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Sample records for washington developments usa

  1. The development of permanent isolation surface barriers: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of in situ (in place) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). The current focus of development efforts is to design barriers that will function in a semiarid to subhumid climate, Emit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero amounts, be maintenance free, and last up to 1000 years or more. A series of field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies have been conducted for several years. The results of tests to date confirm that the Hanford barrier concepts are valid for both present and wetter climatic conditions. The data collected also have provided the foundation for the design of a large prototype barrier to be constructed later in 1993. This paper presents the results of some of the field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies.

  2. Trends in developed land cover adjacent to habitat for threatened salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista K Bartz

    Full Text Available For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008 land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain, but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008. For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

  3. Effects of rural residential development on forest communities in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Joel L. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Rural residential development in forests of Oregon and Washington continues to be a key driver of land use change. This type of development can have a variety of effects on the goods and services forests provide to the region. We used structure density from photo-interpreted points around forest inventory and analysis plots to examine differences in forest attributes...

  4. HYDRAULICS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  6. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  7. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  8. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  9. Consumer behaviour in E-Commerce : Millennials in the USA, Washington D.C area

    OpenAIRE

    Torrez Pimentel, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    The target of this thesis was to understand consumer behaviour in e-commerce. The target area is the Washington DC area USA from amongst young adults between 21-34 years of age classified as millennials. The impact of technology changes and variables influencing the selection process of an e-retailer among the millennials was studied. A research with help of a survey to total 285 participants in four different shopping malls was performed in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area conducted bet...

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, YAKIMA COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  13. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  14. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  15. Two new species of Sabulina (Caryophyllaceae from Washington State, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben S. Legler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabulina basaltica and Sabulina sororia (Caryophyllaceae are described as new species endemic to Washington State, U.S.A. Sabulina basaltica is restricted to high-elevation, basalt rocks in the northeastern Olympic Mountains, and Sabulina sororia to high-elevation, dunite rocks of the Twin Sisters Range in the North Cascade Mountains. Both were previously confused with Sabulina rossii (formerly called Arenaria rossii or Minuartia rossii. Their recognition as distinct species is supported by morphological and molecular characters and disjunct geographic distributions. Both are illustrated, mapped and compared to related species. We also present a molecular phylogeny of Sabulina based on nuclear ITS and plastid trnQ-rps16 DNA with increased sampling of North American taxa. The phylogeny resolves a single clade containing all glabrous, perennial, North American Sabulina taxa including Sabulina rossii and both of the new species.

  16. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  17. Tenth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA), July 19, 1995, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, V.A.; Hudgins, L. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Cassidy, S.B. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, and Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-09-06

    Each year for the last 10 years, scientists conducting research on Prader-Willi syndrome have come together to exchange information during a scientific conference held in conjunction with the annual Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) meeting. Presentations based on submitted abstracts encompass such varied fields as genetics, endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, psychology, psychiatry, and education. This year`s scientific conference was held in Seattle, Washington, on July 19, 1995, in conjunction with the 14th PWSA (USA) meeting held July 20-23. Seventeen reports were presented at the scientific meeting, the abstracts of which follow.

  18. Zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality and zooplankton samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean zooplankton assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most zooplankton species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the zooplankton assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of zooplankton assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.

  19. Isolation of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from retail meats purchased in Greater Washington, DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carl M; White, David G; Ge, Beilei; Zhang, Yifan; McDermott, Patrick F; Ayers, Sherry; Zhao, Shaohua; Meng, Jianghong

    2003-08-15

    Four hundred and seventy-two generic Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from ground and whole retail beef, chicken, pork, and turkey obtained from Greater Washington, DC, USA during the years 1998 to 2000. Many of the isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (59%), sulfamethoxazole (45%), streptomycin (44%), cephalothin (38%) and ampicillin (35%). Resistance was also observed, but to a lesser extent, to gentamicin (12%), nalidixic acid (8%), chloramphenicol (6%), ceftiofur (4%) and ceftriaxone (1%). Sixteen percent of the isolates displayed resistance to one antimicrobial, followed by 23% to two, 23% to three, 12% to four, 7% to five, 3% to six, 2% to seven and 2% to eight. Three E. coli isolates were shown to possess Shiga toxin genes (stx2) via PCR; all were O non-typeable and were recovered from ground beef samples purchased on the same day at the same supermarket. One of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates was susceptible to each of the antimicrobials tested, whereas one displayed resistance to cephalothin and sulfamethoxazole, and one displayed resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Findings from this study indicate that retail raw meats may often be contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli.

  20. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate E.; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John

    2013-01-01

    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  1. A meteorological and snow observational data set from Snoqualmie Pass (921 m), Washington Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayand, Nicholas E.; Massmann, Adam; Butler, Colin; Keenan, Eric; Stimberis, John; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a quality controlled observational atmospheric, snow, and soil data set from Snoqualmie Pass, Washington, USA, to enable testing of hydrometeorological and snow process representations within a rain-snow transitional climate where existing observations are sparse and limited. Continuous meteorological forcing (including air temperature, total precipitation, wind speed, specific humidity, air pressure, and short and longwave irradiance) are provided at hourly intervals for a 24 year historical period (water years 1989-2012) and at half-hourly intervals for a more recent period (water years 2013-2015), separated based on the availability of observations. The majority of missing data were filled with biased-corrected reanalysis model values (using NLDAS). Additional observations include 40 years of snow board new snow accumulation, multiple measurements of total snow depth, and manual snow pits, while more recent years include subdaily surface temperature, snowpack drainage, soil moisture and temperature profiles, and eddy covariance-derived turbulent heat flux. This data set is ideal for testing hypotheses about energy balance, soil, and snow processes in the rain-snow transition zone.

  2. Oceanographic measurements obtained offshore of the Elwha River delta in coordination with the Elwha River Restoration Project, Washington, USA, 2010-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Time-series data of velocity, pressure, turbidity, conductivity, and temperature were collected near the mouth of the Elwha River, Washington, USA, from December...

  3. Time Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Benthic and Pelagic Indicator Fishes from Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James E; O'Neill, Sandra M; Ylitalo, Gina M

    2017-08-01

    We modeled temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in two indicator fish species representing benthic and pelagic habitats in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. English sole (Parophrys vetulus, benthic) index sites and larger-scale Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii, pelagic) foraging areas represented a wide range of possible contamination conditions, with sampling locations situated adjacent to watersheds exhibiting high, medium and low development. Consistency in analytical data throughout the study was maintained by either calculating method-bias-correction factors on paired samples as methods evolved or by analyzing older archived samples by current methods. PCBs declined moderately in two herring stocks from a low-development basin (2.3 and 4.0% annual rate of decline) and showed no change in the highly developed and moderately developed basins during a 16- to 21-year period. PCBs increased in English sole from four of ten sites (2.9-7.1%), and the remaining six exhibited no significant change. PBDEs and DDTs declined significantly in all herring stocks (4.2-8.1%), although analytical challenges warrant caution in interpreting DDT results. PBDEs declined in English sole from two high-development and one low-development site (3.7-7.2%) and remained unchanged in the remaining seven. DDTs increased in English sole from one high-development site (Tacoma City Waterway) and declined in two high-development and one low development site. As with herring, analytical challenges warrant caution in interpreting the English sole DDT results. It is likely that source controls and mitigation efforts have contributed to the declines in PBDEs and DDTs overall, whereas PCBs appear to have persisted, especially in the pelagic food web, despite bans in PCB production and use.

  4. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  5. Climate change or climate cycles? Snowpack trends in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Dwight; McDonald, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Climate change could significantly influence seasonal streamflow and water availability in the snowpack-fed watersheds of Washington, USA. Descriptions of snowpack decline often use linear ordinary least squares (OLS) models to quantify this change. However, the region's precipitation is known to be related to climate cycles. If snowpack decline is more closely related to these cycles, an OLS model cannot account for this effect, and thus both descriptions of trends and estimates of decline could be inaccurate. We used intervention analysis to determine whether snow water equivalent (SWE) in 25 long-term snow courses within the Olympic and Cascade Mountains are more accurately described by OLS (to represent gradual change), stationary (to represent no change), or step-stationary (to represent climate cycling) models. We used Bayesian information-theoretic methods to determine these models' relative likelihood, and we found 90 models that could plausibly describe the statistical structure of the 25 snow courses' time series. Posterior model probabilities of the 29 "most plausible" models ranged from 0.33 to 0.91 (mean = 0.58, s = 0.15). The majority of these time series (55%) were best represented as step-stationary models with a single breakpoint at 1976/77, coinciding with a major shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. However, estimates of SWE decline differed by as much as 35% between statistically plausible models of a single time series. This ambiguity is a critical problem for water management policy. Approaches such as intervention analysis should become part of the basic analytical toolkit for snowpack or other climatic time series data.

  6. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  7. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  8. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  9. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  10. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  11. Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Lasher, John P.; Lamb, Andrew P.; Mahan, Shannon; Foit, Franklin F.; Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ∼500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ∼10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.

  12. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  13. Environmental contaminants in male river otters from Oregon and Washington, USA, 1994-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, R.A.; Henny, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports hepatic concentrations and distribution patterns of select metals, organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 180 male river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from Oregon and Washington, 1994-1999. Seven regional locations of western Oregon and Washington were delineated based on associations with major population centers, industry or agriculture. Cadmium (Cd) was not found above 0.5 ??g g-1, dry weight (dw) in juveniles, but increased with age in adults though concentrations were generally low (nd-1.18 ??g g-1, dw). Regional geometric means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 3.63 to 8.05 ??g g-1, dw in juveniles and 3.46-2.6 ??g g-1 (dw) in adults. The highest THg concentration was 148 ??g g-1, dw from an apparently healthy adult male from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Although THg increased with age in adult otters, the occurrence of the more toxic form methylmercury (MeHg) was not evaluated. Mean OC and PCB concentrations reported in this study declined dramatically from those reported in 1978-1979 from the lower Columbia River. Organochlorine pesticide and metabolite means for both juvenile and adult river otter males were all below 100 ??g kg-1, wet weight (ww), with only DDE, DDD and HCB having individual concentrations exceeding 500 ??g kg-1, ww. Mean ??PCB concentrations in both juvenile and adult male otters were below 1 ??g g-1 for all regional locations. Mean juvenile and adult concentrations of non-ortho substituted PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were in the low ng kg-1 for all locations studied. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. Relationships between diatoms and tidal environments in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Yuki; Horton, Benjamin P.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Nagumo, Tamostsu; Nelson, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    A new regional dataset comprising 425 intertidal diatom taxa from 175 samples from 11 ecologically diverse Oregon and Washington estuaries illustrates the importance of compiling a large modern dataset from a range of sites. Cluster analyses and detrended correspondence analysis of the diatom assemblages identify distinct vertical zones within supratidal, intertidal and subtidal environments at six of the 11 study sites, but the abundance of some of the most common species varies widely among and within sites. Canonical correspondence analysis of the regional dataset shows relationships between diatom species and tidal exposure, salinity and substratum (grain size and organic content). Correspondence analyses of local datasets show higher values of explained variation than the analysis of the combined regional dataset. Our results emphasize that studies of the autecology of diatom species require many samples from a range of modern environments to adequately characterize species–environment relationships.

  15. The development of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Danny; Barbash, Israel M; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Okubagzi, Petros; Satler, Lowell F; Waksman, Ron; Pichard, Augusto D

    2012-03-01

    The penetration rate of devices in general, and in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) specifically, is significantly delayed in the United States of America (USA) compared with in Europe. This is mostly due to the mission statement of the regulatory agencies in the USA, which requires very rigorous clinical testing of a device prior to its approval. The USA had a major role in the development and evaluation of this technology and USA research has enabled clinicians inside and outside of the USA to conduct a concise scientifically based assessment of the performance of TAVR devices in terms of safety and efficacy. In the following review, we provide data on the development of TAVR in the USA, revealing the critical role the USA has played in this extraordinary process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Glacier modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index melt computation and accumulation is modeled from glacier air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "glacier cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the glacier. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade Glacier, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  17. Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Edward G.; Silsbee, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October, and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas.

  18. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  19. Forest harvest patterns on private lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Walker, Jessica; Griffith, Glenn E.

    2017-01-01

    Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC) products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  20. Acceptability of Rapid HIV Testing Among Latinos in Washington Heights, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L; Cortes, Yamnia I; Long, Yue; Castro-Rivas, Erida; Liu, Jianfang

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a disproportionately large impact on Latino Americans. This study assessed the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among a sample of Latinos from New York City. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 192 participants from The Washington Heights/Inwood Informatics Infrastructure for Community-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) study. Participants were interviewed and offered rapid HIV testing and post-test counseling. Seventy-five percent (n = 143) accepted rapid HIV testing when offered. More religious participants were less likely than less religious participants to undergo testing (RR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99). Participants tested for HIV within the past year were less likely than those who had not been tested within the past year to agree to undergo testing (RR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.11-0.66). Community-based rapid HIV testing is feasible among Latinos in urban environments. Outreach efforts to engage religious individuals and encouraging routine testing should be reinforced.

  1. Forest Harvest Patterns on Private Lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Soulard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  2. Miocene−Pleistocene deformation of the Saddle Mountains: Implications for seismic hazard in central Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey; Sherrod, Brian; Möller, Andreas; Paces, James B.; Blakely, Richard J.; Styron, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Yakima fold province, located in the backarc of the Cascadia subduction zone, is a region of active strain accumulation and deformation distributed across a series of fault-cored folds. The geodetic network in central Washington has been used to interpret large-scale N-S shortening and westward-increasing strain; however, geodetic data are unable to resolve shortening rates across individual structures in this low-strain-rate environment. Resolving fault geometries, slip rates, and timing of faulting in the Yakima fold province is critically important to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure and population centers.The Saddle Mountains anticline is one of the most prominent Yakima folds. It is unique within the Yakima fold province in that the syntectonic strata of the Ringold Formation are preserved and provide a record of deformation and drainage reorganization. Here, we present new stratigraphic columns, U-Pb zircon tephra ages, U-series caliche ages, and geophysical modeling that constrain two line-balanced and retrodeformed cross sections. These new constraints indicate that the Saddle Mountains anticline has accommodated 1.0−1.3 km of N-S shortening since 10 Ma, that shortening increases westward along the anticline, and that the average slip rate has increased 6-fold since 6.8 Ma. Provenance analysis suggests that the source terrane for the Ringold Formation was similar to that of the modern Snake River Plain. Using new slip rates and structural constraints, we calculate the strain accumulation time, interpretable as a recurrence interval, for earthquakes on the Saddle Mountains fault and find that large-magnitude earthquakes could rupture along the Saddle Mountains fault every 2−11 k.y.

  3. Patterns of alcohol consumption among pregnant African-American women in Washington, DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Michele; Thornberry, Jutta S; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret F

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviours related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington DC. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions concerned the amount, type and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were categorised as at no, low, moderate or high risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy. For comparisons of risk levels of drinking, bivariate associations were examined using Fisher's exact test. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also computed. Although 31% of current/recent drinkers stated that they continued to drink during pregnancy, responses to quantity/frequency questions revealed that 42% continued to do so. Women who were at high compared with moderate risk acknowledged that others were worried about their consumption [OR=4.0, 95% CI 1.5, 10.6], that they drank upon rising [OR=6.7, 95% CI 1.8, 26.9], had a need to reduce drinking [OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.1] and in the past 5 years had had fractures [OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.0, 17.8] or a road traffic injury [OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.0, 12.2]. Women in the high/moderate compared with low-risk group were more likely to have been injured in a fight or assault [OR=2.7, 95% CI 1.3, 5.6]. This study validated the usefulness of our questionnaire in identifying women who were at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy across a range of consumption levels. Using our screening tool, women were willing to disclose their drinking habits. This low-cost method identifies women appropriate for targeting of interventions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: a new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P; Carlisle, Maureen H; Bergen, Silas; Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2014-03-01

    Early land plant fossils can be challenging to interpret due to their morphological simplicity and often fragmentary nature. Morphometric techniques using commonly preserved characters might increase diagnostic value of such material. To evaluate the utility of morphometrics in assessing morphospecies boundaries in the Devonian, we compared degrees of variation within the cosmopolitan lycopsid genus Leclercqia with that of living relatives (Lycopodium-Spinulum spp.) Of particular interest was determining whether a new morphotype of Leclercqia from the Middle Devonian Chilliwack flora of Washington State fell within or outside the range of variation of previously described species. Morphological variation of Leclercqia was assessed across the geographic range of the genus using six vegetative and three reproductive characters. The new morphotype and two previously described species (L. complexa, L. andrewsii) were compared using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Extant Lycopodium-Spinulum species and variants were similarly analyzed to assess inter- vs. intraspecific variation in living lycopsids. The LDA comparisons of Lycopodium-Spinulum yielded notable morphological disparity between species but substantial overlap between intraspecific variants. Among the fossils, LDA separates the new morphotype, Leclercqia complexa, and L. andrewsii to a similar degree as Lycopodium and Spinulum species. Based on these results and further study, we describe a new species of Leclercqia: Leclercqia scolopendra Benca et Strömberg sp. nov. Morphometric analyses can aid in informing taxonomic assignment of fragmentary early land plant fossils using readily preserved features, even in the absence of reproductive structures. Applications of this approach to the Chilliwack flora suggest Leclercqia displayed greater morphological variation, taxonomic diversity, and biogeographic extent than previously thought.

  5. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  6. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  7. Thiocapsa imhoffii, sp. nov., an alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium of the family Chromatiaceae from Soap Lake, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Marie; Takaichi, Shinichi; Madigan, Michael T

    2007-12-01

    An alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium, strain SC5, was isolated from Soap Lake, a soda lake located in east central Washington state (USA). Cells of strain SC5 were gram-negative, non-motile, and non-gas vesiculate cocci, often observed in pairs or tetrads. In the presence of sulfide, elemental sulfur was deposited internally. Liquid cultures were pink to rose red in color. Cells contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as major photosynthetic pigments. Internal photosynthetic membranes were of the vesicular type. Optimal growth of strain SC5 occurred in the absence of NaCl (range 0-4%), pH 8.5 (range pH 7.5-9.5), and 32 degrees C. Photoheterotrophic growth occurred in the presence of sulfide or thiosulfate with only a limited number of organic carbon sources. Growth factors were not required, and cells could fix N2. Dark, microaerobic growth occurred in the presence of both an organic carbon source and thiosulfate. Sulfide and thiosulfate served as electron donors for photoautotrophy, which required elevated levels of CO2. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain SC5 basal to the clade of the genus Thiocapsa in the family Chromatiaceae with a 96.7% sequence similarity to its closest relative, Thiocapsa roseopersicina strain 1711T (DSM217T). The unique assemblage of physiological and phylogenetic properties of strain SC5 defines it as a new species of the genus Thiocapsa, and we describe strain SC5 herein as Tca. imhoffii, sp. nov.

  8. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.

    2015-04-01

    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  9. Shifting Regimes and Changing Interactions in the Lake Washington, U.S.A., Plankton Community from 1962–1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tessa B.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Katz, Stephen L.; Holmes, Elizabeth E.; Hampton, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate, nutrient regimes, and invasive species shift food web structure is critically important in ecology. Most analytical approaches, however, assume static species interactions and environmental effects across time. Therefore, we applied multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models in a moving window context to test for shifting plankton community interactions and effects of environmental variables on plankton abundance in Lake Washington, U.S.A. from 1962–1994, following reduced nutrient loading in the 1960s and the rise of Daphnia in the 1970s. The moving-window MAR (mwMAR) approach showed shifts in the strengths of interactions between Daphnia, a dominant grazer, and other plankton taxa between a high nutrient, Oscillatoria-dominated regime and a low nutrient, Daphnia-dominated regime. The approach also highlighted the inhibiting influence of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria on other plankton taxa in the community. Overall community stability was lowest during the period of elevated nutrient loading and Oscillatoria dominance. Despite recent warming of the lake, we found no evidence that anomalous temperatures impacted plankton abundance. Our results suggest mwMAR modeling is a useful approach that can be applied across diverse ecosystems, when questions involve shifting relationships within food webs, and among species and abiotic drivers. PMID:25338087

  10. Shifting regimes and changing interactions in the Lake Washington, U.S.A., plankton community from 1962-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tessa B; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Scheuerell, Mark D; Katz, Stephen L; Holmes, Elizabeth E; Hampton, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate, nutrient regimes, and invasive species shift food web structure is critically important in ecology. Most analytical approaches, however, assume static species interactions and environmental effects across time. Therefore, we applied multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models in a moving window context to test for shifting plankton community interactions and effects of environmental variables on plankton abundance in Lake Washington, U.S.A. from 1962-1994, following reduced nutrient loading in the 1960s and the rise of Daphnia in the 1970s. The moving-window MAR (mwMAR) approach showed shifts in the strengths of interactions between Daphnia, a dominant grazer, and other plankton taxa between a high nutrient, Oscillatoria-dominated regime and a low nutrient, Daphnia-dominated regime. The approach also highlighted the inhibiting influence of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria on other plankton taxa in the community. Overall community stability was lowest during the period of elevated nutrient loading and Oscillatoria dominance. Despite recent warming of the lake, we found no evidence that anomalous temperatures impacted plankton abundance. Our results suggest mwMAR modeling is a useful approach that can be applied across diverse ecosystems, when questions involve shifting relationships within food webs, and among species and abiotic drivers.

  11. Release of elements to natural water from sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Cox, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Reservoir sediments from Lake Roosevelt (WA, USA) that were contaminated with smelter waste discharged into the Columbia River (BC, Canada) were examined using three measures of elemental release reflecting varying degrees of physical mixing and time scales. Aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the interstitial water of reservoir sediments, in the gently stirred overlying waters of incubated sediment cores, and in supernatants of aggressively tumbled slurries of reservoir sediments generally were higher than the concentrations from a reference site. When compared to chronic water-quality criteria, all three measures of release suggest that slag-contaminated sediments near the U.S.-Canadian border are potentially toxic as a result of Cu release and Pb release in two of the three measures. All three measures of Cd release suggest potential toxicity for one site farther down the reservoir, probably contaminated as a result of transport and adsorption of Cd from smelter liquid waste. Releases of Zn and As did not appear to be potentially toxic. Carbonate geochemistry indirectly affects the potential toxicity by increasing water hardness.

  12. Limits of Luminescence Dating: an update regarding quartz of the Southern Alps of New Zealand and the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna E.; Rittenour, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glacial sediments from the South Fork Hoh River valley in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA and the Lake Hawea valley in the Southern Alps, New Zealand were dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) on feldspar sand from 2011-2013. High sediment supply (typical of glacial environments), short transport distances, and sediment newly eroded from bedrock sources were expected to pose problems for luminescence d...

  13. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  14. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Wen, Jun

    2004-03-01

    Liquidambar changii Pigg, Ickert-Bond & Wen sp. nov. (Altingiaceae) is established for anatomically preserved, middle Miocene infructescences from Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA. Specimens are spherical, ∼2.5 cm in diameter, and have ∼25-30 tightly packed, bilocular fruits per head. Fruits are 3.4-4.7 mm wide × 2.6-3.5 mm long and wedge shaped, fused at the base, and free distally. Each locule contains 1-2 mature, elongate seeds proximally and 5-9 aborted seeds of more irregular shape distally. Mature seeds are 1.5 mm long × 1.2 mm wide, elongate, and triangular transversely, with a slight flange. Seeds have a seed coat for which three zones can be well defined, a uniseriate outer palisade layer, a middle region of isodiametric cells comprising most of the integument, and a uniseriate inner layer of tangentially elongate cells lining the embryo cavity. Liquidambar changii is most similar to the eastern Asian L. acalycina H.-T. Chang on features of infructescence, fruit, and seed morphology and quite unlike the North American L. styraciflua L. and other species. Such a close relationship between these two species supports a Beringian biogeographic track between eastern Asia and western North America during the Miocene. Previous phylogenetic and allozyme analysis of modern Liquidambar demonstrates a close relationship between North American-western Asian taxa and suggests a North Atlantic biogeographic track in the middle Miocene. Together, these biogeographic tracks underscore the complexity of the biogeographic history of the Altingiaceae in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the Neogene.

  15. Mercury sedimentation in lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA and its relation to local industrial and municipal atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Using Remote Sensed Imagery to Determine the Impacts from Salvage Logging after the 2015 Tower Fire, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, Anna; Robichaud, Peter; Lewis, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires are part of the natural process in most forested landscapes and during subsequent precipitation, the runoff and consequently erosion of the soil increases. Several factors contribute to the increased runoff: loss of runoff storage in the forest floor, the water repellent soil layer and reduced interception by the canopy. Due to climate change, the number of wildfires and their severity is likely to increase, which will lead to increased erosion; this has been investigated by others. Often, land management protocol is to remove the standing dead trees before they decay. In the past years salvage logging has received more attention in research, yet results have been mixed on its effects on increased erosion. The goal of the current research is to determine the change in surface conditions due to salvage logging operations by comparing the pre- and post-fire and post-salvage surface conditions. To determine this change, high resolution WorldView remote sensing imagery was used after 9000-ha 2015 Tower Fire which was located on the border of Idaho and Washington (USA). Ground validation measurements were taken using the forest soil disturbance protocol as well as GPS coordinates and measurements of highly disturbed areas such as skid trails, skyline drag lines and other machinery impacts. Some correlations were found between disturbance classes, bare soil, exposed wheel tracks (rutting) and soil compaction. High resolution WorldView remote sensing images detected changes in the pre- and post-fire environmental conditions and the change due to salvage logging operations. Classifying disturbances using remote sensing imagery is complicated by natural revegetation processes and by the timing of salvage logging operations. Initial results suggest that high resolution imagery can be used to determine onsite impacts of salvage logging operations.

  17. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  18. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ202Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ202Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger.

  20. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  1. Booker T. Washington's Educational Contributions to Contemporary Practices of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Booker T. Washington's educational contributions to contemporary practices of sustainable development. In particular, the article looks at Washington's contributions in the areas of economic sustainability and entrepreneurship, character development, and aesthetics. As states continue to contemplate and evaluate the value of…

  2. The story of a Yakima fold and how it informs Late Neogene and Quaternary backarc deformation in the Cascadia subduction zone, Manastash anticline, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Ladinsky, Tyler C.; Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Pratt, Thomas; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jackson K.; Wan, Elmira

    2017-01-01

    The Yakima folds of central Washington, USA, are prominent anticlines that are the primary tectonic features of the backarc of the northern Cascadia subduction zone. What accounts for their topographic expression and how much strain do they accommodate and over what time period? We investigate Manastash anticline, a north vergent fault propagation fold typical of structures in the fold province. From retrodeformation of line- and area-balanced cross sections, the crust has horizontally shortened by 11% (0.8–0.9 km). The fold, and by inference all other folds in the fold province, formed no earlier than 15.6 Ma as they developed on a landscape that was reset to negligible relief following voluminous outpouring of Grande Ronde Basalt. Deformation is accommodated on two fault sets including west-northwest striking frontal thrust faults and shorter north to northeast striking faults. The frontal thrust fault system is active with late Quaternary scarps at the base of the range front. The fault-cored Manastash anticline terminates to the east at the Naneum anticline and fault; activity on the north trending Naneum structures predates emplacement of the Grande Ronde Basalt. The west trending Yakima folds and west striking thrust faults, the shorter north to northeast striking faults, and the Naneum fault together constitute the tectonic structures that accommodate deformation in the low strain rate environment in the backarc of the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

  3. Linking Hydrologic Alteration to Biological Impairment in Urbanizing Streams of the Puget Lowland, Washington, USA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGasperi, Curtis L; Berge, Hans B; Whiting, Kelly R; Burkey, Jeff J; Cassin, Jan L; Fuerstenberg, Robert R

    2009-01-01

    We used a retrospective approach to identify hydrologic metrics with the greatest potential for ecological relevance for use as resource management tools (i.e., hydrologic indicators) in rapidly urbanizing basins of the Puget Lowland. We proposed four criteria for identifying useful hydrologic indicators: (1) sensitive to urbanization consistent with expected hydrologic response, (2) demonstrate statistically significant trends in urbanizing basins (and not in undeveloped basins), (3) be correlated with measures of biological response to urbanization, and (4) be relatively insensitive to potentially confounding variables like basin area. Data utilized in the analysis included gauged flow and benthic macroinvertebrate data collected at 16 locations in 11 King County stream basins. Fifteen hydrologic metrics were calculated from daily average flow data and the Pacific Northwest Benthic Index of Biological Integrity (B-IBI) was used to represent the gradient of response of stream macroinvertebrates to urbanization. Urbanization was represented by percent Total Impervious Area (%TIA) and percent urban land cover (%Urban). We found eight hydrologic metrics that were significantly correlated with B-IBI scores (Low Pulse Count and Duration; High Pulse Count, Duration, and Range; Flow Reversals, TQmean, and R-B Index). Although there appeared to be a great deal of redundancy among these metrics with respect to their response to urbanization, only two of the metrics tested – High Pulse Count and High Pulse Range – best met all four criteria we established for selecting hydrologic indicators. The increase in these high pulse metrics with respect to urbanization is the result of an increase in winter high pulses and the occurrence of high pulse events during summer (increasing the frequency and range of high pulses), when practically none would have occurred prior to development. We performed an initial evaluation of the usefulness of our hydrologic indicators by

  4. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M Koehler; Benjamin T. Maletzke; Jeff A. Von Kienast; Keith B. Aubry; Robert B. Wielgus; Robert H. Naney

    2008-01-01

    Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington are poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we...

  5. Five years (2000-2004) of post-reconstruction monitoring of freshwater tidal wetlands in the urban Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, D.; Krafft, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. USA consisted of over 809 hectares (2000 acres) of freshwater tidal wetlands before mandatory dredging removed most of them in the first half of the 20th century. Much of this13 kilometer (8 mile) reach was transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). Planning processes in the 1980's envisioned a restoration (rejuvenation) of some wetlands for habitat, aesthetics, water quality and interpretative purposes. Subsequently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in a cost share agreement with the District of Columbia reconstructed wetlands on NPS lands at Kenilworth - 12.5 hectares (1993), Kingman 27 hectares (2000), a Fringe Marsh - 6.5 hectares (2003) and is currently constructing Heritage Marsh - 2.5 hectares (2005/2006). The USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in conjunction with the University of Maryland Biological Engineering Department was contracted to conduct post-reconstruction monitoring (2000-2004) to document the relative success and progress of the Kingman Marsh reconstruction primarily based on vegetative response but also in conjunction with seed bank and soil characteristics. Results from Kingman were compared to Kenilworth Marsh (reconstructed 7 years prior), Dueling Creek Marsh (last best remaining freshwater tidal wetland bench in the urbanized Anacostia watershed) and Patuxent River Marsh (in a more natural adjacent watershed). Vegetation establishment was initially strong at Kingman, but declined rapidly as measured by cover, richness, diversity, etc. under grazing pressure from resident Canada geese and associated reduction in sediment levels. This decline did not occur at the other wetlands. The decline occurred despite a substantial seed bank that was sustained primarily be water born propagules. Soil development, as true for most juvenile wetlands, was slow with almost no organic matter accumulation. By 2004 only two of 7 planted species remained (mostly Peltandra virginica) at Kingman which did provide

  6. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on snag abundance and spatial pattern in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion. Salter

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and prescribed burning practices are commonly used to address tree stocking, spacing, composition, and canopy and surface fuel conditions in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on snag abundance and spatial pattern across 12 10-ha treatment units in central Washington State. A snag...

  7. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  8. Assessment of Public Health Risks Associated with Atmospheric Exposure to PM2.5 in Washington, DC, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon R. Morris

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we investigated the public health risks associated with atmospheric exposure to PM2.5 for different subpopulations (black, white, Hispanic, youth, adults, and elderly in the Washington, DC area. Washington, DC has long been considered a non-healthy place to live according to the American Lung Association due to its poor air quality. This recognition clearly includes the negative PM-related human health effects within the region. Specifically, DC fine particulate matter (PM2.5 [or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm] poses notable health risks to subpopulations having an annual mean value of 16.70 μg/m3 during the years 1999-2004, exceeding the EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS of 15 μg/m3. Incessant exposure to significant levels of PM has previously been linked to deleterious health effects, such as heart and lung diseases. The environmental quality and public health statistics of Washington, DC indicate the need for higher-resolution measurements of emissions, both spatially and temporally, and increased analysis of PM-related health effects. Our findings show that there are significant risks of ward-specific pediatric asthma emergency room visits (ERV. Results also illustrate lifetime excess lung cancer risks, exceeding the 1x10-6 threshold for the measured levels of particulate matter and heavy metals (chromium and arsenic on behalf of numerous subpopulations in the DC selected wards.

