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Sample records for washington dc usa

  1. Consumer behaviour in E-Commerce : Millennials in the USA, Washington D.C area

    OpenAIRE

    Torrez Pimentel, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    The target of this thesis was to understand consumer behaviour in e-commerce. The target area is the Washington DC area USA from amongst young adults between 21-34 years of age classified as millennials. The impact of technology changes and variables influencing the selection process of an e-retailer among the millennials was studied. A research with help of a survey to total 285 participants in four different shopping malls was performed in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area conducted bet...

  2. Isolation of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from retail meats purchased in Greater Washington, DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carl M; White, David G; Ge, Beilei; Zhang, Yifan; McDermott, Patrick F; Ayers, Sherry; Zhao, Shaohua; Meng, Jianghong

    2003-08-15

    Four hundred and seventy-two generic Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from ground and whole retail beef, chicken, pork, and turkey obtained from Greater Washington, DC, USA during the years 1998 to 2000. Many of the isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (59%), sulfamethoxazole (45%), streptomycin (44%), cephalothin (38%) and ampicillin (35%). Resistance was also observed, but to a lesser extent, to gentamicin (12%), nalidixic acid (8%), chloramphenicol (6%), ceftiofur (4%) and ceftriaxone (1%). Sixteen percent of the isolates displayed resistance to one antimicrobial, followed by 23% to two, 23% to three, 12% to four, 7% to five, 3% to six, 2% to seven and 2% to eight. Three E. coli isolates were shown to possess Shiga toxin genes (stx2) via PCR; all were O non-typeable and were recovered from ground beef samples purchased on the same day at the same supermarket. One of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates was susceptible to each of the antimicrobials tested, whereas one displayed resistance to cephalothin and sulfamethoxazole, and one displayed resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Findings from this study indicate that retail raw meats may often be contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli.

  3. Patterns of alcohol consumption among pregnant African-American women in Washington, DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Michele; Thornberry, Jutta S; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret F

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviours related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington DC. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions concerned the amount, type and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were categorised as at no, low, moderate or high risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy. For comparisons of risk levels of drinking, bivariate associations were examined using Fisher's exact test. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also computed. Although 31% of current/recent drinkers stated that they continued to drink during pregnancy, responses to quantity/frequency questions revealed that 42% continued to do so. Women who were at high compared with moderate risk acknowledged that others were worried about their consumption [OR=4.0, 95% CI 1.5, 10.6], that they drank upon rising [OR=6.7, 95% CI 1.8, 26.9], had a need to reduce drinking [OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.1] and in the past 5 years had had fractures [OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.0, 17.8] or a road traffic injury [OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.0, 12.2]. Women in the high/moderate compared with low-risk group were more likely to have been injured in a fight or assault [OR=2.7, 95% CI 1.3, 5.6]. This study validated the usefulness of our questionnaire in identifying women who were at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy across a range of consumption levels. Using our screening tool, women were willing to disclose their drinking habits. This low-cost method identifies women appropriate for targeting of interventions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  5. Assessment of Public Health Risks Associated with Atmospheric Exposure to PM2.5 in Washington, DC, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon R. Morris

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we investigated the public health risks associated with atmospheric exposure to PM2.5 for different subpopulations (black, white, Hispanic, youth, adults, and elderly in the Washington, DC area. Washington, DC has long been considered a non-healthy place to live according to the American Lung Association due to its poor air quality. This recognition clearly includes the negative PM-related human health effects within the region. Specifically, DC fine particulate matter (PM2.5 [or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm] poses notable health risks to subpopulations having an annual mean value of 16.70 μg/m3 during the years 1999-2004, exceeding the EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS of 15 μg/m3. Incessant exposure to significant levels of PM has previously been linked to deleterious health effects, such as heart and lung diseases. The environmental quality and public health statistics of Washington, DC indicate the need for higher-resolution measurements of emissions, both spatially and temporally, and increased analysis of PM-related health effects. Our findings show that there are significant risks of ward-specific pediatric asthma emergency room visits (ERV. Results also illustrate lifetime excess lung cancer risks, exceeding the 1x10-6 threshold for the measured levels of particulate matter and heavy metals (chromium and arsenic on behalf of numerous subpopulations in the DC selected wards.

  6. Five years (2000-2004) of post-reconstruction monitoring of freshwater tidal wetlands in the urban Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, D.; Krafft, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. USA consisted of over 809 hectares (2000 acres) of freshwater tidal wetlands before mandatory dredging removed most of them in the first half of the 20th century. Much of this13 kilometer (8 mile) reach was transferred to the National Park Service (NPS). Planning processes in the 1980's envisioned a restoration (rejuvenation) of some wetlands for habitat, aesthetics, water quality and interpretative purposes. Subsequently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in a cost share agreement with the District of Columbia reconstructed wetlands on NPS lands at Kenilworth - 12.5 hectares (1993), Kingman 27 hectares (2000), a Fringe Marsh - 6.5 hectares (2003) and is currently constructing Heritage Marsh - 2.5 hectares (2005/2006). The USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in conjunction with the University of Maryland Biological Engineering Department was contracted to conduct post-reconstruction monitoring (2000-2004) to document the relative success and progress of the Kingman Marsh reconstruction primarily based on vegetative response but also in conjunction with seed bank and soil characteristics. Results from Kingman were compared to Kenilworth Marsh (reconstructed 7 years prior), Dueling Creek Marsh (last best remaining freshwater tidal wetland bench in the urbanized Anacostia watershed) and Patuxent River Marsh (in a more natural adjacent watershed). Vegetation establishment was initially strong at Kingman, but declined rapidly as measured by cover, richness, diversity, etc. under grazing pressure from resident Canada geese and associated reduction in sediment levels. This decline did not occur at the other wetlands. The decline occurred despite a substantial seed bank that was sustained primarily be water born propagules. Soil development, as true for most juvenile wetlands, was slow with almost no organic matter accumulation. By 2004 only two of 7 planted species remained (mostly Peltandra virginica) at Kingman which did provide

  7. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  8. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  10. Parks, Trees, and Environmental Justice: Field Notes from Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Whitmer, Ali; Grove, J. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Students enrolled in a graduate seminar benefited in multiple ways from an intensive 3-day field trip to Washington, DC. Constructed around the theme of environmental justice, the trip gave students a chance to learn about street tree distribution, park quality, and racial segregation "up close." Working with personnel from the United…

  11. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  12. Black Eyes and Brass Knuckles: Science Policy in Washington DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakey, Francis

    2002-04-01

    Washington DC is a majestic and tranquil city, beautifully stationed along the shores of the dazzling Potomac river. Not! The nation's capitol sits in the middle of a drained swamp and it has the most hostile atmosphere this side of Venus. Francis Slakey, a professor of Physics and Biology at Georgetown University and a lobbyist for the American Physical Society, will give an intro to the political process and describe some of the battles waged on behalf of the APS.

  13. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  14. A Monumental Experience: The Undergraduate Program in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsock, Lori

    2009-08-01

    All undergraduate chemical science students are invited to attend the Undergraduate Program at the 238th ACS National Meeting in Washington, DC on August 16-17, 2009. This educational and career-oriented program is designed to increase our understanding of the world with chemistry. Symposia will focus on the chemistry of our oceans and atmosphere. Nobel Laureate Susan Solomon will be the featured Eminent Scientist speaker. Attend the Graduate School Reality Check and graduate school networking events to meet and talk with graduate school recruiters. All events will take place in the Capital Hilton (1001 16th Street NW), except for the Undergraduate Poster Session and Sci-Mix, which will be held in the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, located between 7th and 9th Streets and N Street and Mt. Vernon Place (approximately K Street).

