources generated from agriculture. The present study, therefore, discusses agritourism that shouldbe mainly facilitated in four agricultural systems: traditional mixed orchards, monoculture, integratedfarming, and agroforestry. These systems have applied “sufficiency e...

  15. Ozone Trend Analysis at Pedregal Station in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Garfias Vázquez; Javier Audry Sánchez; Francisco Javier Garfias y Ayala

    2005-01-01

    Pedregal Station is located in a residential area in the southwest portion of Mexico City, where the worst ozone episodes are registered. Three models for forecasting ozone are analyzed based on the 19 mean semester maximum values of daily ozone registered at Pedregal Station. The logarithm model seems to fit best the available data. Its use suggests that near 10 years have to elapse fom July 2005, before air quality is recovered. Additional control measures are suggested, such as, doubling c...

  16. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  17. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane.

  18. Evaluation of the Relative Importance of Radical Sources in Determining the Regional Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, D.; Sanchez, D.; Blake, D. R.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss oxidation capacity in the boundary layer of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) by analyzing a comprehensive field observational datasets of trace gases, radicals, and radical precursors. Two intensive field observations will be discussed. From mid-May to mid-June of 2015, we conducted a field observation in the middle of Seoul, representing a region with high anthropogenic emissions and photochemistry near the source region. We deployed an identical suite of instrumentation (i.e., CO, NOX, O3, SO2, VOCs, ClNO2, HONO, and PANs) at Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), ~ 50 km from the center of Seoul in early September of 2015. The site has been characterized as an ideal region in probing roles of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in a moderately polluted regional background. Therefore, the comparisons between two datasets will allow us to assess regional oxidation capacity of a megacity surrounded by forests, which is a typical set-up in the East Asian region. The main focus of the discussion was to investigate the following: (i) relative impact of nighttime radical reservoirs (i.e., HONO and ClNO2) in the morning radical budget in the urban and suburban environments and (ii) relative importance of unconstrained primary and recycling (e.g., BVOC oxidation) OH production at the isoprene dominated TRF region. An observationally constrained box model with detailed VOC chemical oxidation schemes (e.g., MCM) will be used for the comprehensive evaluations.

  19. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro G. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA, Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men; no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men; no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60. Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  20. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  1. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  2. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  3. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni, organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3 compared to low traffic commercial and residential zones (23 – 15 µg/m3. As for speciation, crustal contribution increases from 13-14 % found in high traffic industrial zones to 28 % in residential zones. While marine aerosol contribution ranges from 2,5 to 5% for all sampling sites without a distinctive pattern. The OC and EC fraction was the most important contribution to the PM10 composition, mainly in HE-01 and BE-01 sampling sites accounting for around 53 and 56 % of the total mass. This reflects the importance of combustion sources to the fine particulate matter composition. In the case of the trace metals fraction it was the lowest one found for all the sampling sites.

  4. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  5. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction.

  6. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  7. A Comparison of Two Methods on the Climatic Effects of Urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the “urban minus rural” (UMR and the “observation minus reanalysis” (OMR methods were used to quantify the potential impacts of urbanization on regional temperature changes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area in China. DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery and population census data were used to classify stations into four classes: rural, small city, medium city, and large city groups. The regional average annual mean temperature was estimated to increase by 0.12°C decade−1 derived from urban warming, accounting for 40% of total climate warming from 1960 to 2009 using the UMR method. The OMR method also indicates that rapid urbanization has a significant influence on surface warming trend although the urban warming intensity is dependent on reanalysis dataset. The seasonal cycle patterns from all three datasets are consistent with each other, which is contrary to the UMR result owing to the cooling effect of agriculture activity in the rural stations confusing the UMR result. So in this paper we found a deficiency of the UMR method where it would underestimate the effects of urbanization in summer. In this regard, the results from the OMR method are relatively more convincing although we admit it still has many other problems.

  8. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  9. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  10. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  11. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  12. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  13. Housing transformations Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. The passage from Neo-liberalism to Urban Neo-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo del Río

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic recovery that followed the 2001/02 crisis in Argentina came with a relevant improvement in a number of social and economic indicators, related among other reasons to the design of public policies aimed at recuperating employment levels and the productive matrix. In this context, the “construction – public works” tandem became a central topic in the agenda, and Real Estate expansion was widely assessed as a positive outcome by macro-economic standards. However, this process was not exempt of contradictions, as can be seen in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, where it is possible to observe a set of concurring tendencies resulting from the hybridization of the urban neo-liberalization still present and the recent expansion of urban neo-developmentalism. As a result, the expansion of State-led de-commodification of goods and services aimed at social reproduction, coexists with a persisting process of socially regressive housing space production, together with an intense commodification of existing housing, associated with a growing financializationof “bricks”.

  14. Applying multivariate clustering techniques to health data: the 4 types of healthcare utilization in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients' health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs.This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation.We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women.The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems.