  9. Pathogen exposure and blood chemistry in the Washington, USA population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C LeAnn; Schuler, Krysten L; Thomas, Nancy J; Webb, Julie L; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Ip, Hon S; Dubey, J P; Frame, Elizabeth R

    2013-10-01

    Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, United States were evaluated in 2011 to determine health status and pathogen exposure. Antibodies to Brucella spp. (10%) and influenza A virus (23%) were detected for the first time in this population in 2011. Changes in clinical pathology values (serum chemistries), exposure to pathogens, and overall health of the population over the last decade were assessed by comparing 2011 data to the data collected on this population in 2001-2002. Several serum chemistry parameters were different between study years and sexes but were not clinically significant. The odds of canine distemper virus exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2001-2002 (80%) compared to 2011 (10%); likelihood of exposure significantly increased with age. Prevalence of exposure to Sarcocystis neurona was also higher in 2001-2002 (29%) than in 2011 (0%), but because testing methods varied between study years the results were not directly comparable. Exposure to Leptospira spp. was only observed in 2001-2002. Odds of Toxoplasma gondii exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2011 (97%) than otters in 2001-2002 (58%). Substantial levels of domoic acid (n = 2) and saxitoxin (n = 2) were found in urine or fecal samples from animals sampled in 2011. No evidence of calicivirus or Coxiella burnetii exposure in the Washington population of northern sea otters was found in either 2001-2002 or 2011. Changes in exposure status from 2001-2002 to 2011 suggest that the Washington sea otter population may be dealing with new disease threats (e.g., influenza) while also increasing their susceptibility to diseases that may be highly pathogenic in naïve individuals (e.g., canine distemper).

  10. Sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta of three Mid-Atlantic Parks in the George Washington Memorial Parkway, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barrows

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A diverse sawfly fauna of 176 species in 66 genera in 10 families occurred in three parks in the George Washington Memorial Parkway – Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve (DMWP, Great Falls Park (GFP, and Turkey Run Park (TRP. Adult sawflies flew from early March through mid-November. They included the rarely-collected Kerita fidala Ross, a leafminer of Mertensia virginica (L. Pers. ex Link (Boraginaceae and an unidentified Caliroa sp. which consumes Staphylea trifolia L. (Staphyleaceae. Nine of the collected species are alien ones in North America. Based on coefficients of community, DMWP was more similar to TRP than GFP, and GFP and TRP were more similar to one another than to DMWP. In DMWP, most species were uncommon in samples. Ninety-five percent of the reported host genera of the collected sawfly species occurred in all three of the parks.

  11. New directions in US development policies: A view from Washington ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Development expert Todd Moss analyzes these trends in US development policy and forecasts what changes to expect. He also relates these trends to Canada – facing some similar issues – including how the challenges will affect the way the two countries cooperate on development. Listen to the audio ...

  12. Magnetostratigraphy and Tectonic Rotation of the Eocene-Oligocene Makah and Hoko River Formations, Northwest Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Prothero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene-Oligocene Makah Formation and subjacent middle Eocene Hoko River Formation of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, yield mollusks, crustaceans, foraminifera, and early neocete whales; their age has never been precisely established. We sampled several sections; most samples showed a stable single-component remanence held largely in magnetite and passed a Class I reversal test. The upper Refugian (late Eocene and lower Zemorrian (early Oligocene rocks at Baada Point correlate with Chron C13r (33.7–34.7 Ma and Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The Ozette Highway section of the Makah Formation spanned the early Refugian to late Refugian, with a sequence that correlates with Chrons C15r-C13r (33.7–35.3 Ma, and a long reversed early Zemorrian section that correlates with Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The type section of the Hoko River Formation correlates with Chron C18r (40.0–41.2 Ma. The area sampled shows about 45∘ of post-Oligocene counterclockwise tectonic rotation, consistent with results obtained from the Eocene-Oligocene rocks in the region.

  13. Geothermal energy in Washington: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1979-04-01

    This is an attempt to identify the factors which have affected and will continue to affect geothermal assessment and development in the state. The eight potential sites chosen for detailed analysis include: Indian Heaven KGRA, Mount St. Helens KGRA, Kennedy Hot Springs KGRA, Mount Adams PGRA (Potential Geothermal Resource Area), Mount Rainier PGRA, Mount Baker PGRA, Olympic-Sol Duc Hot Springs, and Yakima. The following information is included for each site: site data, site location and physical description, geological/geophysical description, reservoir characteristics, land ownership and leasing, geothermal development status, institutional characteristics, environmental factors, transportation and utilities, and population. A number of serious impediments to geothermal development were identified which can be solved only by legislative action at the state or federal level and/or changes in attitudes by regulatory agencies. (MHR)

  14. Neogene Fallout Tuffs from the Yellowstone Hotspot in the Columbia Plateau Region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P.; Perkins, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16–4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas. PMID:23071494

  15. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  16. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P; Perkins, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  17. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intraerythrocytic parasite(s) in Puget Sound rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Straaten, N.; Jacobson, A.; Halos, D.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, A.A.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two morphologically distinct forms of an intraerythrocytic parasite(s) were detected by microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained blood films in 45.7% of 119 rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago (Washington State, U.S.A.). Infection prevalence for both forms was 53% in males, 44% in females, and 33% in fish of undetermined gender. A binucleate "ring-stage" was present at all 4 geographic sites, with a mean prevalence of 45.7%, while mean prevalence of a larger gamont-like form from the same sites was 5.1%. The relationship of the 2 forms to each other could not be determined. Neither schizogony nor binary fission was evident in any of the infected erythrocytes and the parasites contained no obvious pigment. The possibility of the 2 morphologic forms being 2 distinct species is supported by the observation that no difference in parasitemia was seen in the binucleate form among sites (1.6-1.9%), while parasitemia of the gamont-like form varied significantly among sites, ranging from a high of 4% to a low of 0.1%. Taxonomic status of either form could not be determined at this time based on limited existing morphologic data. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  18. Characteristics and Dynamics of a Large Sub-Tidal Sand Wave Field—Habitat for Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes personatus, Salish Sea, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gary Greene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water sand wave fields in the San Juan Archipelago of the Salish Sea and Pacific Northwest Washington, USA, have been found to harbor Pacific sand lance (PSL, Ammodytes personatus, a critical forage fish of the region. Little is known of the dynamics of these sand waves and the stability of the PSL sub-tidal habitats. Therefore, we have undertaken an initial investigation to determine the dynamic conditions of a well-known PSL habitat in the San Juan Channel within the Archipelago using bottom sediment sampling, an acoustical doppler current profiling (ADCP system, and multi-beam echo sounder (MBES bathymetry. Our study indicates that the San Juan Channel sand wave field maintained its shape and bedforms geometry throughout the years it has been studied. Based on bed phase diagrams for channelized bedforms, the sand waves appear to be in a dynamic equilibrium condition. Sea level rise may change the current regime within the Archipelago and may alter some of the deep-water or sub-tidal PSL habitats mapped there. Our findings have global significance in that these dynamic bedforms that harbor PSL and sand-eels elsewhere along the west coast of North America and in the North Sea may also be in a marginally dynamic equilibrium condition and may be prone to alteration by sea level rise, indicating an urgency in locating and investigating these habitats in order to sustain the forage fish.

  19. Geochemical characterization and dating of R tephra, a post-glacial marker bed in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolczyk, Mary; Vallance, James W.; Cubley, Joel; Osborn, Gerald; Clark, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The oldest postglacial lapilli–ash tephra recognized in sedimentary records surrounding Mount Rainier (Washington State, USA) is R tephra, a very early Holocene deposit that acts as an important stratigraphic and geochronologic marker bed. This multidisciplinary study incorporates tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, petrography, and electron microprobe analysis to characterize R tephra. Tephra samples were collected from Tipsoo Lake and a stream-cut exposure in the Cowlitz Divide area of Mount Rainier National Park. Field evidence from 25 new sites suggests that R tephra locally contains internal bedding and has a wider distribution than previously reported. Herein, we provide the first robust suite of geochemical data that characterize the tephra. Glass compositions are heterogeneous, predominantly ranging from andesite to rhyolite in ash- to lapilli-sized clasts. The mineral assemblage consists of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and magnetite with trace apatite and ilmenite. Subaerial R tephra deposits appear more weathered in hand sample than subaqueous deposits, but weathering indices suggest negligible chemical weathering in both deposits. Statistical analysis of radiocarbon ages provides a median age for R tephra of ∼10 050 cal years BP, and a 2σ error range between 9960 and 10 130 cal years BP.

  20. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoko; Takahashi, Shin; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins>total octyltins> or = total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years.

  1. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yun, Se Hun; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations.

  2. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  3. Effects of geoduck (Panopea generosa) aquaculture on resident and transient macrofauna communities of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, P. Sean; Galloway, Aaron W.E.; McPeek, Kathleen C.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    In Washington state, commercial culture of geoducks (Panopea generosa) involves large-scale out-planting of juveniles to intertidal habitats, and installation of PVC tubes and netting to exclude predators and increase early survival. Structures associated with this nascent aquaculture method are examined to determine whether they affect patterns of use by resident and transient macrofauna. Results are summarized from regular surveys of aquaculture operations and reference beaches in 2009 to 2011 at three sites during three phases of culture: (1) pregear (-geoducks, -structure), (2) gear present (+geoducks, +structures), and (3) postgear (+geoducks, -structures). Resident macroinvertebrates (infauna and epifauna) were sampled monthly (in most cases) using coring methods at low tide during all three phases. Differences in community composition between culture plots and reference areas were examined with permutational analysis of variance and homogeneity of multivariate dispersion tests. Scuba and shoreline transect surveys were used to examine habitat use by transient fish and macroinvertebrates. Analysis of similarity and complementary nonmetric multidimensional scaling were used to compare differences between species functional groups and habitat type during different aquaculture phases. Results suggest that resident and transient macrofauna respond differently to structures associated with geoduck aquaculture. No consistent differences in the community of resident macrofauna were observed at culture plots or reference areas at the three sites during any year. Conversely, total abundance of transient fish and macroinvertebrates were more than two times greater at culture plots than reference areas when aquaculture structures were in place. Community composition differed (analysis of similarity) between culture and reference plots during the gear-present phase, but did not persist to the next farming stage (postgear). Habitat complexity associated with shellfish

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.; Johnson, B.L.; Letcher, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-??-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of ???PBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did ???PBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and ???PBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs from

  5. Miocene to present deformation rates in the Yakima Fold Province and implications for earthquake hazards in central Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Kelsey, Harvey; Blakely, Richard; Möller, Andreas; Styron, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Yakima fold province (YFP), located in the Cascadia backarc of central Washington, is a region of active distributed deformation that accommodates NNE-SSW shortening. Geodetic data show modern strain accumulation of 2 mm/yr across this large-scale fold province. Deformation rates on individual structures, however, are difficult to assess from GPS data given low strain rates and the relatively short time period of geodetic observation. Geomorphic and geologic records, on the other hand, span sufficient time to investigate deformation rates on the folds. Resolving fault geometries and slip rates of the YFP is imperative to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure, including a large nuclear waste facility and hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Yakima Rivers. We present new results on the timing and magnitude of deformation across several Yakima folds, including the Manastash Ridge, Umtanum Ridge, and Saddle Mountains anticlines. We constructed several line-balanced cross sections across the folds to calculated the magnitude of total shortening since Miocene time. To further constrain our structural models, we include forward-modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data. We estimate total shortening between 1.0 and 2.4 km across individual folds, decreasing eastward, consistent with geodetically and geologically measured clockwise rotation. Importantly, we find that thrust faults reactivate and invert normal faults in the basement, and do not appear to sole into a common décollement at shallow to mid-crustal depth. We constrain spatial and temporal variability in deformation rates along the Saddle Mountains, Manastash Ridge and Umtanum Ridge anticlines using geomorphic and stratigraphic markers of topographic evolution. From stratigraphy and geochronology of growth strata along the Saddle Mountains we find that the rate of deformation has increased up to six-fold since late Miocene time. To constrain deformation rates along other Yakima folds

  6. Assessing climate-change risks to cultural and natural resources in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Waste, Stephen M.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of an interdisciplinary special issue that examines the influence of climate change on people and fish in the Yakima River Basin, USA. Jenni et al. (2013) addresses stakeholder-relevant climate change issues, such as water availability and uncertainty, with decision analysis tools. Montag et al. (2014) explores Yakama Tribal cultural values and well-being and their incorporation into the decision-making process. Graves and Maule (2012) simulates effects of climate change on stream temperatures under baseline conditions (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios (increased air temperature of 1 °C and 2 °C). Hardiman and Mesa (2013) looks at the effects of increased stream temperatures on juvenile steelhead growth with a bioenergetics model. Finally, Hatten et al. (2013) examines how changes in stream flow will affect salmonids with a rule-based fish habitat model. Our simulations indicate that future summer will be a very challenging season for salmonids when low flows and high water temperatures can restrict movement, inhibit or alter growth, and decrease habitat. While some of our simulations indicate salmonids may benefit from warmer water temperatures and increased winter flows, the majority of simulations produced less habitat. The floodplain and tributary habitats we sampled are representative of the larger landscape, so it is likely that climate change will reduce salmonid habitat potential throughout particular areas of the basin. Management strategies are needed to minimize potential salmonid habitat bottlenecks that may result from climate change, such as keeping streams cool through riparian protection, stream restoration, and the reduction of water diversions. An investment in decision analysis and support technologies can help managers understand tradeoffs under different climate scenarios and possibly improve water and fish conservation over the next century.

  7. Topographic controls on pyroclastic density current dynamics: Insight from 18 May 1980 deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Self, Stephen; Pollock, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Our ability to interpret the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical for understanding the transport and depositional processes that control PDC dynamics. This paper focuses on the influence of slope on flow dynamics and criticality as recorded in PDC deposits from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (USA). PDC deposits are found along the steep flanks (10°-30°) and across the pumice plain ( 5°) up to 8 km north of the volcano. Granulometry, componentry and descriptions of depositional characteristics (e.g., bedform morphology) are recorded with distance from source. The pumice plain deposits are primarily thick (3-12 m), massive and poorly-sorted, and represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs. By contrast, the steep flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes. We propose that acceleration of the concentrated PDCs along the steep flanks resulted in thinning of the concentrated, basal region of the current(s). Enhanced entrainment of ambient air, and autofluidization from upward fluxes of air from substrate interstices and plunging breakers across rugged, irregular topography further inflated the currents to the point that the overriding turbulent region strongly influenced transport and depositional mechanisms. Acceleration in combination with partial confinement in slot canyons and high surface roughness would also increase basal shear stress, further promoting shear and traction transport in the basal region of the current. Conditions along the steep flank resulted in supercritical flow, as recorded by regressive bedforms, which gradually transitioned to subcritical flow downstream as the concentrated basal region thickness increased as a function of decreasing slope and flow energy. We also find that (1) PDCs were erosive into the underlying granular substrate along high slopes (> 25°) where currents were

  8. Channel-planform evolution in four rivers of Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A.: The roles of physical drivers and trophic cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Randle, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history. All four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, evident from landslide response on the Elwha River. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. In this sediment-routing system with high connectivity, such climate-driven signals appear to propagate downstream without being buffered substantially by sediment storage. Legacy effects of anthropogenic modification likely also affect the Quinault River planform. We infer no correspondence between channel geomorphic evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that trophic-cascade effects in this setting are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park fluvial dynamics and contrast with the classic example of Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of elk overuse are apparent in channel morphology; we attribute these differences to hydrologic regime and large-wood availability.

  9. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  10. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  11. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  12. Evolution of a Holocene delta driven by episodic sediment delivery and coseismic deformation, Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Sherrod, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic, large-volume pulses of volcaniclastic sediment and coseismic subsidence of the coast have influenced the development of a late Holocene delta at southern Puget Sound. Multibeam bathymetry, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and vibracores were used to investigate the morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of the Nisqually River delta. Two fluvial–deltaic facies are recognized on the basis of GPR data and sedimentary characteristics in cores, which suggest partial emplacement from sediment-rich floods that originated on Mount Rainier. Facies S consists of stacked, sheet-like deposits of andesitic sand up to 4 m thick that are continuous across the entire width of the delta. Flat-lying, highly reflective surfaces separate the sand sheets and comprise important facies boundaries. Beds of massive, pumice- and charcoal-rich sand overlie one of the buried surfaces. Organic-rich material from that surface, beneath the massive sand, yielded a radiocarbon age that is time-correlative with a series of known eruptive events that generated lahars in the upper Nisqually River valley. Facies CF consists of linear sandbodies or palaeochannels incised into facies S on the lower delta plain. Radiocarbon ages of wood fragments in the sandy channel-fill deposits also correlate in time to lahar deposits in upstream areas. Intrusive, sand-filled dikes and sills indicate liquefaction caused by post-depositional ground shaking related to earthquakes. Continued progradation of the delta into Puget Sound is currently balanced by tidal-current reworking, which redistributes sediment into large fields of ebb- and flood-oriented bedforms.

  13. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Strunk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Migrant remittances are increasingly seen as a potential form of development in the global South, but the impact of international migration on sending regions is far from straightforward. In this article, I analyze migrant communities of origin in rural Bolivia as dynamic places that are constantly reproduced through connections with other places. I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivian cultural practices, politics, and development. I demonstrate how hometown associations and returning migrants have transferred organizational practices and political ideas about development from the United States to rural Bolivia. In addition, I explore migration’s role in struggles over belonging in Cochabamba, focusing on the efforts by migrants in Washington D.C. to stake their claim through transnational houses and collective remittance projects and on recent internal migration from other regions in Bolivia. Finally, I assess the sustainability of migrant-led development in Cochabamba. Although collaboration with migrants can strengthen the local state by providing more resources, it conditions the type of development that can take place and has yet to provide adequate opportunities for returning migrants or young people in rural Bolivia.

  14. Promoting academic excellence through leadership development at the University of Washington: the Teaching Scholars Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lynne; Ambrozy, Donna; Pinsky, Linda E

    2006-11-01

    The University of Washington Teaching Scholars Program (TSP) was established in 1995 to prepare faculty for local and national leadership and promote academic excellence by fostering a community of educational leaders to innovate, enliven, and enrich the environment for teaching and learning at the University of Washington (UW). Faculty in the Department of Medical Education and Biomedical Informatics designed and continue to implement the program. Qualified individuals from the UW Health Sciences Professional Schools and foreign scholars who are studying at the UW are eligible to apply for acceptance into the program. To date, 109 faculty and fellows have participated in the program, the majority of whom have been physicians. The program is committed to interprofessional education and seeks to diversify its participants. The curriculum is developed collaboratively with each cohort and comprises topics central to medical education and an emergent set of topics related to the specific interests and teaching responsibilities of the participating scholars. Core sessions cover the history of health professions education, learning theories, educational research methods, assessment, curriculum development, instructional methods, professionalism, and leadership. To graduate, scholars must complete a scholarly project in curriculum development, faculty development, or educational research; demonstrate progress towards construction of a teaching portfolio; and participate regularly and actively in program sessions. The TSP has developed and nurtured an active cadre of supportive colleagues who are transforming educational practice, elevating the status of teaching, and increasing the recognition of teachers. Graduates fill key teaching and leadership positions at the UW and in national and international professional organizations.

  15. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  16. Recent developments in radiation curing in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nablo, Sam V.

    Radiation curing activities in the USA continue to focus strongly on the use of both UV and EB for the polymerization of silicone release coatings on paper and film. The high speeds of cure (200 m/minute) achievable at "room temperature" continue to make this the process of choice for the siliconization of both film and paper. Some of the process difficulties peculiar to this chemistry will be discussed. The success of the multi-color lithographic printing of web using single station electron curing has resulted in a major market for electron processors. The aesthetic and physical properties of the overprint varnishes used in this application are important and will be discussed. The relatively high costs of both the inks and varnishes will probably limit this application to folding carton use for foodstuffs and high quality products, with UV continuing to dominate in lower speed, less demanding applications. The application of electron initiated graft modification of polymer materials, particularly for biological/medical device application, is showing a good rate of development as is the use of selective treatment of materials for functional modification of packaging films, particularly for gas permeability control. Some examples of these applications will be reviewed. Continued work with "deep" curing or vulcanization of composite structures, particularly in the elastomers field, will be discussed with a brief review of the continuing growth of electron processing in this industry, particularly for tires and roofing products.

  17. Development of Teachers’ Alternative Certification in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the prerequisites of appearance of alternative ways to train teachers in the USA at the end of the XX century as main mechanisms to increase qualitative and quantitative characteristics of teaching staff. The author concentrates the attention on the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional ways to acquire teaching profession. The peculiarities of the development in different states of the country, main characteristics of the training with the help of alternative programs have been found as well as the target groups have been described. Such research is clearly needed, both by policymakers and by practitioners, to determine the appropriateness of alternative certification training models in training educators to deliver quality educational programming to students, as well as their effectiveness in addressing the critical teacher shortages by increasing the pool of available teachers and reducing the turnover and retention problems. Proponents of alternative certification have asserted that such models encourage talented people from other fields to enter teaching and increase the potential supply of teachers available to reduce shortages, and that traditional teacher education programs have little substance or value in training teachers while alternative models provide intensive training and supervision focused on critical skills needed for successful teaching.

  18. SURVEY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. ORTHOIMAGERY, CLARK COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  20. BASEMAP, CLALLAM COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  2. Development and psychometric properties of the Washington Primary Care Interest Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, D M; Schaad, D C; Guo, J; Hunt, D D; Samson, W; Irby, D M

    1998-12-01

    To describe the development of the Washington Primary Care Interest Inventory (WPCII), which was designed to assess attitudes toward what constitutes appropriate psychosocial concerns for visiting a family physician, and to demonstrate the relationship between these attitudes and specialty selection in matriculating medical students. Five entering classes of medical students (1990 to 1995, without 1992) at the University of Washington were administered the WPCII during orientation. Reliability, factor, and predictive validity analyses were performed to measure the utility of the WPCII. Factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors to underlie the WPCII: stressors, physical complaints, and familial complaints. Scales developed from these factors correlated with students' early career preferences and showed significant differences across students who were selected under different interviewing formats. Differences between the sexes were found for both specific items and scales. The WPCII is a reliable and valid measure of attitudes toward the appropriateness of family physicians' treating psychosocial complaints. These attitudes have implications for the selection of medical students, curriculum development, assessment, and health education research.

  3. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [University of Washington

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  4. Physicochemical and sensory analysis of USA rice varieties developed for the basmati and jasmine markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a steady demand for imported basmati and jasmine rice in The USA. Rice varieties that can be domestically produced and compete with these imports, have been developed from basmati, jasmine, and other aromatic germplasm sources. This study evaluated differences among eight USA aromatic varie...

  5. Modeling the effects of urban expansion on natural capital stocks and ecosystem service flows: A case study in the Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Ben; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Villa, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Urban expansion and its associated landscape modifications are important drivers of changes in ecosystem service (ES). This study examined the effects of two alternative land use-change development scenarios in the Puget Sound region of Washington State on natural capital stocks and ES flows. Land-use change model outputs served as inputs to five ES models developed using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) platform. While natural capital stocks declined under managed (1.3–5.8%) and unmanaged (2.8–11.8%) development scenarios, ES flows increased by 18.5–56% and 23.2–55.7%, respectively. Human development of natural landscapes reduced their capacity for service provision, while simultaneously adding beneficiaries, particularly along the urban fringe. Using global and local Moran’s I, we identified three distinct patterns of change in ES due to projected landuse change. For services with location-dependent beneficiaries – open space proximity, viewsheds, and flood regulation – urbanization led to increased clustering and hot-spot intensities. ES flows were greatest in the managed land-use change scenario for open space proximity and flood regulation, and in the unmanaged land-use change scenario for viewsheds—a consequence of the differing ES flow mechanisms underpinning these services. We observed a third pattern – general declines in service provision – for carbon storage and sediment retention, where beneficiaries in our analysis were not location dependent. Contrary to past authors’ finding of ES declines under urbanization, a more nuanced analysis that maps and quantifies ES provision, beneficiaries, and flows better identifies gains and losses for specific ES beneficiaries as urban areas expand.

  6. Changes in development near public forest lands in Oregon and Washington, 1974–2005: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Azuma; Joel Thompson; Dale. Weyermann

    2013-01-01

    Development owing to population increases over the last 30 years has greatly affected forested lands in the United States. To assess and compare increases in development, we counted changes in the number of structures on a systematic grid of photointerpreted points around public forest land in Washington and Oregon. Areas bordering public forest land are showing...

  7. The Impact of Interstate Migration on Human Capital Development in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Washington State is a leader in the innovation economy largely due to the combination of aerospace, software, and biomedical industries centered in the greater Seattle area; and, the state's high level of international trade. Despite Washington's national ranking, the state is overly reliant on importing educated workers from other states and…

  8. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  9. Development and cognitive testing of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory in Canada, Switzerland, and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W. M.; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frédéric S.; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: Thirty-seven participants with spinal cord injury in Canada, Switzerland and the USA. METHODS: A first draft of the NEFI was developed based on a new theoretical model, the International...

  10. Development of socio-economic cooperation between Russia and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkova, Antonina; Alieva, Irina; Monakhova, Valeriya

    2014-01-01

    In context of recovery of modern global economy there is a visible trend of social partnership development in the majority of countries. The article deals with socio-economic issues of Russia and the USA. Authors explain in detail the future of Russian and American socio-economic projects in context of the business climate development of the two countries. Both countries have significant experience in this sphere that is why the cooperation in this field will be doubly important for them. In ...

  11. Development and applications of groundwater remediation technologies in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    The future of the development and application of groundwater remediation technologies will unfold in an atmosphere of heightened public concern and attention. Cleanup policy will undergo incremental change towards more comprehensive efforts which account for the impact of remediation on nearby resources. Newly discovered contaminants will cause the re-examination of "mature" technologies since they may be persistent, mobile and difficult to treat in-situ. Evaluations of the effectiveness of remedial technologies will eventually include by-product formation, geochemical consequences and sustainability. Long-term field trials of remedial technologies alone can provide the data necessary to support claims of effectiveness. Dans le futur, le développement et les applications des technologies de traitement des eaux souterraines seront déroulés en tenant compte de l'inquiétude et l'attention croissante de l'opinion publique. La politique de nettoyage va subir un changement vers des efforts plus compréhensifs qui prendront en compte l'impact du traitement sur les ressources voisines. Les nouveaux contaminants seront persistants, mobiles et difficile de traiter in situ; par conséquence ils vont provoquer la reexamination des technologies consacrées. L'évaluation de l'efficacité des technologies de traitement doit considérer l'apparition des produits secondaires ainsi que les conséquences géochimiques et le développement durable. Seulement les essais in situ, pendant des longues périodes sur les technologies peuvent fournir les éléments nécessaires pour démontrer leur efficacité. El futuro del desarrollo y de la aplicación de las tecnologías para la recuperación del agua subterránea, se revelará en una atmósfera de gran atención e interés público elevado. La política de limpieza sufrirá un cambio adicional hacia esfuerzos más tangibles, los cuales incluyan el impacto de la recuperación en los recursos circundantes. Los contaminantes

  12. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  13. Development and implementation of the Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA) practice in the USA sustainable mining development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    New economic, environmental and social challenges for the mining industry in the USA show the need to implement "responsible" mining practices that include improved community involvement. Conflicts which occur in the US territory and with US mining companies around the world are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, USA in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal of creating an open company/community dialog that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining. Discussion: The Good Neighbor Agreement currently evolving will address the following: 1. Identify spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and NGO's. 2. Provide an economically viable mechanism for developing a partnership between mining operations and the local communities that will increase mining industry's accountability and provide higher levels of confidence for the community that a mine is operated in a safe and sustainable manner. Implementation of the GNA can help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community

  14. ANALYTICAL, CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING DEVELOPMENT OF THE GIFTED CHILDREN IN THE USA SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yurievna Kuvarzina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of the gifted students should not only make an enrichment and acceleration program for them but also pay attention to the development of analytical, critical and creative thinking skills. Despite great interest for this issue in the last years, the topic of analytical and creative thinking is poorly considered in the textbooks for the gifted. In this article some methods, materials and programs of analytical, critical and creative thinking skills development, which are used in the USA, are described.  The author analyses and systematize the methods and also suggests some ways of their usage in the Russian educational system.Purpose: to analyze and systematize methods, materials and programs, that are used in the USA for teaching gifted children analytical, critical and creative thinking, for development of their capacities of problem-solving and decision-making. Methods and methodology of the research: analysis, comparison, principle of the historical and logical approaches unity.Results: positive results of employment of analytical, critical and creative thinking development methods were shown in the practical experience of teaching and educating gifted children in the USA educational system.Results employment field: the Russian Federation educational system: schools, special classes and courses for the gifted children.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-42

  15. Drainage effects on the transient, near-surface hydrologic response of a steep hillslope to rainfall: implications for slope stability, Edmonds, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biavati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow landslides on steep (>25° hillsides along Puget Sound have resulted in occasional loss of life and costly damage to property during intense or prolonged rainfall. As part of a larger project to assess landslide hazards in the Seattle area, the U.S. Geological Survey instrumented two coastal bluff sites in 2001 to observe the subsurface hydrologic response to rainfall. The instrumentation at one of these sites, near Edmonds, Washington, consists of two rain gauges, two water-content probes that measure volumetric water content at eight depths between 0.2 and 2.0 m, and two tensiometer nests that measure soil-water suction at six depths ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 m. Measurements from these instruments are used to test one- and two-dimensional numerical models of infiltration and groundwater flow. Capillary-rise tests, performed in the laboratory on soil sample from the Edmonds site, are used to define the soil hydraulic properties for the wetting process. The field observations of water content and suction show an apparent effect of porosity variation with depth on the hydraulic response to rainfall. Using a range of physical properties consistent with our laboratory and field measurements, we perform sensitivity analyses to investigate the effects of variation in physical and hydraulic properties of the soil on rainfall infiltration, pore-pressure response, and, hence, slope stability. For a two-layer-system in which the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer is at least 10 times greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, and the infiltration rate is greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, a perched water table forms above the layer boundary potentially destabilizing the upper layer of soil. Two-dimensional modeling results indicate that the addition of a simple trench drain to the same two-layer slope has differing effects on the hydraulic response depending on the initial pressure head conditions. For slope

  16. Regional reconstruction of subglacial hydrology and glaciodynamic behaviour along the southern margin of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesemann, Jerome-Etienne; Brennand, Tracy A.