  15. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  16. Facing the Rising Sun: A History of Black Educators in Washington, DC, 1800-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Rona M.; View, Jenice L.

    2009-01-01

    Over 50 years after the monumental decision of "Brown v. Board of Education," many U.S. schools remain separate and unequal. This includes schools in the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. The article discusses how in the two centuries of public education in Washington, D.C., Black educators used a variety of subversive tactics to…

  17. 77 FR 41247 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for Printing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Printing Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Interim rule with request for... Washington, DC, Federal Wage System (FWS) special wage schedule for printing and lithographic positions. Printing and lithographic employees in the Washington, DC, wage area will now be paid from the regular...

  18. Ocular findings in human immunodeficiency virus patients in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleem, Mona A; Ramsahai, Shweta; Del Fierro, Katrina; Rasul, Samad; Onumah, Chavon; Lerebours, Valerie; Gajjala, Jhansi; Copeland, Robert A; Jones, Leslie S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Washington, DC in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of patients with HIV who were seen by the ophthalmology consultation service between September 2003 and May 2011 at a single academic institution in Washington, DC. Medical history and ophthalmic findings were reviewed. Patients with complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination were included. Descriptive statistics were performed. The records of 151 patients were included in the final analysis. All patients had complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination. Sixty-eight (45 %) patients and fifty-eight (50 %) of those with a diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. The leading anterior segment disease was herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the leading posterior segment disease was HIV retinopathy. Of the 151 included patients, 78 (52 %) were receiving HAART at the time of the examination. Thirty-one (42 %) of those not receiving HAART were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. In this study, we find that the overall prevalence of ocular disease has decreased since the introduction of HAART. However, HIV patients continue to be predisposed to developing ophthalmic disease at higher rates than the general population. Visual dysfunction remains an important source of morbidity in HIV patients, particularly in those with AIDS. Measures for improvement include increased communication between infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists to ensure adherence to HAART and routine eye examinations.

  19. Spacelab being closed up for move to Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A closeup view of the hatch to this Spacelab module shows an empty interior as the module is being prepared in the Operations & Checkout Building for shipment to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. Visible on the floor are the foot restraints used by astronauts to keep them stationary while conducting experiments. Spacelab was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the Space Shuttle program. It first flew on STS-9 in November 1983 and its final flight was the STS-90 Neurolab mission in April 1998. The Spacelab concept of modular experiment racks in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment made it highly user-friendly and accessible. Numerous experiments conceived by hundreds of scientists on the ground were conducted by flight crews in orbit. Spacelab modules served as on-orbit homes for everything from squirrel monkeys to plant seeds. They supported astronomical as well as Earth observations, for servicing the Hubble Space Telescope and for research preparatory to the International Space Station. One of the greatest benefits afforded by the Spacelab missions was the opportunity to fly a mission more than once, with the second or third flight building on the experiences and data gathered from its predecessors.

  20. National Conference on New Juvenile Justice Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, Alice C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the standards on rights of minors, abuse and neglect, non-criminal behavior, and schools and education which were adopted at the National Conference on New Juvenile Justice Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977. (Author)

  1. Partners In Motion And Customer Satisfaction In The Washington Dc Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    PARTNERS IN MOTION IS A PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING THE QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF TRAVEL INFORMATION TO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, THE MEDIA, AND, ULTIMATELY, TO THE TRAVELER IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA. THE PROGRAM WAS INITIA...

  2. 78 FR 1 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for Printing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Printing Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: The..., 2012, abolishing the Washington, DC, Federal Wage System special wage schedule for printing and...

  3. CO2 Network Design for Washington DC/Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Ghosh, S.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion method to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in the urban areas of Washington DC and Baltimore at approximately 1km2 resolutions. The aim of this project is to help establish reliable measurement methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used to guide mitigation efforts. Since inversion methods depend on atmospheric observations of GHG, deploying a suitable network of ground-based measurement stations is a fundamental step in estimating emissions from the perspective of the atmosphere with reasonable levels of uncertainty. The purpose of this work is to design a tower based network of measurement stations that can reduce the uncertainty in emissions by 50% in the central areas of DC and Baltimore. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) was used along with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface emissions (footprints) for the months of February and July 2013. An iterative selection algorithm, based on k-means clustering method, was applied in order to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize the urban contribution. Afterwards, a synthetic inversion Kalman Filter was used to evaluate the performances of the observing system based on the merit of the retrieval over time and the amount of a priori uncertainty reduced by the network. We present the performances of various measurement networks that consist of different number of towers and where the location of these towers vary. Results show that too compact networks lose spatial coverage whilst too spread networks lose capabilities of constraining uncertainties in the fluxes. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of low-cost, low-accuracy sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and

  4. A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C. - A Cartographic Multimedia Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced ?A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C.,' a multimedia CD-ROM that uses topographic maps to tour Washington, D.C. Although designed for the middle school grade level, it can also be used to teach introductory topographic map reading skills to any level. Two versions of ?A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C.,? are available. The first version, for Macintosh? systems only, was developed and produced as a prototype with educational resources funds and is available free of charge. The second version, for dual platforms, Macintosh?, and Windows? systems, is a sales item. The dual platform version contains improvements in content and navigational capabilities.

  5. Sidwell Friends Quaker School, Washington, DC, by KieranTimberlake Architects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez; Stylsvig Madsen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the new Middle School Building on the campus of Sidwell Friends School in Washington DC was completed at a cost of $28 million. The project is a renovation and addition to a fifty-year-old educational facility transforming the building and the surrounding landscape into a green expression...

  6. Groundwater Site Identification Indexes for Washington D.C., Baltimore City, and the Counties of Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets represent 23 geographic 5-minute indexes for the counties of Maryland, one 2 1/2-minute index for Washington D.C., and 1-mile square index for...

  7. Enjoying green cities: Assessing visitors' attitude and preferences of urban forests in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelio II Andrada; Jinyang. Deng

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and preferences of visitors toWashington, D.C., one of the top tourism cities in the United States. Results of a visitor survey conducted at two sites show that respondents have a highly positive attitude towards the city's urban forest and that their appreciation of the urban forest has a positive influence on their experiences...

  8. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV... the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference action under 1 CFR part 51, subject to... Federal Register establishing five RNAV routes in the Washington, DC area (78 FR 29615). Subsequent to...

  9. Drunk Driving. Surgeon General's Workshop. Proceedings (Washington, D.C., December 14-16, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus Associates.

    This volume presents solutions, recommendations, and strategies in eleven interrelated areas considered at the Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving held in Washington, D.C. in December of 1988. Lists of the members of the Workshop Planning Committee and members of the federal advisory group on follow-up activities for the workshop are…

  10. Vouchers escolares y justicia social: evidencia de Washington, DC

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Boccardo, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    El Programa de Becas de Oportunidad del Distrito de Columbia (OSP) es una iniciativa de vales o vouchers escolares dirigidos a los estudiantes más necesitados en la capital de EEUU. Los vouchers, con un valor de hasta $ 7,500 al año, son otorgados por medio de una lotería a los estudiantes con ingresos familiares cerca o por debajo del umbral de pobreza federal. Los estudiantes pueden usar sus vouchers en cualquiera de las 60 escuelas privadas participantes en DC. La pregunta que surge es: ...