  15. Eco-health evaluation for the Shanghai metropolitan area during the recent industrial transformation (1990-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiangrong; Ho, Hon H; Yong, Yi

    2008-09-01

    Shanghai is a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important economic centers in China, but is saddled with serious environmental problems resulting from a recent industrial transformation. This paper examines the interactive relationships between economic growth, eco-efficiency of urban metabolism, and environmental performance of the Shanghai metropolitan area since the 1990s using 15 indicators. This study has revealed an enhanced eco-efficiency of water and energy use as well as an improved overall environmental quality in the central urban districts of Shanghai. Both TGDP (total GDP) and GDP per capita increased rapidly at the annual rate of 16.28% and 15.91%, respectively. In contrast, energy consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (ECG), water consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WCG), wastewater discharged per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WWDG), and waste gases emitted per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WGEG) decreased at the annual rate of 9.34%, 10.69%, 14.57%, and 8.52%, respectively. The rapid decline in ECG, WCG, WWDG, and WGEG indicates an enhanced eco-efficiency of urban metabolism. However, uncontrolled emission of wastes from domestic instead of industrial sources adversely affected the overall environmental quality. In addition, suburban areas have undergone rapid economic growth at the cost of human health deterioration, as measured by mortalities and relative mortality ratios of three major diseases (tumor, respiratory disease, and trauma/toxicosis). With Shanghai serving as the "locomotive" driving the economy of the Yangtze River Basin, effective pollution control policies and a network of regional coordination are urgently needed in the globalization and ecological security of the entire area.

  16. Investigation Into the Use of Satellite Data in Aiding Characterization of Particulate Air Quality in the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Erica J.; Sokolik, Irina, N.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intra-city PM2.5 concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. Both PM2.5 and MODIS AOD show more increases in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. A majority of OMI AI is below 0.5. Using this value as an ambient measure of carbonaceous aerosols in the urban area, aerosol transport events can be identified. Our results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the AQI through the use of past AOD for a specific area. We use the NAAQS to classify the AOD into different AQI codes, and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent the majority of a specific AQI category. For example, the majority 80% of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 - 0.6. The development of thresholds could be a tool used to evaluate air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  17. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the

  18. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  19. The Spatial Relationship of Child Homicides to Community Resources in a Large Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shenoi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between neighborhood sociodemographic factors, community resources, and homicides involving young children. We performed spatial analysis of children under age five murdered in Harris County, Texas, from 1997 to 2003. Data on county population, household, socioeconomic, and residential mobility characteristics were allocated to census block groups. Age-adjusted spatial clusters of the homicides were identified. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo negative binomial regression risk model tested the relationship of age-adjusted number of child homicides to block group characteristics and distance of victim’s residence to community resources. Child maltreatment accounted for 94% of 125 homicides. In all, 64% were concentrated in 12 age-adjusted spatial clusters involving 3% of county area. Predictors for number of homicides were a larger number of single-parent households (male and female and lower median household income. Distance to nearest community resources was not significant. Spatial clusters of child homicides were associated with low-income neighborhoods and single-parent (male and female households. No association between the spatial clusters of child homicides and their proximity to community resources was observed. A high percentage of child homicides were concentrated in a small area of the county, which offers the potential for targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  20. Natural background. gamma. radiation exposure in the metropolitan area of the valley of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for real-time measurements was a portable NaI (TI) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/. The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/, the outdoor reading 7.5 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/. Results of one-way and multiway analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  1. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  2. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  3. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  4. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  5. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  6. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  7. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  8. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  9. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  10. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  12. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  13. Analysis of long-term climate change on per capita water demand in urban versus suburban areas in the Portland metropolitan area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandvash, G. Hossein; Chang, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the impacts of long-term climate variability and change on per capita water demand in urban and suburban service areas that have different degrees of development density in the Portland metropolitan area, USA. Together with historical daily weather and water production data, socioeconomic data such as population and unemployment rate were used to estimate daily per capita water demand in the two service areas. The structural time series regression model results show that the sensitivity of per capita water demand to both weather and unemployment rate variables is higher in suburban areas than in urban areas. This is associated with relatively higher proportional demand by the residential sector in the suburban area. The estimated coefficients of the historical demand model were used to project the mid-21st century (2035-2064) per capita water demand under three climate change scenarios that represent high (HadGEM2-ES), medium (MIROC5), and low (GFDL) climate changes. Without climate adaptation, compared to the historical period between 1983 and 2012, per capita water demand is projected to increase by 10.6% in the 2035-2064 period under the HadGEM2-ES in suburban areas, while per capita demand is projected to increase by 4.8% under the same scenario in urban areas. Our findings have implications for future urban water resource management and land use planning in the context of climate variability and change. A tight integration between water resource management and urban planning is needed for preparing for climate adaptation in municipal water planning and management.

  14. AMBIENT HYDROCARBONS IN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA DURING TEXAQS 2000: AN IDENTIFICATION OF UNUSUAL FEATURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEINMAN, L.I.; DAUM P.H.

    2004-11-01

    Houston's ozone problem has been linked to the occurrence of very high light olefin concentrations. We have analyzed the DOE G-1 aircraft hydrocarbon data set to provide additional information on the geographic distribution and prevalence of air samples with high olefin concentration as well as an identification of other compounds which contribute to the high hydrocarbon reactivity in Houston. In order to identify high concentrations we need a definition of normal. For that purpose we use aircraft samples collected during a 1999 aircraft based field campaign in Philadelphia relying on the circumstance that the frequency distributions of NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in Philadelphia are nearly the same as in Houston. Comparison is made also with hydrocarbons collected in Phoenix which exhibit nearly the same NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} frequency distribution as the other 2 cities, but in spite of that similarity have a much lower hydrocarbon reactivity. As in other studies we find that there is a subset of Houston hydrocarbon samples with very high OH-reactivity due to elevated concentrations of ethylene, propylene and less often butenes, including 1,3 butadiene. Although these samples stand out as being qualitatively different we present evidence that ethylene and propylene are significantly elevated in at least half of the Houston samples, covering a wide geographic area apart from the Ship Channel region. Frequency distributions for these compounds are log normal suggesting that Houston's atmosphere is a single entity rather than separate industrial and urban areas. The comparison between Houston and Philadelphia also identifies C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} alkanes, n-hexane, and benzene as having elevated concentrations. Emission reductions of these less reactive compounds sufficient to yield the concentrations observed in Philadelphia would have a minor effect on the most reactive samples, but about a 20% effect on samples with more typical (median

  15. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  16. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Washington County, NC true color orhophotography - 1/2 foot resolution over selected areas, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. Washington County, NC true color orhophotography - 1/2 foot resolution over selected areas.