    2009-11-01

    Subglacial landsystems in and around Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada are investigated in order to evaluate landscape development, subglacial hydrology and Cordilleran Ice Sheet dynamics along its southern margin. Major landscape elements include drumlin swarms and tunnel valleys. Drumlins are composed of bedrock, diamicton and glaciofluvial sediments; their form truncates the substrate. Tunnel valleys of various scales (km to 100s km length), incised into bedrock and sediment, exhibit convex longitudinal profiles, and truncate drumlin swarms. Okanagan Valley is the largest tunnel valley in the area and is eroded >300 m below sea level. Over 600 m of Late Wisconsin-age sediments, consisting of a fining-up sequence of cobble gravel, sand and silt fill Okanagan Valley. Landform-substrate relationships, landform associations, and sedimentary sequences are incompatible with prevailing explanations of landsystem development centred mainly on deforming beds. They are best explained by meltwater erosion and deposition during ice sheet underbursts. During the Late-Wisconsin glaciation, Okanagan Valley functioned as part of a subglacial lake spanning multiple connected valleys (few 100s km) of southern British Columbia. Subglacial lake development started either as glaciers advanced over a pre-existing sub-aerial lake (catch lake) or by incremental production and storage of basal meltwater. High geothermal heat flux, geothermal springs and/or subglacial volcanic eruptions contributed to ice melt, and may have triggered, along with priming from supraglacial lakes, subglacial lake drainage. During the underburst(s), sheetflows eroded drumlins in corridors and channelized flows eroded tunnel valleys. Progressive flow channelization focused flows toward major bedrock valleys. In Okanagan Valley, most of the pre-glacial and early-glacial sediment fill was removed. A fining-up sequence of boulder gravel and sand was deposited during waning stages of the underburst(s) and

  17. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  18. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  19. A stakeholder project to model water temperature under future climate scenarios in the Satus and Toppenish watersheds of the Yakima River Basinin Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D.; Maule, A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to support an assessment of the potential effects of climate change on select natural, social, and economic resources in the Yakima River Basin. A workshop with local stakeholders highlighted the usefulness of projecting climate change impacts on anadromous steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a fish species of importance to local tribes, fisherman, and conservationists. Stream temperature is an important environmental variable for the freshwater stages of steelhead. For this study, we developed water temperature models for the Satus and Toppenish watersheds, two of the key stronghold areas for steelhead in the Yakima River Basin. We constructed the models with the Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP), a mechanistic approach to simulate water temperature in a stream network. The models were calibrated over the April 15, 2008 to September 30, 2008 period and validated over the April 15, 2009 to September 30, 2009 period using historic measurements of stream temperature and discharge provided by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management Program. Once validated, the models were run to simulate conditions during the spring and summer seasons over a baseline period (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios with increased air temperature of 1°C and 2°C. The models simulated daily mean and maximum water temperatures at sites throughout the two watersheds under the baseline and future climate scenarios.

  20. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    metasomatism by halogen-bearing exsolved fluid(s) is provided by the high Mg# (>70) secondary amphiboles and biotites from within the Spirit Lake pluton, where the amphiboles are clear replacement products of primary pyroxenes. Fluid halogen fugacity ratios calculated from the biotite compositions overlap with other global mineralised porphyry systems, despite not being immediately associated with sulphide ores. The evidence suggests complex fluid processes and the coincidental development of the mineralised porphyry system within the pluton. Heat, fluids, and metals were therefore likely supplied by a later phase of magmatism, unrelated to the consolidation of the main Spirit Lake granitoid. These new constraints on magmatic-hydrothermal fluid signatures have wider applicability to potentially tracing proximal barren and mineralised processes, and for distinguishing between formation mechanisms for primary and secondary halogen-bearing minerals.

  1. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  2. FIS STUDY FOR Pacific COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — For this revision, STARR conducted over 38 miles of revised Coastal Hazard Analysis that included computing wave runup. STARR utilized 79 transects in this study. No...

  3. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Jennifer K.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

  4. Barriers to implementing low impact development approaches in Washington State roadways and highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    Low impact development (LID) is an approach to stormwater management that seeks to mimic the natural hydrologic functions of stormwater runoff prior to development. In general, LID techniques emphasize infiltration and evapotranspiration to remove po...

  5. Evaluating satellite imagery-based land use data for describing forestland development in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; David L. Azuma; Andrew. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Forestry professionals are concerned about how forestlands are affected by residential and other development. To address those concerns, researchers must find appropriate data with which to describe and evaluate rates and patterns of forestland development and the impact of development on the management of remaining forestlands. We examine land use data gathered from...

  6. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  7. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers' Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Fuchyla, Olena; Ihnatiuk, Halyna

    2017-01-01

    The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always…

  8. Development of a regional LiDAR field plot strategy for Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Bhuta; Leah. Rathbun

    2015-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) Pacific Northwest Region (R6) has been flying LiDAR on a per project basis. Additional field data was also collected in situ to many of these LiDAR projects to aid in the development of predictive models and estimate values which are unattainable through LiDAR data alone (e.g. species composition, tree volume, and downed woody material...

  9. Business pluralism of electronic prescriptions: state of development in Europe and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmivalli, Lauri; Hilmola, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the current state of the development of electronic prescriptions in Europe and the USA. These two places have different approaches to the healthcare sector, since in the former one national social insurance usually provides treatment for all of the people (most often only with friction from total costs), but in the latter one the healthcare sector is under free market forces. As our analysis shows in this paper, electronic prescriptions in both of the places have developed in recent years quite favourably, but this development has not produced consistent results, whether electronic prescriptions should be provided by for-profit companies or should they be under strict control of governmental authorities. We base this finding in two empirical observations: (1) in Europe saving potential from electronic prescriptions is estimated to be high, and contains many abstract national economy accounts and (2) leading US companies (providing electronic prescription services) have went been able to increase their revenues significantly, but still their profitability is questionable. We argue that the situation of electronic prescriptions is similar with airline or credit card industry. Both of these are vital for international and local economies, but the business models have developed well after the initial idea.

  10. Exemplary Programs Supporting Teacher Professional Development in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    By Law, there is no national curriculum in the U.S.A., so each State sets its own regulations for teacher certification and professional development. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards) provide guidelines for teacher training and curriculum development in Earth Science, Life Science, and the physical sciences (chemistry and biology). Presented here are examples of effective programs designed to support in-service Earth Science teachers, especially at the middle school and high school level (grades 6 - 12, ages 12 - 18). The Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (E2C) provides monthly gatherings of research scientists and teachers to learn about cutting-edge investigations in a wide variety of fields, and develop lesson plans to share these discoveries. The E2C website, www.earth2class.org/site, also provides a wide variety of educational resources used by teachers and students to learn about the planet. The National Earth Science Teachers Association (www.nestanet.org) is the largest professional society focused on pre-college Earth Science education. Together with its partner, Windows to the Universe (www.windows2universe.org), NESTA offers workshops and other programs at national and regional teacher conferences, a quarterly journal designed for classroom use, monthly E-Newsletters, and one of the largest collection of web resources in education. For more than twenty years, the American Meteorological Society has trained teachers across the country through its online courses: DataStreme Weather, DataStreme Ocean, and DataStreme Earth's Climate System (www.ametsoc.org/amsedu). Informal science education institutions also provide strong in-person and web-based professional development programs. Among these are the American Museum of Natural History's "Seminars on Science" (http://www.amnh.org/learn/) and many programs for educators

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Dwell Development, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Challenge Home is one of 42 homes in a micro-community of ultra-modern, energy-efficient homes built by Dwell Development on an urban gray-field site in South Seattle. Every home will achieve a 5-Star Built Green rating from the regional master builders association and meet the criteria of the Northwest ENERGY STAR program, which is more strict than the national ENERGY STAR criteria. Also, the home won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  12. Photogrammetry and Videogrammetry Methods Development for Solar Sail Structures. Masters Thesis awarded by George Washington Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S. (Technical Monitor); Black, Jonathan T.

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the development and application of metrology methods called photogrammetry and videogrammetry that make accurate measurements from photographs. These methods have been adapted for the static and dynamic characterization of gossamer structures, as four specific solar sail applications demonstrate. The applications prove that high-resolution, full-field, non-contact static measurements of solar sails using dot projection photogrammetry are possible as well as full-field, non-contact, dynamic characterization using dot projection videogrammetry. The accuracy of the measurement of the resonant frequencies and operating deflection shapes that were extracted surpassed expectations. While other non-contact measurement methods exist, they are not full-field and require significantly more time to take data.

  13. Unconventional gas development and its effect on forested ecosystems in the Northern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Brittingham, Margaret; Mortensen, David; Barlow, Kathryn; Langlois, Lillie

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide unconventional shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S.A. Appalachian Mountains across the states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, are experiencing rapid landscape change as unconventional gas development occurs. We highlight several years of our research from this region in order to demonstrate the unique effect unconventional development has had on forested ecosystems. Infrastructure development has had a wide-reaching and varied effect on forested ecosystems and their services, which has resulted in temporary disturbances and long-lasting ones altering habitats and their viability. Corridor disturbances, such as pipelines, are the most spatially extensive disturbance and have substantially fragmented forest cover. Core forest disturbance, especially, in upper watershed positions, has resulted in disproportionate disturbances to forested ecosystems and their wildlife, and suggests a need for adaptive land management strategies to minimize and mitigate the effects of gas development. Soil and water resources are most affected by surface disturbances; however, soil protection and restoration strategies are evolving as the gas play changes economically. Dynamic soil properties related to soil organic matter and water availability respond uniquely to unconventional gas development and new, flexible restoration strategies are required to support long-term ecosystem stability. While the focus of management and research to date has been on acute disturbances to forested ecosystems, unconventional gas development is clearly a greater chronic, long-term disturbance factor in the Appalachian Mountains. Effectively managing ecosystems where unconventional gas development is occurring is a complicated interplay between public, private and corporate interests.

  14. Development and cognitive testing of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory in Canada, Switzerland and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W M; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frédéric S; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-08-18

    To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury. Thirty-seven participants with spinal cord injury in Canada, Switzerland and the USA. A first draft of the NEFI was developed based on a new theoretical model, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for spinal cord injury, and expert consultation. Three rounds of cognitive testing were conducted to examine participants’ comprehension of the conceptual framework and items, to identify challenges in cross-cultural measurement, and iteratively to refine the questionnaire. Participants were able to differentiate well between environmental factors influencing productive life and those influencing social life or community life, but not between environmental factors influencing social life and community life. Items intended to capture avoidance of participation due to barriers or overcoming of obstacles were generally well understood. For people with spinal cord injury, the NEFI may help to identify limiting and helpful environmental factors, while considering avoiding and overcoming behaviours. Quantitative validation and exploration of the possible use of the NEFI in other diagnostic groups is recommended.

  15. Role of Adult Learning Theories in the Development of Corporate Training in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lytovchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.

  16. Soil Erosion and Surface Water Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Development in East Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McBroom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas, USA (F1, while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2. V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and stream sedimentation and water quality was measured. For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2. Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 13,972 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 714 kg ha−1yr−1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis for the 2009 water year. These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111–224 kg ha−1. Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2. While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate conservation practices like retaining streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts.

  17. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (< 21 µg kg(-1)) of Sudan dyes were found in 11 out of 57 spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  18. Development of coastal upwelling edge detection algorithms associated with harmful algal blooms off the Washington coast using sea surface temperature imagery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nathan R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Trainer, Vera L.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is being used to identify and characterize upwelling conditions on the coast of Washington State, with an emphasis on detecting ocean features associated with harmful algal bloom events. Blooms of phytoplankton, including the domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, appear to be associated with a semi-permanent eddy bordering Washington and British Columbia that is observed in satellite imagery during extended upwelling events. Strong upwelling conditions may act as a barrier to movement of these blooms onshore. Using NOAA AVHRR temperature imagery, edge detection algorithms are being developed to define the strength, location and extent of the surface temperature expression of upwelling along the coast of Washington. The edge detection technique uses a simple kernel-based gradient method that compares temperatures of pixels at a user-specified distance. This allows identification of larger features with subtle edges. The resulting maximum-gradient map is then converted to a binary format with a user-specified temperature threshold. Skeletonization and edge-linking algorithms are then employed to develop final map products. The upwelling edge detection maps are being examined in relation to harmful algal bloom events that have occurred along the coast.

  19. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Model to Estimate Hydrologic Budget of Upper Klamath Lake Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed and accurate hydrologic budgets of lake or reservoirs are essential for sustainable water supply and ecosystem managements due to increasing water demand and uncertainties related to climate change. Ensuring sustainable water allocation to stakeholders requires accurate heat and hydrologic budgets. A number of micrometeorological methods have been developed to approximate heat budget components, such as evaporative and sensible heat loss, that are not directly measurable. Although micrometeorological methods estimate the sensible and evaporative loss well for stationary (i.e. ideal) condition, these methods can rarely be approximated for non-idealized condition. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ), developed at UC Davis, with the goal of correctly estimating the hydrologic budget of Upper Klamath Lake Oregon, USA. The measured and DLM-WQ estimated lake water temperatures and water elevation are in excellent agreement with correlation coefficient equals 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. Consistent with previous studies, the sensible and latent heat exchange coefficients were found to be site specific. Estimated lake mixing shows that the lake became strongly stratified during summer (between late April and the end of August). For the hypereutrophic shallow Upper Klamath Lake, longer stratification results in low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at the sediment surface causing DO sensitive habitat destruction and ecological problems. The updated DLM-WQ can provide quantitative estimates of hydrologic components and predict the effects of natural- or human-induced changes in one component of the hydrologic cycle on the lake supplies and associated consequences.

  20. The Emergence and Historical Development of Informatics and Computing Disciplines in Selected European Countries and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview that compares the historical tendencies in defining informatics as a new discipline, subject area or field of study focused on the design and application of computer technology. Apart from computer construction, the focus is on two major areas: computational processes and information processes. The article first considers the development in the United States of America (USA, which differed substantially from Europe. In the USA the development concerned disciplines referred to as computer science, computer engineering and (library and information science. The article then discusses the situation in France and Germany. Consequently, the development in the USA and Western Europe is contrasted with the development in the Soviet Union, particularly with the crucial role of cybernetics in this region. The time range considered in the article is limited to the 1960s and 1970s. The article introduces the individual regional concepts of informatics and discusses the social, economic and political background of the emergence and development of these concepts. This view makes it possible to present an original approach to the ambiguous interpretation of “What is informatics as a scientific discipline in an international context”, while respecting the distinctions given by the outset and historical development in different countries.

  1. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  2. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium among asymptomatic men and women in a developing country: comparison with the USA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakik, Habib A; Skouri, Hadi N; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Sibai, Tarek; Alam, Samir; Sawaya, Jaber; Nasrallah, Antoine; Wehbeh, Chadi; Ayach, Kamal; Abchee, Antoine B

    2005-11-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) correlates with atherosclerotic burden and predicts cardiac events. Most of the published data have been derived from the USA population. To study the prevalence of coronary calcium in an asymptomatic population from the eastern Mediterranean region and compare it to data obtained from a large population study in the USA. A total of 1154 asymptomatic men and women from Lebanon underwent EBCT screening because of the presence of one or more CAD risk factors. Mean CACS as well as the percentile cut-points increased consistently with increasing age and, except for those above 74 years of age, were higher in men than women in each age stratum. Age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and smoking showed significant associations with CACS in men, while only age and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with CACS in women. Among men, the 75th and 90th percentile distributions were comparable to what is observed in developed countries such as the USA. Findings, from this first study in the region, suggest that despite a higher rate of diabetes and smokers in our study population, the CACS distribution in Lebanon is similar to that observed in the USA.

  3. Effects of mountain resort development - a case study in Vermont USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    The mountainous landscape of northern New England, USA, faces intense development pressure from recreational and tourism use. In 2000 we began a paired-watershed study in northern Vermont to examine the effects of alpine resort development on stream flow and water quality. To our knowledge this is the only gaged watershed study at a mountain resort. The adjacent paired watersheds have similar topography, relief, geology and forest type, and differ primarily in land use. Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is the undeveloped, nearly 100% forested control basin. West Branch watershed (11.7 km2) is the developed basin, encompassing a pre-existing alpine ski resort and state highway, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces. Measurements during 2000-2003 showed suspended sediment yield was >2.5 times greater and concentrations of nitrate and chloride were significantly elevated at West Branch. From 2004 through 2007 the resort expanded with more ski trails, roads, parking areas, and vacation home development and now has 24% cleared land, with storm sewers draining lower developed areas of the alpine watershed. For the 11-year period of study, water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by an average of nearly 21%. The higher runoff at West Branch occurred primarily as result of higher sustained base flow, driven by a more prolonged snowmelt period, and greater runoff during small events. The annual flow differential had a strong positive correlation to maximum snow water equivalent, suggesting that differences in snow accumulation may explain the flow differential. We are investigating whether these differences are a direct consequence of management activities and resulting vegetation shifts and land clearing on snow capture. Several of the highest peak flows in both watersheds have occurred in the last 2 years of the 11-yr study. Our analysis is aimed at determining whether absolute peak flows have increased

  4. Images Every American Should Know: Developing the "Cultural Image Literacy Assessment-USA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard; Baker, Kim; Challons-Lipton, Siu

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the "Cultural Image Literacy Assessment-USA"©. This assessment represents an important first step in measuring image literacy within a culture. Visual literacy is an integral part of all cultures. The framework used in creating an assessment of cultural image literacy in the United States could be…

  5. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  6. Predators collected from balsam woolly adelgid and Cooley spruce gall adelgid in western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., with reference to biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Glenn R. Kohler; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2017-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive study to survey predators associated with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, 1928 in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), U.S.A. (Kohler et al. 2008), predators of balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg, 1844) and Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Adelges cooleyi (Gillette...

  7. Evaluating the effects of mountain resort development on snowmelt and runoff production: a case study from northern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Peral, A.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, significant developments at mountain resorts in northern New England, USA have occurred to maintain competitiveness with western (USA) ski resorts. This development has included expansion of trail networks and snowmaking and development of resort base infrastructure, including housing, retail and amenities. Permitting these developments has posed particular challenges for predicting the effects of development on runoff and water quality. In this study, we describe efforts to model the effects of ski area development on snowmelt and runoff using a distributed rainfall-runoff model. Our test cases include a forested control watershed and an adjacent watershed encompassing a premier New England alpine ski resort. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences in spring snowmelt and annual water yield between the watersheds. We are evaluating the performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to model snowmelt and runoff from these watersheds in order to assess its utility for predicting changes in runoff associated with resort development. We use distributed snow pack measurements to validate model simulations of snow accumulation and melt. Our results replicate observed patterns of runoff production in the watershed and can be used to test the effects of alternate development schemes on spring stream flow and annual water yield.

  8. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Shaw Parker; Richard Moore; Mark Weaver

    2009-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershe...

  9. Development of a gamified customer journey plan towards optimal User Experience : Case: Launchpad USA (Amcham Finland)

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project was to create a comprehensive, gamified Customer Journey towards engagement, satisfaction and optimal customer experience for the Launchpad USA companies. The sub objectives involved minimizing the bottleneck of numerous face-to-face meetings, giving users freedom to explore their options according to their desires and needs, as well as providing them with a platform for communication with their U.S. partners. The project aimed to outline the process of mapping t...

  10. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  11. Health care reform in the USA: Recommendations from USA and non-USA radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauren Mb; Martin, Diego R; Bader, Till; Semelka, Richard C

    2012-02-28

    To compare the opinions and recommendations of imaging specialists from United States (USA) and non-USA developed nations for USA health care reform. A survey was emailed out to 18 imaging specialists from 17 non-USA developed nation countries and 14 radiologists within the USA regarding health care reform. The questionnaire contained the following questions: what are the strengths of your health care system, what problems are present in your nation's health care system, and what recommendations do you have for health care reform in the USA. USA and non-USA radiologists received the same questionnaire. Strengths of the USA health care system include high quality care, autonomy, and access to timely care. Twelve of 14 (86%) USA radiologists identified medicolegal action as a major problem in their health care system and felt that medicolegal reform was a critical aspect of health care reform. None of the non-USA radiologists identified medicolegal aspects as a problem in their own country nor identified it as a subject for USA health care reform. Eleven of 14 (79%) USA radiologists and 16/18 (89%) non-USA radiologists identified universal health care coverage as an important recommendation for reform. Without full universal coverage, meaningful health care reform will likely require medicolegal reform as an early and important aspect of improved and efficient health care.

  12. Early Triassic environmental dynamics and microbial development during the Smithian-Spathian transition (Lower Weber Canyon, Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Caravaca, Gwénaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Fara, Emmanuel; Escarguel, Gilles; Bylund, Kevin G.; Jenks, James F.; Stephen, Daniel A.; Brayard, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    The Early Triassic biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is well documented in the Smithian-Spathian Thaynes Group of the western USA basin. This sedimentary succession is commonly interpreted as recording harsh conditions of various shallow marine environments where microbial structures flourished. However, recent studies questioned the relevance of the classical view of long-lasting deleterious post-crisis conditions and suggested a rapid diversification of some marine ecosystems during the Early Triassic. Using field and microfacies analyses, we investigate a well-preserved Early Triassic marine sedimentary succession in Lower Weber Canyon (Utah, USA). The identification of microbial structures and their depositional settings provide insights on factors controlling their morphologies and distribution. The Lower Weber Canyon sediments record the vertical evolution of depositional environments from a middle Smithian microbial and dolosiliciclastic peritidal system to a late Smithian-early Spathian bioclastic, muddy mid ramp. The microbial deposits are interpreted as Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS) that developed either (1) in a subtidal mid ramp where microbial wrinkles and chips are associated with megaripples characterizing hydrodynamic conditions of lower flow regime, or (2) in protected areas of inter- to subtidal inner ramp where they formed laminae and domal structures. Integrated with other published data, our investigations highlight that the distribution of these microbial structures was influenced by the combined effects of bathymetry, hydrodynamic conditions, lithology of the substrat physico-chemical characteristics of the depositional environment and by the regional relative sea-level fluctuations. Thus, we suggest that local environmental factors and basin dynamics primarily controlled the modalities of microbial development and preservation during the Early Triassic in the western USA basin.

  13. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  14. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  15. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  16. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    The significance of soil erosion due to pre-historic land use and possible feedback mechanisms had been hardly recognized in the Southeastern USA. Here, the agricultural practices only began in the second half of the Holocene. Sedentary hunters and gatherers started to domesticate squash and sunflowers. Associated with the expansion of maize cultivation in the Mississippian period between AD 800 and 1100, significant forest clearings took place on the river floodplains. During this time, central settlements with up to 30,000 residences existed and the surrounding ridge and furrow fields extended to up to 30 ha. It is still open to question why these groups already declined in the 14/15th centuries already before the arrival of the Europeans. However, around AD 1540 the conquistador de Soto still reports extended fields with intensive cultivation of maize in the uplands of Northern Mississippi. Despite of this intensive land use by Native Americans, current research gives no indication that these activities had any significant impact on river channel form. Also, no clear evidence exists for distinct channel change occurring in response to any sort of middle Holocene Hypsithermal, Medieval warm period, or the Little Ice Age. We will present results of a project which aims to explore erosion forms, colluvial sediments and buried soils in selected 0-order and 1st-order watersheds in the southeastern USA in order to gain, solidify, and evaluate general data on soil erosion during the Native American land use period and its respective long-term effects on the environment. This will be achieved by 1) recording the stratigraphy of colluvial and alluvial sediments and buried soils, 2) mapping the extent of erosional and colluvial forms, 3) analyzing chemical and physical soil and sediment properties, 4) establishing chronological control using various dating techniques including radiocarbon and OSL dating, and 5) quantifying soil erosion using hillslope sediments. The

  17. Arsenic and lead distribution and mobility in lake sediments in the south-central Puget Sound watershed: the long-term impact of a metal smelter in Ruston, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, James E; Asplund, Jessica A; Burdick, Sarah; Miller, Michelle; Peterson, Shawna M; Tollefson, Amanda; Ziegler, Kara

    2014-02-15

    The American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) smelter in Ruston, Washington, contaminated the south-central Puget Sound region with heavy metals, including arsenic and lead. Arsenic and lead distribution in surface sediments of 26 lakes is significantly correlated with atmospheric model predictions of contaminant deposition spatially, with concentrations reaching 208 mg/kg As and 1,375 mg/kg Pb. The temporal distribution of these metals in sediment cores is consistent with the years of operation of the ASARCO smelter. In several lakes arsenic and lead levels are highest at the surface, suggesting ongoing inputs or redistribution of contaminants. Moreover, this study finds that arsenic is highly mobile in these urban lakes, with maximum dissolved arsenic concentrations proportional to surface sediment levels and reaching almost 90 μg/L As. With 83% of the lakes in the deposition zone having surface sediments exceeding published "probable effects concentrations" for arsenic and lead, this study provides evidence for possible ongoing environmental health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oletus : USA luurevanglad on Poolas ja Rumeenias / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    USA ajalehe Washington Post andmeil hoiab USA terrorismis kahtlustavaid Ida-Euroopa riikides. Poola ajalehe allikate väitel on üks neist riikidest Poola. Poola, Rumeenia, Bulgaaria tõrjuvad kahtlustusi, Tšehhi väitel on ameeriklaste palvele vange majutada ära öeldud

  19. Comparison of the safety information on drug labels in three developed countries: The USA, UK and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Alshammari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety information on drug labels of a company marketing the same drugs in different countries is sometimes different. The aim of the present study is to understand the differences in the volume and content of safety information on the drug labels from the same manufacturers in three developed countries: the United States of America (USA, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada. This study involved the calculation of the proportion of total safety information (PSI and of contraindications (PCI in comparison to all information on the label and the percentage of boxed warnings (PBW among the 100 labels studied from each country. The PSI on the labels of different countries is different with USA labels bearing lesser value PSI and UK labels bearing higher value PSI. The qualitative information provided on these drug labels from each country in ‘contraindications’ sections, ‘boxed/serious warnings’ and ‘overdosage’ sections presented differences in the information provided on most of the labels. We have found distinct differences between the safety information available on drug labels in terms of volume and content. We conclude that the safety information for the same products should be standardised across all countries.

  20. Analysis of Long-Run GDP Development in the USA, the EU15, China and the USSR/Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mihola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how changes in GDP in China, the USA, the EU15 and the USSR/Russia over a period of 50 years (1961–2011 were aff ected by change of intensive factors and change of extensive factors. Intensive factors consist primarily of technological progress. Extensive factors are the amounts of labour and capital. The analysis does not use growth accounting, but instead works with the ‘dynamic parameters’ of intensity and extensity. Contrary to the values of growth accounting, these parameters can be calculated not only for situations of GDP growth, but also for situations of GDP contraction and stagnation. They thus provide a komplete picture of GDP development. The paper briefl y explains the methodology for deriving the parameters. Their values for each territory are then analysed. The results show that the parameters are able to describe the real development of GDP and their information value is very high.

  1. Development and destruction of the first state funded anti-smoking campaign in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, T H; Glantz, S A

    2003-06-01

    Minnesota was the first state in the USA to implement a large state funded tobacco control programme (in 1985). Despite evidence of effectiveness, it was dismantled in 1993. To describe and analyse how and why these events transpired and identify lessons for tobacco control advocates facing similar challenges in the 21st century. Case study based on previously secret tobacco industry documents, news reports, research reports, official documents, and interviews with health advocates and state government officials. Unable to defeat funding for this campaign in 1985, the tobacco industry organised groups which eliminated it later. Despite the programme's documented effectiveness, it was dismantled based on claims of fiscal crisis. These claims were not true; the real debate was what to do with the state's surplus. Health advocates failed to challenge the claim of fiscal crisis or mobilise public support for the programme. Simply quoting evidence that a tobacco control programme is effective does not ensure its continuing survival. Claims of fiscal crisis are an effective cover for tobacco industry efforts to dismantle successful programmes, particularly if health advocates accept these claims and fail to mobilise political pressure to defend the programme.

  2. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  3. Hello Mr. President! Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hello Mr. President Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington Am 8. November 2016 entscheidet sich, wer zum 58. Präsidenten der USA gewählt wird: Die ehemalige Außenministerin Hillary Clinton oder der republikanische Kandidat Donald Trump. In der heißen Phase des Wahlkampfs fällt besonders

  4. Development and Application of a Decision Support System for Water Management Investigations in the Upper Yakima River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Ken D.; Waddle, Terry J.; Talbert, Colin; Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    The Yakima River Decision Support System (YRDSS) was designed to quantify and display the consequences of different water management scenarios for a variety of state variables in the upper Yakima River Basin, located in central Washington. The impetus for the YRDSS was the Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study, which investigated alternatives for providing additional water in the basin for threatened and endangered fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply. The additional water supplies would be provided by combinations of water exchanges, pumping stations, and off-channel storage facilities, each of which could affect the operations of the Bureau of Reclamation's (BOR) five headwaters reservoirs in the basin. The driver for the YRDSS is RiverWare, a systems-operations model used by BOR to calculate reservoir storage, irrigation deliveries, and streamflow at downstream locations resulting from changes in water supply and reservoir operations. The YRDSS uses output from RiverWare to calculate and summarize changes at 5 important flood plain reaches in the basin to 14 state variables: (1) habitat availability for selected life stages of four salmonid species, (2) spawning-incubation habitat persistence, (3) potential redd scour, (4) maximum water temperatures, (5) outmigration for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from headwaters reservoirs, (6) outmigration of salmon smolts from Cle Elum Reservoir, (7) frequency of beneficial overbank flooding, (8) frequency of damaging flood events, (9) total deliverable water supply, (10) total water supply deliverable to junior water rights holders, (11) end-of-year reservoir carryover, (12) potential fine sediment transport rates, (13) frequency of events capable of armor layer disruption, and (14) geomorphic work performed during each water year. Output of the YRDSS consists of a series of conditionally formatted scoring tables, wherein the changes to a state variable resulting from an operational

  5. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers′ Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always remains topical. The authors define the following aim and objectives of their research: to conduct analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature and to define the notion of teachers′ “professional development”; to research a place and role of the constructivist approach to professional development of teachers. Some aspects of the problem under research have been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: political, social, cultural and economic aspects of teachers′ professional development (L. Darling-Hammond, M. Tight; elaboration of professional development curricula (C. Pratt; content of teachers′ professional development (N. Dana Fichtman, S. Zepeda; concept-oriented instruction (J. Guthrie; continuing professional development (Ya. Belmaz, A. Kuzminskyi, O. Kuznietsova. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, structural and systematic methods, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  6. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  7. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  8. Synthesis of wind energy development and potential impacts on wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Rebecca A. Gravenmier

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, there is growing public interest in and policy pressure for developing alternative and renewable sources of energy. Wind energy facilities in the Pacific Northwest expanded rapidly over the past decade, as a result of state policies that encourage wind energy development. While much of the development thus far has occurred on private lands, there is...

  9. The multi-resolution land characteristics (MRLC) consortium–20 years of development and integration of USA national land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.ames. Wickham; Collin. Homer; James Vogelmann; Alexa McKerrow; Rick Mueler; Nate Herold; John Coulston

    2014-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium demonstrates the national benefits of USA Federal collaboration. Starting in the mid-1990s as a small group with the straightforward goal of compiling a comprehensive national Landsat dataset that could be used to meet agencies’ needs, MRLC has grown into a group of 10 USA Federal Agencies that coordinate the...

  10. Developing and Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Options in Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study in Southwestern Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will likely have significant effects on forest ecosystems worldwide. In Mediterranean regions, such as that in southwestern Oregon, USA, changes will likely be driven mainly by wildfire and drought. To minimize the negative effects of climate change, resource managers require tools and information to assess climate change vulnerabilities and to develop and implement adaptation actions. We developed an approach to facilitate development and implementation of climate change adaptation options in forest management. This approach, applied in a southwestern Oregon study region, involved establishment of a science–manager partnership, a science-based assessment of forest and woodland vulnerabilities to climate change, climate change education in multiple formats, hands-on development of adaptation options, and application of tools to incorporate climate change in planned projects. Through this approach, we improved local manager understanding of the potential effects of climate change in southwestern Oregon, and enabled evaluation of proposed management activities in the context of climatic stressors. Engaging managers throughout the project increased ownership of the process and outcomes, as well as the applicability of the adaptation options to on-the-ground actions. Science–management partnerships can effectively incorporate evolving science, regardless of the socio-political environment, and facilitate timely progress in adaptation to climate change.