  11. An Urban Soccer Stadium for Washington D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Ard, John Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Expansive parking lots, miles of asphalt, and traffic jams: this is what the modern sport stadia has come to represent. Does it have to be this way? What does the future of sports stadia hold? Can we build a stadium that is better integrated to the community around it? The stadium must become a major urban element again and it must engage the urban context. D.C. United, the most storied franchise in MLS history, needs a new home. Baltimore and other locations in Maryland would gladly we...

  12. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  13. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  14. Social Marketing and the "New" Technology: Proceedings of a Washington Roundtable (Washington, DC, March 25, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document examines some of the key issues raised during the second Washington Roundtable on Social Marketing, convened by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) in 1998. AED invited participants to examine whether the interactive technologies that are revolutionizing commercial marketing--personal computers, the Internet (especially the…

  15. Can learning in informal settings mitigate disadvantage and promote urban sustainability? School gardens in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley; Fisher, Dana R.; Ray, Rashawn

    2017-09-01

    This article explores how school gardens provide learning opportunities for school-aged children while concurrently helping cities achieve sustainability. The authors analyse this process in Washington, DC, a particularly innovative metropolis in the United States. This national capital city boasts two of the most progressive examples of legislation aimed at improving environmental awareness and inciting citizens to engage in environmental stewardship, both of which focus on school-aged children: (1) the Healthy Schools Act of 2010 and (2) the Sustainable DC Act of 2012. Together these policies focus on bringing healthy lifestyles and environmental awareness, including meaningful outdoor learning experiences, to students and families in the District of Columbia. This article is organised into three parts. The first part discusses how Washington, DC became a sustainable learning city through the implementation of these specific policies. The next part presents the results of a pilot study conducted in one kindergarten to Grade 5 (K-5) elementary school located in Ward 8, the poorest part of the city. The authors' analysis considers the support and the obstacles teachers and principals in the District of Columbia (DC) are experiencing in their efforts to integrate school gardens into the curriculum and the culture of their schools. Exploring the impacts of the school garden on the students, the local community, and the inter-generational relationships at and beyond schools, the authors aim to shed light on the benefits and the challenges. While Washington, DC is fostering its hope that the benefits prevail as it provides a model for other cities to follow, the authors also candidly present the challenges of implementing these policies. In the final part, they discuss the implications of their findings for school gardens and sustainable learning cities more broadly. They encourage further research to gain more insights into effective ways of promoting environmental

  16. Effects of Washington, D.C. law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Geary, Lori L

    2006-03-01

    To assess the effects of Washington, D.C. law prohibiting drivers' use of hand-held cell phones on such use. Daytime observations of drivers were conducted at signalized intersections in D.C. in March 2004, several months before the law took effect on July 1, 2004, and again in October 2004. As a comparison, observations also were conducted in areas of Virginia and Maryland located close to the D.C. border. Maryland and Virginia placed no limitations on drivers' phone use. Use was observed for 36,091 vehicles in D.C., 25,151 vehicles in Maryland, and 28,483 vehicles in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held cell phones among drivers in D.C. declined significantly from 6.1% before the law to 3.5% after. Phone use declined slightly in Maryland and increased significantly in Virginia so that, relative to the patterns of hand-held phone use in the two states, phone use in D.C. declined 50%. Hand-held phone use in D.C. declined comparably among drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. D.C. police issued 2,556 citations and 1,232 warnings for cell phone violations during July-November 2004. There were spates of media coverage when the law was passed and when it took effect. D.C.'s law prohibiting drivers' hand-held phone use had a strong effect on such use among drivers in D.C. Without ongoing publicized enforcement of the law, long-term compliance may be difficult to achieve.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning Meeting Summary Report: Washington, D.C. - October 27-28, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes key findings and outcomes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning meeting, held on October 28-29, 2011, in Washington, D.C.

  18. Weatherization Program is a Capital Idea for Washington, D.C.: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    Washington, D.C. demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  19. Energy Savings Analysis of the Proposed Revision of the Washington D.C. Non-Residential Energy Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.

    2017-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of savings for the proposed Washington D.C. energy code relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. It includes annual and life cycle savings for site energy, source energy, energy cost, and carbon dioxide emissions that would result from adoption and enforcement of the proposed code for newly constructed buildings in Washington D.C. over a five year period.

  20. Geologic map of the Washington West 30’ × 60’ quadrangle, Maryland, Virginia, and Washington D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, Peter T.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E. Allen; Drake, Avery A.; Froelich, Albert J.; Horton, J. Wright; Kasselas, Gregorios; Mixon, Robert B.; McCartan, Lucy; Nelson, Arthur E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Pavlides, Louis; Powars, David S.; Southworth, C. Scott; Weems, Robert E.

    2018-01-02

    The Washington West 30’ × 60’ quadrangle covers an area of approximately 4,884 square kilometers (1,343 square miles) in and west of the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. The eastern part of the area is highly urbanized, and more rural areas to the west are rapidly being developed. The area lies entirely within the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin and mostly within the Potomac River watershed. It contains part of the Nation's main north-south transportation corridor east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, consisting of Interstate Highway 95, U.S. Highway 1, and railroads, as well as parts of the Capital Beltway and Interstate Highway 66. Extensive Federal land holdings in addition to those in Washington, D.C., include the Marine Corps Development and Education Command at Quantico, Fort Belvoir, Vint Hill Farms Station, the Naval Ordnance Station at Indian Head, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Great Falls Park, and Manassas National Battlefield Park. The quadrangle contains most of Washington, D.C.; part or all of Arlington, Culpeper, Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, Prince William, Rappahannock, and Stafford Counties in northern Virginia; and parts of Charles, Montgomery, and Prince Georges Counties in Maryland.The Washington West quadrangle spans four geologic provinces. From west to east these provinces are the Blue Ridge province, the early Mesozoic Culpeper basin, the Piedmont province, and the Coastal Plain province. There is some overlap in ages of rocks in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces. The Blue Ridge province, which occupies the western part of the quadrangle, contains metamorphic and igneous rocks of Mesoproterozoic to Early Cambrian age. Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) rocks are mostly granitic gneisses, although older metaigneous rocks are found as xenoliths. Small areas of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie Mesoproterozoic rocks. Neoproterozoic granitic rocks of the Robertson River Igneous Suite intruded

  1. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  2. Prediction and impact of sea level rise on properties and infrastructure of Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyub, Bilal M; Braileanu, Haralamb G; Qureshi, Naeem