  18. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  19. Low pharmacist counseling rates in the Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, M A; Lamp, K C

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the percentage of patients counseled by community-based pharmacists. Phase I consisted of a 15-minute observational period of pharmacist counseling in 50 randomly selected pharmacies in the Kansas City, MO, area. In phase II, a survey was mailed to the same pharmacies to obtain policies, self-reported rates of counseling, baseline workload, and personnel information, as well as perceived communication barriers. Forty-six of 50 pharmacies were observed in phase I after excluding 10 ineligible pharmacies and adding 6 replacement pharmacies. Pharmacists provided counseling in only 14 of the 46 pharmacies (30%). Nineteen percent (20/106) of all patients received pharmacist-initiated counseling. Pharmacists in independent pharmacies were observed counseling a significantly higher percentage of patients than were pharmacists in chain pharmacies (44% vs. 11%; p = 0.014). Technicians were observed counseling 5 patients in chain pharmacies. Detailed verbal counseling, defined as four or more of a group of major counseling components, was provided to only 8 of the 20 patients who were counseled by a pharmacist (40%; 8% of all patients). In phase II, 31 of 51 surveys (61%) were returned. During the requested survey time period, pharmacies estimated that approximately five prescriptions were filled every 15 minutes, 51.5% of which were new. Pharmacists in chain pharmacies reported dispensing greater numbers of prescriptions than did pharmacists in independent pharmacies. These data and the reported counseling rates indicated that 50% of all patient prescriptions should be counseled. This is a higher rate than actually observed. All pharmacies reported that pharmacists completed the counseling; however, 10% of the respondents reported that technicians also counseled patients. Contrary to the findings in phase I, slightly more than 50% of the pharmacists reported using detailed verbal counseling. The overall observed rate of counseling in community pharmacies is low

  20. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  1. The Frequency Distribution of Inter-Event Times of M e 3 Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: 1973 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available M ≥ 3 earthquakes which occurred in the Taipei Metropolitan Area from 1973 through 2010 are used to study seismicity of the area. First, the epicentral distribution, depth distribution, and temporal sequences of earthquake magnitudes are described. The earthquakes can be divided into two groups: one for shallow events with focal depths ranging 0 - 40 km and the other with focal depths deeper than 60 km. Shallow earthquakes are mainly located in the depth range from 0 - 10 km north of 25.1°N, and down to 35 km for those south of 25.1°N. Deep events are located in the subduction zone, with a dip angle of about 70°. Three statistical models, the gamma, power-law, and exponential functions, are applied to describe the single frequency distribution of inter-occurrence times between two consecutive events for both shallow and deep earthquakes. Numerical tests suggest that the most appropriate time interval for counting the frequency of events for statistical analysis is 10 days. Results show that among the three functions, the power-law function is the most appropriate for describing the data points. While the exponential function is the least appropriate to describe the observations, thus, the time series of earthquakes in consideration are not Poissonian. The gamma function is less and more appropriate to describe the observations than the power-law function and the exponential function, respectively. The scaling exponent of the power-law function decreases linearly with an increasingly lower-bound magnitude. The slope value of the regression equation is smaller for shallow earthquakes than for deep events. Meanwhile, the power-law function cannot work when the lower-bound magnitude is 4.2 for shallow earthquakes and 4.3 for deep events.

  2. Clindamycin resistant emm33 Streptococcus pyogenes emerged among invasive infections in Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, 2012 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, A K; Sihvonen, R; Lindholm, L; Pätäri-Sampo, A

    2015-05-07

    In 2012, blood, skin and soft tissue infections caused by clindamycin resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) appeared to be increasing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. We compared monthly percentages of clindamycin resistant isolates in the area between 2012 and 2013, with those in 2010 and 2011. Resistance frequency in terms of patient age was also studied. We reviewed the medical records of bacteraemic cases in 2012 and 2013 and linked the data to emm types. To inform on the emm distribution among GAS isolated from skin and soft tissue infections during the epidemic, GAS isolates of one month (March 2013) were emm typed. For GAS blood, skin, and soft tissue isolates taken together, the proportions of clindamycin resistant isolates were significantly higher in 2012 and 2013 (23% and 17%, respectively) compared with the two previous years (3%, p<0,001). The erythromycin resistance percentages were almost equal to clindamycin (22% and 17%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Clindamycin resistance was most frequent in GAS isolates of 40 to 60 year-old patients (148/417; 36%). Among clindamycin resistant isolates, 12 of 14 blood isolates from 2012 to 2013, and 11 of 13 skin and soft tissue isolates from March 2013, were emm33. Emm33 GAS bacteraemia was associated with clindamycin and erythromycin resistance (odds ratio (OR): 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-25.3). Infection focus was mainly the skin; either cellulitis (7/12) or necrotising fasciitis (3/12). All emm33 GAS isolates harboured the ermTR resistance gene with constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramines B (MLS(B)) phenotype. Emm33 GAS was responsible for the higher proportion of clindamycin resistance in skin, soft tissue, and blood isolates locally in 2012 and 2013.