  11. Geologic setting and characterization of coals and the modes of occurrence of selected elements from the Franklin coal zone, Puget Group, John Henry No. 1 mine, King County, Washington, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Cathcart, James D.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A. [U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 939, DFC, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Johnson, Samuel Y. [U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 999, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2005-08-19

    Upper middle and upper Eocene coal-bearing strata in the Green River coal district of Washington state are in the Franklin coal zone of the undivided Puget Group. Coal-bearing strata accumulated in intertidal and deltaic environments along a tidally influenced delta plain. Numerous shale and tonstein partings within the coals indicate that the coal formed in low-lying peat mires. To evaluate variations in element distribution within these coals, vertical bench channel samples from the Franklin No. 7-8-9 (n=24) and the No. 10 (n=11) coal beds were collected. Coal beds in the John Henry No. 1 mine of the Green River coal district have an apparent rank of high volatile B bituminous. No. 7-8-9 and No. 10 have a mean sulfur content of 0.67 wt.% and 0.9 wt.% respectively. When compared statistically to other western U.S. Tertiary coals, the Franklin coal zone in the John Henry No. 1 mine Franklin coal zone is significantly higher in contents of ash, Si, Al, Mg, K, Ti, Ag, As, Cu, F, Ga, Hg, Li, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, V, Y, Yb, and Zr, and has significantly lower contents of Ca, Na, B, Nd, and Se. Mean contents of several elements in the Franklin No. 7-8-9 and No. 10 coal beds are uncommonly high compared to western U.S. Tertiary coals. The No. 7-8-9 bed is higher in As (6.6X, 44 ppm), Cu (3.8X, 42 ppm), F (3X, 190 ppm), Hg (44X, 4.4 ppm), Mn (3.4X, 170 ppm), Nb (4.4X, 10 ppm), Ni (3.5X, 16 ppm), V (4X, 68 ppm), and Zr (4.9X, 88 ppm). The No. 10 bed is higher in As (11X, 81 ppm), Cu (3.2X, 35 ppm), Hg (75X, 7.5 ppm), Ni (3.3X, 15 ppm), P (5.4X, 1300 ppm), Sc (4.1X, 8 ppm), Sr (2.5X, 680 ppm), V (3.7X, 63 ppm), and Zr (2.7X, 48 ppm). X-ray diffraction analysis of the low-temperature ash from these coals reveals the predominance of quartz and clays (kaolinite, minor illite, smectite group, and mixed layer) and minor plagiociase feldspar (albite, disordered, and ordered Ca-bearing), carbonate (ankerite, calcite, kutnohorite, and siderite), pyrite, and clinoptilolite. Minor

  12. A Personal View of the Early Development of Computational Neuroscience in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In the half-century since the seminal Hodgkin–Huxley papers were published, computational neuroscience has become an established discipline, evolving from computer modeling of neurons to attempts to understand the computational functions of the brain. Here, I narrate my experience of the early steps and sense of excitement in this field, with its promise of rapid development, paralleling that of computers.

  13. Development and cognitive testing of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory in Canada, Switzerland, and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W M; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frédéric S; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND COGNITIVE TESTING OF THE NOTTWIL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INVENTORY IN CANADA, SWITZERLAND AND THE USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W. M.; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frederic S.; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    Objective: To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury.

  15. Developing a monitoring protocol for visitor-created informal trails in Yosemite National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yu-Fai; Newburger, Todd; Jones, Marci; Kuhn, Bill; Woiderski, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    Informal trails created or perpetuated by visitors is a management challenge in many protected natural areas such as Yosemite National Park. This is a significant issue as informal trail networks penetrate and proliferate into protected landscapes and habitats, threatening ecological integrity, aesthetics, and visitor experiences. In order to develop effective strategies for addressing this problem under an adaptive management framework, indicators must be developed and monitoring protocol must be established to gather timely and relevant data about the condition, extent, and distribution of these undesired trail segments. This article illustrates a process of developing and evaluating informal trail indicators for meadows in Yosemite Valley. Indicator measures developed in past research were reviewed to identify their appropriateness for the current application. Information gaps in existing indicator measures were addressed by creating two new indices to quantify the degree of informal trailing based on its land fragmentation effects. The selected indicator measures were applied to monitoring data collected between 2006 and 2008. The selected measures and indices were evaluated for their ability to characterize informal trail impacts at site and landscape scales. Results demonstrate the utility of indicator measures in capturing different characteristics of the informal trail problem, though several metrics are strongly related to each other. The two fragmentation indices were able to depict fragmentation without being too sensitive to changes in one constituent parameter. This study points to the need for a multiparameter approach to informal trail monitoring and integration with other monitoring data. Implications for monitoring programs and research are discussed.

  16. Should developing countries be testing grounds for vaccines rejected by the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to start large scale trials of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines in developing countries. It has been placed in a difficult position by the decision of the National Institutes of Health to postpone such trials in the US, a poor decision according to Genetech, owner of 1 of the vaccines. WHO will, however, carry out the trials in Brazil and Thailand in 1995. Some will ask if the people of developing countries should be used as guinea pigs; others will point to the urgency of the pandemic in areas of the Third World. Testing is cheaper and fewer ethical questions are asked in developing countries. But the vaccines, once tested, will be too expensive for these same countries to afford. A working vaccine for the US or western Europe provide a profit incentive for companies like Genetech; the same vaccines for developing countries do not. The decision by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID, a component of NIH) to discontinue phase III trials changes the momentum of research on HIV vaccines by private companies. Genetech fears a repeat of its hepatitis B vaccine, which, at $1, is still too expensive for countries such as Uganda or Kenya. Vaccines developed to date have involved strains dominant in North America and Europe. These strains also occur in Latin America, the Caribbean, and some parts of Thailand; however, there have been no clinical trials of strains prevalent to Africa. Vaccines for Africa are unappealing to drug companies in terms of profit.

  17. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  18. [Contraceptive development--the view from the U.S.A. in the mid 80s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M; Siemens, A; Burton, N

    1986-03-01

    Contraceptive research and development in the US has been slowed by declining investment at a time of rising costs and increasingly complex US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Public and private investment in contraceptive research reached its maximum in the early 1970s. Since then, investment has stagnated while research and development costs have continued to rise. Development of a new product costs between 50-60 million dollars and corresponds to over 2/3 of its legal life of 17 years. In addition, the majority of pharmaceutical liability cases in the past few years have involved contraceptives. Although recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oral contraceptives (OCs) have some significant benefits, such as prevention of at least 2 types of cancer, OCs continue to be held responsible for secondary cardiovascular effects as well as for some effects whose true etiology has not been demonstrated. The growing use of contraceptive sterilization at the expense of most other methods and the opposition to making contraceptives easily available among those who believe that contraception encourages premarital sexual activity are other factors which have resulted in the near abandonment of contraceptive research and development by American pharmaceutical companies, who no longer consider family planning a viable market. In the US, most research and innovation in the field of contraception now comes from not-for-profit institutions such as Family Health International (FHI) the Population Council, and to a lesser extent the Program of Applied Research for Fertility Regulation and some universities. Such organizations receive some research funds from the Agency for International Development and the National Institutes of Health. The role of FHI in the development of the contraceptive sponge and of the Population Council in developemnt of the Copper T 380A IUD demonstrate the transfer of supremacy in contraceptive development from the

  19. ALTERED DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION IN MOSQUITOFISH EXPOSED TO PULP AND PAPER MILL EFFLUENT IN THE FENHOLLOW RIVER, FLORIDA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitofish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent (PME) in the Fenholloway River, Florida, USA have masculinized secondary sex characteristics and altered aromatase enzyme activity. We and others have shown that the Fenholloway River PME contains androgenic and progesto...

  20. Improving immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of vaccines through innovation in clinical assay development and trial design: the Phacilitate Vaccine Forum, Washington D.C. 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Ioana R; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena

    2011-06-01

    The 9th Annual Vaccine Forum organized by Phacilitate in Washington D.C. 2011 brought together 50+ senior level speakers and over 400 participants representing all the key stakeholders concerning vaccines. The main focus of the meeting was to define priorities in the global vaccines sector from funding to manufacturing and evaluation of vaccine efficacy. A special session was devoted to improving immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of vaccines through innovation in clinical assay development and trial design. The current regulatory approach to clinical assay specification, validation and standardization that enable more direct comparisons of efficacy between trials was illustrated by the success in meningococcal vaccine development. The industry approach to validation strategies was exemplified by a new serologic test used on the diagnostic of pneumococcal pneumonia. The application of the Animal Rule to bridge clinical and non-clinical studies in botulism has allowed significant progress in developing one of the first vaccines to seek approval under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule. An example of pushing the boundaries in the correlation of immunological responses and efficacy points was represented by a recent cell-based influenza vaccine for which the same correlates of protection apply as for the traditional, egg-based flue vaccine. In the field of HIV phase 2b studies are underway, based on promising results obtained with some vaccine candidates. The conclusion of this session was that creativity in vaccine design and evaluation is beneficial and can lead to innovative new vaccine designs as well as to validated assays to assess vaccine efficacy.

  1. Effects of Sea-Level Rise and Anthropogenic Development on Priority Bird Species Habitats in Coastal Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Ross A.; Craft, Christopher B.

    2012-02-01

    We modeled changes in area of five habitats, tidal-freshwater forest, salt marsh, maritime shrub-scrub (shrub), maritime broadleaf forest (oak) and maritime narrowleaf (pine) forest, in coastal Georgia, USA, to evaluate how simultaneous habitat loss due to predicted changes in sea level rise (SLR) and urban development will affect priority bird species of the south Atlantic coastal plain by 2100. Development rates, based on regional growth plans, were modeled at 1% and 2.5% annual urban growth, while SLR rates, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's A1B mean and maximum scenarios, were modeled at 52 cm and 82 cm, respectively. SLR most greatly affected the shrub habitat with predicted losses of 35-43%. Salt marsh and tidal forest also were predicted to lose considerable area to SLR (20-45 and 23-35%, respectively), whereas oak and pine forests had lesser impact from SLR, 18-22% and 11-15%, respectively. Urban development resulted in losses of considerable pine (48-49%) and oak (53-55%) habitat with lesser loss of shrub habitat (21-24%). Under maximum SLR and urban growth, shrub habitat may lose up to 59-64% compared to as much as 62-65% pine forest and 74-75% oak forest. Conservation efforts should focus on protection of shrub habitat because of its small area relative to other terrestrial habitats and use by Painted Buntings ( Passerina ciris), a Partners In Flight (PIF) extremely high priority species. Tidal forests also deserve protection because they are a likely refuge for forest species, such as Northern Parula and Acadian Flycatcher, with the decline of oak and pine forests due to urban development.

  2. Geologic and geomorphic controls of coal development in some Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, R.M. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center)

    1993-09-01

    Previous investigations have not well defined the controls on the development of minable coals in fluvial environments. This study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding of these controls, particularly in the lower Tertiary coal-bearing deposits of the Raton and Powder River basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. In this region, large amounts of coals accumulated in swamps formed in the flow-through fluvial systems that infilled these intermontane basins. Extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonism partly controlled the stratigraphic and facies distributions of minable coal deposits. The regional accumulation of coals was favoured by the rapid basin subsidence coupled with minimal uplift of the source area. During these events, coals developed in swamps associated with anastomosed and meandering fluvial systems and alluvial fans. The extensive and high rate of sediment input from these fluvial systems promoted the formation of ombrotrophic, raised swamps, which produced low ash and anomalously thick coals. The petrology and palynology of these coals, and the paleobotany of the associated sediments, suggest that ombrotrophic, raised swamps were common in the Powder River Basin, where the climate during the early Tertiary was paratropical. The paleoecology of these swamps is identical to that of the modern ombrotrophic raised swamps of the Baram and Mahakam Rivers of Borneo. 32 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Alternative Composite Lisbon Development Strategy Indices: A Comparison of EU, USA, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongEun Oh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the measurement of two composite Lisbon strategy indices that quantifies the level and patterns of development for ranking countries. The first index is nonparametric labelled as Lisbon strategy index (LSI. It is composed of six components: general economics, employment, innovation research, economic reform, social cohesion and environment, each generated from a number of Lisbon indicators. LSI by reducing the complexity of the set of indicators, it makes the ranking procedures quite simple. The second and parametric index is based on principal component analysis. Despite the difference in the ranking by the two indices, it is shown that the United States outperformed most EU-member states. Our investigations also show evidence of significant dynamic changes taking place, as the countries of the Union struggle to achieve the Lisbon goals. The necessity of a real reform agenda in several old and new members and candidate countries emerges from our analysis. We briefly refer to two important European phenomena emerging from our data analysis and discuss the possible lessons learned from the Korean development strategy

  4. Variability of Stand Structures and Development in Old-Growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Sun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest stand structure class “old-growth” has previously been qualitatively described as having several distinct “sub-structures.” Species composition, diameter distribution, and other structural features commonly associated with old-growth in the Pacific Northwest are quite variable. We determined which quantitative stand structure variables are commonly found together using the Spearman correlation and non-metric multidimensional analysis. Some features were more commonly found together than others, indicating different old-growth stand types, or sub-structures. Cluster analysis classified the old-growth forests into four groups: Douglas-fir dominance, shade tolerant species dominance, and intermediate groups. The intermediate groups were split by the density of large logs and large shade tolerant trees. The old-growth sub-structures appear to change from one to another as the old forest develops.

  5. Arrested diatreme development: Standing Rocks East, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Nathalie S.; White, James D. L.; Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Maar-diatreme volcanoes, defined by their relatively large pyroclastic debris-filled subsurface structures and craters that cut into the pre-eruptive land surface, are typically found in small-volume mafic to ultramafic monogenetic volcanic fields. Diatremes are associated with strong explosions throughout most of their development, focused along feeder dikes and generally attributed to magma-water interaction, or high magmatic volatiles. Detailed mapping of the magnificently exposed Standing Rocks East (SRE) diatreme shows evidence of additional eruptive complexity, and offers new insights into how the plumbing and vent structures of small-volume volcanoes evolve during an eruption. SRE is part of a larger, basanitic volcanic complex that includes several diatremes formed along a series of irregular, offset NW-SE trending dikes exposed 300 m below the pre-eruptive land surface. Its similarly oriented elliptical-shaped diatreme structure comprises predominantly country rock lithic-rich breccia of coarse inhomogeneously mixed wall-rock blocks sourced from above and below the current surface, plus sparse juvenile material. Domains of pyroclastic deposits crosscut the country rock breccia deposits, and the best exposed is the NW massif rising 35 m above the current erosional surface. It represents a cross-section of an evolving crater floor, and comprises matrix-rich lapilli tuff and spatter deposits cut by irregularly distributed dikes, some with very complex textures. The most significant deposit, in terms of volume, is an unbedded lapilli tuff that is poorly sorted and has a well-mixed population of wall-rock and juvenile clast varieties, thus resembling deposits typical of diatremes. It is overlain by and locally intercalated with spatter deposits, and this irregular contact demarcates the base of what was during eruption an uneven, evolving crater floor. The generally massive, variably welded spatter deposits constitute mostly lapilli-sized juvenile clasts with

  6. Development of a Wireless Network of Temperature Sensors for Yellowstone National Park (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, D. A.; Hutter, T.; Minolli, M.; Obraczka, K.; Manduchi, R.; Petersen, S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature sensors deployed at Yellowstone clearly document that thermal features can vary in temperature on a variety of timescales and show regional correlations unrelated to meteorological variables such as air temperature. Yellowstone National Park (YNP) staff currently measures temperatures at over 40 thermal features and streams within the park, utilizing USGS stream gaging stations and portable data loggers deployed in geyser basins. The latter measure temperature every 1 to 15 minutes, and the data are physically downloaded after about 30 days. Installation of a wireless sensor network would: 1) save considerable time and effort in data retrieval, 2) minimize lost data due to equipment failure, and 3) provide a means to monitor thermal perturbations in near-real time. To meet this need, we developed a wireless sensor network capable of in-situ monitoring of air and water temperature. Temperature sensors are dispersed as nodes that communicate among themselves and through relays to a single base-station linked to the Internet. The small, weatherproof sensors operate unattended for over six months at temperatures as low as -40°C. Each uses an ultra-low-power Texas Instruments' MSP430 microcontroller and an SD card as mass storage. They are powered by 15Ah, 3.6 v, inert Li-ion batteries and transmit data via 900MHz radio modules with a 1-km range. The initial prototype consists of 4 nodes, and is designed to scale with additional nodes for finer spatial resolution and broader coverage. Temperature measurements are asynchronous from node to node, with intervals as frequent as 30 seconds. Data are stored internally to withstand temporary communication failures; underlying intelligent software is capable of re-routing data through alternative nodes to the base station and a MySQL data archiving system. We also developed a Google-Maps-based, front-end that displays the data, recent trends and sensor locations. The system was tested in the Santa Cruz Mountains

  7. Ecosystem development following deglaciation: A new sedimentary record from Devils Lake, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Mueller, Joshua R.; Mellicant, Emily M.; Myrbo, Amy E.; Lascu, Ioan

    2015-10-01

    Processes and rates of ecosystem development can be reconstructed using lacustrine sedimentary sequences, but this approach often requires records that contain the start of primary succession. Most lakes in the upper Midwestern U.S. were formed by glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age approximately 11,700 cal yr BP. Devils Lake, Wisconsin is a rare example of a lake from this region whose sediments extend into the Pleistocene and may include the Last Glacial Maximum. Sediment magnetic, geochemical, pollen, and charcoal records were generated from a 10 m core whose basal sediments may be 28,000 years old. Together with a previously published pollen record, these proxies combine to reveal a history of long-term climatic, vegetative and geologic change during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. We identify six sedimentary units that indicate a series of consecutive events rather than a predictable trajectory of ecosystem development at the site. Productivity in the lake was low during the late Pleistocene and increased during the Holocene, as reflected by the sediment lithology, which shows a sudden shift from glacial vivianite-rich and organic-poor clastic-dominated sediments to Holocene diatomaceous sapropels. Several important processes initiated around 17,000 cal yr BP, including the onset of organic matter accumulation and fire in the terrestrial ecosystem. However, the post-glacial landscape was not devoid of vegetation because pollen assemblages indicate that terrestrial vegetation, likely a spruce tundra, survived near the site. A switch to a hardwood forest period during the Holocene also led to a change in the fire regime, with increased frequency of burning. Aquatic ecosystem productivity lagged terrestrial ecosystem productivity throughout the record. Nutrient cycling (as recorded by sedimentary δ15N) was variable but not directional, and appeared to be correlated with climate conditions early in the record, and terrestrial ecosystem processes later in

  8. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Characteristics of a paleosol and its implication for the Critical Zone development, Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, Matthias, E-mail: leopold@wzw.tum.de [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Voelkel, Joerg [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Dethier, David [Williams College, Dept. Geoscience, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Huber, Juliane [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Steffens, Markus [Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We dated a sediment section (USA) including an 8000 years old paleosol by OSL and Radiocarbon. > Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to characterize the paleosols' organic matter. > High amounts of aromatic structures (charcoal) indicate fire events that influenced the soil. > The section represents geomorphic stability and instability phases. > We use these geomorphic changes to reconstruct the Critical Zone development. - Abstract: Activity and stability phases as well as geomorphic processes within the Critical Zone are well known. Erosion and deposition of sediments represent activity; soils represent geomorphic stability phases. Data are presented from a 4 m deep sediment section that was dated by luminescence techniques. Upslope erosion and resulting sedimentation started in the late Pleistocene around 18 ka until 12 ka. Conditions at the study site then changed, which led to the formation of a well-developed soil. Radiocarbon dating of the organic matter yielded ages between 8552 and 8995 cal. BP. From roughly 6.2 to 5.4 ka another activity phase accompanied by according sediment deposition buried the soil and a new soil, a Cambisol, was formed at the surface. The buried soil is a strongly developed Luvisol. The black colors in the upper part of the buried soil are not the result of pedogenic accumulation of normal organic matter within an A-horizon. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy clearly documents the high amount of aromatic components (charcoal), which is responsible for the dark color. This indicates severe burning events at the site and the smaller charcoal dust (black carbon) was transported to deeper parts of the profile during the process of clay translocation.

  10. Development of environmentally superior treatment system to replace anaerobic swine lagoons in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, Matias B; Szogi, Ariel A; Hunt, Patrick G; Millner, Patricia D; Humenik, Frank J

    2007-12-01

    A full-scale treatment system for swine manure was developed to eliminate discharge to surface and ground waters and contamination of soil and groundwater by nutrients and heavy metals, along with related release of ammonia, odor, and pathogens. The system greatly increased the efficiency of liquid-solid separation by polymer injection to increase solids flocculation. Nitrogen management to reduce ammonia emissions was accomplished by passing the liquid through a module where bacteria transformed ammonia into harmless nitrogen gas. Subsequent alkaline treatment of the wastewater in a phosphorus module precipitated phosphorus and killed pathogens. Treated wastewater was recycled to clean swine houses and for crop irrigation. The system was tested during one year in a 4400-head finishing farm as part of the Agreement between the Attorney General of North Carolina and swine producers Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms and Frontline Farmers to replace traditional waste treatment anaerobic lagoons with environmentally superior technology. The on-farm system removed 97.6% of the suspended solids, 99.7% of BOD, 98.5% of TKN, 98.7% of soluble ammonia (NH(4)(+)-N), 95.0% of total P, 98.7% of copper and 99.0% of zinc. It also removed 97.9% of odor compounds in the liquid and reduced pathogen indicators to non-detectable levels. Based on performance obtained, it was determined that the treatment system met the Agreement's technical performance standards that define an environmentally superior technology. These findings overall showed that cleaner alternative technologies are technically and operationally feasible and that they can have significant positive impacts on the environment and the livestock industry.

  11. Hydrogeologic controls on peatland development in the Malloryville Wetland, New York (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Siegel, D. I.; Glaser, P. H.; Beck, R. M.

    1992-12-01

    The Malloryville Wetland Complex, a small kettle-hole peatland, contains a diversity of peatland types. The wetland has a 'rich' side that contains wetland vegetation associated with solute-rich, near-neutral pH (minerotrophic) water, and a 'poor' side containing vegetation that grows in solute-poor and acidic (ombrotrophic) water. Vertical head gradients at piezometer clusters located in the rich side clearly show that groundwater is moving upwards towards the land surface, consistent with the vegetation types and surface water quality. In contrast, vertical head gradients also show that groundwater is moving upward in the poor side even though the vegetation and surface water chemistry are not minerotrophic. An incipient raised bog in the center of the poor side is the only site where groundwater moves consistently downward. A peat core collected at the bog center shows that the bog site was initially covered by minerotrophic vegetation, typically found in groundwater discharge zones, which was later replaced by ombrotrophic bog vegetation. Theoretical computer simulation experiments of the bog hydrogeologic setting through time suggest that the direction of vertical groundwater flow at the bog site permanently changed from up to down when a water table mound developed under a convex-shaped fen peat mound that probably formed because of differential peat accumulation. Ombrotrophic conditions and bog vegetation probably began when the fen water table mound grew sufficiently large enough to divert the upward movement of regional groundwater. The transition from rich to poor environments probably occurred when the wetland water table was substantially below the elevation of the surrounding regional water table.

  12. The fifth International Geological Congress, Washington, 1891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 5th International Geological Congress (IGC), the initial meeting in North America, was the first of the three IGCs that have been held in the United States of America (USA). Of the 538 registrants alive when the 5th IGC convened in Washington, 251 persons, representing fifteen countries, actually attended the meeting. These participants included 173 people from the USA, of whom forty-two represented the US Geological Survey (USGS). Fourteen of the US State geological surveys sent representatives to Washington. Eight participants came from other countries in the Western Hemisphere - Canada (3), Chile (1), Mexico (3), and Peru (1). The sixty-six European geologists and naturalists at the 5th IGC represented Austro-Hungary (3), Belgium (3), Britain (12), France (7), Germany (23), Norway (1), Romania (3), Russia (8), Sweden (4), and Switzerland (2). The USGS and the Columbian College (now the George Washington University) acted as the principal hosts. The American Association for the Advancement of Science and then the Geological Society of America (GSA) met in the Capital immediately before the Congress convened (26 August-1 September 1891). The 5th IGC's formal discussions treated the genetic classification of Pleistocene rocks, the chronological correlation of clastic rocks, and the international standardization of colors, symbols, and names used on geologic maps. The third of those topics continued key debates at the 1st through 4th IGCs. The GSA, the Korean Embassy, the Smithsonian Institution's US National Museum, the USGS, and one of the two Secretaries-General hosted evening receptions. Field excursions examined Paleozoic exposures in New York (18-25 August), Cretaceous-Pleistocene localities along the Potomac River south of Washington (30 August), and classic Precambrian-Pleistocene sequences and structures in the Great Plains, Yellowstone, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin (2-26 September), with optional trips to the Grand Canyon (19-28 September) and Lake

  13. Timing and development of the Heise volcanic field, Snake River Plain, Idaho, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) developed over the last 16 Ma as a bimodal volcanic province in response to the southwest movement of the North American plate over a fixed melting anomaly. Volcanism along the SRP is dominated by eruptions of explosive high-silica rhyolites and represents some of the largest eruptions known. Basaltic eruptions represent the final stages of volcanism, forming a thin cap above voluminous rhyolitic deposits. Volcanism progressed, generally from west to east, along the plain episodically in successive volcanic fields comprised of nested caldera complexes with major caldera-forming eruptions within a particular field separated by ca. 0.5-1 Ma, similar to, and in continuation with, the present-day Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Passage of the North American plate over the melting anomaly at a particular point in time and space was accompanied by uplift, regional tectonism, massive explosive eruptions, and caldera subsidence, and followed by basaltic volcanism and general subsidence. The Heise volcan ic field in the eastern SRP, Idaho, represents an adjacent and slightly older field immediately to the southwest of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Five large-volume (>0.5 km3) rhyolitic ignimbrites constitute a time-stratigraphic framework of late Miocene to early Pliocene volcanism for the study region. Field relations and high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations establish that four of these regional ignimbrites were erupted from the Heise volcanic field and form the framework of the Heise Group. These are the Blacktail Creek Tuff (6.62 ?? 0.03 Ma), Walcott Tuff (6.27 ?? 0.04 Ma), Conant Creek Tuff (5.51 ?? 0.13 Ma), and Kilgore Tuff (4.45 ?? 0.05 Ma; all errors reported at ?? 2??). The fifth widespread ignimbrite in the regions is the Arbon Valley Tuff Member of the Starlight Formation (10.21 ?? 0.03 Ma), which erupted from a caldera source outside of the Heise volcanic field. These results establish the Conant Creek Tuff as a

  14. Development of Natural Alkalinity in Appalachian Deep Coal Mine Discharges, Irwin Syncline, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, E. M.; Winters, W. R.; Winters, W. R.; Capo, R. C.

    2001-12-01

    dissolution. The discharges in the southwestern sub-basins, however, exhibit a significant excess of sodium relative to chloride that correlates with increasing alkalinity. Modeling results are consistent with the development of net alkaline waters as a result of limestone dissolution enhanced by subsurface cation exchange reactions with coal overburden clay minerals such as illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite. The data suggest these processes occur in deeper sub-basins (overburden thickness greater than 100 m), dominated by groundwaters derived from neighboring mine pools with minimum infiltration of surface waters; this is corroborated by calculated infiltration rates for these sub-basins. [1]Weaver, T. J., Capo, R.C., Hedin, R. S., 1997, Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Prog., v. 29, A-321. [2]Winters, W.R., Capo, R.C., Wolinsky, M.W., Weaver, T.J., Hedin, R.S., 1999, Proc. 16th Ann. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., sect. 6-5, p. 1-36. [3]Parkhurst, D.L. and Appelo, C.A.J., 1999, USGS Water Res. Invest. Rept. 99-4259, 326 p.

  15. Effects of climate and exurban development on nest predation and predator presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2012-08-01

    In the eastern United States, land-use and climate change have likely contributed to declines in the abundance of Neotropical migrant birds that occupy forest interiors, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We conducted a nest-predation experiment in southern Appalachian Mountain forests (North Carolina, U.S.A.) during the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons to determine the effects of exurban development and temperature on predator presence and the average number of days until eggs in an artificial nest were disturbed by predators. We baited artificial nests with quail (Excalfactoria chinensi) eggs and monitored them for 18 days. We used clay eggs, track plates, and motion-triggered cameras to detect and identify nest predators. The average number of days a nest was undisturbed decreased as mean temperature increased and, to a lesser extent, as the density of buildings increased. Nests on the ground were more often depredated than those in trees, likely due to increased predation by opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and other carnivores. Raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums, corvids (Corvus brachyrhynchos and Cyanocitta cristata), chipmunks (Tamias striatus), black bears (Ursus americanus), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were the most commonly detected predators. Presence of these predators did not vary as a function of mean temperature. Domestic cats and corvids were detected more frequently in plots with high rather than low densities of buildings. Forest-interior specialists and Neotropical migrants often nest in cool, high-elevation areas with low housing density. These bird species, especially those that nest on the ground, may be most vulnerable to increased nest predation if temperature and exurban development increase at higher elevations as anticipated. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  17. Predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Court Pre-Screen Assessment in the Netherlands: the development of a new scoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Screen Assessment (WSJCA pre-screen) in the Netherlands. Previous research conducted in the United States showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen to be modest, as is the case with the predictive validity

  18. Predictive Validity of the Washington State Juvenile Court Pre-Screen Assessment in the Netherlands : The Development of a New Scoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; van der Laan, Peter H.

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Screen Assessment (WSJCA pre-screen) in the Netherlands. Previous research conducted in the United States showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen to be modest, as is the case with the predictive validity

  19. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  20. Modeling the effect of a heat wave on maize production in the USA and its implications on food security in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Uran; Gbegbelegbe, Sika; Shiferaw, Bekele; Robertson, Richard; Jin I. Yun; Tesfaye, Kindie; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Sonder, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study uses geo-spatial crop modeling to quantify the biophysical impact of weather extremes. More specifically, the study analyzes the weather extreme which affected maize production in the USA in 2012; it also estimates the effect of a similar weather extreme in 2050, using future climate scenarios. The secondary impact of the weather extreme on food security in the developing world is also assessed using trend analysis. Many studies have reported on the significant reduction in maiz...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, CLARK COUNTY, WASHINGTON (AND INCORPORATED AREAS), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR CLALLAM COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  5. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  6. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  7. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  8. USA ja Iraak püüavad jõuda sel aastal vägede lepinguni / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraak püüavad enne 31. juulit sõlmida lepingu, mis käsitleb USA vägede viibimist Iraagis. Washington Posti andmeil on valitsused loobunud laiahaardelise ja pikaajalise vägede lepingu sõlmimisest, keskendudes nn. sillakavale, mis oleks üleminekuleping ja peaks võimaldama USA sõjaliste operatsioonide jätkamist pärast ÜRO mandaadi lõppu. Lisa: USA taandub roheliset tsoonist?

  9. Biochar from Biomass and its Potential Agronomic and Environmental Use in Washington: A Promising Alternative to Drawdown Carbon from the Atmosphere and Develop a New Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Garcia-Perez, Manuel [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Sjoding, David [Washington State Energy Program Office, Olympia, WA (United States); Fuchs, Mark R. [Washington Dept. of Ecology, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    Climate change is one of the most serious issues facing the world today. Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere continue to warm the planet and destabilize the climate. It has been estimated that the impact from this warming could cost the state 10 billion per year by 2020, and 16 billion per year by 2040. Long-term solutions to the climate problem likely will require that large quantities of CO2 be removed from the atmosphere. In fact, massive CO2 drawdowns from the atmosphere have occurred in earth’s recent past from events occurring in our hemisphere. Studies of those analogs provide insight into the potential magnitude for specific actions to drawdown significant CO2 from the atmosphere. One of these potential actions is the large-scale production of biochar from abundant woody biomass waste and its storage in soils, where it remains stable for hundreds to thousands of years. Moreover, for the carbon emission intensity of Washington’s fuel mix, biochar production from biomass is twice as effective in offsetting GHG emissions as complete biomass combustion of the same biomass. Washington State has large quantities of wood waste biomass that could be purposed for production of combined heat/power/biochar (CHPB) through existing biomass boilers. We propose to 1) evaluate the quantities of Washington wood waste biomass, 2) inventory existing boiler capacity and assess the technical merits and challenges to repurpose the boilers to CHPB, and 3) apply literature values and analog biochar examples to better quantify the extent of CO2 drawdown that could be achieved in Washington State over the next century using engineered biochar. This white paper explores the potential to replicate the historical drawdowns of atmospheric CO2, a topic the authors think should be part of current climate-change mitigation discussions. This

  10. INDIAN HEAVEN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Barnes, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mining activity surveys the Indian Heaven Roadless Area, Washington offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic or nonmetallic mineral resources. Preliminary investigations of the geothermal potential of the area are inconclusive; however, a hot spring is located approximately 10 mi south of the roadless area, and the data indicate an aquifer of unknown extent at a temperature of less than 212 degree F. Geothermal lease applications were filed on about 23. 5 sq mi of the roadless area indicating potential interest in the development of a geothermal resource. In addition, about 39 sq mi of the roadless area have been leased for oil and gas exploration.