    2012-11-01

    The city of Washington, District of Columbia (DC) will face flooding, and eventual geographic changes, in both the short- and long-term future because of sea level rise (SLR) brought on by climate change, including global warming. To fully assess the potential damage, a linear model was developed to predict SLR in Washington, DC, and its results compared to other nonlinear model results. Using geographic information systems (GIS) and graphical visualization, analytical models were created for the city and its underlying infrastructure. Values of SLR used in the assessments were 0.1 m for the year 2043 and 0.4 m for the year 2150 to model short-term SLR; 1.0 m, 2.5 m, and 5.0 m were used for long-term SLR. All necessary data layers were obtained from free data banks from the U.S. Geological Survey and Washington, DC government websites. Using GIS software, inventories of the possibly affected infrastructure were made at different SLR. Results of the analysis show that low SLR would lead to a minimal loss of city area. Damages to the local properties, however, are estimated at an assessment value of at least US$2 billion based on only the direct losses of properties listed in real estate databases, without accounting for infrastructure damages that include military installations, residential areas, governmental property, and cultural institutions. The projected value of lost property is in excess of US$24.6 billion at 5.0 m SLR. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Washington D.C. Lightning Mapping Array Demonstration Project Risk Reduction for GOES Lightning Mapper Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephan B.; Goodman, Steven; Krehbiel, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 10-site, ground-based total lightning mapping array (LMA) has been installed in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area in 2006. The total lightning data from DC LMA are being processed in real-time and derived products are being provided to the forecasters of the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Sterling, Virginia. The NWS forecasters are using the products to monitor convective activity along with conventional radar and satellite products. Operational experience with these products is intended to inform decision making in how to best utilize in NWS operations similar data available from the GOES Lightning Mapper. The paper will discuss specifics of the LMA as well as proposed research into use of total lightning data in predicting and warning for cloud-to-ground lightning.

  4. Characterization of HIV diversity, phylodynamics and drug resistance in Washington, DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available Washington DC has a high burden of HIV with a 2.0% HIV prevalence. The city is a national and international hub potentially containing a broad diversity of HIV variants; yet few sequences from DC are available on GenBank to assess the evolutionary history of HIV in the US capital. Towards this general goal, here we analyze extensive sequence data and investigate HIV diversity, phylodynamics, and drug resistant mutations (DRM in DC.Molecular HIV-1 sequences were collected from participants infected through 2015 as part of the DC Cohort, a longitudinal observational study of HIV+ patients receiving care at 13 DC clinics. Sequences were paired with Cohort demographic, risk, and clinical data and analyzed using maximum likelihood, Bayesian and coalescent approaches of phylogenetic, network and population genetic inference. We analyzed 601 sequences from 223 participants for int (~864 bp and 2,810 sequences from 1,659 participants for PR/RT (~1497 bp.Ninety-nine and 94% of the int and PR/RT sequences, respectively, were identified as subtype B, with 14 non-B subtypes also detected. Phylodynamic analyses of US born infected individuals showed that HIV population size varied little over time with no significant decline in diversity. Phylogenetic analyses grouped 13.5% of the int sequences into 14 clusters of 2 or 3 sequences, and 39.0% of the PR/RT sequences into 203 clusters of 2-32 sequences. Network analyses grouped 3.6% of the int sequences into 4 clusters of 2 sequences, and 10.6% of the PR/RT sequences into 76 clusters of 2-7 sequences. All network clusters were detected in our phylogenetic analyses. Higher proportions of clustered sequences were found in zip codes where HIV prevalence is highest (r = 0.607; P<0.00001. We detected a high prevalence of DRM for both int (17.1% and PR/RT (39.1%, but only 8 int and 12 PR/RT amino acids were identified as under adaptive selection. We observed a significant (P<0.0001 association between main risk

  5. Circulating Practices: Migration and Translocal Development in Washington D.C. and Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Strunk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Migrant remittances are increasingly seen as a potential form of development in the global South, but the impact of international migration on sending regions is far from straightforward. In this article, I analyze migrant communities of origin in rural Bolivia as dynamic places that are constantly reproduced through connections with other places. I document the movement of migrant practices between Washington D.C. and Cochabamba and the influence of monetary and non-monetary flows on Bolivian cultural practices, politics, and development. I demonstrate how hometown associations and returning migrants have transferred organizational practices and political ideas about development from the United States to rural Bolivia. In addition, I explore migration’s role in struggles over belonging in Cochabamba, focusing on the efforts by migrants in Washington D.C. to stake their claim through transnational houses and collective remittance projects and on recent internal migration from other regions in Bolivia. Finally, I assess the sustainability of migrant-led development in Cochabamba. Although collaboration with migrants can strengthen the local state by providing more resources, it conditions the type of development that can take place and has yet to provide adequate opportunities for returning migrants or young people in rural Bolivia.

  6. DNA Barcoding analysis of seafood accuracy in Washington, D.C. restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David B.; Castro Nallar, Eduardo; Rathod, Jason

    2017-01-01

    In Washington D.C., recent legislation authorizes citizens to test if products are properly represented and, if they are not, to bring a lawsuit for the benefit of the general public. Recent studies revealing the widespread phenomenon of seafood substitution across the United States make it a fertile area for consumer protection testing. DNA barcoding provides an accurate and cost-effective way to perform these tests, especially when tissue alone is available making species identification based on morphology impossible. In this study, we sequenced the 5′ barcoding region of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene for 12 samples of vertebrate and invertebrate food items across six restaurants in Washington, D.C. and used multiple analytical methods to make identifications. These samples included several ambiguous menu listings, sequences with little genetic variation among closely related species and one sequence with no available reference sequence. Despite these challenges, we were able to make identifications for all samples and found that 33% were potentially mislabeled. While we found a high degree of mislabeling, the errors involved closely related species and we did not identify egregious substitutions as have been found in other cities. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding and robust analyses in identifying seafood items for consumer protection. PMID:28462038

  7. Availability of Network Psychiatrists Among the Largest Health Insurance Carriers in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blech, Benzion; West, Joyce C; Yang, Zhuoyin; Barber, Keila D; Wang, Philip; Coyle, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Lack of access to mental health treatment remains a significant problem in the United States, even after implementation of mental health parity legislation. This study examined availability of psychiatrists listed in insurance carrier network provider databases in the Washington, D.C., area. Contact information was obtained for 1,184 psychiatrists listed in online directories for three of the largest insurance carriers serving the Washington, D.C., area. The "mystery shopper" method was used to assess the accuracy of listed contact information, new outpatient appointment availability, and average wait times for 50 psychiatrists randomly selected from each insurance directory. Most (77%) physicians were successfully contacted, meaning that someone answered the phone or returned a voice mail message, and 51% of the psychiatrists had working telephone numbers verified to be correct. Fifteen percent of the psychiatrists were accepting new outpatients with the target insurance, with average wait times of 19 days; only 7% were able to schedule an appointment within two weeks. Inaccuracy of insurance provider directories significantly affected the ability of patients to obtain timely mental care.