  3. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Ježek, Irena; Močnik, Griša; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at ˜ 100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  4. Time since the last HIV test and migration origin in the Paris metropolitan area, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapostolle, Annabelle; Massari, Véronique; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    In France, the newly diagnosed infection rate was 372/100,000 for African immigrants versus 6/100,000 for the French-born population in 2008. In addition, people from sub-Saharan countries were at higher risk for late diagnosis than native-born French despite their more frequent use of HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean time since the last HIV test according to migration origin. This study used data from the SIRS (a French acronym for health, inequalities, and social ruptures) cohort, which, in 2005, included 3023 households representative of the greater Paris area. HIV testing uptake and the time since the last test were studied in relation to socio-economic factors, psychosocial characteristics, and migration origin. Multivariate ANOVA analyses were performed using Stata 10. People from sub-Saharan Africa were more likely to have been tested in their lifetime (78.51%) than those of French (56.19%) or Maghreb (39.74%) origin (porigin for women. These results and recent epidemiological data seem to show that since the early 2000s, measures aimed at increasing HIV testing and decreasing late diagnosis in sub-Saharan immigrants have been effective.

  5. Tap water isotope ratios reflect urban water system structure and dynamics across a semiarid metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Yusuf; Brewer, Simon; Good, Stephen P.; Tipple, Brett J.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-08-01

    Water extraction for anthropogenic use has become a major flux in the hydrological cycle. With increasing demand for water and challenges supplying it in the face of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand connections between human populations, climate, water extraction, water use, and its impacts. To understand these connections, we collected and analyzed stable isotopic ratios of more than 800 urban tap water samples in a series of semiannual water surveys (spring and fall, 2013-2015) across the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) of northern Utah. Consistent with previous work, we found that mean tap water had a lower 2H and 18O concentration than local precipitation, highlighting the importance of nearby montane winter precipitation as source water for the region. However, we observed strong and structured spatiotemporal variation in tap water isotopic compositions across the region which we attribute to complex distribution systems, varying water management practices and multiple sources used across the valley. Water from different sources was not used uniformly throughout the area and we identified significant correlation between water source and demographic parameters including population and income. Isotopic mass balance indicated significant interannual and intra-annual variability in water losses within the distribution network due to evaporation from surface water resources supplying the SLV. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotopes as an indicator of water management strategies and climate impacts within regional urban water systems, with potential utility for monitoring, regulation, forensic, and a range of water resource research.

  6. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-15

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  7. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  8. Green infrastructure practices – strategies how to sustain life in metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Infrastructure is ‘an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ [1, p. 12]. It contributes to long term strategic development goals for data and information management. The research paper was introduced with the aim to protect green areas in urban environment by improving biodiversity, leisure and recreation, tidal and fluvial flood risk management, grey water treatment and quality of life. Planning and design of green system should provide appropriate responses to the distinctive local circumstances. Green spaces encourage social interactions, form new places to practise sport and contribute to public health and fitness, as well as have indirect benefits for a range of environmental services. The research hypothesis is that Green Infrastructure is a framework for conservation and development and we need to design Green Infrastructure systems strategically to connect across urban, suburban, rural and wilderness landscapes and incorporate green space elements and functions at the state, regional, community, neighbourhood and site scales [2]. Analysis and design of emerging Green Infrastructure system take a holistic view which links related physical, environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of local communities.

  9. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Eberlein, Susan J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    A performance assessment (PA) of Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area C (WMA C) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington is being conducted to satisfy the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), as well as other Federal requirements and State-approved closure plans and permits. The WMP C PA assesses the fate, transport, and impacts of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals within residual wastes left in tanks and ancillary equipment and facilities in their assumed closed configuration and the subsequent risks to humans into the far future. The part of the PA focused on radiological impacts is being developed to meet the requirements for a closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 that includes a waste incidental to reprocessing determination for residual wastes remaining in tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities. An additional part of the PA will evaluate human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities needed to meet the requirements for permitted closure under RCRA.

  10. Traffic emission abatement strategies. Brescia metropolitan area case study; Riduzione delle emissioni da traffico autoveicolare. Il caso dell'area bresciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veraldi, S. (comp.); Veronesi, V. [Setam Srl., Flero, BS (Italy); Volta, M. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    The air quality deterioration in urban areas is mainly caused by the road traffic emissions. In this paper two road traffic emission abatement strategies for Brescia metropolitan area are suggested: the first concerns road network structural changes and the second one technological measures. The first scenario considers the introduction of a new Metro-Bus line, the other one describes the consequences caused by the EU Directive on road traffic scheduled up to 2005. The emission scenarios are estimated by means of emission (Copert II, Poem) and traffic (Visum) models. [Italian] Vengono presentate due diverse politiche di riduzione delle emissioni da traffico su strada ipotizzate per l'area metropolitana bresciana: la prima, coinvolge cambiamenti strutturali nella rete stradale; la seconda, invece, vede l'applicazione di tecnologie motoristiche. Si analizza cosi' dapprima l'evoluzione delle emissioni dovuta all'introduzione di una metropolitana leggera, quindi le conseguenze dell'applicazione della normativa europea riguardo l'equipaggiamento motoristico dei veicoli previsto per il 2005. La valutazione delle emissioni e' effettuata grazie a modelli di simulazione dei flussi di traffico (Visum) e delle emissioni conseguenti (Copert II, Poem).