  11. George Washington: A Grounded Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highway, Suite 1204·, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC......a broad array of experiences, enabled him to become a leader who profoundly affected those around him. George Washington reflected a man of the

  12. Homeopathy in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2001-04-01

    Homeopathy was introduced into the USA by Hans Burch Gram in 1825. It developed largely through immigration of German homeopaths. The first homeopathic medical college was established in Allentown, PA in 1835. The American institute of Homeopathy (AIH) was founded in 1844. The American Medical Association was founded in 1847 and pursued policies hostile to homeopathy from the outset. Eclectic medicine was widespread in nineteenth century medicine, one of the greatest homeopaths, JT Kent had originally been an eclectic. The International Hahnemannian Association split from the AIH in 1880. The Flexner Report of 1910 resulted in many homeopathic medical colleges being closed down. Homeopathy in the USA was in steep decline from the 1920s to the 1960s but has had a strong recovery since the 1970s.

  13. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common features of the content, models, forms and methods of continuing professional development of public school teachers. The legislative and normative framework of teachers’ CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA, which determines the CPD content, has been highlighted; teachers’ knowledge, skills, professional values and attitudes have been characterised; the key models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD have been defined. The teachers’ CPD has been studied by foreign and Ukrainian scientists: models, forms and methods of teachers’ CPD (L. Chance, A. Hollingsworth, D. Ross, E. Villegas-Reimers, non-formal teachers’ CPD (J. Scheerens, continuing professional education (Ya. Belmaz, T. Desyatov, postgraduate education (A. Kuzminskyy, V. Russol, professional education (R. Hurevych, N. Nychkalo, teacher training (T. Koshmanova, Ye. Yevtukh, teachers’ professional development (N. Klokar, V. Oliynyk. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  14. Wildland-urban interface housing growth during the 1990s in California, Oregon, and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Hammer; V.C. Radeloff; J.S. Fried; S.I. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examine housing growth in California, Oregon, and Washington in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where homes and other structures abut or intermingle with wildland vegetation. We combine housing density information from the 1990 and 2000 USA censuses with land cover information from the 1992/93 National Land Cover data set to...

  15. The Model of Unification and the Model of Diversification of Public School Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical framework of public school teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; presentation and characteristic of two models: the model of unification and the model of diversification of teachers’ professional development in the systems of continuing pedagogical education of Great Britain, Canada and the USA by the dominant traits. Their major components have been defined and specified. Public school teachers’ CPD has been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: content of public school teachers’ CPD (N. Dana Fichtman, M. Rees, A. Ross, S. Zepeda; CPD programs (C. Pratt; public school teachers’ CPD models, methods and forms (K. Duinlan, P. Grimmet, G. Troia, P. Wong; continuous professional education (Ya. Belmaz, А. Kuzminskyy, O. Kuznyetsova. The research methodology comprises theoretical (logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  16. Usability in product design--the importance and need for systematic assessment models in product development--Usa-Design Model (U-D) ©.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz; Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Schoenardie, Rodrigo Petry; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Diáz; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    In product design, human factors are considered as an element of differentiation given that today's consumer demands are increasing. Safety, wellbeing, satisfaction, health, effectiveness, efficiency, and other aspects must be effectively incorporated into the product development process. This work proposes a usability assessment model that can be incorporated as an assessment tool. The methodological approach is settled in two stages. First a literature review focus specifically on usability and developing user-centred products. After this, a model of usability named Usa-Design (U-D©) is presented. Consisted of four phases: understanding the use context, pre-preliminary usability assessment (efficiency/effectiveness/satisfaction); assessment of usability principles and results, U-D© features are modular and flexible, allowing principles used in Phase 3 to be changed according to the needs and scenario of each situation. With qualitative/quantitative measurement scales of easy understanding and application, the model results are viable and applicable throughout all the product development process.

  17. Social Marketing and the "New" Technology: Proceedings of a Washington Roundtable (Washington, DC, March 25, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document examines some of the key issues raised during the second Washington Roundtable on Social Marketing, convened by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) in 1998. AED invited participants to examine whether the interactive technologies that are revolutionizing commercial marketing--personal computers, the Internet (especially the…

  18. Forest statistics for northeast Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Hazard

    1963-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of six northeast Washington counties: Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman. The collection of field data was made during the years 1957 to 1961 in three separate inventory projects.

  19. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  20. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  1. Development of the Greek version of the University of Washington quality of life questionnaire for patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardoutsos, George; Rapidis, Alexander D; Lowe, Derek; Bramis, Ioannis; Rogers, Simon N

    2014-07-01

    The University of Washington quality of life (UW-QOL) questionnaire, created in 1993 to evaluate health related quality of life, has been widely used in English-speaking populations and translated and validated in other languages. The aim of the present study was to carefully translate and psychometrically validate the UW-QOL questionnaire in Greek. The revised version of the questionnaire was obtained by forward and backward translation of the original English version, according to internationally accepted guidelines. Validation was performed in 120 patients with head and neck cancer treated in a Greek Anticancer Institute in Athens, during their follow-up visits. Eligible patients completed the Greek version of the questionnaire and two other previously validated quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ H&N35 and C-30). Related data and the patients' demographics were extracted from the patient's notes. Strong internal consistency (mean Cronbach α value of 0.83) was shown, with good construct validity. Statistically significant differences were noted between tumour staging and treatment modality and global quality of life. Strong correlation was shown between previously validated EORTC questionnaires and the translated UW-QOL questionnaire. In conclusion, the Greek version of the UW-QOL questionnaire appears to be culturally appropriate and psychometrically valid. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, R.; Berns, H.G.; Buchli, M.; Burnett, T.H.; Edmon, P.; Gran, R.; Haff, T.; Lemagie; Muhs, E.; Wheel, G.; Wilkes, R.J.

    2003-07-01

    WALTA (WAshington Large-area Time-coincidence Array) aims to study ultra-high energy (> 1018 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) by placing detector elements in Seattle area secondary scho ols, and linking their data acquisition systems to the University of Washington via a computer network. The goal of WALTA is to have teachers and students become active participants in forefront scientific project, while building a long term partnership between the scho ols and the university-based physics research community. Considerable progress has been made in recruiting and training teachers and equipping scho ol sites since the last ICRC, including development of a low-cost data acquisition card in collab oration with Fermilab and the University of Nebraska.

  3. Interaction of science, business and state in the sphere of innovative projects development: comparative analysis by the example of Russia, USA and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Kamko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the organizational principles of institutional mechanisms in innovation sphere which are capable of maintaining and developing the interaction of science state and business. Methods general scientific principles of economic phenomena cognition such as dialectical structural historical approaches which allowed us to evaluate the institutional structures and mechanisms to reveal their inherent qualities and structure and to identify trends in their historical and future development. The specificity of the institutions which characterizes the individual companies was considered on the basis of comparative institutional analysis drawing on the institutional concept of the X and Yeconomies. Justification of the practical conclusions was made on the basis of theoretical analysis and generalization of the actual historical examples of innovative breakthroughs both in Russia and abroad. Results institutional characteristics of interaction between science state and business in Russia USA and China were analyzed. Investigation of the projects associated with innovation breakthroughs innovation center quotSkolkovoquot Russia Silicon Valley USA and Technopark quotZhongguancunquot China revealed the specificity and established causeandeffect relations in the formation of institutional mechanisms that are present in their implementation. As a result it was determined that the effectiveness of institutional mechanisms for the innovative projects implementation is connected with such combination of the implemented institutions which reflects the dominant position of the institutional matrix of the society in which these projects are implemented. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of the institutional concepts of the X and Yeconomies the causeandeffect relations in the formation of institutional mechanisms for innovative areas in different countries were investigated. Practical significance the results and conclusions of the

  4. Contribution of meat to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the USA: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N

    2013-04-01

    To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development’s attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more

  6. University of Washington/ Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Tidal Current Technology Test Protocol, Instrumentation, Design Code, and Oceanographic Modeling Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The University of Washington (UW) - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (UW-NNMREC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate to advance research and development (R&D) of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy technology, specifically renewable energy captured from ocean tidal currents. UW-NNMREC is endeavoring to establish infrastructure, capabilities and tools to support in-water testing of marine energy technology. NREL is leveraging its experience and capabilities in field testing of wind systems to develop protocols and instrumentation to advance field testing of MHK systems. Under this work, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to develop a common instrumentation system and testing methodologies, standards and protocols. UW-NNMREC is also establishing simulation capabilities for MHK turbine and turbine arrays. NREL has extensive experience in wind turbine array modeling and is developing several computer based numerical simulation capabilities for MHK systems. Under this CRADA, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to augment single device and array modeling codes. As part of this effort UW NNMREC will also work with NREL to run simulations on NREL's high performance computer system.

  7. Landscape disturbance from unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing) and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1) occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2) was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3) was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4) was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5) occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6) occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7) tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8) had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  8. Densification without Growth Management? Evidence from Local Land Development and Housing Trends in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Delmelle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In urban America, land development and residential real estate have passed through a number of different phases during the post-WWII era. In contemporary discourse on urban sustainability, attention is often expressed in terms of intensity of land development, lot sizes, and square-footage of housing units. In this paper, we reconstruct the land development trajectory of a rapidly growing southern city in the United States and assess whether this trajectory has experienced any reversal in the face of socio-economic transformations that have occurred over the past decade or so. Starting with current land and real estate property records, we reconstitute the urban map of Charlotte using World War II as a starting point. Results highlight a decline in the average single family lot size over the past decade, while the average home size has consistently grown, suggesting that the city of Charlotte and its county have witnessed a densification trend along a path towards greater land development. This analysis both helps situate Charlotte with respect to other U.S. urban regions, and provides support for potential land-use policies, especially densification, when a balance between urban development, environment preservation, energy savings, and the achievement of quality of life for current and future generations are concerned.

  9. Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terrence Slonecker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1 occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2 was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3 was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4 was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5 occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6 occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7 tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8 had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  10. Libraries in Washington: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/washington.html Libraries in Washington To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Bellingham PeaceHealth St. Joseph Medical Center Library 2901 Squalicum Parkway Bellingham, WA 98225 360-788- ...

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Washington's public and private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  13. [Managed care--an example for future structural developments in health care. Reflections on a informational visit on direction and administration of medical centers in east USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T; Weber, W; Funk, H; Klar, E; Herfarth, C

    1998-04-01

    While the different national health systems merge structurally, cost expansion in health care is a global challenge. Structural reforms have been developed during recent years in the USA which can be summarized as "managed care". They are characterized by the evolution of an economically orientated system, in which units of medical therapy are generally handled like conventional economically goods. In managed-care models, patients are deliberately directed to the most economic forms of therapy. The spectrum of medical interventions as well as diagnostic or therapeutic patterns are predefined by a system of contracted guidelines, which lead to a standardization of processes. Financing and medical executive responsibilities fuse. The autonomy of medical decisions is clearly reduced to enforce and integrated and economically oriented steering of the health system. Leadership is no longer primarily confined to doctors or scientists. It is progressively shifting to financing institutions, managing directors or insurance companies. Structural changes currently are expanding rapidly in the U.S. and have meanwhile led to marked regional reductions of medical costs. Nevertheless, the US model is still far more expensive compared to the German system. Historical development, current concepts of US-managed care, its potential influence and general applicability to the German situation are discussed in an overview.

  14. Development of input data layers for the FARSITE fire growth model for the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Complex, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Janice L. Garner; Kirsten M. Schmidt; Donald G. Long; James P. Menakis; Mark A. Finney

    1998-01-01

    Fuel and vegetation spatial data layers required by the spatially explicit fire growth model FARSITE were developed for all lands in and around the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area in Idaho and Montana. Satellite imagery and terrain modeling were used to create the three base vegetation spatial data layers of potential vegetation, cover type, and structural stage....

  15. Post-fire tree establishment and early cohort development in conifer forests of the western Cascades of Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan J. Tepley; Frederick J. Swanson; Thomas A. Spies

    2014-01-01

    Early-seral ecosystems make important contributions to regional biodiversity by supporting high abundance and diversity of many plant and animal species that are otherwise rare or absent from closed-canopy forests. Therefore, the period of post-fire tree establishment is a key stage in forest stand and ecosystem development that can be viewed in the context of...

  16. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Silver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik; John B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types....

  17. Comparative Analysis of Legislative Provision of Adult Education in the USA and Canada (Case Study: Professional Development of Tourism Employees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushko, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    Today Ukraine is in the process of establishing an integral base for adult education and the system of employees' professional development. Hence, the research of the experience of the countries with a fixed, ramified, but integral system of normative and juridical documents in the above-mentioned fields can be of great use. Addressing to the USA…

  18. Comparing Managerial Careers, Management Development and Management Education in the UK and the USA: Some Theoretical and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Butler, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Discusses experts' views on changes in managerial careers and management development; evidence of organizational changes that support the rhetoric about changes; and implications for management education. Concludes that rhetoric outstrips reality; however, there is evidence of changes in organizational forms and career resilience and boundaryless…

  19. Change in the forested and developed landscape of the Lake Tahoe basin, California and Nevada, USA, 1940-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raumann, C.G.; Cablk, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The current ecological state of the Lake Tahoe basin has been shaped by significant landscape-altering human activity and management practices since the mid-1850s; first through widespread timber harvesting from the 1850s to 1920s followed by urban development from the 1950s to the present. Consequences of landscape change, both from development and forest management practices including fire suppression, have prompted rising levels of concern for the ecological integrity of the region. The impacts from these activities include decreased water quality, degraded biotic communities, and increased fire hazard. To establish an understanding of the Lake Tahoe basin's landscape change in the context of forest management and development we mapped, quantified, and described the spatial and temporal distribution and variability of historical changes in land use and land cover in the southern Lake Tahoe basin (279 km2) from 1940 to 2002. Our assessment relied on post-classification change detection of multi-temporal land-use/cover and impervious-surface-area data that were derived through manual interpretation, image processing, and GIS data integration for four dates of imagery: 1940, 1969, 1987, and 2002. The most significant land conversion during the 62-year study period was an increase in developed lands with a corresponding decrease in forests, wetlands, and shrublands. Forest stand densities increased throughout the 62-year study period, and modern thinning efforts resulted in localized stand density decreases in the latter part of the study period. Additionally forests were gained from succession, and towards the end of the study period extensive tree mortality occurred. The highest rates of change occurred between 1940 and 1969, corresponding with dramatic development, then rates declined through 2002 for all observed landscape changes except forest density decrease and tree mortality. Causes of landscape change included regional population growth, tourism demands

  20. Juvenile salmon and steelhead occupancy of stream pools treated and not treated with restoration structures, Entiat River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl M. Polivka; E. Ashley Steel; Jenni L. Novak; Bror Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    We observed habitat occupancy by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at in-stream habitat restoration structures constructed in the Entiat River, Washington, USA. In 2009–2013, fish abundance measurements during rearing (July–October) showed high temporal variability in...

  1. Mississippian carbonate buildups and development of cool-waterlike carbonate platforms in the Illinois Basin, Midcontinent U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Z.; Norby, R.D.; Utgaard, J.E.; Ferry, W.R.; Cuffey, R.J.; Dever, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous biohermal buildups occur in Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) strata in the Illinois Basin and adjacent regions. They developed as mud mounds, biodetrital calcisiltite mounds, and bryozoan frame thickets (fenestrate-frame coquina or rudstone) during the Kinderhookian and early Meramecian (Tournaisian and early Visean), and as microbial mud mounds, microbial- serpulidbryozoanboundstones, and solenoporoid (red algal) boundstones during the Chesterian (late Visean and Serpukhovian). True Waulsortian mounds did not develop in the Illinois Basin, but echinoderm (primarily crinoids)-bryozoan carbonate banks and bryozoan frame thickets generally occupied the same niche during the Kinderhookian-early Meramecian. Nutrient availability and the resulting increase in the productivity of echinoderms and bryozoans were apparently detrimental to Waulsortian mound development. Deposition of crinoidal-bryozoan carbonates during the Kinderhookian-Osagean initially occurred on a ramp setting that later evolved into a platform with a relatively steep margin through sediment aggradation and progradation. By mid-Osagean-early Meramecian, two such platforms, namely the Burlington Shelf and the Ullin Platform, developed adjacent to a deep, initially starved basin. Sedimentologic and petrographic characteristics of the Kinderhookian-earliest Meramecian carbonates resemble the modern cool-water Heterozoan Association. This is in contrast with post-earliest Meramecian carbonates, which are typically oolitic and peloidal with common peri tidal facies. The post-earliest Meramecian carbonates, therefore, resemble those of the warm-water Photozoan Association. The prevalence of Heterozoan carbonates in the Illinois Basin correlates with a rapid increase in the rate of subsidence and a major second-order eustatic sea-level rise that resulted in deep-water starved basins at this time. In the starved Illinois Basin, deposition was initially limited to a thin phosphatic shale that was

  2. Development of a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module for Chinese immigrants to the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Christine Ml; Napoles, Anna M; Chou, Jeyling; Seligman, Hilary K

    2015-02-01

    To develop a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. In the current qualitative study, we (i) highlight methodological challenges which arise in developing survey instruments that will be used to make comparisons across language groups and (ii) describe the development of a Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module, called the San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module. Community sites in San Francisco, CA, USA. We conducted cognitive interviews with twenty-two community members recruited from community sites hosting food pantries and with five professionals recruited from clinical settings. Development of conceptually equivalent surveys can be difficult. We highlight challenges related to dialect, education, literacy (e.g. preferences for more or less formal phrasing), English words and phrases for which there is no Chinese language equivalent (e.g. 'balanced meals' and 'eat less than you felt you should') and response formats. We selected final translations to maximize: (i) consistency of the Chinese translation with the intent of the English version; (ii) clarity; and (iii) similarities in understanding across dialects and literacy levels. Survey translation is essential for conducting research in many communities. The challenges encountered illustrate how literal translations can affect the conceptual equivalence of survey items across languages. Cognitive interview methods should be routinely used for survey translation when such non-equivalence is suspected, such as in surveys addressing highly culturally bound behaviours such as diet and eating behaviours. Literally translated surveys lacking conceptual equivalence may magnify or obscure important health inequalities.

  3. The role of migration in the development of depressive symptoms among Latino immigrant parents in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M

    2011-10-01

    Nearly one out of every four children in the US is a child of immigrants. Yet few studies have assessed how factors at various stages of migration contribute to the development of health problems in immigrant populations. Most focus only on post-migration factors influencing health. Using data from the Latino Adolescent Migration, Health, and Adaptation Project, this study assessed the extent to which pre-migration (e.g., major life events, high poverty), migration (e.g., unsafe and stressful migration experiences), post-migration (e.g., discrimination, neighborhood factors, family reunification, linguistic isolation), and social support factors contributed to depressive symptoms among a sample of Latino immigrant parents with children ages 12-18. Results indicated that high poverty levels prior to migration, stressful experiences during migration, as well as racial problems in the neighborhood and racial/ethnic discrimination upon settlement in the US most strongly contribute to the development of depressive symptoms among Latino immigrant parents. Family reunification, social support, and familism reduce the likelihood of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impacts of ski slope development on stream channel morphology in the White River National Forest, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Gabrielle C. L.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Merritt, David M.; Wohl, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    The combined influence of tree-clearing, road construction, snowmaking, and machine-grading can cause increased flow and sediment loads along streams in or adjacent to commercial ski resorts. These changes to stream channels can increase bank failures, bed material size, pool scour, and, in extreme cases, channel incision. We used field data from the White River National Forest in Colorado, which includes several major ski resorts, to test the hypothesis that ski slope development causes a significant difference in bank stability, undercut banks, fine sediment, wood load, pool residual depth, and particle size ( D84) between the ski area project streams and reference streams. We further hypothesize that the changes in a stream are mitigated by the density and type of vegetation growing along the banks. A significant difference is defined as a project stream that is outside the range of variability of the reference streams. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed channel conditions, channel dimensions, and vegetation along 47 stream reaches (200-300 m in length). Twenty-four of these streams are within ski areas (project streams), either adjacent to or downstream from ski slopes. Twenty-three reference streams with very little to no development in their basins are used to define reference conditions of bank stability, bank undercutting, bank height, wood load, pool residual depth, sediment size, and vegetation structure. A combination of statistical techniques, including Principal Components Analysis and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis, was used to assess the controls on stream channel morphology and to analyze the differences between project and reference streams. Project streams that are significantly different than reference streams have a combination of a higher percentage of fine sediment, smaller pool residual depth, and higher percentage of unstable banks. The impacted project streams have bed material derived from granitic rocks and a lower density

  5. Development and field validation of a community-engaged particulate matter air quality monitoring network in Imperial, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvlin, Graeme N; Lugo, Humberto; Olmedo, Luis; Bejarano, Ester; Wilkie, Alexa; Meltzer, Dan; Wong, Michelle; King, Galatea; Northcross, Amanda; Jerrett, Michael; English, Paul B; Hammond, Donald; Seto, Edmund

    2017-12-01

    The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network was developed as part of a community-engaged research study to provide real-time particulate matter (PM) air quality information at a high spatial resolution in Imperial County, California. The network augmented the few existing regulatory monitors and increased monitoring near susceptible populations. Monitors were both calibrated and field validated, a key component of evaluating the quality of the data produced by the community monitoring network. This paper examines the performance of a customized version of the low-cost Dylos optical particle counter used in the community air monitors compared with both PM 2.5 and PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters monitors (BAMs) and federal reference method (FRM) gravimetric filters at a collocation site in the study area. A conversion equation was developed that estimates particle mass concentrations from the native Dylos particle counts, taking into account relative humidity. The R 2 for converted hourly averaged Dylos mass measurements versus a PM 2.5 BAM was 0.79 and that versus a PM 10 BAM was 0.78. The performance of the conversion equation was evaluated at six other sites with collocated PM 2.5 environmental beta-attenuation monitors (EBAMs) located throughout Imperial County. The agreement of the Dylos with the EBAMs was moderate to high (R 2 = 0.35-0.81). The performance of low-cost air quality sensors in community networks is currently not well documented. This paper provides a methodology for quantifying the performance of a next-generation Dylos PM sensor used in the Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network. This air quality network provides data at a much finer spatial and temporal resolution than has previously been possible with government monitoring efforts. Once calibrated and validated, these high-resolution data may provide more information on susceptible populations, assist in the identification of air pollution hotspots, and

  6. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  7. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic

  8. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities.

  9. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Monique S.; Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; Antoine LaVigne, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities. PMID:28230728

  10. Development of the Wink Sink in west Texas, U.S.A., due to salt dissolution and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Wink Sink, in Winkler County, Texas, is a collapse feature that formed in June 1980 when an underground dissolution cavity migrated upward by successive roof failures until it breached the land surface. The original cavity developed in the Permian Salado Formation salt beds more than 400 m (1,300 ft) below ground level. Natural dissolution of salt occurred in the vicinity of the Wink Sink in several episodes that began as early as Salado time and recurred in later Permian, Triassic, and Cenozoic times. Although natural dissolution occurred in the past below the Wink Sink, it appears likely that the dissolution cavity and resultant collapse described in this report were influenced by petroleum-production activity in the immediate area. Drilling, completion, and plugging procedures used on an abandoned oil well at the site of the sink appear to have created a conduit that enabled water to circulate down the borehole and dissolve the salt. When the dissolution cavity became large enough, the roof failed and the overlying rocks collapsed into the cavity. Similar collapse features exist where underground salt beds have been intentionally dissolved during solution mining or accidentally dissolved as a result of petroleum-production activity. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF TIGHT OIL RESOURCES IN USA: PROFITABILITY OF EXPLOITATION AND EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS IN VOLATILE OIL PRICE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Strpić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale development of tight oil resources in US started after 2010. with following five-year period of favorable steady increase in crude oil price. During this relatively short expansion cycle, operating and capital expenses changed drastically for main tight oil plays due to technological improvements in both well drilling and completion, expansion of service sector as well as loose government monetary policy which allowed favorable financing. This paper analyzed trends in costs during expansion period, as well as correlation of oil price to number of operating rigs and production quotas. After 2008/2009. world financial crisis economy recovery in US was somewhat sluggish and it caused extreme volatile environment in both equity and commodity markets. In such volatile environment intra-day crude oil prices, as well as other commodities and equities, show significant reaction to monthly published macroeconomic indicator reports, which give better overviews of trends in economic recovery. Prior to announcement, these reports always have forecasted value determined by consensus among market analysts. Therefore, any positive or negative surprise in real value tends to influence price of oil. This paper investigated influence of such macroeconomic reports to closing intraday oil price, as well as effect of other important daily market indices. Analysis showed that only Producer Price Index (PPI, among other indicators, has statistical significance of affecting intraday closing oil price.

  12. The Need for Next Generation of Radiochemists in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour Akbarzadeh; Steven Bakhtiar; Patricia Paviet-Hartmann

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, the nuclear industry employed approximately 120,000 people. Nearly 38 percent of the nuclear industry force will be eligible to retire within the next five years. To maintain the current work force, the industry will need to hire approximately 25,000 more workers by 2015.1 The federal government will also need nuclear workers in the future in its laboratories, the military and government programs. There is a need not only for the entire nuclear community to work with the academia to recruit and train students in a standardized way for employment at nuclear facilities. Several strategies are taking place in the USA, as an example, an initiative developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INEST) with four Centers of Research and Education (COREs) selected to address some of the most challenging issues facing nuclear energy today: (1) Fuels and Materials, (2) Space Nuclear Research, (3) Fuel Cycle, and (4) Safety and Licensing. Another example is the development of a radiochemistry program at two universities: the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) and Washington State University (WSU) to attract the next generation work force. This paper will solely focus on the next generation of radiochemists needed in the US and will give examples illustrating the needs as well as the current activities in the academia and in the national laboratories to fulfill national needs.

  13. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  14. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  15. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori...

  16. Geomorphic modeling of macro-tidal embayment with extensive tidal flats: Skagit Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    with comparable flows to those of fall 2008. January 2009 includes flows from runoff events that peak at about 2300 m3/s (a 10-year flood event was...that TSS increased during the storm event in January, and typically trended higher with increased supply from the river. The lower- frequency episodic... Mastin , and R. L. Huffman. Sediment load and distribution in the Lower Skagit River, Washington, USA. Manuscript in preparation, 2011. R. A. Feely and M

  17. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  18. Kust sai USA president oma välispoliitika? / Vello Saarme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarme, Vello

    2003-01-01

    Autor tutvustab Morton Abramowitzi art., mis ilmus 11. sept. 2001 Washington Postis. Artikkel osutus kokkuvõtteks USA presidendi George W. Bushi senisest välispoliitikast ja lõi aluse praeguse välispoliitika analüüsiks

  19. Pre-Mission Communication And Awareness Stratgies For Positive Group Functioning And Development: Analysis Of A Crew At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of pre-mission communication and awareness strategies for positive group functioning in extreme environments as well as suggestive countermeasures to maintain positive group dynamic development in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. The study is supported by both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, coping, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and mission mistakes from a mission phase analysis approach, to see if this would be a factor in positive group dynamic development. Results: Data collected and obtained by both assessment and journaling methods were both consistent and indicative of positive personalities desirable of expedition crews. Assessment data further indicated positive group cohesion and group interactions, along with supportive and strong leadership, all which led to positive personal and group experiences for crewmembers. Crewmembers all displayed low levels of competition while still reporting high motivation and satisfaction for the group dynamic development and the mission objectives that were completed. Journals kept by the crew psychologist indicated that crewmembers all felt that the pre

  20. Sustainable development education, practice, and research: an indigenous model of sustainable development at the College of Menominee Nation, Keshena, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Dockry; Katherine Hall; William Van Lopik; Christopher M. Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute's theoretical model (SDI model) conceptualizes sustainable development as the process of maintaining the balance and reconciling the inherent tensions among six dimensions of sustainability: land and sovereignty; natural environment #including human beings); institutions; technology; economy; and...

  1. Comparing population exposure to multiple Washington earthquake scenarios for prioritizing loss estimation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Schelling, John; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Scenario-based, loss-estimation studies are useful for gauging potential societal impacts from earthquakes but can be challenging to undertake in areas with multiple scenarios and jurisdictions. We present a geospatial approach using various population data for comparing earthquake scenarios and jurisdictions to help emergency managers prioritize where to focus limited resources on data development and loss-estimation studies. Using 20 earthquake scenarios developed for the State of Washington (USA), we demonstrate how a population-exposure analysis across multiple jurisdictions based on Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) classes helps emergency managers understand and communicate where potential loss of life may be concentrated and where impacts may be more related to quality of life. Results indicate that certain well-known scenarios may directly impact the greatest number of people, whereas other, potentially lesser-known, scenarios impact fewer people but consequences could be more severe. The use of economic data to profile each jurisdiction’s workforce in earthquake hazard zones also provides additional insight on at-risk populations. This approach can serve as a first step in understanding societal impacts of earthquakes and helping practitioners to efficiently use their limited risk-reduction resources.

  2. Shooting Back and "Looking for Life" in the USA and Haiti: "Seeing" the Ethics of Visual Research Methods through a Development Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Lynch, Megan R.; Bell, Athene; Harmon, James; Pellegrino, Anthony; Sell, Corey

    2014-01-01

    Relying on a critical pedagogy framework and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and visual sociology methods, the authors of this article--teachers, teacher educators, and community activists--have worked with photo elicitation methods and young adults in the USA and Haiti to document youths' impressions of the purposes of, supports for,…

  3. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  4. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  5. Uddannelsespolitik i USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Washington Post har stillet præsidentkandidaterne en række konkrete spørgsmål om deres planer for uddannelsesområdet. Der er mange interessante overvejelser om test, fælles mål, finansiering af skoler mv....

  6. Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, K; Havill, N P; Arsenault-Benoit, A L; Mayfield, A E; Ott, D S; Ross, D; Whitmore, M C; Wallin, K F

    2017-10-01

    Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) are known to feed on the lineage of Adelges tsugae Annand that is native to western North America, but it is not known if they will survive on the lineage that was introduced from Japan to the eastern USA. In 2014, western Leucopis spp. larvae were brought to the laboratory and placed on A. tsugae collected in either Washington (North American A. tsugae lineage) or Connecticut (Japanese lineage). There were no significant differences in survival or developmental times between flies reared on the two different adelgid lineages. In 2015 and 2016, western Leucopis spp. adults were released at two different densities onto enclosed branches of A. tsugae infested eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Tennessee and New York. Cages were recovered and their contents examined 4 weeks after release at each location. Leucopis spp. larvae and puparia of the F1 generation were recovered at both release locations and adults of the F1 generation were collected at the Tennessee location. The number of Leucopis spp. offspring collected increased with increasing adelgid density, but did not differ by the number of adult flies released. Flies recovered from cages and flies collected from the source colony were identified as L.argenticollis and L. piniperda using DNA barcoding. These results demonstrate that Leucopis spp. from the Pacific Northwest are capable of feeding and developing to the adult stage on A. tsugae in the eastern USA and they are able to tolerate environmental conditions during late spring and early summer at the southern and northern extent of the area invaded by A. tsugae in the eastern USA.