  8. Comparing Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Testing Strategies: Targeted and Routine Testing in Washington, DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Castel

    Full Text Available Routine HIV testing is an essential approach to identifying undiagnosed infections, linking people to care and treatment, and preventing new infections. In Washington, DC, where HIV prevalence is 2.4%, a combination of routine and targeted testing approaches has been implemented since 2006.We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the District of Columbia (DC Department of Health's routine and targeted HIV testing implementation strategies. We collected HIV testing data from 3 types of DC Department of Health-funded testing sites (clinics, hospitals, and community-based organizations; collected testing and labor costs; and calculated effectiveness measures including cost per new diagnosis and cost per averted transmission.Compared to routine testing, targeted testing resulted in higher positivity rates (1.33% vs. 0.44%. Routine testing averted 34.30 transmissions per year compared to targeted testing at 17.78. The cost per new diagnosis was lower for targeted testing ($2,467 vs. $7,753 per new diagnosis as was the cost per transmission averted ($33,160 vs. $104,205. When stratified by testing site, both testing approaches were most cost effective in averting new transmissions when conducted by community based organizations ($25,037 routine; $33,123 targeted compared to hospitals or clinics.While routine testing identified more newly diagnosed infections and averted more infections than targeted testing, targeted testing is more cost effective per diagnosis and per transmission averted overall. Given the high HIV prevalence in DC, the DC Department of Health's implementation strategy should continue to encourage routine testing implementation with emphasis on a combined testing strategy among community-based organizations.

  9. 108th Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, August 4-8, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Washington, DC--the nation's capital--celebrates a history rich in diversity and character. One of the most popular cities for sightseeing, Washington contains countless points of interest for its visitors. The world's largest museum complex, the Smithsonian Institution, invites you to explore exhibits that highlight the scientific, cultural, political, and technological developments of the United States and its people. Visit the home to original pieces of the American heritage, such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, that have helped to shape the way we live today. The art lovers among you will delight in the seven major art galleries. See the modern art and sculpture of the Hirshhorn Museum and the newly opened Sculpture Garden; the Sackler Gallery's collection of Asian art; and the only museum devoted to the art and culture of Africa, the National Museum of African Art. In Washington, there is music in the air, from the Kennedy Center's many stages and the clubs of Georgetown and Adams Morgan to the military bands that give concerts on the Mall. Whatever your culinary desire, be it authentic Texas chili or the finest Asian cuisine, you'll find it at one of the city's internationally famous eateries. What a perfect place for APA to convene its first annual convention of the new millennium!

  10. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  11. The Politics of Inclusion: A Case Study of the Violence Against Women Act & Foreign Born Latinas in Washington, DC"

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation asks: How does the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) impact Latinas in the Washington, DC area? My research focuses on the Violence Against Women Act and the ways in which the theory of intersectionality is absent from policy, although it is a necessary consideration when on-the-ground advocates are helping foreign-born, Latina, immigrant victims of intimate partner violence. I contend that Washington, DC is a new region for Latino/a communities and that Latinas are less lik...

  12. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  13. Flavonoids and heart health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop may 31-june 1, 2005, Washington DC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdman, J.W.; Balentine, D.; Arab, L.; Beecher, G.; Dwyer, J.T.; Folts, J.; Harnly, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Keen, C.L.; Mazza, G.; Messina, M.; Scalbert, A.; Vita, J.; Williamson, G.; Burrows, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on flavonoids as presented during a workshop entitled, "Flavonoids and Heart Health," held by the ILSI North America Project Committee on Flavonoids in Washington, DC, May 31 and June 1, 2005. Because a thorough knowledge and understanding about

  14. GPS-ABC radiated chamber testing overview and results : GPS-ABC Workshop VI : RTCA Washington, DC, March 30, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This presentation, which was given during the GPS-ABC Workshop VI in Washington, DC on March 30, 2017 details the authors' radiated testing protocols and results. GPS receiver testing was carried out April 25-29, 2016 at the Army : Research Laborator...

  15. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  16. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  17. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  18. Tree canopy change and neighborhood stability: A comparative analysis of Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Ching Chuang; Christopher G. Boone; Dexter H. Locke; J. Morgan Grove; Ali Whitmer; Geoffrey Buckley; Sainan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Trees provide important health, ecosystem, and aesthetic services in urban areas, but they are unevenly distributed. Some neighborhoods have abundant tree canopy and others nearly none. We analyzed how neighborhood characteristics and changes in income over time related to the distribution of urban tree canopy in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD. We used stepwise...

  19. Children's Health in Washington, D.C.: Access and Health Challenges despite High Insurance Coverage Rates. Research Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., the vast majority of children have health insurance. Yet District children often lack sufficient access to medical care and face significant health threats from chronic conditions and risk factors such as exposure to violence in schools and neighborhoods. These findings emerged from an assessment of children's health in…

  20. 76 FR 26336 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed Klingle Valley Trail in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    .../Urban Engineer, 1990 K Street, NW., Suite 510, Washington, DC 20006-1103, (202) 219-3536; or District...(c)]; 6. Social and Economic: Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000(d)-2000(d)(1)]; 7. Wetlands and Water Resources: Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251- 1377 (Section 404, Section 401, Section 319); 8...

  1. Space Science Education and Public Outreach in the Washington, DC Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Washington, M. L.

    1999-05-01

    This paper reports on educational activities supported by the IDEAS program in the Washington, DC area. Here, we discuss activities which have been in progress over the last 5 years, which include the following: (1) development of a series of videos in space science, and associated "hands-on" activities, intended for pre-college students as supplements to their classroom education; (2) a summer teacher-training course, along the same topic outlines as (1); and (3) direct involvement of students in space science research at the Naval Research Laboratory and at Howard University's on-campus observatory. We have completed 5 chapters, with a total run time of more than 9 hours, of our proposed "Pyramids to Planets" video series in Earth and Space Science (totalling 16 chapters, of which only the space science portions are funded by IDEAS). We also plan a "stand-alone" video, "From Earth to Mars", which is a documentary of a crewed mission to Mars and return, using student "actors", which utilizes and conveys only factual information and realistic proposals for such a mission. We presented a 2-week, full-time course of study in Earth & Space Science for DC Public Schools science teachers during the summers of 1996 and 1997 (co-sponsored by the DC Space Grant Consortium). This course also introduced the teachers to the "hands-on" activities demonstrated by students in the videos. Students are directly involved, via after-school programs and summer internships, in space science activities at NRL. These include pre-launch instrument development and testing, post-launch data analysis, and education/public outreach activities for the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) launched February 23, 1999. Students also participated in the development of two spectrographs planned for use on an existing telescope at Howard University's on-campus observatory. The facilities at this observatory are being made available for pre-college student and public use, as

  2. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Lee Harris

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

  3. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jordan Lee; Balci, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

  4. Modeling the effect of transient populations on epidemics in Washington DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nidhi; Youssef, Mina; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Large numbers of transients visit big cities, where they come into contact with many people at crowded areas. However, epidemiological studies have not paid much attention to the role of this subpopulation in disease spread. We evaluate the effect of transients on epidemics by extending a synthetic population model for the Washington DC metro area to include leisure and business travelers. A synthetic population is obtained by combining multiple data sources to build a detailed minute-by-minute simulation of population interaction resulting in a contact network. We simulate an influenza-like illness over the contact network to evaluate the effects of transients on the number of infected residents. We find that there are significantly more infections when transients are considered. Since much population mixing happens at major tourism locations, we evaluate two targeted interventions: closing museums and promoting healthy behavior (such as the use of hand sanitizers, covering coughs, etc.) at museums. Surprisingly, closing museums has no beneficial effect. However, promoting healthy behavior at the museums can both reduce and delay the epidemic peak. We analytically derive the reproductive number and perform stability analysis using an ODE-based model.

  5. Urban and Suburban Influences on Water Chemistry in Washington DC: Impervious Surfaces and Urban Stream Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Petersen, E.