  11. The prevalence of elder abuse in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Mello dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the aforementioned institution between the years of 2004 and 2006. The records of abuse are categorized as injury, neglect, mistreatment, theft, financial abuse, threat, disturbing the peace, atypical fact, and others. The injuries that could be identified by the dental team were classified according to the injury's location in the area of the head, face, mouth and neck. Descriptive analysis was performed, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the distributions of the types of elder abuse in relation to sex and age. The most frequent of the different types of abuse was theft, with a prevalence of 17.8%, followed by disturbing the peace at 11.8%. Disturbing the peace, threat, and bodily injury were significantly associated with women. Elder abuse among women and men declines with age. The prevalence of head injury was 25% of the total injuries, most often in females, and in those aged < 70 years. Based on these results, it is necessary that the dental team observe the elderly person's appearance for suspicious physical signs.

  12. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  13. Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A. A. M.

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and urbanization have become issues in big cities like Greater Cairo (GC). As a consequence of explosive growth, the living conditions of Cairo Metropolis deteriorate. Development trends of the last twenty years have increased general wealth and modernization, this sets out how GC megacity is creating an increased demand for land combined with environmental degradation. Planning a sustainable development of mega cities requires understanding of physical change of the main environmental drivers. However, this talk will be concerned with monitoring and analysis of dynamic environment changes to capture and refine the urban patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolis on the basis of pixel-based and object-based classifications. Satellite images (TM, ETM+, & Spot) of different dates and resolutions, and ground truth data collected from available maps, field observation, and personal experience were used to execute the image segmentation analysis to reveal urban patterns and expansions. By using Erdas Imagine, and eCognition Developer software, land use/land cover image classifications were constructed, which detect regimes and trends in land changes. Two main types of urban patterns could be detected (passing from centre to periphery). The first one is informal and the second one is formal building. The informal type mainly comprises slums and urban encroachment on arable land. The formal one mostly consists of new cities and legal houses. Moreover, a rate of land cover changes in Greater Cairo during the last three decades could be described as a rapid progression. In contrast, the combination between field observations and classification analyses showed that the high urban densities based on classification of satellite images does not reflect the real densities of population in urban areas in Greater Cairo.

  14. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  15. Limitations of urban development in land of social origin: the case of the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Sánchez Pedro Leobardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the occupation process of agricultural land with social origin and urban uses in the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT, and the barriers that the population and authorities have to face in order to regularize the settlements. A mixed research method was applied, which included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, to build a methodological research model, which was applied to an empirical case in municipal and metropolitan areas. The analysis of the 14 municipalities that constitute ZMCT shows that the barriers for regularizing settlements in land of social origin are the result of legal/administrative inefficiencies due to the incapability of local city halls to address the collective needs of society.

  16. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  17. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  18. 10 m bathymetric contours for the Southwest Washington Study area (BATHY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two 21-day field operations were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the estuaries and on the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington...

  19. BATHY: 10 m bathymetric contours for the Southwest Washington Study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two 21-day field operations were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the estuaries and on the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington...

  20. 10 m bathymetric contours for the Southwest Washington Study area (BATHY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two 21-day field operations were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the estuaries and on the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington...

  1. Impacts of greenhouse and local gases mitigation options on air pollution in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Valuation of human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Conte Grand, Mariana; Gaioli, Fabián; Perone, Elizabeth; Sörensson, Anna; Svensson, Tomas; Tarela, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess through the "avoided health cost method" what would be the economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse (and local) gases mitigation policies in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. To do so, we have developed six steps: Mitigation Scenarios (which policies to undertake), Emissions Inventory according to those, an Ambient Air Pollution Model to calculate the physical impacts, Health Effects Estimation to assess the health consequences of reducing air poll...

  2. Acute schistosomiasis outbreak in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: alert about the risk of unnoticed transmission increased by growing rural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Enk,Martin J; Amanda Amorim; Schall,Virginia T.

    2003-01-01

    The present article describes the occurrence of 17 cases of acute schistosomiasis in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All individuals affected took a bath in a swimming pool of a holiday resort that was provided with water from a nearby brook. The apparently clean water and the absence of snails in the pool gave the wrong impression that there was no risk for infection. During a malacological survey at the site snails of the species Biomphalaria glabrata...

  3. The cultural heritage of the metropolitan area of Mendoza (Argentina). Methodological suggestions for their evaluation as a resource in local development project

    OpenAIRE

    Raffa, Cecilia; Conicet Argentina.; Cirvini, Silvia Augusta; Conicet Argentina.

    2014-01-01

    The research methodology proposal as presented, articulate and transfer of applied research results about EnvironmentalHeritage (pca) of the Metropolitan Area of Mendoza (amm). Our general hypothesis argues that the cultural heritage associatedwith the Territory (real estate: architectural, urban, landscape, with its accessories and environment) is a resource and a toolin local development processes, which in the case of the amm is not taken into account by the main actors involved. That is w...