  7. First Application of Newly Developed FT-NIR Spectroscopic Methodology to Predict Authenticity of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Retail Products in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoba, Magdi M; Azizian, Hormoz; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kramer, John K G

    2017-05-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) has been a worldwide problem and a concern for government regulators for a long time. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to protect the US public against intentional adulteration of foods and has jurisdiction over deceptive label declarations. To detect EMA of olive oil and address food safety vulnerabilities, we used a previously developed rapid screening methodology to authenticate EVOO. For the first time, a recently developed FT-NIR spectroscopic methodology in conjunction with partial least squares analysis was applied to commercial products labeled EVOO purchased in College Park, MD, USA to rapidly predict whether they are authentic, potentially mixed with refined olive oil (RO) or other vegetable oil(s), or are of lower quality. Of the 88 commercial products labeled EVOO that were assessed according to published specified ranges, 33 (37.5%) satisfied the three published FT-NIR requirements identified for authentic EVOO products which included the purity test. This test was based on limits established for the contents of three potential adulterants, oils high in linoleic acid (OH-LNA), oils high in oleic acid (OH-OLA), palm olein (PO), and/or RO. The remaining 55 samples (62.5%) did not meet one or more of the criteria established for authentic EVOO. The breakdown of the 55 products was EVOO potentially mixed with OH-LNA (25.5%), OH-OLA (10.9%), PO (5.4%), RO (25.5%), or a combination of any of these four (32.7%). If assessments had been based strictly on whether the fatty acid composition was within the established ranges set by the International Olive Council (IOC), less than 10% would have been identified as non-EVOO. These findings are significant not only because they were consistent with previously published data based on the results of two sensory panels that were accredited by IOC but more importantly each measurement/analysis was accomplished in less than 5

  8. Interprofessional Initiatives at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lynne; Murphy, Nanci; Belza, Basia; Brock, Doug; Gallagher, Thomas H.; Lindhorst, Taryn; Morton, Tom; Schaad, Doug; Mitchell, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacists must collaborate with other health professionals to promote the optimal use of medications, relying on coordinated, interprofessional communication and care to do so. In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics.”2 At the University of Washington, the Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education (CHSIE) was established in 1997 to promote interprofessional curricular and clinical innovation in education, faculty development, and student activities, and to conduct evaluative research regarding the impact of interprofessional innovations. In this manuscript, we will describe the Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education, and highlight key projects that serve as examples of pharmacy involvement in interprofessional education, research, and service. PMID:19657496

  9. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  10. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  11. Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-15

    FINANCIAL REPORTING AT THE WASHINGTON HEADQUARTERS SERVICES Report No. D-2001-081 March 15, 2001...to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number...underlying financial reporting processes that cause abnormal balances on the trial balances of Other Defense Organizations. An account balance is abnormal

  12. Water resources of King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  13. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Booker T. Washington National Monument, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for George Washington Birthplace National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of George Washington Birthplace National Monument, VA. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and...

  16. Higher utilization of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies in patients with chronic low back pain in a developing country than in the USA: Treatment of chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a highly subjective experience and different studies have shown that the perception of the pain intensity depends on multiple factors, such as: gender, race, age, eye or hair color, socio-economic status, education, as well as psychological status of the person, etc. Despite those determinants there is an discrepancy in pain treating approach between the USA and the European countries. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, with 70-85% of people in the North America being affected throughout their lifes compared with the average prevalence of back pain In Western Europe as 15%. Overall, NSAIDs are the most commonly prescribed medication for low back pain worldwide, however with liberalization of the law in the USA within past 20 years, and with the promotion of opioids as highly effective and safe treatment, they are getting prescribed widely and readily for different chronic pain conditions including chronic low back pain. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, and Western Europe. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the utilization of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain in developing countries. Methods: After approval of the ethics committee Medical School University of Belgrade we enrolled 185 patients. Any patients who were > 18 years, diagnosed with chronic low back pain and did not have a history of malignancy are included in the study. All of them completed the study. Results: Patients were between 21 and 91 years old (average age 61.2 ± 14.7, 43.5% of them were males and 56.5% females. The pain duration for these patients ranged from 2 months up to 20 years. Average VAS pain scores in rest 4.7 ± 2.3 and in movement 5.2 ± 2.1. All of these patients exploited different types of non-pharmacological treatments for their painful condition. The average improvements after these treatments were: physical

  17. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  18. The Development of Topography in Ancient and Active Orogens: Case Studies of Landscape Evolution in the Southern Appalachians, USA and Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean Francis

    Understanding the development of topography is fundamental to the geosciences. Topography represents the sum of all tectonic and geodynamic processes that force the earth's surface upward paired with those that act to bring it down. Spatial and temporal changes in topographic relief can modulate the various feedbacks between atmospheric, earth surface and rock exhumation processes, sediment flux, and the magnitude and style of gravity driven natural hazards. Plate tectonics provides the first-order framework necessary to understand how topography is built through the interaction of lithospheric plates. However, density contrasts in the mantle can also influence the elevation of the earth's surface through dynamic topography, while poorly understood nuances of mountain building at convergent margins complicate drawing direct connections between tectonics and topography. Such linkages are further confounded by non-linearity between rock uplift and erosion, variations in rates of deformation, changes in climate and the properties of bedrock. Great advances in our understanding of the evolution of topography have been achieved, yet numerous questions remain regarding the evolution of topography in ancient and active orogens. This research addresses knowledge gaps in the development of topography through case-studies of landscape evolution in the southern Appalachians Mountains, USA and the forearc overlying the Hellenic subduction zone. Chapter 1 explores the origins of modern topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, where tectonic activity ceased prior to 200 Ma. Conventional theories invoked to explain modern relief in the region are challenged. Quantitative analyses of digital elevation models and numerical modeling are coupled to provide the magnitudes and timing of changes in topographic relief. The results suggest that the southern Appalachians experienced a phase of topographic rejuvenation during the Miocene that increased the distance between the

  19. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  20. Financing residential energy conservation in the state of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.S.; Fairburn, W.A.

    1978-12-01

    The Washington Energy Extension Service Finance Program was commissioned for the overall purpose of facilitating and assessing the development of energy-related loan policies by financial institutions. Explicit objectives of the project are to: identify financial problems of small energy consumers in the domestic installation of energy-saving technologies; identify the financial options currently available in the State of Washington; and in concert with the financial institutions of the state, develop and analyze recommended additional programs which will benefit both consumers and financial institutions. This final report of the WEES Finance Program extends the rate-of-return analysis to include the overall required rates of return necessary to justify various commercial bank functional activities; with judicious implementation, this methodology can be a substitute for the subjective risk-assessment techniques currently utilized in the commercial banking sector. This report also considers changes that have occurred in the development of financial options related to energy-conservation measures.

  1. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  2. USA kaitseb Iisraeli / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus peetud arutelul ei võetud USA vastuseisu tõttu vastu üleskutset viivitamatuks tingimusteta vaherahuks, USA toetab Iisraeli rünnakuid Hizbollah' sisside vastu. Lisa: Eesti mõistab hukka

  3. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    $25,000, most of the first part of this program's life was spent developing the tools and web site to document counts of frogs online. Despite the lack of time available to promote the program, send out press releases and recruit observers, news of the program quickly spread by word of mouth and the electronic media. Many newspaper articles later, we found a large number of people had become involved with counting frogs in their neighborhoods and backyards. Current figures show 1,456 observers who have registered at 1,683 sites logging almost 5,000 visits. These visits yield information on when and what species are calling from wetlands throughout the United States. These records are usually the only records of information about frogs and toads for those sites and become a permanent record that can be revisited in future years. Additionally, when observers make a lot of visits or there are many sites in a region, a phenology of calls can be created that documents when it is most likely in that year for each species to be recorded. Finally, even for those observers whose data we may mistrust and therefore are likely to eliminate from analyses, these people have taken the time to leave their televisions, go outside, and directly experience frogs, toads, and all that occur in Nature. In 1999 it was decided that FrogwatchUSA needed to work with another group that specifically focused on environmental education and outreach. After talking to a number of organizations we found that the National Wildlife Federation, with their Backyard Wildlife Habitat, Endangered Species, and other programs along with their four million members who are interested in nature, would be an excellent match. Thus a partnership was born. After over a year of work between Interior and National Wildlife Federation biologists and lawyers, an agreement has been created that places the Federation as the lead of Frogwatch USA. It will now take care of res

  4. The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC Consortium — 20 Years of Development and Integration of USA National Land Cover Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wickham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC Consortium demonstrates the national benefits of USA Federal collaboration. Starting in the mid-1990s as a small group with the straightforward goal of compiling a comprehensive national Landsat dataset that could be used to meet agencies’ needs, MRLC has grown into a group of 10 USA Federal Agencies that coordinate the production of five different products, including the National Land Cover Database (NLCD, the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP, the Cropland Data Layer (CDL, the Gap Analysis Program (GAP, and the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE. As a set, the products include almost every aspect of land cover from impervious surface to detailed crop and vegetation types to fire fuel classes. Some products can be used for land cover change assessments because they cover multiple time periods. The MRLC Consortium has become a collaborative forum, where members share research, methodological approaches, and data to produce products using established protocols, and we believe it is a model for the production of integrated land cover products at national to continental scales. We provide a brief overview of each of the main products produced by MRLC and examples of how each product has been used. We follow that with a discussion of the impact of the MRLC program and a brief overview of future plans.

  5. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  6. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/elwha/. This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography, and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington. Survey operations were conducted between February 15 and February 19, 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-608-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, and National Park Service (table 1). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs) and a kayak, each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound velocity profiles measured with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor during the survey. A total of 126 km of

  7. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/elwha/. This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography, and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington.  Survey operations were conducted between September 5 and September 8, 2014 (USGS Field Activity Number 2014-649-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), and Washington Sea Grant (table 1). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs), each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS receivers mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound velocity profiles measured with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor during the survey. A total of 143 km of nearshore

  8. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/elwha/. This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington.  The majority of survey operations were conducted between July 29 and July 31, 2015 (USGS Field Activity Number 2015-648-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, and National Park Service (table 1). Grain-size data from sediment samples collected during USGS Field Activity 2015-652-FA are also included in this dataset.Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs), each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound

  9. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/elwha/. This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington.  Survey operations were conducted between July 17 and July 20, 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-653-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, and National Park Service (table 1). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs) and a kayak, each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound velocity profiles measured with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor during the survey. A total of 182 km of

  10. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/elwha/. This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography, and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington. Survey operations were conducted between January 27 and January 30, 2015 (USGS Field Activity Number 2015-605-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, National Park Service, and Olympic Raft and Kayak (table 1). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs) and a kayak, each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS receivers mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound velocity profiles measured with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor

  11. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Payne, W. Vance [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  12. Southwestern Washington 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  14. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  15. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  16. EAARL Topography George Washington Birthplace National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of George Washington Birthplace National Monument was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  19. Central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This view of central Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) shows both coasts of the Florida peninsula with Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center readily visible in the center on the Atlantic coast. Other features on the Earth which are visible through the clouds include Tampa Bay, several lakes and the Gulf of Mexico on Florida's east coast. The space shuttle's tail fin and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are seen in the foreground.

  20. El Consenso de Washington: aciertos, yerros y omisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Brid

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the economic and social development of Latin America after nearly two decades of macroeconomic policies and reforms in line with the “Washington Consensus”. It shows that these policies did lower inflation and induced an export boom, but failed to boost domestic investment and to remove the balance of payments binding constraint on the region’s long–term path of economic expansion. Four alternative explanations of such poor performance of the Washington Consensus are compared. It is argued, in particular, that, contrary to mainstream opinion, in Latin America there is no clear association between the depth of macroeconomic reforms and economic growth performance.

  1. Routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site (Hanford), Richland, Washington. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents an reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Washington regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted May 2--13, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  2. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  3. Departure from Washington / Jüri Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Jüri, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti-USA suhetest ja rahvusvahelisest olukorrast aastatel 2003-2007. Artikli autor oli aastatel 2003-2007 Eesti Vabariigi suursaadik Ameerika Ühendriikides. Juttu on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Valgesse Majja ja kohtumisest USA presidendi George W. Bushiga 2007. a. juunis

  4. Marijuana Use Among 10th Grade Students - Washington, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy

    2016-12-30

    Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.

  5. Variations in population exposure and sensitivity to lahar hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Soulard, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Although much has been done to understand, quantify, and delineate volcanic hazards, there are fewer efforts to assess societal vulnerability to these hazards, particularly demographic differences in exposed populations or spatial variations in exposure to regional hazards. To better understand population diversity in volcanic hazard zones, we assess the number and types of people in a single type of hazard zone (lahars) for 27 communities downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington (USA). Using various socioeconomic and hazard datasets, we estimate that there are more than 78 000 residents, 59 000 employees, several dependent-population facilities (e.g., child-day-care centers, nursing homes) and numerous public venues (e.g., churches, hotels, museums) in a Mount Rainier lahar-hazard zone. We find that communities vary in the primary category of individuals in lahar-prone areas—exposed populations are dominated by residents in some communities (e.g., Auburn), employees in others (e.g., Tacoma), and tourists likely outnumber both of these groups in yet other areas (e.g., unincorporated Lewis County). Population exposure to potential lahar inundation varies considerably—some communities (e.g., Auburn) have large numbers of people but low percentages of them in hazard zones, whereas others (e.g., Orting) have fewer people but they comprise the majority of a community. A composite lahar-exposure index is developed to help emergency managers understand spatial variations in community exposure to lahars and results suggest that Puyallup has the highest combination of high numbers and percentages of people and assets in lahar-prone areas. Risk education and preparedness needs will vary based on who is threatened by future lahars, such as residents, employees, tourists at a public venue, or special-needs populations at a dependent-care facility. Emergency managers must first understand the people whom they are trying to prepare before they can expect these people to take

  6. Variations in population exposure and sensitivity to lahar hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N.; Soulard, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been done to understand, quantify, and delineate volcanic hazards, there are fewer efforts to assess societal vulnerability to these hazards, particularly demographic differences in exposed populations or spatial variations in exposure to regional hazards. To better understand population diversity in volcanic hazard zones, we assess the number and types of people in a single type of hazard zone (lahars) for 27 communities downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington (USA). Using various socioeconomic and hazard datasets, we estimate that there are more than 78 000 residents, 59 000 employees, several dependent-population facilities (e.g., child-day-care centers, nursing homes) and numerous public venues (e.g., churches, hotels, museums) in a Mount Rainier lahar-hazard zone. We find that communities vary in the primary category of individuals in lahar-prone areas-exposed populations are dominated by residents in some communities (e.g., Auburn), employees in others (e.g., Tacoma), and tourists likely outnumber both of these groups in yet other areas (e.g., unincorporated Lewis County). Population exposure to potential lahar inundation varies considerably-some communities (e.g., Auburn) have large numbers of people but low percentages of them in hazard zones, whereas others (e.g., Orting) have fewer people but they comprise the majority of a community. A composite lahar-exposure index is developed to help emergency managers understand spatial variations in community exposure to lahars and results suggest that Puyallup has the highest combination of high numbers and percentages of people and assets in lahar-prone areas. Risk education and preparedness needs will vary based on who is threatened by future lahars, such as residents, employees, tourists at a public venue, or special-needs populations at a dependent-care facility. Emergency managers must first understand the people whom they are trying to prepare before they can expect these people to take

  7. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  8. Ephemeral seafloor sedimentation during dam removal: Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, USA, resulted in the erosion and transport of over 10 million m3 of sediment from the former reservoirs and into the river during the first two years of the dam removal process. Approximately 90% of this sediment was transported through the Elwha River and to the coast at the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To evaluate the benthic dynamics of increased sediment loading to the nearshore, we deployed a tripod system in ten meters of water to the east of the Elwha River mouth that included a profiling current meter and a camera system. With these data, we were able to document the frequency and duration of sedimentation and turbidity events, and correlate these events to physical oceanographic and river conditions. We found that seafloor sedimentation occurred regularly during the heaviest sediment loading from the river, but that this sedimentation was ephemeral and exhibited regular cycles of deposition and erosion caused by the strong tidal currents in the region. Understanding the frequency and duration of short-term sediment disturbance events is instrumental to interpreting the ecosystem-wide changes that are occurring in the nearshore habitats around the Elwha River delta.

  9. Ephemeral seafloor sedimentation during dam removal: Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2017-11-01

    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, USA, resulted in the erosion and transport of over 10 million m3 of sediment from the former reservoirs and into the river during the first two years of the dam removal process. Approximately 90% of this sediment was transported through the Elwha River and to the coast at the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To evaluate the benthic dynamics of increased sediment loading to the nearshore, we deployed a tripod system in ten meters of water to the east of the Elwha River mouth that included a profiling current meter and a camera system. With these data, we were able to document the frequency and duration of sedimentation and turbidity events, and correlate these events to physical oceanographic and river conditions. We found that seafloor sedimentation occurred regularly during the heaviest sediment loading from the river, but that this sedimentation was ephemeral and exhibited regular cycles of deposition and erosion caused by the strong tidal currents in the region. Understanding the frequency and duration of short-term sediment disturbance events is instrumental to interpreting the ecosystem-wide changes that are occurring in the nearshore habitats around the Elwha River delta.

  10. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG005 during Washington Coast, 8 November 2006 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2006-11-09 to 2007-03-15 (NCEI Accession 0155980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  11. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG030 during Washington Coast 8 November 2006 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2006-11-09 to 2006-12-17 (NCEI Accession 0156188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  12. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG012 during Washington Coast, December 2004 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2004-12-23 to 2005-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0156003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  13. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG005 during Washington Coast, September 2002 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2002-09-11 to 2002-11-03 (NCEI Accession 0155983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  14. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG005 during Washington Coast, 10 September 2007 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2007-09-10 to 2008-01-17 (NCEI Accession 0155995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  15. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG014 during Washington Coast, 15 March 2007 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2007-03-15 to 2007-09-10 (NCEI Accession 0156140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  16. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG002 during Washington Coast, December 2004 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2004-12-23 to 2004-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0155944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  17. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG005 during Washington Coast August 2003 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2003-08-21 to 2004-01-20 (NCEI Accession 0155930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  18. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG005 during Washington Coast June 2004 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2004-06-24 to 2004-07-28 (NCEI Accession 0155971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  19. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG002 during Washington Coast, January 2004 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2004-01-20 to 2004-06-24 (NCEI Accession 0155959)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  20. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG005 during Washington Coast, February 2003 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2003-02-08 to 2003-02-12 (NCEI Accession 0155963)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  1. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG012 during Washington Coast, launched 07 February 2005 in the North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon deployed from 2005-02-07 to 2005-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0156075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  2. Field Scale Studies on the Spatial Variability of Soil Quality Indicators in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arable lands are needed for sustainable agricultural systems to support an ever-growing human population. Soil quality needs to be defined to assure that new land brought into crop production is sustainable. To evaluate soil quality, a number of soil attributes will need to be measured, evaluated, and integrated into a soil-quality index using the multivariable indicator kriging (MVIK procedure. This study was conducted to determine the spatial variability and correlation of indicator parameters on a field scale with respect to soil quality and suitability for use with MVIK. The variability of the biological parameters decreased in the order of respiration > enzyme assays and qCO2 > microbial biomass C. The distribution frequency of all parameters except respiration were normal although the spatial distribution across the landscape was highly variable. The biological parameters showed little correlation with each other when all data points were considered; however, when grouped in smaller sections, the correlations were more consistent with observed patterns across the field. To accurately assess soil quality, and arable land use, consideration of spatial and temporal variability, soil conditions, and other controlling factors must be taken into account.

  3. Phytoplankton assemblages in high-elevation lakes in the northern Cascade Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gary L.; McIntire, C.D.; Truitt, R.E.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Deimling, E.; Lomnicky, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Phytoplankton assemblages in high-elevation lakes of North Cascades National Park Service Complex were studied during the open-water period in 1989. Collectively, 93 taxa were identified in 55 samples from 51 lakes. Based on cell densities, cyanobacteria had the highest relative abundance (36.7 %), followed by chlorophytes (29.8 %), and chrysophytes (19.6 %). Aphanocapsa delicatissima had the highest proportional abundance (14.0 %). Only 15.1 % percent of the taxa occurred in more than 20 samples. Phytoplankton cell densities increased following a gradient of increasing lake-water temperature, alkalinity, and concentration of total Kjeldahl-N with decreasing lake elevation. Chrysophytes and cyanobacteria were quantitatively (relative abundance) the most important taxa in alpine and subalpine lakes, whereas cyanobacteria had the highest relative abundances in high-forest and low-forest lakes. Chlorophytes had their highest relative abundance in high-forest lakes. Although low in relative abundance, diatoms and dinoflagellates were most abundant in alpine lakes. An ordination by correspondence analysis indicated that most alpine, subalpine, and high-forest lakes had similar floras. Although a few subalpine lakes exhibited deviations from this pattern, the main differences in phytoplankton composition were found in a group of low-forest and high-forest lakes. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) provided evidence that the distribution of samples and taxa in ordination space was correlated with a gradient of decreasing lake elevation and increasing water temperature, alkalinity, and concentration of nitrogen. When CCA was used to examine relationships among phytoplankton taxa and vegetation zones, a continuous distribution of taxa was found from the low-forest zone to the subalpine zone, with a large number of taxa occurring primarily in the subalpine and high-forest zones. Three phytoplankton taxa occurred primarily in alpine lakes, whereas five taxa co-occurred in alpine, subalpine, and high forest zones. Collectively, lake elevation and associated changes in water quality and concentrations of nutrients, especially nitrogen, appeared to be the primary physical and chemical factors influencing the taxonomic structures of phytoplankton assemblages.

  4. Habitats and seasonality of riparian-associated millipedes in southwest Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex D. Foster; Shannon M. Claeson

    2011-01-01

    Millipedes are a diverse and ancient group of poorly known terrestrial organisms. While recent advances in their taxonomy and distribution have occurred in some areas of the world, our knowledge about the distribution and ecology of many taxa in the Pacific Northwest is limited. We review the ecology of taxa we observed and present results from a field study relating...

  5. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington Forests, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Linda H; Jovan, Sarah E; Glavich, Doug A; Porter, Matthew K

    2010-07-01

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition from the Communities Multi-Scale Air Quality model, and 3) ambient particulate N from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Sensitive species declines of 20-40% were associated with CLs of 1-4 and 3-9 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) in wet and total deposition. CLs increased with precipitation across the landscape, presumably from dilution or leaching of depositional N. Tight linear correlation between lichen and IMPROVE data suggests a simple screening tool for CL exceedance in US Class I areas. The total N model replicated several US and European lichen CLs and may therefore be helpful in estimating other temperate-forest lichen CLs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Geiser; Sarah E. Jovan; Doug A. Glavich; Matthew K. Porter

    2010-01-01

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry,...

  7. Fuel treatment effects on tree mortality following wildfire in dry mixed conifer forests, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Prichard; Maureen C. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used to mitigate future wildfire severity in dry forests, but few opportunities exist to assess their effectiveness. We evaluated the influence of fuel treatment, tree size and species on tree mortality following a large wildfire event in recent thin-only, thin and prescribed burn (thin-Rx) units. Of the trees that died within...

  8. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  9. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  10. Assessing forest vegetation and fire simulation model performance after the Cold Springs wildfire, Washington USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Hummel; Maureen Kennedy; E. Ashley. Steel

    2012-01-01

    Given that resource managers rely on computer simulation models when it is difficult or expensive to obtain vital information directly, it is important to evaluate how well a particular model satisfies applications for which it is designed. The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is used widely for forest management in the US, and its scope and complexity continue to...

  11. Embajada de la República Federal Alemana, en Washington, (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiermann, Egon

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available This excellently designed and finished building has a stepped up profile which in addition to its aesthetic quality, has the advantage that its main rooms and lecture halls open out unto terraces and that there are no rooms without direct access to the exterior. The rear and lateral zones are devoted to the activities of the Embassy, whilst the central nucleus is mainly residential. The extended balconies, the sun canopies and several other functional features, such as the emergency exits, and correct gradation of the sunshine, are typical of the work of architect Eiermann.Este edificio, excelentemente ejecutado y diseñado, presenta un perfil escalonado, que ofrece entre otras ventajas, además de su riqueza estética, la de que los despachos importantes y las salas de conferencias dan a las terrazas creadas; que no hay despachos interiores; etc. Las actividades de la Embajada han sido localizadas en las zonas posterior y lateral, mientras que el núcleo central ha sido destinado a albergar la parte residencial. Los balcones corridos, las mamparas establecidas para proteger el interior de la acción directa de los rayos solares, y una serie de atributos funcionales, tales como salidas de emergencia, facilidad de limpieza de los elementos de cerramiento de las fachadas, y correcta graduación de la luz solar, etc., son típicos del arquitecto Eiermann.

  12. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  13. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  14. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  15. In Situ Redox Manipulation of Subsurface Sediments from Fort Lewis, Washington: Iron Reduction and TCE Dechlorination Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Evans, John C.

    2000-03-17

    The feasibility of chemically treating sediments from the Ft. Lewis, Washington, Logistics Center to develop a permeable barrier for dechlorination of TCE was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments.

  16. Go.USA.gov URL Shortner API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Go.USA.gov REST API allows you interact with Go.USA.gov by shortening URLs, previewing long urls, and getting the number of clicks to a Go.USA.gov URL.. An API...

  17. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  18. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  19. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  20. South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus, Bandung Consensus, or Peoples' Consensus? WG Martin. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/asr.v12i1.43533 · AJOL African Journals ...

  1. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  2. 40 CFR 81.348 - Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Washington. 81.348 Section 81.348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... along a meander line following the middle of the Lake and Roesiger Creek to Woods Creek; thence...

  3. Doctors of Osteopathy Licensed in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senters, Jo

    Based on information gathered by the Health Manpower Project through a survey cosponsored with the Washington Osteopathic Medical Association, this report begins with a statement of philosophy of osteopathic medicine and proceeds to comment on where such professional education is available. Remarks on the type of educational background of the…

  4. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Zachary P.; Wallis, Carolyn K.; Abbott, April N.; Olson, John C.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum. PMID:25609724

  5. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  6. Washington (Wash) C. Winn: In Memoriam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-08

    Dr. Mike Miller and Dr. David Walker dicuss the career and life of noted clinical biologist, Dr. Washington C. Winn Jr.  Created: 3/8/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  7. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  8. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke...

  9. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  10. Evaluation of the Washington State Target Zero teams project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of its Target Zero strategic highway safety plan that has the goal to reduce traffic fatalities in Washington to zero by the year 2030, the State of Washington established three detachments of Washington State Patrol (WSP) troopers to f...

  11. The density management and riparian buffer study: a large-scale silviculture experiment informing riparian management in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Nathan J. Poage

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in the early 1990s signaled a new paradigm for management of 9.9 million ha of federal forest lands in western Washington and Oregon, USA. The emphasis shifted from commodity timber production to ensuring sustained ecological functioning to meet a broad array of ecosystem services including economic benefits. Under interim...

  12. A detailed risk assessment of shale gas development on headwater streams in the Pennsylvania portion of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (metrics. We related this DII to three measures of high quality streams: Pennsylvania State Exceptional Value (EV) streams, Class A brook trout streams and Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture brook trout patches. Overall only 3.8% of all catchments and 2.7% of EV stream length, 1.9% of Class A streams and 1.2% of patches were classified as having medium to high level DII scores (> 50). Well density, often used as a proxy for development, only correlated strongly with well pad coverage and produced materials, and therefore may miss potential effects associated with roads and pipelines, water withdrawals and spills. When analyzed with a future development scenario, 91.1% of EV stream length, 68.7% of Class A streams and 80.0% of patches were in catchments with a moderate to high probability of development. Our method incorporated the cumulative effects of UOG on streams and can be used to identify catchments and reaches at risk to existing stressors or future development.

  13. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  14. Getting our hands wet: AGU participates in 2012 USA Science and Engineering Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm; Asher, Pranoti

    2012-05-01

    At the 2nd USA Science & Engineering Festival, held in Washington, D. C., from 27 to 29 April, AGU's Education Division (http://education.agu.org/) joined the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE; http://www.cosee.net/) in presenting a series of hands-on activities for children. Titled "Get Your Hands Wet," these activities were developed by COSEE and focused on chemical oceanography, climate change, ocean exploration/measurement, contaminants, physical oceanography, and marine biology. AGU education staff helped to run events such as making sand cards to illustrate the various stages of weathering of rocks and teaching a carbon cycle game, which allowed students to "become" carbon molecules and travel throughout the Earth system. AGU videographer Derek Sollosi captured some of the action at the COSEE/AGU booth on film, along with images of the rest of the festival (seehttp://youtu.be/oX8wPxYZj48). Other popular exhibits included models of NASA rovers, a jet from the U.S. Air Force, and remotely operated vehicles from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Celebrities from Mythbusters, The Big Bang Theory, NCIS, and other popular television shows made appearances on stage. For more about these and other exhibits and festival events, see http://www.usasciencefestival.org/.

  15. A comparison of physical education (PE development in the Czech Republic, Germany, and the USA - A historical perspective [Srovnání vývoje tělesné výchovy v České republice, Německu a USA – Historický pohled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the year 1989, political, structural and economic reforms caused significant changes in education in the Czech Republic, also affecting physical education (PE. Within the context of unification and globalization there are similar changes in progress in other countries. OBJECTIVE: The complex situation, fast changes and various pedagogical traditions complicate the creation of a systematic view of the current PE reforms. The objective of this paper is to describe the most important events in the history of PE in the Czech Republic, Germany and the USA and to explain their effect on the PE curriculum changes in the selected countries. The purpose of this historical analysis is to present some fundamental information about the development of PE in selected countries which will make possible further comparisons of the current reforms of physical education. METHODS: Our methodology is based on historical comparison outlining and comparing the history of the PE concepts in selected countries. RESULTS: Our results and findings show the differences in the history of PE in the Czech Republic, Germany and the USA and the crosscultural influence of the countries on the development of PE concepts. Especially the Turners from Germany influenced the beginnings of Czech and American PE in the 19th century. Other gymnastic systems entered the USA later but the philosophy of pragmatism and the influence of the modern Olympic movement brought significant changes into the American PE concept at the beginning of the 20th century. As a consequence, the gymnastic systems have been replaced with the "sport recreational" concept. In the 20th century the emphasis on physical education changed repeatedly when conflicts between countries occurred. For example the German, Czech and American PE emphasis shifted from games and sport to physical conditioning after WWI and WWII and also after the Korean and Vietnam War in the USA. Further differences in PE

  16. Ethics committees for biomedical research in some African emerging countries: which establishment for which independence? A comparison with the USA and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwabihama, Jean-Paul; Girre, Catherine; Duguet, Anne-Marie

    2010-04-01

    The conduct of medical research led by Northern countries in developing countries raises ethical questions. The assessment of research protocols has to be twofold, with a first reading in the country of origin and a second one in the country where the research takes place. This reading should benefit from an independent local ethical review of protocols. Consequently, ethics committees for medical research are evolving in Africa. To investigate the process of establishing ethics committees and their independence. Descriptive study of 25 African countries and two North American countries. Data were recorded by questionnaire and interviews. Two visits of ethics committee meetings were conducted on the ground: over a period of 3 months in Kigali (Rwanda) and 2 months in Washington DC (USA). 22 countries participated in this study, 20 from Africa and two from North America. The response rate was 80%. 75% of local African committees developed into national ethics committees. During the last 5 years, these national committees have grown on a structural level. The circumstances of creation and the general context of underdevelopment remain the major challenges in Africa. Their independence could not be ensured without continuous training and efficient funding mechanisms. Institutional ethics committees are well established in USA and in Canada, whereas ethics committees in North America are weakened by the institutional affiliation of their members. The process of establishing ethics committees could affect their functioning and compromise their independence in some African countries and in North America.

  17. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  18. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  19. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Jonathan S; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S; Heiner, Jason D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from surge event, 35% believed the initial additional security response would not be adequate, with 26% reporting no additional security would be available within 15 minutes. Our study reveals the variability of ED security staffing and a heterogeneity of capabilities throughout Washington State. These deficiencies and vulnerabilities highlight the need for other EDs and regional emergency preparedness planners to conduct their own readiness assessments.

  20. Using natural stand development patterns in artificial mixtures: a case study with cherrybark oak and sweetgum in east-central Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Andrew W. Ezell; John D. Hodges; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2006-01-01

    Results from a long-term planted mixture of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) showed sweetgum taller in height and larger in diameter than cherrybark oak early in plantation development. By age 17 years, cherrybark oak was similar in height and diameter with sweetgum and by age 21...