    2015-12-01

    Among the challenges facing urban rivers are water stormwater runoff problems and changing water chemistry, not only from air and water pollution sources, but also from altered geology with the development of "urban karst". Seventy five percent of the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. is urban or impervious. The Anacostia River experiences environmental challenges similar to those of other urban industrial rivers (heavy metal, PCB and PAH contamination). It also has Ca/Sr ratios above 200, and Na concentrations higher than Ca, and elevated ionic strength, all associated with extended chemical interaction with concrete. While these chemical characteristics have been documented in the urban areas within DC, they have not been examined in the largely suburban/mixed development tributaries of the Anacostia. Here we examine the base-flow geochemistry of the Anacostia River and its suburban tributaries (6 locations) over a year (November 2014- August 2015), concentrating on the following water chemistry variables: pH, hardness, SAR, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Ba, Ni, total P, S, Sr, NO3-, NH4+, PO43-. NO3- and NH4+ were generally lowest in at all sites in January, but rose to between 0.5 and 2.4 mg/L in June, with highest NO3- concentrations in suburban areas. Na and Cl concentrations were 5x higher in suburban areas than urban areas during the winter months. Ca/Sr concentration ratios, were between 120 and 200 for suburban sites but increased as the sites became more urban (to a high of 240 for the most urban site). These trends have been observed in other urban streams, and correlate with percent impervious area. The data follow patterns expected for "urban stream syndrome" and dissolution of concrete. Suburban areas, with their relatively small streams, show greater winter salting effects than more urban areas down stream. Suburban areas also show higher NO3- (and occasionally higher NH4+) than urban areas except in winter. The data presented here

  6. Building-Resolved CFD Simulations for Greenhouse Gas Transport and Dispersion over Washington DC / Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Ghosh, S.; Mueller, K.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over urban domains such as Washington DC / Baltimore with high spatial and temporal resolution. Atmospheric transport of tracer gases from an emission source to a tower mounted receptor are usually conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For such simulations, WRF employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics generated by the flow around buildings and communities comprising a large city. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model that utilizes large eddy simulation methods to model flow around buildings at length scales much smaller than is practical with WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex urban topography on near-field dispersion and mixing difficult to simulate with a mesoscale atmospheric model. Such capabilities may be important in determining urban GHG emissions using atmospheric measurements. A methodology has been developed to run FDS as a sub-grid scale model within a WRF simulation. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards that computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. Using the coupled WRF / FDS model, NIST will investigate the effects of the urban canopy at horizontal resolutions of 10-20 m in a domain of 12 x 12 km. The coupled WRF-FDS simulations will be used to calculate the dispersion of tracer gases in the North-East Corridor and to evaluate the upwind areas that contribute to tower observations, referred to in the inversion community as influence functions. Results of this study will provide guidance regarding the importance of explicit simulations of urban atmospheric turbulence in obtaining accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and transport.

  7. Parental perceived built environment measures and active play in Washington DC metropolitan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Knight, Brandon; Ray, Rashawn; Saelens, Brian E

    2016-06-01

    Previous research identified associations between perceived built environment and adult physical activity; however, fewer studies have explored associations in children. The Built Environment and Active Play (BEAP) Study examined relationships between children's active play and parental perceptions of home neighborhood built environments within the Washington, DC metropolitan area (DMV). With this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was administered in 2014 to parents of children (7-12 years old) residing in the DMV. Data were collected on children's active play, home built environment parental perceptions, and demographics. Active play response data were dichotomized by whether the child did or did not meet the 60-min/day Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGAs) recommendation. Perceived home neighborhood built environment data were also dichotomized. Chi-square tests determined differences in parental perceived built environment measures between active and non-active child groups. Logistic regression assessed the association of parental perceived built environment variables with active play while adjusting for demographic variables. The BEAP Study population (n = 144) included a uniquely diverse population of children with 23.7% African Americans and 10.4% Asian Americans. A statistically significant greater proportion of active children's parents agreed with the importance of neighborhood esthetics, active play areas, walkability and safety as compared to the parents of non-active children. Fully adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that some parental perceived built environment measures (e.g. access to play equipment) were predictors of their children meeting the 60-min/day PAGA recommendation. Our findings support the important role of home neighborhood built environment perceptions on childhood active play.

  8. Knowledge and perspectives of breast and cervical cancer screening among female African immigrants in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwe, Ezinne Grace; Williams, Karen Patricia; Sheppard, Vanessa

    2013-12-01

    Black women in the USA have both a higher percentage of late-stage diagnoses as well as the highest rates of mortality from breast cancer when compared to women of other ethnic subgroups. Additionally, Black women have the second highest prevalence of cervical cancer. Many reports evaluating the cancer outcomes of Black women combine data on African-born immigrants and US-born Blacks. This categorization ignores subtle yet important cultural differences between the two groups, which may ultimately affect breast and cervical cancer screening practices. Therefore, this study investigated knowledge and awareness levels of breast and cervical cancer screening practices among female African-born immigrants to the USA residing in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. Data were collected from 38 participants through key informant interviews, focus group sessions, and a sociodemographic questionnaire over a 3-month study period. Results suggest that fatalism, stigma, and privacy are among the major factors that affect the decision to seek preventative screening measures for breast and cervical cancer among this population. Additionally, the study implies that cervical cancer awareness is significantly lower among this population when compared to breast cancer. This study highlights differences between women of African descent residing in the USA and the need for continued research to increase understanding of the manner in which immigrant status affects health-seeking behavior. This information is critical for researchers, physicians, and public health educators aiming to design culturally appropriate interventions to effectively reduce the prevalence of breast and cervical cancer among female African immigrants living in the USA.

  9. Influence of Land Use, Discharge and Impervious Surfaces on the Geochemistry of the Anacostia River, Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; De Filippis, N.

    2016-12-01

    Challenges facing urban rivers include water stormwater runoff and changing water chemistry, not only from air and water pollution, but also from altered geology with the development of "urban karst" (concrete). The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. has 75% of its watershed classified as urban or impervious, and is among the 10 most contaminated rivers in the USA. In addition to its relatively well-documented organic contamination problems, we hypothesize that concrete could be substantially altering its geochemistry. Here we report findings from 6 locations along the Anacostia River and its tributaries that indicate both seasonally elevated Na and Cl (becoming brackish, 2000-3000 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids, in a suburban creek), and elevated cations in low flow suburban tributaries. Concentrations of all major cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) strongly, and positively, covaried (factor scores (FC) >0.88). However Ca/Sr ratios negatively covaried with major cations (FC -0.64). This suggests the weathering of low Sr minerals, such as those in concrete. In urbanized portions of the river, Ca/Sr was >200, which is a concrete weathering indicator in areas with silica mineral bedrock (Anacostia bedrock consists of Precambrian phyllits, sericite, chlorite, quartzite, slate and schist). Mean ± SE Sr was 0.13 ± 0.02 mg/L in the most urban area, but 0.37 ± 0.03 mg/L in the most suburban. This supports the hypothesis that the source of elevated cations in the urban areas is concrete weathering, not bedrock mineral weathering. Inorganic N was not correlated strongly with cations. Mean NO3- was highest at the most suburban site (1.8 ± 0.2 mg/L), but rose above 3 mg/L in some samples at all sites. Elevated NO3- did not appear to vary with season or discharge rate at time of sampling. NH4+ was generally lower than 1 mg/L but spiked to 3.4 mg/L at the most urban site. These data follow patterns expected for "urban stream syndrome". Suburban areas, with their relatively small streams

  10. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  11. The development of permanent isolation surface barriers: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of in situ (in place) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). The current focus of development efforts is to design barriers that will function in a semiarid to subhumid climate, Emit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero amounts, be maintenance free, and last up to 1000 years or more. A series of field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies have been conducted for several years. The results of tests to date confirm that the Hanford barrier concepts are valid for both present and wetter climatic conditions. The data collected also have provided the foundation for the design of a large prototype barrier to be constructed later in 1993. This paper presents the results of some of the field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies.