  4. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  5. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Capotorti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can provide comprehensive responses to ecological and social needs in any metropolitan context. The approach, which is based on interdisciplinary principles of landscape ecology, ecosystem geography and dynamic plant sociology, has been adopted in the Municipality of Rome (Italy. The first step entails defining an ecological framework for forestation plans by means of the ecological land classification and assessment of landscape conservation status. The second step entails setting forestation priorities according to both ecological and social criteria. The application of the method proved to effectively select limited areas requiring intervention within an extensive metropolitan area. Furthermore, it provided responses to sustainability issues such as long-term maintenance of restored habitats, landscape perspective of planning, greening of urban agriculture, improvement in urban resilience, and cost-effective improvement in ecosystem services provision.

  6. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  7. Photochemical Pollution Modeling of Ozone at Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre - RS/Brazil using WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Carvalho, J.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main problems related to air pollution in urban areas is caused by photochemical oxidants, particularly troposphere ozone (O3), which is considered a harmful substance. The O3 precursors (carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxides NOx and hydrocarbons HCs) are predominantly of anthropogenic origin in these areas, and vehicles are the main emission sources. Due to the increased urbanization and industrial development in recent decades, air pollutant emissions have increased likewise, mainly by mobile sources in the highly urbanized and developed areas, such as the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre-RS (MAPA). According to legal regulations implemented in Brazil in 2005, which aimed at increasing the fraction of biofuels in the national energy matrix, 2% biodiesel were supposed to be added to the fuel mixture within three years, and up to 5% after eight years of implementation of these regulations. Our work performs an analysis of surface concentrations for O3, NOx, CO, and HCs through numerical simulations with WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry). The model is validated against observational data obtained from the local urban air quality network for the period from January 5 to 9, 2009 (96 hours). One part of the study focused on the comparison of simulated meteorological variables, to observational data from two stations in MAPA. The results showed that the model simulates well the diurnal evolution of pressure and temperature at the surface, but is much less accurate for wind speed. Another part included the evaluation of model results of WRF/Chem for O3 versus observed data at air quality stations Esteio and Porto Alegre. Comparisons between simulated and observed O3 revealed that the model simulates well the evolution of the observed values, but on many occasions the model did not reproduce well the maximum and minimum concentrations. Finally, a preliminary quantitative sensitivity study on the impact of biofuel on the

  8. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Humberto; Sosa, Rodolfo; Sánchez, Pablo; Bueno, Emma; González, Laura

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  9. The Agribusiness Cluster of the Metropolitan Area of Londrina O Cluster Agroalimentar da Região Metropolitana de Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo A. de Souza

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the agribusiness cluster of the metropolitan area of Londrina. The main products of the productive chains inserted in this healthy group: corn, soy, wheat, coffee, rice, cotton, bean, grape, milk, cane and orange.. The adopted methodological procedures involve the characterization of the field research accomplished by ADETEC in 2002 to identify the technological strategies of the companies in what refers to product and process of the agribusiness section of the companies. 29 companies were interviewed by convenience. The classification of the size of the companies was made by the revenue and numbers of employees of the firms. The questionnaire of ADETEC has 13 groups of subjects of quantitative and qualitative character. Factorial analysis was used to identify the existence of different behoaviour patterns and they were identified 4 clusters of companies. , according to strategies adopted by smalls, medium and big companies. Among the main results of the research they stand out the technical cooperation degree - scientific of 38% the cooperation with research institutions, for improvement of the product, it can be observed that larger part of the companies doesn’t possess this activity type, however the number of companies that possess is significant. It was also possible to identify statistically the difference between big/medium strategies and small companies. The results allow to ADETEC to formulate specific politics for big/medium and for small businesses of the agribusiness cluster of the metropolitan area of Londrina.O artigo analisa o cluster agroalimentar da região metropolitana de Londrina. Os principais produtos das cadeias produtivas inseridas neste conjunto são: milho, soja, trigo, café, arroz, algodão, feijão, uva, leite, cana e laranja.. Os procedimentos metodológicos adotados envolvem a caracterização da pesquisa de campo realizada pela ADETEC em 2002 para identificar as estratégias tecnol

  10. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Anthropometric characteristics of school children graduated from basic and secondary education in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanović, D; Barrera, G; Alvarez, M L; Muzzo, S

    1985-09-01

    An anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status and growth of students graduating from Basic (8th grade) and Secondary (4th grade) Education was carried out. A group sample of 522 students from the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, was randomly selected. The same number of students by sex, dependency (public and private schools) from high, medium and low socioeconomic levels (SEL) was chosen. SEL was measured through the Graffar Modified Scale, and the percentage of weight for age (% W/A), height/age (% H/A) and weight/height (% W/H) were evaluated in accordance with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference pattern. The % adequacy of head circumference/age (% HC/A) was determined by the Tanner Tables, and the % of upper to lower segment ratio (% US/LS), by the Tables of Muzzo et al. Results revealed that the % of W/A and of H/A were diminished in students of both sexes, while the % of UP/LS, was increased in males of low SEL, from Basic Education; this impact is lost in males graduating from Secondary Education and persists only in the LSE females. No differences in the nutritional status (% W/H) of students according to SEL, were found. Females registered values over 110% of the WHO standard, a finding suggesting a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. We conclude that there is a growth retardation in students graduating from 8th Basic Grade, which persists only in females from 4th grade of Secondary Education. This finding indicates that, in addition to possible environmental factors, other factors, probably of genetic order, also influence the latter. Overweight and obesity, therefore, constitute an important problem that merits measures of preventive nature directed to avoid future consequences.