  1. Development and evaluation of an individual tree growth and yield model for the mixed species forest of the Adirondacks Region of New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Weiskittel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Growth and yield models are important tools for forest planning. Due to its geographic location, topology, and history of management, the forests of the Adirondacks Region of New York are unique and complex. However, only a relatively limited number of growth and yield models have been developed and/or can be reasonably extended to this region currently. Methods In this analysis, 571 long–term continuous forest inventory plots with a total of 10 – 52 years of measurement data from four experimental forests maintained by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and one nonindustrial private forest were used to develop an individual tree growth model for the primary hardwood and softwood species in the region. Species–specific annualized static and dynamic equations were developed using the available data and the system was evaluated for long–term behavior. Results Equivalence tests indicated that the Northeast Variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS–NE was biased in its estimation of tree total and bole height, diameter and height increment, and mortality for most species examined. In contrast, the developed static and annualized dynamic, species–specific equations performed quite well given the underlying variability in the data. Long–term model projections were consistent with the data and suggest a relatively robust system for prediction. Conclusions Overall, the developed growth model showed reasonable behavior and is a significant improvement over existing models for the region. The model also highlighted the complexities of forest dynamics in the region and should help improve forest planning efforts there.

  2. Impacts of climate change and renewable energy development on habitat of an endemic squirrel, Xerospermophilus mohavensis, in the Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Leitner, Philip; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting changes in species distributions under a changing climate is becoming widespread with the use of species distribution models (SDMs). The resulting predictions of future potential habitat can be cast in light of planned land use changes, such as urban expansion and energy development to identify areas with potential conflict. However, SDMs rarely incorporate an understanding of dispersal capacity, and therefore assume unlimited dispersal in potential range shifts under uncertain climate futures. We use SDMs to predict future distributions of the Mojave ground squirrel, Xerospermophilus mohavensis Merriam, and incorporate partial dispersal models informed by field data on juvenile dispersal to assess projected impact of climate change and energy development on future distributions of X. mohavensis. Our models predict loss of extant habitat, but also concurrent gains of new habitat under two scenarios of future climate change. Under the B1 emissions scenario- a storyline describing a convergent world with emphasis on curbing greenhouse gas emissions- our models predicted losses of up to 64% of extant habitat by 2080, while under the increased greenhouse gas emissions of the A2 scenario, we suggest losses of 56%. New potential habitat may become available to X. mohavensis, thereby offsetting as much as 6330 km2 (50%) of the current habitat lost. Habitat lost due to planned energy development was marginal compared to habitat lost from changing climates, but disproportionately affected current habitat. Future areas of overlap in potential habitat between the two climate change scenarios are identified and discussed in context of proposed energy development.

  3. A Comparison of the Impacts of Wind Energy and Unconventional Gas Development on Land-use and Ecosystem Services: An Example from the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kendall M; Nguyen, Michael N; McClung, Maureen R; Moran, Matthew D

    2018-02-19

    The United States energy industry is transforming with the rapid development of alternative energy sources and technological advancements in fossil fuels. Two major changes include the growth of wind turbines and unconventional oil and gas. We measured land-use impacts and associated ecosystem services costs of unconventional gas and wind energy development within the Anadarko Basin of the Oklahoma Woodford Shale, an area that has experienced large increases in both energy sectors. Unconventional gas wells developed three times as much land compared to wind turbines (on a per unit basis), resulting in higher ecosystem services costs for gas. Gas wells had higher impacts on intensive agricultural lands (i.e., row crops) compared to wind turbines that had higher impacts on natural grasslands/pastures. Because wind turbines produced on average less energy compared to gas wells, the average land-use-related ecosystem cost per gigajoule of energy produced was almost the same. Our results demonstrate that both unconventional gas and wind energy have substantial impacts on land use, which likely affect wildlife populations and land-use-related ecosystem services. Although wind energy does not have the associated greenhouse gas emissions, we suggest that the direct impacts on ecosystems in terms of land use are similar to unconventional fossil fuels. Considering the expected rapid global expansion of these two forms of energy production, many ecosystems are likely to be at risk.

  4. Development of a Shared Vision for Groundwater Management to Protect and Sustain Baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Richter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  5. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  6. USA faces the energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Carmoy, G.

    1978-03-01

    Energy, which U.S. technology has mastered in all its forms, and which the U.S. produces and consumes in unequalled amounts, could become the Achille's heel of U.S. power, according to the author. Since this assertion might come as a surprise, the purpose of this article is to illustrate it by considering the domestic and international factors involved in the U.S. energy problem. Mr. de Carmoy further states: (1) the increasing proportion of U.S. energy that has to be imported has ensured dependence on the Middle East for at least a generation; (2) the relative wastefulness of the American consumer and the failure to implement coherent policies towards conservation and the development of alternative sources can only prolong this dependence; and (3) together with the historical and military ties to Israel, this will limit the freedom of action of the U.S. compared with the USSR. To assess the relationship of U.S. power with energy constraint, the balance between the needs and the resources of the USA are examined, policies applied since the U.S. became a net energy importer are then analyzed, and the U.S. position in the global energy geostrategy is considered. (MCW)

  7. A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C. - A Cartographic Multimedia Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced ?A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C.,' a multimedia CD-ROM that uses topographic maps to tour Washington, D.C. Although designed for the middle school grade level, it can also be used to teach introductory topographic map reading skills to any level. Two versions of ?A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C.,? are available. The first version, for Macintosh? systems only, was developed and produced as a prototype with educational resources funds and is available free of charge. The second version, for dual platforms, Macintosh?, and Windows? systems, is a sales item. The dual platform version contains improvements in content and navigational capabilities.

  8. Development and maintenance of a telescoping debris flow fan in response to human-induced fan surface channelization, Chalk Creek Valley Natural Debris Flow Laboratory, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T.; Scheinert, C.

    2016-01-01

    Channel change has been a constant theme throughout William L. Graf's research career. Graf's work has examined channel changes in the context of natural environmental fluctuations, but more often has focused on quantifying channel change in the context of anthropogenic modifications. Here, we consider how channelization of a debris flows along a bajada has perpetuated and sustained the development of 'telescoping' alluvial fan. Two-dimensional debris-flow modeling shows the importance of the deeply entrenched channelized flow in the development of a telescoping alluvial fan. GIS analyses of repeat (five different debris flows), high-resolution (5 cm) digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data elucidate sediment and topographic dynamics of the new telescoping portion of the alluvial fan (the embryonic fan). Flow constriction from channelization helps to perpetuate debris-flow runout and to maintain the embryonic fan and telescoping nature of the alluvial fan complex. Embryonic fan development, in response to five debris flows, proceeds with a major portion of the flows depositing on the southern portion of the embryonic fan. The third through the fifth debris flows also begin to shift some deposition to the northern portion of the embryonic. The transfer of sediment from a higher portion of the embryonic fan to a lower portion continues currently on the embryonic fan. While channelized flow has been shown to be critical to the maintenance of the telescoping fan, the flow constriction has led to higher than background levels of sediment deposition in Chalk Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River. A majority of the sediment from each debris flow is incorporated into Chalk Creek as opposed to being stored on the embryonic fan.

  9. Conceptual modeling framework to support development of site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, Montana, U.S.A., and British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Karen E.; Naftz, David L.; Presser, Theresa S.

    2017-10-16

    The U.S. Geological Survey, working with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change Strategy, has developed a conceptual modeling framework that can be used to provide structured and scientifically based input to the Lake Koocanusa Monitoring and Research Working Group as they consider potential site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, a transboundary reservoir located in Montana and British Columbia. This report describes that modeling framework, provides an example of how it can be applied, and outlines possible next steps for implementing the framework.

  10. Monitoring the hydrologic system for potential effects of geothermal and ground-water development in the Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.; Lyster, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980's, renewed interest in the geothermal potential of the Long Valley caldera, California, highlighted the need to balance the benefits of energy development with the established recreational activities of the area. The Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee, formed in 1987, instituted a monitoring program to collect data during the early stages of resource utilization to evaluate potential effects on the hydrologic system. Early data show declines in streamflow, spring flow, and ground-water levels caused by 6 years of below-average precipitation. Springs in the Hot Creek State Fish Hatchery area discharge water that is a mixture of nonthermal and hydrothermal components. Possible sources of nonthermal water have been identified by comparing deuterium concentrations in streams and springs. The equivalent amount of undiluted thermal water discharged from the springs was calculated on the basis of boron and chloride concentrations. Quantifying the thermal and nonthermal fractions of the total flow may allow researchers to assess changes in flow volume or temperature of the springs caused by groundwater or geothermal development.

  11. Identifying common patterns in diverse systems: effects of exurban development on birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Michale J; Kretser, Heidi E; Hilty, Jodi A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  12. Plant biomass, carbon content, decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes to support carbon budget development for a created salt marsh in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Burchell, Michael R.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    These data were collected from a small (14 ha), created salt marsh in Carteret County, North Carolina (34.82 deg. N; 76.61 deg. W). This site was created in 2007 following an engineering plan developed by Dr. Michael Burchell (NC-State University). This data collection was to support the development of a site-specific carbon budget. Data were collected from 2011 to 2013, or approximately 4-6 years post-creation. The data collection specifically funded by the U.S. Geological Survey includes plant carbon biomass, plant above ground biomass, plant below ground biomass, plant decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes, and these data are being made available. These data represent critical components of the carbon budget, and were previously missing from on-going study efforts focusing on other aspects of on-site carbon cycling. Other components of the carbon budget, for example dissolved and hydrological flux variables, were funded directly by North Carolina State University, and not included here.

  13. Using satellite vegetation and compound topographic indices to map highly erodible cropland buffers for cellulosic biofuel crop developments in eastern Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivating annual row crops in high topographic relief waterway buffers has negative environmental effects and can be environmentally unsustainable. Growing perennial grasses such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for biomass (e.g., cellulosic biofuel feedstocks) instead of annual row crops in these high relief waterway buffers can improve local environmental conditions (e.g., reduce soil erosion and improve water quality through lower use of fertilizers and pesticides) and ecosystem services (e.g., minimize drought and flood impacts on production; improve wildlife habitat, plant vigor, and nitrogen retention due to post-senescence harvest for cellulosic biofuels; and serve as carbon sinks). The main objectives of this study are to: (1) identify cropland areas with high topographic relief (high runoff potentials) and high switchgrass productivity potential in eastern Nebraska that may be suitable for growing switchgrass, and (2) estimate the total switchgrass production gain from the potential biofuel areas. Results indicate that about 140,000 hectares of waterway buffers in eastern Nebraska are suitable for switchgrass development and the total annual estimated switchgrass biomass production for these suitable areas is approximately 1.2 million metric tons. The resulting map delineates high topographic relief croplands and provides useful information to land managers and biofuel plant investors to make optimal land use decisions regarding biofuel crop development and ecosystem service optimization in eastern Nebraska.

  14. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Wei, Li-Juan; Liu, Jun-Tian; Li, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qing-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented.

  15. Therapeutic developments in MS: report from the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), 9-15 April 2004, Miami, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Michel

    2005-08-01

    Over 6000 neurologists and neuroscientists from around the world gathered in April at the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN). There were several scientific platform sessions devoted to MS at the meeting, concentrating on recent clinical trials (including new natalizumab data), outcomes assessment, imaging, surrogate markers and mechanism of action of current therapeutics. During the meeting, the 2005 John Dystel Prize for MS Research was awarded to Jack Antel of McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Professor Antel was honoured for his major contributions to research into interactions between the immune system and the brain, and its application to MS, and for his role as a leading MS clinician and investigator. Additional activities devoted to MS were posters, educational courses and seminars covering a wide variety of topics. This report focuses on some of the key studies presented in the field of therapeutic developments in MS.

  16. Developing operational algorithms using linear and non-linear squares estimation in Python for the identification of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in a mosquito abatement district (Cook County, Illinois, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Benjamin J; Gu, Weidong; Caamano, Erik X; Novak, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    In this research, community level spatial models were developed for determining mosquito abundance and environmental factors that could aid in the risk prediction of West Nile virus (WNv) outbreaks. Adult Culex pipiens and Culex restuan mosquitoes and multiple habitat covariates were collected from nine sites within Cook County, Illinois, USA, to provide spatio-temporal information on the abundance of WNv vectors from 2002 to 2005. Regression analyses of the sampled covariates revealed that the adult Culex population was positively associated with temperature throughout the sampling frame. The model output also indicated that precipitation was negatively associated to mosquito abundance in 2002, 2003 and 2005 (P forest composition. A set of propagation equations were then designed to model the calibration uncertainties, which revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and two NDVI variants, were informative markers for the sampled mosquito data. Spatial dependence of the covariates of Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens oviposition sites were indexed using semivariograms, which suggested that all main effects of the explanatory variables were statistically significant in the model. Additionally, a multispectral classification and digital elevation model-based geographical information system method were able to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of terrain covariates associated with the sampled habitat data. These results demonstrate that remotely sensed operational indices can be used to identify parameters associated with field-sampled Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans aquatic habitats.

  17. An Appraisal of Practices of Adult Evening Programs of Community Colleges in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Louis

    This study assessed the practices of the adult evening programs of community colleges in Washington State. From a survey of the literature, a list was made of practices recommended by writers in the field of adult education and was used in developing an appraisal instrument, which was then refined by a trial group of respondents. The refined…

  18. Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Students in Rural Washington High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Walter L.

    Previous research studies were reviewed, and hypotheses relating to educational aspiration and occupational choice were developed. Information on educational aspirations and expectations was then obtained from a random sample of students enrolled in 1964-65 in 30 rural Washington high schools. Farm versus non-farm student differences were examined…

  19. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  20. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  1. Electric cars are better off in the USA and Japan; Das Elektroauto in den USA und Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legat, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    While the acceptance of electric cars in Germany remains comparatively low, the situation in the USA and Japan is characterized by a very positive approach and ongoing activities for technological improvement. The same applies to France, Sweden and Switzerland, where activities for development of a new generation of electric-powered vehicles receive funds and public support. Commitments in the USA by now have reached the stage of accompanying activities by legislative bodies for establishment of suitable regulatory framework conditions in the run up to a general introduction of electric-powered vehicles envisaged for the year 2010. The situation in the USA and Japan shows: The German automobile industry will have to catch up and accelerate activities for the development of electric cars - not least for reasons of competitiveness on the North American market -, or run the risk of coming too late on the global market. (orig.) [Deutsch] Waehrend das Elektroauto in Deutschland eher kritisch bewertet wird, wird in den USA und in Japan staendig an der technischen Verbesserung der Fahrzeuge gearbeitet. Auch Frankreich, Schweden und die Schweiz unternehmen grosse Anstrengungen, Elektrofahrzeuge einer neuen Generation zu entwickeln. In den USA werden inzwischen unwiderrufliche Rahmenbedingungen zur Einfuehrung von Elektrofahrzeugen bis zum Jahr 2010 geschaffen. Die Situation in den USA und Japan zeigt: will die deutsche Wirtschaft die Entwicklung nicht verschlafen, gilt es groessere Anstrengungen zu unternehmen und die Entwicklung von Elektrofahrzeugen - auch mit Blick auf den fuer deutsche Autobauer zunehmend wichtiger werdenden amerikanischen Fahrzeugmarkt - zu foerdern. (orig.)

  2. Cougar space use and movements in the wildland-urban landscape of western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertson, B.N.; Spencer, R.D.; Marzluff, J.M.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, Jeffrey; Grue, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface lies at the confluence of human-dominated and wild landscapes, creating a number of management and conservation challenges. Because wildlife ecology, behavior, and evolution at this interface are shaped by both natural and human phenomena, this requires greater understanding of how diverse factors affect ecosystem and population processes. We illustrate the challenge of understanding and managing a frequent and often undesired inhabitant of the wildland-urban landscape, the cougar (Puma concolor). In wildland and residential areas of western Washington State, USA, we captured and radiotracked 27 cougars to model space use and understand the role of landscape features in interactions (sightings, encounters, and depredations) between cougars and humans. Resource utilization functions (RUFs) identified cougar use of areas with features that were probably attractive to prey, influential on prey vulnerability, and associated with limited or no residential development. Early-successional forest (+), conifer forest (+), distance to road (-), residential density (-), and elevation (-) were significant positive and negative predictors of use for the population, whereas use of other landscape features was highly variable. Space use and movement rates in wildland and residential areas were similar because cougars used wildland-like forest patches, reserves, and corridors in residential portions of their home range. The population RUF was a good predictor of confirmed cougar interactions, with 72% of confirmed reports occurring in the 50% of the landscape predicted to be medium-high and high cougar use areas. We believe that there is a threshold residential density at which the level of development modifies the habitat but maintains enough wildland characteristics to encourage moderate levels of cougar use and maximize the probability of interaction. Wildlife managers trying to reduce interactions between cougars and people should incorporate

  3. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-04-16

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads.

  4. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  5. Estimated Water Use in Washington, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Water use in the State of Washington has evolved in the past century from meager domestic and stock water needs to the current complex requirements of domestic-water users, large irrigation projects, industrial plants, and numerous other uses such as fish habitat and recreational activities. Since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has, at 5-year intervals, compiled data on the amount of water used in homes, businesses, industries, and on farms throughout the State. This water-use data, combined with other related USGS information, has facilitated a unique understanding of the effects of human activity on the State's water resources. As water availability continues to emerge as an important issue in the 21st century, the need for consistent, long-term water-use data will increase to support wise use of this essential natural resource. This report presents state and county estimates of the amount of public- and self-supplied water used for domestic, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power purposes in the State of Washington during 2005. Offstream fresh-water use was estimated to be 5,780 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Domestic water use was estimated to be 648 Mgal/d or 11 percent of the total. Irrigation water use was estimated to be 3,520 Mgal/d, or 61 percent of the total. Industrial fresh-water use was estimated to be 520 Mgal/d, or 9 percent of the total. These three categories accounted for about 81 percent (4,690 Mgal/d) of the total of the estimated offstream freshwater use in Washington during 2005.

  6. Geologic map of the Washington West 30’ × 60’ quadrangle, Maryland, Virginia, and Washington D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, Peter T.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E. Allen; Drake, Avery A.; Froelich, Albert J.; Horton, J. Wright; Kasselas, Gregorios; Mixon, Robert B.; McCartan, Lucy; Nelson, Arthur E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Pavlides, Louis; Powars, David S.; Southworth, C. Scott; Weems, Robert E.

    2018-01-02

    The Washington West 30’ × 60’ quadrangle covers an area of approximately 4,884 square kilometers (1,343 square miles) in and west of the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. The eastern part of the area is highly urbanized, and more rural areas to the west are rapidly being developed. The area lies entirely within the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin and mostly within the Potomac River watershed. It contains part of the Nation's main north-south transportation corridor east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, consisting of Interstate Highway 95, U.S. Highway 1, and railroads, as well as parts of the Capital Beltway and Interstate Highway 66. Extensive Federal land holdings in addition to those in Washington, D.C., include the Marine Corps Development and Education Command at Quantico, Fort Belvoir, Vint Hill Farms Station, the Naval Ordnance Station at Indian Head, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Great Falls Park, and Manassas National Battlefield Park. The quadrangle contains most of Washington, D.C.; part or all of Arlington, Culpeper, Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, Prince William, Rappahannock, and Stafford Counties in northern Virginia; and parts of Charles, Montgomery, and Prince Georges Counties in Maryland.The Washington West quadrangle spans four geologic provinces. From west to east these provinces are the Blue Ridge province, the early Mesozoic Culpeper basin, the Piedmont province, and the Coastal Plain province. There is some overlap in ages of rocks in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces. The Blue Ridge province, which occupies the western part of the quadrangle, contains metamorphic and igneous rocks of Mesoproterozoic to Early Cambrian age. Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) rocks are mostly granitic gneisses, although older metaigneous rocks are found as xenoliths. Small areas of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie Mesoproterozoic rocks. Neoproterozoic granitic rocks of the Robertson River Igneous Suite intruded

  7. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  8. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  9. Creativity and Leadership's Role in Gifted Identification and Programming in the USA: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Definitions of giftedness developed in the USA have included both creative and leadership giftedness for over 40 years, but there has been relatively little empirical study of the implementation of programming in either of these areas. Because gifted education practices in the USA may provide models for the development of these practices in other…

  10. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  11. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.K., E-mail: hkhuang@aol.com [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-05-15

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  12. Solutions for Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) tested high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters destined for disposal at Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    In January 1992, Argonne National Laboratory East, Environmental and Waste Management Program, learned that a chemical material used for testing of all HEPA filters at the primary source, Flanders Filter, Inc. in Washington, NC, was considered a hazardous chemical by Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations. These regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Washington Administration Code, Chapter 173-303, and therefore directly under impact the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria. Dioctyl Phthalate, DOP'' as it is referred to in chemical abbreviation form, is added in small test quantities at the factory, at three Department of Energy (DOE) operated HEPA filter test facilities, and in the installed duct work at various operating laboratories or production facilities. When small amounts of radioactivity are added to the filter media in operation, the result is a mixed waste. This definition would normally only develop in the state of Washington since their acceptance criteria is ten times more stringent then the US Environmental Protection Agencys' (US EPA). Methods of Processing will be discussed, which will include detoxification, physical separation, heat and vacuum separation, and compaction. The economic impact of a mixed waste definition in the State of Washington, and an Low Level Waste (LLW) definition in other locations, may lend this product to be a prime candidate for commercial disposal in the future, or a possible de-listing by the State of Washington.

  13. Solutions for Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) tested high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters destined for disposal at Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    In January 1992, Argonne National Laboratory East, Environmental and Waste Management Program, learned that a chemical material used for testing of all HEPA filters at the primary source, Flanders Filter, Inc. in Washington, NC, was considered a hazardous chemical by Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations. These regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Washington Administration Code, Chapter 173-303, and therefore directly under impact the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria. Dioctyl Phthalate, ``DOP`` as it is referred to in chemical abbreviation form, is added in small test quantities at the factory, at three Department of Energy (DOE) operated HEPA filter test facilities, and in the installed duct work at various operating laboratories or production facilities. When small amounts of radioactivity are added to the filter media in operation, the result is a mixed waste. This definition would normally only develop in the state of Washington since their acceptance criteria is ten times more stringent then the US Environmental Protection Agencys` (US EPA). Methods of Processing will be discussed, which will include detoxification, physical separation, heat and vacuum separation, and compaction. The economic impact of a mixed waste definition in the State of Washington, and an Low Level Waste (LLW) definition in other locations, may lend this product to be a prime candidate for commercial disposal in the future, or a possible de-listing by the State of Washington.

  14. HYDRAULICS, UTAH COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. HYDRAULICS, GILCHRIST COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. CHESTERFIELD COUNTY, VIRGINIA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. HYDRAULICS, BUTLER COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. Lake county, Illinois, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  1. A geospatial approach to identify water quality issues for National Wildlife Refuges in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Chojnacki, Kimberly; Finger, Susan E.; Linder, Greg; Kilbride, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Many National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) have impaired water quality resulting from historic and current land uses, upstream sources, and aerial pollutant deposition. Competing duties limit the time available for Refuge staff to identify and evaluate potential water quality issues. As a result, water quality–related issues may not be resolved until a problem has already arisen. This study developed a geospatial approach for identifying and prioritizing water quality issues affecting natural resources (including migratory birds and federally listed species) within Refuge boundaries. We assessed the location and status of streams pursuant to the Clean Water Act in relation to individual Refuges in Oregon and Washington, United States. Although twelve Refuges in Oregon (60%) and eight Refuges in Washington (40%) were assessed under the Clean Water Act, only 12% and 3% of total Refuge stream lengths were assessed, respectively. Very few assessed Refuge streams were not designated as impaired (0% in Oregon, 1% in Washington). Despite the low proportions of stream lengths assessed, most Refuges in Oregon (70%) and Washington (65%) are located in watersheds with approved total maximum daily loads. We developed summaries of current water quality issues for individual Refuges and identified large gaps for Refuge-specific water quality data and habitat utilization by sensitive species. We conclude that monitoring is warranted on many Refuges to better characterize water quality under the Clean Water Act.

  2. The University of Washington Mobile Planetarium: A Do-it-yourself Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, P.; Gaily, J.; Fraser, O.; Wisniewski, J.

    2014-07-01

    The University of Washington mobile planetarium project is a student-driven effort to bring astronomy to secondary schools, and the community, in Seattle, USA. This paper presents the solution that was designed and built in order to use the World- Wide Telescope — a computer program created by Microsoft that displays the astronomical sky as maps, the 3D Universe, and earth science data — from a laptop and an off-the-shelf high-definition (HD) projector located in an inflatable plane- tarium. In the first six months of operation, undergraduates at the University of Washington presented planetarium shows to over 1500 people, and 150 secondary school students created and presented their own astronomy projects in our dome, at their school. This paper aims to share the technical aspects of the project so that others can replicate the model or adapt it to their needs. This project was made possible thanks to a NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope education/public outreach grant.

  3. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  4. George Washington Community High School: analysis of a partnership network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringle, Robert G; Officer, Starla D H; Grim, Jim; Hatcher, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    After five years with no public schools in their community, residents and neighborhood organizations of the Near Westside of Indianapolis advocated for the opening of George Washington Community High School (GWCHS). As a neighborhood in close proximity to the campus of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, the Near Westside and campus worked together to address this issue and improve the educational success of youth. In fall 2000, GWCHS opened as a community school and now thrives as a national model, due in part to its network of community relationships. This account analyzes the development of the school by focusing on the relationships among the university, the high school, community organizations, and the residents of the Near Westside and highlights the unique partnership between the campus and school by defining the relational qualities and describing the network created to make sustainable changes with the high school.

  5. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  6. Developing operational algorithms using linear and non-linear squares estimation in Python® for the identification of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in a mosquito abatement district (Cook County, Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G. Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, community level spatial models were developed for determining mosquito abundance and environmental factors that could aid in the risk prediction of West Nile virus (WNv outbreaks. Adult Culex pipiens and Culex restuan mosquitoes and multiple habitat covariates were collected from nine sites within Cook County, Illinois, USA, to provide spatio-temporal information on the abundance of WNv vectors from 2002 to 2005. Regression analyses of the sampled covariates revealed that the adult Culex population was positively associated with temperature throughout the sampling frame. The model output also indicated that precipitation was negatively associated to mosquito abundance in 2002, 2003 and 2005 (P <0.05, but positively associated in 2004 (P <0.05. A land use land cover classification, based on QuickBird visible and near infra-red data, acquired at 0.61 m resolution, was used to investigate possible associations between geographical features and the abundance of sampled Culex oviposition surveillance sites. A maximum likelihood unsupervised classification in ArcInfo 9.2® revealed that the highest overall mosquito abundance was found in sites having a low-to-moderate range of built environment (40% and high forest composition. A set of propagation equations were then designed to model the calibration uncertainties, which revealed that normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and two NDVI variants, were informative markers for the sampled mosquito data. Spatial dependence of the covariates of Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens oviposition sites were indexed using semivariograms, which suggested that all main effects of the explanatory variables were statistically significant in the model. Additionally, a multispectral classification and digital elevation model-based geographical information system method were able to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of terrain covariates associated with the sampled

  7. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  8. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  9. TOURISM IN THE USA – CONTEMPORARY STATE, TENDENCIES, PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Levkov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the contemporary state of travel and tourism and shows the profile of one of the biggest industries in the USA that has an important economic and social impact. The tendencies in the development of the tourism infrastructure and in the structure of tourist flows (separately about the outbound, inbound and domestic tourism are analyzed. Some regional and functional characteristics in the development of the American tourism are highlighted. The problem of the insufficient tourism openness of the USA and the approaches to its increase are analyzed.

  10. Rockin' Round the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famous, W. Glenn; Sargent, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Elementary teachers can interest their students in U.S. geography by having them plan a cross-country concert tour for a rock and roll band. The project develops research, writing, and critical thinking skills as students learn about U.S. geography. The article includes a listing of state tourism agencies. (SM)

  11. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  12. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  13. Assessing the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The production structure of the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington was investigated using a translog cost function with capital. labor, and sawlog inputs. Analyses were performed with a panel data set of biennial observations from 1972 to 2002 on a cross section of 16 western Washington counties. Production structure was examined using Allen and...

  14. Evidence-Based Redesign of the COMLEX-USA Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, John R; Horber, Dorothy; Sandella, Jeanne M; Knebl, Janice A; Thornburg, John E

    2017-04-01

    To ensure that the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) reflects the evolving practice of osteopathic medicine, the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners has developed new content and format specifications for an enhanced, competency-based examination program to be implemented with COMLEX-USA Level 3 in 2018. This article summarizes the evidence-based design processes that served as the foundation for blueprint development and the evidence supporting its validity. An overview is provided of the blueprint's 2 dimensions: Competency Domains and Clinical Presentations. The authors focus on the evidence that supports interpretation of test scores for the primary and intended purpose of COMLEX-USA, which is osteopathic physician licensure. Important secondary uses and the educational and catalytic effect of assessments are also described. This article concludes with the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' plans to ensure that the COMLEX-USA series remains current and meets the needs of its stakeholders-the patients who seek care from osteopathic physicians.

  15. USA Suursaadik TTÜs / Eha Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Eha

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Aldona Wis, Ameerika Uuringute Fondi president Roger Ream ja nõukogu esimees Randal Teague käisid Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis. Põhja-Ameerika ülikoolide teabekeskus korraldas TPÜ aulas kohtumise, kus tutvustati õppimisvõimalusi USA-s

  16. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  17. USA kaitsetollide vastu / Joseph E. Stiglitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    USA poolt tollide kehtestamine imporditavale terasele on põhjustanud protesti. Riigid, eriti Euroopas, mis on võimelised USA-le vastu hakkama, peavad seda tegema nüüd. Karmide abinõude tarvitusele võtmine on nii nende kui ka USA huvides

  18. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  19. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of... Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... human remains and associated funerary object may contact the Central Washington University Department of...

  20. 77 FR 15802 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of... Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Central Washington University...

  1. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  2. Business leaders bring their clout to Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M

    1990-04-20

    Big business has always been opposed to government interference in its affairs. But now, besieged by the high cost--increasing at an annual rate of 20 to 30 percent--of health benefits for employees, their families, and retirees, a significant number of major corporate executives are seeking greater government involvement in finding a solution to the problem. Interest in health care policy decisions is so high that business leaders are participating in special health care commissions as members or by providing testimony. Some corporations even send company advocates to Washington, DC, to track and influence health care policymaking. What exactly do these corporate leaders want? They are not all in agreement about the degree of government involvement that is necessary or desirable. Nevertheless, they do have strong opinions about delivery of health care at the local level.

  3. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  4. Correctional mental health in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Dlugacz, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss five domains impacted by the transformation of correctional mental health care in the USA: public health, public safety, legal obligations, fiscal responsibility and ethical standards, as well as critical issues such as administrative segregation, suicide prevention and reentry planning. In the last four decades, the USA has seen a sizable growth in its criminal justice system and corrections population. It has also seen reductions in civil and community-based mental health care. Persons with mental disabilities have come to represent a highly disproportional segment of the corrections population. The paper discusses the implications and underlying causes of these developments as well as recent responses to them. This set of circumstances is starting to change the mission of correctional health services from crisis intervention and suicide prevention to include preparation for the inmate's almost inevitable return to the community. Such changes have led to further developments in correctional mental health care, in particular, policy designed to treat mental illness, reduce its destructive outcomes such as suicide, and facilitate successful reentry into the community in attempts to reduce recidivism and improve clinical outcomes. Mental health care professionals working within corrections have likewise faced ethical challenges in effectuating treatment.

  5. Metro de Washington EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese, Harry

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the works involved in the first stage of the Washington Underground (Subway system which was begun in 1969 and scheduled for completion in 1983 and is the most modern metropolitan railway in North America. Lines have double track and will carry three million passengers daily. Different construction methods have been used throughout: tunnel formed try digging a trench then roofed and covered, excavated tunnel and elevated structures. Stations features answer to the strictest demands, provided with closed circuit television, air conditioning, noise dampening Systems, special access ways, fire protection Systems and automatic traffic control. Special attention is given to the two bridges over the Pentagon and over the Anacostia, pointing out their differences and the elevated structure at the National Airport.