  12. Two new species of Sabulina (Caryophyllaceae from Washington State, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben S. Legler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabulina basaltica and Sabulina sororia (Caryophyllaceae are described as new species endemic to Washington State, U.S.A. Sabulina basaltica is restricted to high-elevation, basalt rocks in the northeastern Olympic Mountains, and Sabulina sororia to high-elevation, dunite rocks of the Twin Sisters Range in the North Cascade Mountains. Both were previously confused with Sabulina rossii (formerly called Arenaria rossii or Minuartia rossii. Their recognition as distinct species is supported by morphological and molecular characters and disjunct geographic distributions. Both are illustrated, mapped and compared to related species. We also present a molecular phylogeny of Sabulina based on nuclear ITS and plastid trnQ-rps16 DNA with increased sampling of North American taxa. The phylogeny resolves a single clade containing all glabrous, perennial, North American Sabulina taxa including Sabulina rossii and both of the new species.

  13. Longer-term effects of Washington, DC, law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the substantial short-term declines in drivers' use of hand-held phones achieved in the District of Columbia (DC) were sustained 1 year after a ban. Drivers' daytime hand-held cell phone use was observed in DC and nearby areas of Virginia and Maryland, states without bans. Observations were conducted several months before the ban, shortly after, and 1 year later. The number of vehicles observed in all three surveys combined was 51,945 in DC, 36,796 in Maryland, and 43,033 in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held phones declined significantly from 6.1 percent before the law to 3.5 percent shortly after; when measured 1 year later, use was 4.0 percent, still significantly lower than baseline. Based on increases in rates of talking on hand-held phones in Maryland and Virginia, longer-term phone use in DC was estimated to be 53 percent lower than would have been expected without the ban. Declines in DC were identified for drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. In DC, there was an initial decline of about 50 percent in drivers talking on hand-held cell phones following a ban, and this decline was sustained about 1 year later. After a similar ban in New York, there was an initial decline in phone use comparable with the initial decline in DC, but the decline a year after the New York ban took full effect was only about 21 percent and not statistically significant. The potential difference in sustained effectiveness for the DC ban may reflect tougher enforcement in DC. Even if full compliance with hand-held phone bans can be achieved, the risks from drivers' use of hands-free phones will remain.

  14. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Scarlett, Janet M.; Zawistowski, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other-sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized that one way to increase the lives saved with regard to large dogs in shelters is to keep them home in the first place when possible. Our research is the first to collect data in New York City and Washington, D.C., identifying the process leading to the owner relinquishment of large dogs. We found that targets for interventions to decrease large dog relinquishment are likely different in each community. Abstract While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community. PMID:26480315

  15. The hydrogeology of urbanization: The lost springs of Washington, D.C., late Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of D.C., and the Baltimore Long Term Ecological Research site (LTER): Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi; Pavich, Milan J.; Sharp, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a major process now shaping the environment. This field trip looks at the hydrogeology of the general Washington, D.C., area and focuses on the city's lost springs. Until 150 years ago, springs and shallow dug wells were the main source of drinking water for residents of Washington, D.C. Celebrating the nation's bicentennial, Garnett P. Williams of the U.S. Geological Survey examined changes in water supply and water courses since 1776. He examined old newspaper files to determine the location of the city's springs. This field trip visits sites of some of these springs (few of which are now flowing), discusses the hydrologic impacts of urbanization and the general geological setting, and finishes with the Baltimore Long Term Ecological Research site at Dead Run and its findings. The field trip visits some familiar locations in the Washington, D.C., area, and gives insights into their often hidden hydrologic past and present.

  16. Modeling Storm Surge and Inundation in Washington, DC, during Hurricane Isabel and the 1936 Potomac River Great Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry V. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Washington, DC, the capital of the U.S., is located along the Upper Tidal Potomac River, where a reliable operational model is needed for making predictions of storm surge and river-induced flooding. We set up a finite volume model using a semi-implicit, Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme on a base grid (200 m and a special feature of sub-grids (10 m, sourced with high-resolution LiDAR data and bathymetry surveys. The model domain starts at the fall line and extends 120 km downstream to Colonial Beach, VA. The model was used to simulate storm tides during the 2003 Hurricane Isabel. The water level measuring 3.1 m reached the upper tidal river in the vicinity of Washington during the peak of the storm, followed by second and third flood peaks two and four days later, resulting from river flooding coming downstream after heavy precipitation in the watershed. The modeled water level and timing were accurate in matching with the verified peak observations within 9 cm and 3 cm, and with R2 equal to 0.93 and 0.98 at the Wisconsin Avenue and Washington gauges, respectively. A simulation was also conducted for reconstructing the historical 1936 Potomac River Great Flood that inundated downtown. It was identified that the flood water, with a velocity exceeding 2.7 m/s in the downstream of Roosevelt Island, pinched through the bank northwest of East Potomac Park near DC. The modeled maximum inundation extents revealed a crescent-shaped flooding area, which was consistent with the historical surveyed flood map of the event.

  17. Expanding hospital HIV testing in the Bronx, New York and Washington, D.C.: Results from the HPTN 065 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Bernard M; Chavez, Pollyanna R; Hanscom, Brett; Greene, Elizabeth; McKinstry, Laura; Buchacz, Kate; Beauchamp, Geetha; Gamble, Theresa; Zingman, Barry S; Telzak, Edward; Naab, Tammey; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2017-11-27

    HIV testing is critical for both HIV treatment and prevention. Expanding testing in hospital settings can identify undiagnosed HIV infections. To evaluate the feasibility of universally offering HIV testing during emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions, 9 hospitals in the Bronx, New York and 7 in Washington DC undertook various efforts to encourage staff to offer HIV testing routinely. Outcomes included the percentage of encounters with an HIV test, the change from year 1 to year 3, and the percentages of tests that were HIV-positive and new diagnoses. From February 1, 2011 to January 31, 2014, HIV tests were conducted during 6.5% of 1,621,016 ED visits and 13.0% of 361,745 inpatient admissions in Bronx hospitals and 13.8% of 729,172 ED visits and 22.0% of 150,655 inpatient admissions in DC, with wide variation by hospital. From year 1 to year 3, testing was stable in the Bronx (6.6% to 6.9% of ED visits, 13.0% to 13.6% of inpatient admissions), but increased in DC (11.9% to 15.8% of ED visits, 19.0% to 23.9% of inpatient admissions). Overall, in the Bronx 0.4% (408) of ED HIV tests were positive, 0.3% (277) were new diagnoses; 1.8% (828) of inpatient tests were positive, 0.5% (244) were new diagnoses. In DC, 0.6% (618) of ED tests were positive, 0.4% (404) were new diagnoses; 4.9% (1349) of inpatient HIV tests were positive, 0.7% (189) were new diagnoses. Hospitals consistently identified previously undiagnosed HIV infections, but universal offer of HIV testing proved elusive.