  12. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine N.; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Schwarzbach, Vinicius; Schlottag, Thalyta C., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  13. Economic impact of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in Guadalajara Metropolitan Area and Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar-Medina, Martha; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Celis, Alfredo; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the economic cost of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries (RTI) in Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA) and Jalisco, Mexico during 2007. Using an incidence-based cost of illness analysis from a household perspective employing a bottom-up approach all direct medical and non-medical costs, and indirect costs were estimated for a sample of RTI people who sought care during 1 month in four different medical facilities. Individuals were surveyed just before discharge from emergency rooms (ER) and hospitalisation services. Hospitalised individuals were followed up at 8 weeks after discharge. Productivity loss was estimated with the human capital approach. Using estimated costs and administrative records of mortality and morbidity, the economic costs were dimensioned for GMA and for Jalisco. A multivariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate variations resulting from assumptions used. 297 injured were included in the study, 20% were hospitalised and 237 only received care at ER. A total cost of US$21190 was estimated in all injured receiving care at ER and $83309 for those hospitalised. Direct cost represents more than 30% of reported income in 8% of the ER users and 80% of hospitalised. Total economic cost was US$329,061,813 for GMA (discount rate of 3%), nearly 51% of the state total (US$650,908,924 or 1.3% of State GNP). This estimation shows the high cost (both, direct and indirect) RTI impose in households affecting their economy and leading families to lose wealth assets, get in debt or impoverished.

  14. Environmental assessment of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification: The case study of Barcelona metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puy, Neus [SosteniPrA, Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan [SosteniPrA, Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Bartroli, Jordi [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    An energy and environmental analysis of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification in metropolitan areas is carried out to determine the most critical stages of their life cycle. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology is used to identify the environmental load of three defined scenarios: (1) Post-consumer wood from recycling points; (2) Post-consumer wood from bulky wastes; and (3) Forest residues. The stages considered are biomass pre-treatment, transport and gasification. Biomass pre-treatment comprise different steps: separation, chipping, sifting, post-chipping for all the scenarios; except for the drying step which is only entailed to Scenario 3. The midpoint impact categories taken into account are: abiotic depletion (AD), global warming (GW), ozone layer depletion (ODP), human toxicity (HT), acidification (A) and eutrophication (E). Results show that, due to the high physical requirements for biomass gasification, the most appropriate biomass is that of Scenario 1, since forest residues require a drying stage, which involves high energy consumption and high environmental impact. Energy consumption in biomass pre-treatment and transport stages is low compared to the energy obtained from gasification, which represents the 5% in Scenario 1; 7% in Scenario 2; and 13% in Scenario 3. Biomass pre-treatment is associated to an important contribution in AD and ODP impact categories, calculated as 71% and 98% of the overall impact. The transport stage is of no significant influence either in the scenarios or in the impact categories (less than 24% of the overall impact). Finally, gasification represents an impact of 3-78% of the different impact categories. (author)

  15. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  16. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  17. A complex systems approach to evaluate HIV prevention in metropolitan areas: preliminary implications for combination intervention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D L Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complex systems models of adaptive HIV

  18. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Aeromonas recovered from the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain): diseases spectrum and prevalence in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Giménez, M J

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas infections are rare in Europe and often related to traveller's diarrhoea. A total of 185 Aeromonas isolates from river water, fish and clinical sources, recovered during a 1-year period, were used to investigate the disease spectrum and impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. They were all identified by biochemical tests and 25% of them were also identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 antimicrobials were determined for all isolates by broth microdilution/E-strips methods, and susceptibility was assessed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Strains pathogenicity was determined by using Swiss Webster mice as the animal model. Aeromonas diseases had an incidence of around 20 cases/million inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Acute gastroenteritis in children with no history of travel abroad was the main pathology. These cases were related to A. caviae, A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. dhakensis. A significant incidence of A. caviae in humans was found, while the other species were equally present in clinical and environmental origins. A. jandaei, A. bestiarum and A. media had mainly an environmental distribution. The prevalence of MDR Aeromonas was maximal in clinical samples, and resistance phenotypes were significantly related to this source. 7.2% of environmental Aeromonas was resistant to at least five drugs; most of them were moderately virulent for mice and, in addition, belonged to clinically significant species. The present study demonstrates a diseases spectrum similar to that reported in tropical countries, and also that pathogenic and heavily MDR Aeromonas are present in environmental reservoirs. MDR Aeromonas from any source analysed were susceptible to aztreonam, netilmicin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and fluoroquinolones.

  19. INTERMUNICIPALITY AS AN EMERGENT INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT: THE WATER SUPPLY CASE IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF AGUASCALIENTES, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pacheco-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public water supply management is a complex process that requires the implementation of a series of accountability, coordination and regulatory mechanisms in order to guarantee continual supply of this vital liquid to the maximum number of people, maximizing spatial and hourly coverage. This article examines the case of a Mexican city that has been expanding until reaching the size of a metropolitan zone, i.e. Aguascalientes, analyzing in a critical manner the argument that intermunicipal governance of public services emerges as a response to increasingly complex needs of metropolitan regions, which need to offer quality services to a growing and demanding population.