    Se describen en este articulo los trabajos de la primera fase del Metro de Washington que, iniciado en el año 1969 será, a su terminación en el año 1983, el más moderno sistema de ferrocarril metropolitano de Norte América. Es de doble carril y servirá para tres millones de usuarios. Se han empleado distintos sistemas de obra en su realización: túnel artificial realizado mediante una zanja que después se cubre; túnel perforado, y estructuras aéreas. Las características de las estaciones responden a las mayores exigencias, pues tienen circuito cerrado de televisión, aire acondicionado, sistemas para atenuar el ruido, accesos especiales, sistema de protección contra el fuego y control automático del Metro. Se estudian de un modo particular: los dos puentes sobre el Pentágono y el Anacostia, señalando sus diferencias y la estructura aérea del Aeropuerto Nacional.

  6. Ocular findings in human immunodeficiency virus patients in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleem, Mona A; Ramsahai, Shweta; Del Fierro, Katrina; Rasul, Samad; Onumah, Chavon; Lerebours, Valerie; Gajjala, Jhansi; Copeland, Robert A; Jones, Leslie S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Washington, DC in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of patients with HIV who were seen by the ophthalmology consultation service between September 2003 and May 2011 at a single academic institution in Washington, DC. Medical history and ophthalmic findings were reviewed. Patients with complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination were included. Descriptive statistics were performed. The records of 151 patients were included in the final analysis. All patients had complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination. Sixty-eight (45 %) patients and fifty-eight (50 %) of those with a diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. The leading anterior segment disease was herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the leading posterior segment disease was HIV retinopathy. Of the 151 included patients, 78 (52 %) were receiving HAART at the time of the examination. Thirty-one (42 %) of those not receiving HAART were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. In this study, we find that the overall prevalence of ocular disease has decreased since the introduction of HAART. However, HIV patients continue to be predisposed to developing ophthalmic disease at higher rates than the general population. Visual dysfunction remains an important source of morbidity in HIV patients, particularly in those with AIDS. Measures for improvement include increased communication between infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists to ensure adherence to HAART and routine eye examinations.

  7. Pharmacist prescribing within an integrated health system in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Roger; Locke, Amanda; Potts, Catherine

    2016-09-15

    Pharmacist prescribing as part of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) within an integrated health system in Washington is described. Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) in Seattle, Washington, uses a team-based care model with broad-based CDTAs to provide quality patient care. The majority of patients are referred to the pharmacist after a diagnosis has been made and a clinical care plan has been started. The pharmacist manages the patient's care within his or her scope of practice as defined by state laws and further detailed by VMMC internal protocols. The pharmacist then documents in the electronic medical record the medication plan of care and other standard elements based on provider note templates. Medication prescribing and laboratory test ordering are the responsibilities of the pharmacist, as are any dosage adjustments or interpretations of laboratory test results. For some chronic diseases, the pharmacist may continue to see the patient indefinitely, replacing physician visits (e.g., for warfarin management). In more episodic care, the pharmacist may see the patient, optimize drug therapy, and then transition the patient back to the referring provider (e.g., for hypertension management). Integrating the pharmacist into the team has helped achieve optimal medication outcomes and increased patient satisfaction scores. The addition of the pharmacist into a team-based care model using a CDTA helped achieve optimal medication outcomes and increased patient satisfaction scores in an integrated health system. Integration was successful due to the collaborative support from physician leadership and ongoing physician involvement. Hands-on leadership by the pharmacy department and clinic directors and the health system's adoption of Lean methodology fostered an environment for developing innovative care models. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 77 FR 32631 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Klickitat County, Washington; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... located near Goldendale, Klickitat County, Washington, and Rufus, Sherman County, Oregon. The project... Avenue, Goldendale, Washington 98620; phone: (509) 773-5891. FERC Contact: Kelly Wolcott; phone: (202...

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of fuels. More information related to radioactive waste and to the transport and storage of spent fuel is included in the current awareness publication, Radioactive Waste Management. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NFC on nuclear fuel back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  10. IVF global histories, USA: between Rock and a marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis Thompson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The USA has played, and continues to play, a distinctive and significant part in the history of IVF and assisted reproductive technology worldwide. American IVF emerged in the scientific context of contraceptive and fertility research, in the social context of a wealthy nation without universal healthcare, and in the political context of the abortion debate and its impact on federal versus state funding and regulation. IVF had its first clinical success in the USA in 1981. Since then, IVF in the USA has become known for procedures involving third, fourth and fifth parties as gamete donors and surrogates. The USA has also been one of the pioneers in domestic and transnational deployment of IVF for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT parenthood, and a pioneer of the social egg-freezing revolution. US IVF has been marked by professional and patient advocacy for such things as the honest reporting of success rates, recognition of the risks of postponed childbearing, and the need for insurance coverage. Certain landmark legal custody disputes over IVF embryos and offspring, as well as media attention to gendered, racialized, and class-based access to and pricing of assisted reproductive technology, have also driven the development of IVF in the USA.

  11. Analysis of Price Changes in Washington Following the 2012 Liquor Privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Williams, Edwina; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2015-11-01

    In June, 2012 the state of Washington ended a wholesale and retail monopoly on liquor sales resulting in about five times as many stores selling liquor. Three-tier restrictions were also removed on liquor, while beer and wine availability did not increase. Substantial taxes at both the wholesale and retail levels were implemented and it was expected that prices would rise. To evaluate price changes after privatization we developed an index of about 68 brands that were popular in Washington during early 2012. Data on final liquor prices (including all taxes) in Washington were obtained through store visits and on-line sources between November 2013 and March of 2014. Primary analyses were conducted on five or six brand indexes to allow the inclusion of most stores. Washington liquor prices rose by an average of 15.5% for the 750 ml size and by 4.7% for the 1.75 l size, while only small changes were seen in the bordering states of Oregon and Idaho. Prices were found to vary greatly by store type. Liquor Superstores had generally the lowest prices while drugstore, grocery and especially smaller Liquor Store prices were found to be substantially higher. Our findings indicate that liquor prices in Washington increased substantially after privatization and as compared to price changes in bordering states, with a much larger increase seen for the 750 ml size and with wide variation across store types. However, persistent drinkers looking for low prices will be able to find them in certain stores. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Experiencing Second-Wave Feminism in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biklen, Sari; Marshall, Catherine; Pollard, Diane

    2008-01-01

    How has feminism mattered in the lives of particular academic feminists? Three scholars in education whose careers developed during the era of second-wave feminism describe how their personal and political stances were affected by theories, methodological advances, the milieus of academia as well as legal, and political events in the USA. The…

  13. Protecting nature : organizations and networks in Europe and the USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.; Markham, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers a comparative analysis of organizations and networks involved in nature protection in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the UK and the USA. It traces their development from their origins, more than a century ago, to the present day. Throughout this

  14. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-chuan; Wei, Li-juan; Liu, Jun-tian; Li, Shi-xia; Wang, Qing-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Methods Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. Results In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Conclusions Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented. PMID:23691468

  15. A web-based decision support system to enhance IPM programs in Washington tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Brunner, Jay F; Grove, Gary G; Petit, Brad; Tangren, Gerald V; Jones, Wendy E

    2010-06-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) decision-making has become more information intensive in Washington State tree crops in response to changes in pesticide availability, the development of new control tactics (such as mating disruption) and the development of new information on pest and natural enemy biology. The time-sensitive nature of the information means that growers must have constant access to a single source of verified information to guide management decisions. The authors developed a decision support system for Washington tree fruit growers that integrates environmental data [140 Washington State University (WSU) stations plus weather forecasts from NOAA], model predictions (ten insects, four diseases and a horticultural model), management recommendations triggered by model status and a pesticide database that provides information on non-target impacts on other pests and natural enemies. A user survey in 2008 found that the user base was providing recommendations for most of the orchards and acreage in the state, and that users estimated the value at $ 16 million per year. The design of the system facilitates education on a range of time-sensitive topics and will make it possible easily to incorporate other models, new management recommendations or information from new sensors as they are developed.

  16. How well has land-use planning worked under different governance regimes? A case study in the Portland, OR-Vancouver, WA metropolitan area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Paul Thiers; Connie P. Ozawa; J. Alan Yeakley; Sean N. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    We examine land use planning outcomes over a 30-year period in the Portland, OR-Vancouver, WA (USA) metropolitan area. The four-county study region enables comparisons between three Oregon counties subject to Oregon’s 1973 Land Use Act (Senate Bill 100) and Clark County, WA which implemented land use planning under Washington’s 1990 Growth Management Act. We describe...

  17. Wildlife Habitat Impact Assessment, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington : Project Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Douglas; Berger, Matthew

    1992-01-01

    Under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, a wildlife habitat impact assessment and identification of mitigation objectives have been developed for the US Army Corps of Engineer`s Chief Joseph Dam Project in north-central Washington. This study will form the basis for future mitigation planning and implementation.

  18. Knowledge and opinions about organ donation and transplantation among Vietnamese Americans in Seattle, Washington: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hien; Spigner, Clarence

    2004-12-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities comprise almost 50% of registrants on national waiting lists for organ transplantation in the USA. As the list continues to expand, organ shortage becomes a bigger problem. Increasing donation rates especially among racial minority groups would lower the waiting times for these groups. Asian Americans are among the fastest growing and most diverse ethnic group in the USA, but research on their knowledge or opinions about organ donation is rare. A non-random sample of 350 Vietnamese American church attendees and students attending a major university in Seattle (Washington), was drawn. A self-administered 39-item knowledge/opinion-based survey was conducted during June to August 2003. Of 278 respondents (a 79.7% response rate), 69.1% knew blood-type made a difference in donation (p = 0.000), 61.6% knew transplant survival rates were high (p = 0.000), and 75.9% knew transplants could come from living donors (p = 0.000). But 53.4% also thought organs could be sold for money in the USA (p = 0.000), and 49.8% thought more people died of auto accidents and gunshot wounds than from heart disease (p = 0.000). Those who answered correctly to more than 50% of the knowledge questions were also more likely to favor donation (p = 0.007). We found among this study population that having correct knowledge about organ donation related to a willingness to donate.

  19. The Washington University Central Neuroimaging Data Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toke Point, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Toke Point, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  1. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  2. Port Angeles, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Angeles, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  3. Westport, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Westport, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  4. La Push, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The La Push, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  5. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Tufted Puffin Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey is key to assessing the status and trends of Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) on their breeding colonies within Washington State and, with additional...

  6. Silviculture of mixed conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; P.H. Cochran

    1981-01-01

    The silviculture of mixed conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington is described. Topics discussed include ecological setting, damaging agents, silviculture, and management. The relevant literature is presented, along with unpublished research, experience, and observations. Research needs are also proposed.

  7. Final Report: Feasibility Study of Biomass in Snohomish County, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl Williams (Tulalip Tribes); Ray Clark (Clark Group)

    2005-01-31

    This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.

  8. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  9. Southwestern Washington 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  10. Endangered Species Case - Washington Toxics Coalition v. EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page provides information on the Washington Toxics Coalition v. EPA case, related to protection of Pacific salmon and steelhead, and links to the biological opinions issued by the NMFS and EPA’s responses.

  11. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  12. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an...

  13. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  14. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  15. USA klaaskatuste murdmise aeg / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimistel kandideeris esmakordselt afroameeriklane, presidendikandidaatide kampaanias osales naiskandidaat Hillary Clinton. Vt. samas: Obama isa kodukülas palvetati ja valmistuti suureks peoks

  16. Environmental contaminant analysis of sea otters and prey from coastal Washington of the Washington Maritime NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analyses of blood and liver samples from live captured sea otters and liver samples from beach-cast sea otter carcasses off the remote Washington coast indicate...

  17. Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.

  18. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Vývoj dividendové politiky v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dezort, David

    2009-01-01

    Thesis Dividend Policy Development in the USA is concerned with comprehensive analysis of dividend policy development in the United states of America for the past ten years. The thesis begins with definition of primary objective of company, income trading division, dividend concept, dividend division according to different factors, declaration and taxation of dividend. A part of the thesis is dedicated to dividend theories and desciption of elementary dividend models. The main objective of th...

  20. TOURISM IN THE USA – CONTEMPORARY STATE, TENDENCIES, PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Krasimir Levkov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the contemporary state of travel and tourism and shows the profile of one of the biggest industries in the USA that has an important economic and social impact. The tendencies in the development of the tourism infrastructure and in the structure of tourist flows (separately about the outbound, inbound and domestic tourism) are analyzed. Some regional and functional characteristics in the development of the American tourism are highlighted. The problem of the insufficient ...

  1. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  2. Innovations in Ocean Sciences Education at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2003-12-01

    A new wave of education collaborations began when the national science education reform documents (AAAS Project 2061 and National Science Education Standards) recommended that scientific researchers become engaged stakeholders in science education. Collaborations between research institutions, universities, nonprofits, corporations, parent groups, and school districts can provide scientists original avenues to contribute to education for all. The University of Washington strongly responded to the national call by promoting partnerships between the university research community, the K-12 community and the general public. The College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences and the School of Oceanography spearheaded the creation of several innovative programs in ocean sciences to contribute to the improvement of Earth science education. Two of these programs are the REVEL Project and the Marine Science Student Mobility (MSSM) program that share the philosophy of involving school districts, K-12 science teachers, their students and undergraduate students in current, international, cutting-edge oceanographic research. The REVEL Project (Research and Education: Volcanoes, Exploration and Life) is an NSF-funded, professional development program for middle and high school science teachers that are determined to use deep-sea research and seafloor exploration as tools to implement inquiry-based science in their classrooms, schools, and districts, and to share their experiences with their communities. Initiated in 1996 as a regional program for Northwest science educators, REVEL evolved into a multi-institutional program inviting teachers to practice doing research on sea-going research expeditions. Today, in its 7th year, the project offers teachers throughout the U. S. an opportunity to participate and contribute to international, multidisciplinary, deep-sea research in the Northeast Pacific ocean to study the relationship between geological processes such as earthquakes and

  3. Landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington: a geographic information system weighted-distance and least-cost corridor assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H. Singleton; William L. Gaines; John F. Lehmkuhl

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a regional-scale evaluation of landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington and adjacent portions of British Columbia and Idaho. We developed geographic information system based landscape permeability models for wolves (Canis lupus), wolverine (Gulo gulo), lynx (Lynx canadensis),...

  4. Endangered, threatened, and sensitive plants of Fort Lewis, Washington: distribution, mapping, and management recommendations for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.B. Thomas; A.B. Carey

    1996-01-01

    The loss of native species and their habitats has increased with urban development, agriculture, and resource utilization. According to the Washington Natural Heritage Program, 20 plants listed as endangered, threatened, or sensitive are suspected to occur on the glacial outwash soils of south Puget Sound. In our study, more than 3,000 ha of prairie, wetland, and moist...

  5. Washington School Board Standards, Benchmarks of Success and Indicators for Evaluation, with References: A Framework for Effective Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Debora

    2009-01-01

    The Washington School Board Standards are intended for use by local school boards and individual directors as a common framework for school board governance. Two sets of standards were developed to encourage school boards and individual school directors to subscribe to the highest levels of professional and personal conduct and performance. The…

  6. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  7. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  8. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  9. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value < 0.05) in 21 of 83 long-term sites, but with small magnitude Kendall tau values suggesting a limited monotonic trend in the time series of annual peaks. Most of the sites with a significant trend in western Washington were positive and all the sites with significant trends (three sites) in eastern Washington were negative.Multivariate regression analysis with measured basin characteristics and the AEP statistics at long-term, unregulated, and un-urbanized (defined as drainage basins with less than 5 percent impervious land cover for this investigation) streamgages within Washington and some in Idaho and Oregon that are near the Washington border was used to develop equations to estimate AEP

  10. Adolescent well-being in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2011-09-01

    We examined associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 10,606). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to test associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being (quality of life, depressed mood, thoughts of suicide). In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting thoughts of suicide among adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 2.32) and higher odds of low quality of life (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.43, 3.10) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.67) among adolescent boys. In 10th and 12th grades, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting low quality of life (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.79, 4.20), depressed mood (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.38) among adolescent boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of impaired well-being among adolescents, especially adolescent boys. Military, school-based, and public health professionals have a unique opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to improve the well-being of adolescents in military families.

  11. Modeling ozone episodes in the Baltimore-Washington region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, William F.

    1994-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) concentrations in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) continue to occur in metropolitan areas in the United States despite efforts to control emissions of O3 precursors. Future O3 control strategies will be based on results from modeling efforts that have just begun in many areas. Two initial questions that arise are model sensitivity to domain-specific conditions and the selection of episodes for model evaluation and control strategy development. For the Baltimore-Washington region (B-W), the presence of the Chesapeake Bay introduces a number of issues relevant to model sensitivity. In this paper, the specific questions of the determination of model volume (mixing height) for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is discussed and various alternative methods compared. For the latter question, several analytic approaches, Cluster Analysis and classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis are undertaken to determine meteorological conditions associated with severe O3 events in the B-W domain.

  12. Hyperspectral landcover classification for the Yakima Training Center, Yakima, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmaus, K.L.; Perry, E.M.; Petrie, G.M.; Irwin, D.E.; Foote, H.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Stephen, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked in FY97-98 to conduct a multisensor feature extraction project for the Terrain Modeling Project Office (TMPO) of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The goal of this research is the development of near-autonomous methods to remotely classify and characterize regions of military interest, in support of the TMPO of NIMA. These methods exploit remotely sensed datasets including hyperspectral (HYDICE) imagery, near-infrared and thermal infrared (Daedalus 3600), radar, and terrain datasets. The study site for this project is the US Army`s Yakima Training Center (YTC), a 326,741-acre training area located near Yakima, Washington. Two study areas at the YTC were selected to conduct and demonstrate multisensor feature extraction, the 2-km x 2-km Cantonment Area and the 3-km x 3-km Choke Point area. Classification of the Cantonment area afforded a comparison of classification results at different scales.

  13. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  14. Influence of Land Use, Discharge and Impervious Surfaces on the Geochemistry of the Anacostia River, Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; De Filippis, N.

    2016-12-01

    Challenges facing urban rivers include water stormwater runoff and changing water chemistry, not only from air and water pollution, but also from altered geology with the development of "urban karst" (concrete). The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. has 75% of its watershed classified as urban or impervious, and is among the 10 most contaminated rivers in the USA. In addition to its relatively well-documented organic contamination problems, we hypothesize that concrete could be substantially altering its geochemistry. Here we report findings from 6 locations along the Anacostia River and its tributaries that indicate both seasonally elevated Na and Cl (becoming brackish, 2000-3000 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids, in a suburban creek), and elevated cations in low flow suburban tributaries. Concentrations of all major cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) strongly, and positively, covaried (factor scores (FC) >0.88). However Ca/Sr ratios negatively covaried with major cations (FC -0.64). This suggests the weathering of low Sr minerals, such as those in concrete. In urbanized portions of the river, Ca/Sr was >200, which is a concrete weathering indicator in areas with silica mineral bedrock (Anacostia bedrock consists of Precambrian phyllits, sericite, chlorite, quartzite, slate and schist). Mean ± SE Sr was 0.13 ± 0.02 mg/L in the most urban area, but 0.37 ± 0.03 mg/L in the most suburban. This supports the hypothesis that the source of elevated cations in the urban areas is concrete weathering, not bedrock mineral weathering. Inorganic N was not correlated strongly with cations. Mean NO3- was highest at the most suburban site (1.8 ± 0.2 mg/L), but rose above 3 mg/L in some samples at all sites. Elevated NO3- did not appear to vary with season or discharge rate at time of sampling. NH4+ was generally lower than 1 mg/L but spiked to 3.4 mg/L at the most urban site. These data follow patterns expected for "urban stream syndrome". Suburban areas, with their relatively small streams

  15. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  16. USA laenukriis peegeldub Põhjalas / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    USA-s süvenev kinnisvaralaenukriis avaldab mõju ka tunduvalt riskantsematele Põhjamaade kinnisvaraturgudele. Siiski on Põhjalas kõrge riskiga hüpoteeklaenude osa võrreldes ülejäänud laenudega äärmiselt väike. Lisa: Kõige haavatavamad kinnisvaraturud; Mõjud mujal maailmas. Vt. samas: Põhjamaade börsid USAga samas taktis

  17. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  18. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  19. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  20. Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

  1. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  2. USA National Phenology Network gridded products documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Marsh, R. Lee; Switzer, Jeff R.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2017-02-23

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to facilitate informed ecosystem stewardship and management by providing phenological information freely and openly. One way the USA-NPN is endeavoring to accomplish these goals is by providing data and data products in a wide range of formats, including gridded real-time, short-term forecasted, and historical maps of phenological events, patterns and trends. This document describes the suite of gridded phenologically relevant data products produced and provided by the USA National Phenology Network, which can be accessed at www.usanpn.org/data/phenology_maps and also through web services at geoserver.usanpn.org/geoserver/wms?request=GetCapabilities.

  3. The new Wallula CO2 project may revive the old Columbia River Basalt (western USA) nuclear-waste repository project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2018-02-01

    A novel CO2 sequestration project at Wallula, Washington, USA, makes ample use of the geoscientific data collection of the old nuclear waste repository project at the Hanford Site nearby. Both projects target the Columbia River Basalt (CRB). The new publicity for the old project comes at a time when the approach to high-level nuclear waste disposal has undergone fundamental changes. The emphasis now is on a technical barrier that is chemically compatible with the host rock. In the ideal case, the waste container is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the host-rock groundwater regime. The CRB groundwater has what it takes to represent the ideal case.

  4. The new Wallula CO2 project may revive the old Columbia River Basalt (western USA) nuclear-waste repository project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2017-07-01

    A novel CO2 sequestration project at Wallula, Washington, USA, makes ample use of the geoscientific data collection of the old nuclear waste repository project at the Hanford Site nearby. Both projects target the Columbia River Basalt (CRB). The new publicity for the old project comes at a time when the approach to high-level nuclear waste disposal has undergone fundamental changes. The emphasis now is on a technical barrier that is chemically compatible with the host rock. In the ideal case, the waste container is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the host-rock groundwater regime. The CRB groundwater has what it takes to represent the ideal case.

  5. 108th Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, August 4-8, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Washington, DC--the nation's capital--celebrates a history rich in diversity and character. One of the most popular cities for sightseeing, Washington contains countless points of interest for its visitors. The world's largest museum complex, the Smithsonian Institution, invites you to explore exhibits that highlight the scientific, cultural, political, and technological developments of the United States and its people. Visit the home to original pieces of the American heritage, such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, that have helped to shape the way we live today. The art lovers among you will delight in the seven major art galleries. See the modern art and sculpture of the Hirshhorn Museum and the newly opened Sculpture Garden; the Sackler Gallery's collection of Asian art; and the only museum devoted to the art and culture of Africa, the National Museum of African Art. In Washington, there is music in the air, from the Kennedy Center's many stages and the clubs of Georgetown and Adams Morgan to the military bands that give concerts on the Mall. Whatever your culinary desire, be it authentic Texas chili or the finest Asian cuisine, you'll find it at one of the city's internationally famous eateries. What a perfect place for APA to convene its first annual convention of the new millennium!

  6. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  7. Low temperature geothermal resource evaluation of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widness, S.

    1983-11-01

    The study area is located in portions of Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Franklin counties of eastern Washington. The area is representative of a complex stratigraphic and geohydrologic system within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Fluid temperature data were collected by three different agencies. The Geological Engineering Section (WSU) at Washington State University, runs a continuous fluid temperature (FT) log as part of a complete suite of geophysical logs. The US Geological Survey (USGS) runs a continuous fluid FT log in conjunction with caliper and natural-gamma logs. Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DNR), have cooperated in gathering FT data. The DNR-SMU data were collected by taking temperature measurements at 5 m intervals. Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) and bottom-hole depths (BHD) of selected wells in the study area are given. A technique developed by Biggane (1982) was used to determine the geothermal gradients within the area. A least squares linear regression analysis of the relationship between the BHT and BHD was used to determine the geothermal gradient of a given well data group (WDG).

  8. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  9. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  10. An overview of EU and USA intestinal transplant current activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, A; Panaro, F; Iyer, K R

    2017-04-01

    To report the current activity of intestinal transplantation in Europe (EU) and Unites States of America (USA), underlining outcomes in the last 5 years and discussing possible trends. Data review of results was performed through analysis of ITR and UNOS registries, Eurotransplant and newsletter transplant reports, congress abstracts, international published literature, personal communications and hospital web sites. The absence in Europe of a sole organization collecting donors and the presence of many low-volume centers (less than 5 cases/year) makes the difference with USA: in the last 5 years (2010-2014), 222 intestinal/multivisceral transplants have been performed in EU countries (most of them in the UK), while in USA, the number of transplants achieved 634 procedures in the same period of time. Waiting list mortality remains unacceptable in both continents. Improved short-term results, with over 80% survival at 1 year, have been achieved in the busiest transplant centers likely due to immune-induction agents, more recently to innovative cross match strategies and optimizing organ allocation, but long term outcomes are still inferior to other organ transplants. Most long-term survivors were reintegrated to society with self-sustained socioeconomic status. The economic burden for the society is high and related costs are different between USA and EU (and inside Europe between member state's health-care systems), but cost-effectiveness for intestinal transplantation still needs to be proved. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop in EU and USA together with surgical and medical rehabilitation of patients affected by short gut syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate services as practised in the southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J.

    2012-04-01

    The SOUTHEAST CLIMATE CONSORTIUM has developed a useful CLIMATE SERVICES model for all agriculture and forestry in the Southeast USA since 1995. Eight universities, primarily land grant schools, develop productive delivery methods of timely climate information for our users by partnering with Ag Extension Services and state climatologists in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas. Decision points of the user are fundamental to the usefulness. Tercile forecasts have not been found to be useable. In order to be useful, the climate forecast must be available before the decision deadline. It must be in variables that the user understands. And usually related to past events. In the SE USA, the ENSO signal is very dominant and AGW is minimum. Therefore many good and money saving forecasts can be delivered. A decision support website has been delivered: http://agroclimate.org/

  12. Climate and weather influences on spatial temporal patterns of mountain pine beetle populations in Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Ager, Alan A; Hayes, Jane L

    2012-11-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetle in North America have drawn the attention of scientists, forest managers, and the public. There is strong evidence that climate change has contributed to the extent and severity of recent outbreaks. Scientists are interested in quantifying relationships between bark beetle population dynamics and trends in climate. Process models that simulate climate suitability for mountain pine beetle outbreaks have advanced our understanding of beetle population dynamics; however, there are few studies that have assessed their accuracy across multiple outbreaks or at larger spatial scales. This study used the observed number of trees killed by mountain pine beetles per square kilometer in Oregon and Washington, USA, over the past three decades to quantify and assess the influence of climate and weather variables on beetle activity over longer time periods and larger scales than previously studied. Influences of temperature and precipitation in addition to process model output variables were assessed at annual and climatological time scales. The statistical analysis showed that new attacks are more likely to occur at locations with climatological mean August temperatures >15 degrees C. After controlling for beetle pressure, the variables with the largest effect on the odds of an outbreak exceeding a certain size were minimum winter temperature (positive relationship) and drought conditions in current and previous years. Precipitation levels in the year prior to the outbreak had a positive effect, possibly an indication of the influence of this driver on brood size. Two-year cumulative precipitation had a negative effect, a possible indication of the influence of drought on tree stress. Among the process model variables, cold tolerance was the strongest indicator of an outbreak increasing to epidemic size. A weather suitability index developed from the regression analysis indicated a 2.5x increase in the odds of outbreak at locations

  13. Toxicity of sediment pore water in Puget Sound (Washington, USA): a review of spatial status and temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R.; Carr, R. Scott; Biedenbach, James M.; Weakland, Sandra; Partridge, Valerie; Dutch, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Data from toxicity tests of the pore water extracted from Puget Sound sediments were compiled from surveys conducted from 1997 to 2009. Tests were performed on 664 samples collected throughout all of the eight monitoring regions in the Sound, an area encompassing 2,294.1 km2. Tests were performed with the gametes of the Pacific purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, to measure percent fertilization success as an indicator of relative sediment quality. Data were evaluated to determine the incidence, degree of response, geographic patterns, spatial extent, and temporal changes in toxicity. This is the first survey of this kind and magnitude in Puget Sound. In the initial round of surveys of the eight regions, 40 of 381 samples were toxic for an incidence of 10.5 %. Stations classified as toxic represented an estimated total of 107.1 km2, equivalent to 4.7 % of the total area. Percent sea urchin fertilization ranged from >100 % of the nontoxic, negative controls to 0 %. Toxicity was most prevalent and pervasive in the industrialized harbors and lowest in the deep basins. Conditions were intermediate in deep-water passages, urban bays, and rural bays. A second round of testing in four regions and three selected urban bays was completed 5–10 years following the first round. The incidence and spatial extent of toxicity decreased in two of the regions and two of the bays and increased in the other two regions and the third bay; however, only the latter change was statistically significant. Both the incidence and spatial extent of toxicity were lower in the Sound than in most other US estuaries and marine bays.

  14. Intercomparison of Fire Size, Fuel Loading, Fuel Consumption, and Smoke Emissions Estimates on the 2006 Tripod Fire, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy A. Drury; Narasimhan Larkin; Tara T. Strand; ShihMing Huang; Scott J. Strenfel; Theresa E. O' Brien; Sean M. Raffuse

    2014-01-01

    Land managers rely on prescribed burning and naturally ignited wildfires for ecosystem management, and must balance trade-offs of air quality, carbon storage, and ecosystem health. A current challenge for land managers when using fire for ecosystem management is managing smoke production. Smoke emissions are a potential human health hazard due to the production of fine...

  15. Linking ecology and aesthetics in sustainable agricultural landscapes: Lessons from the Palouse region of Washington, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Klein; William G. Hendrix; Virginia I. Lohr; Jolie B. Kaytes; Rodney D. Sayler; Mark E. Swanson; William J. Elliot; John P. Reganold

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by international escalation in agricultural sustainability debates, we explored the promise of landscape-scale conservation buffers to mitigate environmental damage, improve ecological function, and enhance scenic quality. Although the ecological benefits of buffer vegetation are well established by plot- and field-scale research, buffer adoption by farmers is...

  16. Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated shifts associated with global climate change, and these patterns will likely continue due to continuing changes in environmental conditions. Tree growth is controlled by the physiological constraints o...

  17. Post-fire tree establishment patterns at the alpine treeline ecotone: Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Dawna L. Cerney; Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth

    2009-01-01

    Questions: Does tree establishment: (1) occur at a treeline depressed by fire, (2) cause the forest line to ascend upslope, and/or (3) alter landscape heterogeneity? (4) What abiotic and biotic local site conditions are most important in structuring establishment patterns? (5) Does the abiotic setting become more important with increasing upslope distance from the...

  18. RESULTS FROM RECENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS TARGETING CHROMIUM IN THE 100D AREA HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; THOMPSON KM; TONKIN MJ

    2009-12-03

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km{sup 2} of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 {micro}g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of {le}20 {micro}g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to treat Cr(VI) to these low levels, but system reliability and operational complexity rendered electrocoagulation less cost effective than the baseline technology of ion exchange. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the practicality of injecting ZVI into the aquifer to increase the lifespan and effectiveness of an existing permeable reactive barrier. From a database of 30 ZVI materials, 6 were chosen and tested in the laboratory to determine their geochemical and physical performance under simulated 100D aquifer conditions. The best-performing ZVI was injected into the aquifer and met the primary goals of communicating the iron at least 7 meters from the injection point and reducing the aquifer to transform mobile Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium Cr(III), which is effectively immobile in the aquifer.

  19. Multiple methods of public engagement: Disaggregating socio-spatial data for environmental planning in western Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca J. McLain; David Banis; Alexa Todd; Lee K. Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to enhance understanding about how two commonly used PPGIS approaches—community workshops and internet surveys—differ in who they bring to the environmental planning table. A secondary aim is to expand knowledge about favored destinations and activities associated with public forest road networks, with a focus on exploring how favored...

  20. Carbon dynamics of forest in Washington, USA: 21st century projections based on climate-driven changes in fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    During the 21st century, climate-driven changes in fire regimes will be a key agent of change in forests of the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Understanding the response of forest carbon (C) dynamics to increases in fire will help quantify limits on the contribution of forest C storage to climate change mitigation and prioritize forest types for...