  20. Equine infectious anaemia in urban area horses of Monte Mor municipality, Campinas metropolitan area, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Cutolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA is a chronic viral disease, caused by a Lentivirus from Retroviridae family. It is primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors during bloodfeeding. It is an infectious, incurable and difficult to control disease, being considered an important obstacle to horse breeding in Brazil. As part of the municipal equine health program of Monte Mor county, a total of 64 animals were evaluated through serology for the presence of antibodies against EIA virus, using agar gel immunodiffusion test. Three animals were serologically reagent resulting in a local occurrence of 4.7%. Due to the significant use of horses as working and recreational animals in urban areas, it is mandatory that public authorities set up policies of responsible ownership and zoonoses control involving equine populations, aiming both animal welfare improvement and human health protection.

  1. Three-dimensional ground-motion simulations of earthquakes for the Hanford area, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Thorne, Paul; Rohay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of ground-motion simulations of earthquakes using three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) crustal models conducted for the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) of the Hanford facility, Washington, under the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) guidelines. The first portion of this report demonstrates that the 3D seismic velocity model for the area produces synthetic seismograms with characteristics (spectral response values, duration) that better match those of the observed recordings of local earthquakes, compared to a 1D model with horizontal layers. The second part of the report compares the response spectra of synthetics from 3D and 1D models for moment magnitude (M) 6.6–6.8 earthquakes on three nearby faults and for a dipping plane wave source meant to approximate regional S-waves from a Cascadia great earthquake. The 1D models are specific to each site used for the PSHA. The use of the 3D model produces spectral response accelerations at periods of 0.5–2.0 seconds as much as a factor of 4.5 greater than those from the 1D models for the crustal fault sources. The spectral accelerations of the 3D synthetics for the Cascadia plane-wave source are as much as a factor of 9 greater than those from the 1D models. The differences between the spectral accelerations for the 3D and 1D models are most pronounced for sites with thicker supra-basalt sediments and for stations with earthquakes on the Rattlesnake Hills fault and for the Cascadia plane-wave source.

  2. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications.

  3. Examining Urban Expansion Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: a Case Study of the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area from 1975 TO 2015, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingfei; Zhao, He; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Urban expansion, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land use to sub-urban areas in metropolitan areas, has been considered as a significant signal of regional economic development. In 1970s, the economic centre of Canada moved from Montreal to Toronto. Since some previous research have been focused on the urbanization process in Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it is significant to conduct research in its counterpart. This study evaluates urban expansion process in Montréal census metropolitan area (CMA), Canada, between 1975 and 2015 using satellite images and socio-economic data. Spatial and temporal dynamic information of urbanization process was quantified using Landsat imagery, supervised classification algorithms and the post-classification change detection technique. Accuracy of the Landsat-derived land use classification map ranged from 80% to 97%. The results indicated that continuous growth of built-up areas in the CMA over the study period resulted in a decrease in the area of cultivated land and vegetation. The results showed that urban areas expanded 442 km2 both along major river systems and lakeshores, as well as expanded from urban centres to surrounded areas. The analysis revealed that urban expansion has been largely driven by population growth and economic development. Consequently, the urban expansion maps produced in this research can assist decision-makers to promote sustainable urban development, and forecast potential changes in urbanization growth patterns.

  4. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  5. Metropolitan Development Districts, Madison Urban Area Boundary 2013, Published in 2013, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of...

  6. Metropolitan Development Districts, Approved Urban Area Boundary 2004, Published in 2004, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of...

  7. Evolution of electric power quality in the electricity distribution networks of Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area; La evolucion de la calidad de la energia en las redes de distribucion electrica de la zona metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnoni, Mario [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Grupo Energia y Ambiente. E-mail: mbrugno@aleph.fi.uba.ar

    1998-07-01

    The standards adopted for technical service quality in the Metropolitan Buenos Aires Concession Area and the results obtained in the application of the quality improvement during its first phase is analyzed. (author)

  8. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area - Volume 1, Geographic Information Systems data and Volume 2, Maps in Portable Document Format (NODC Accession 0014792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York - New Jersey Metropolitan Area from 1999 to...

  9. Information technology -- Local and metropolitan area networks -- Token ring access method and physical layer specifications -- Recommended practice for use of unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP) for token ring data transmission at 4-Mbit/s

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    Information technology -- Local and metropolitan area networks -- Token ring access method and physical layer specifications -- Recommended practice for use of unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP) for token ring data transmission at 4-Mbit/s

  10. A provider-based water planning and management model--WaterSim 4.0--for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D A; Escobar, V; Tschudi, M K; Lant, T; Gober, P

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainty in future water supplies for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (Phoenix) are exacerbated by the near certainty of increased, future water demands; water demand may increase eightfold or more by 2030 for some communities. We developed a provider-based water management and planning model for Phoenix termed WaterSim 4.0. The model combines a FORTRAN library with Microsoft C# to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of current and projected future water supply and demand as influenced by population demographics, climatic uncertainty, and groundwater availability. This paper describes model development and rationale. Water providers receive surface water, groundwater, or both depending on their portfolio. Runoff from two riverine systems supplies surface water to Phoenix while three alluvial layers that underlie the area provide groundwater. Water demand was estimated using two approaches. One approach used residential density, population projections, water duties, and acreage. A second approach used per capita water consumption and separate population growth estimates. Simulated estimates of initial groundwater for each provider were obtained as outputs from the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) Salt River Valley groundwater flow model (GFM). We compared simulated estimates of water storage with empirical estimates for modeled reservoirs as a test of model performance. In simulations we modified runoff by 80%-110% of the historical estimates, in 5% intervals, to examine provider-specific responses to altered surface water availability for 33 large water providers over a 25-year period (2010-2035). Two metrics were used to differentiate their resp