  18. Amplification of Earthquake Ground Motions in Washington, DC, and Implications for Hazard Assessments in Central and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Horton, J. Wright; Muñoz, Jessica; Hough, Susan E.; Chapman, Martin C.; Olgun, C. Guney

    2017-12-01

    The extent of damage in Washington, DC, from the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral, VA, earthquake was surprising for an epicenter 130 km away; U.S. Geological Survey "Did-You-Feel-It" reports suggest that Atlantic Coastal Plain and other unconsolidated sediments amplified ground motions in the city. We measure this amplification relative to bedrock sites using earthquake signals recorded on a temporary seismometer array. The spectral ratios show strong amplification in the 0.7 to 4 Hz frequency range for sites on sediments. This range overlaps with resonant frequencies of buildings in the city as inferred from their heights, suggesting amplification at frequencies to which many buildings are vulnerable to damage. Our results emphasize that local amplification can raise moderate ground motions to damaging levels in stable continental regions, where low attenuation extends shaking levels over wide areas and unconsolidated deposits on crystalline metamorphic or igneous bedrock can result in strong contrasts in near-surface material properties.

  19. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community.

  20. Modeling air pollution in the Washington, D.C., to Boston megalopolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, D H

    1967-09-15

    Simplified meteorological models and pollutant source configurations were used to demonstrate the types of pollutant patterns that might be encountered in the Washington, D.C.-Boston megalopolitan corridor. A semirealistic source distribution and source intensity of carbon dioxide were used in this demonstration. The results of the computations suggest that local increases in quantities of pollutants may at times require regional rather than local source consideration.

  1. 2013 EFRC PI Meeting -- Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers Principal Investigators' Meeting, Washington, D.C., July 18-19, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-07-01

    2013 EFRC Principal Investigators’ Meeting, July 18-19, 2013 in Washington D.C. By invitation only--about 500 attendees from the EFRCs and DOE, 235 senior EFRC members and 165 EFRC early career scientists from more than 80 institutions in 31 states, 2 foreign countries and Washington D.C. Over 115 talks and 225 posters

  2. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Montanez, Luz; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men; it has also been found to be significantly positively associated with HIV status and HIV risk factors, including unprotected anal intercourse. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlates of CSA in a sample of community-recruited MSM, investigate race as a potential effect modifier, and describe the independent association between CSA and HIV infection in Washington, DC. A total of 500 MSM were recruited by venue-based sampling in 2008 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. More than one-half of MSM identified as White, while one-third identified as Black. CSA was reported by 17.5 % of the 451 MSM, with the first instance of abuse occurring at a median age of 8.3 (interquartile range = 5.0, 11.0). In multivariable analysis, HIV-positive men were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA compared to HIV-negative men after adjusting for intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, having been arrested in the last 12 months, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive MSM had more than four times the odds of reporting CSA after controlling for other correlates (aOR = 4.19; 95 % CI 2.26, 7.75). Despite hypothesizing that race modified the effect of CSA on HIV infection we found this was not the case in this sample. More research is needed to investigate the potential pathway between a history of CSA and HIV infection, and how this contributes to driving the HIV epidemic among MSM in Washington, DC.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  4. THER ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING AND REMOVING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  5. Tenth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA), July 19, 1995, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, V.A.; Hudgins, L. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Cassidy, S.B. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, and Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-09-06

    Each year for the last 10 years, scientists conducting research on Prader-Willi syndrome have come together to exchange information during a scientific conference held in conjunction with the annual Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) meeting. Presentations based on submitted abstracts encompass such varied fields as genetics, endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, psychology, psychiatry, and education. This year`s scientific conference was held in Seattle, Washington, on July 19, 1995, in conjunction with the 14th PWSA (USA) meeting held July 20-23. Seventeen reports were presented at the scientific meeting, the abstracts of which follow.

  6. Zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality and zooplankton samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean zooplankton assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most zooplankton species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the zooplankton assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of zooplankton assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.

  7. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate E.; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John

    2013-01-01

    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  8. A meteorological and snow observational data set from Snoqualmie Pass (921 m), Washington Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayand, Nicholas E.; Massmann, Adam; Butler, Colin; Keenan, Eric; Stimberis, John; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a quality controlled observational atmospheric, snow, and soil data set from Snoqualmie Pass, Washington, USA, to enable testing of hydrometeorological and snow process representations within a rain-snow transitional climate where existing observations are sparse and limited. Continuous meteorological forcing (including air temperature, total precipitation, wind speed, specific humidity, air pressure, and short and longwave irradiance) are provided at hourly intervals for a 24 year historical period (water years 1989-2012) and at half-hourly intervals for a more recent period (water years 2013-2015), separated based on the availability of observations. The majority of missing data were filled with biased-corrected reanalysis model values (using NLDAS). Additional observations include 40 years of snow board new snow accumulation, multiple measurements of total snow depth, and manual snow pits, while more recent years include subdaily surface temperature, snowpack drainage, soil moisture and temperature profiles, and eddy covariance-derived turbulent heat flux. This data set is ideal for testing hypotheses about energy balance, soil, and snow processes in the rain-snow transition zone.

  9. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  10. Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference (8th) Held in Washington, DC on November 8-9, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    Chandrasekhar, V. Dravid, R. Letsinger, G. Schatz, S. Stupp, D. Ginger • Harold Washington – T. Higgins • Tufts – D. Kaplan • Scripps – M. Ghadiri...density act as acceptors or donors N-doped P-doped Inducing Circulation with OAM Beams LG01 ‘Ring’ beam ‘Sheet’ beam ~40 µm T < 40nK “SQUIDs...squeeze device prick finger blood blood on filter plasma (with liver function tests) Soft Robotics D P = 0 D P = + k2 k1

  11. Oceanographic measurements obtained offshore of the Elwha River delta in coordination with the Elwha River Restoration Project, Washington, USA, 2010-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Time-series data of velocity, pressure, turbidity, conductivity, and temperature were collected near the mouth of the Elwha River, Washington, USA, from December...

  12. A qualidade de vida de jovens portadores de espinha bífida do Children's National Medical Center – Washington DC The quality of life of adolescents with spina bifida at the Children's National Medical Center – Washington DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena Rotta Soares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo explorar a qualidade de vida de jovens portadores de espinha bífida atendidos no Children's National Medical Center em Washington DC. A pesquisa baseia-se em uma perspectiva qualitativa que utiliza como referencial teórico central a "Teoria do estigma" e as discussões conceituais sobre as dimensões de qualidade de vida. Foram entrevistados 15 jovens do serviço acima citado, sendo que 8 deles participaram de um grupo focal construído através das questões levantadas durante entrevistas. Os discursos dos jovens em questão refletem a necessidade de categorias mais englobantes que não remetam a uma pulverização da experiência de vida. Evidenciou-se uma estrutura de desigualdade nas interações entre saudáveis e deficientes, e reproduzida pelos próprios jovens. Os resultados demonstram que o estigma se encontra presente em todas as dimensões da vida dos sujeitos, interferindo na inserção social, construção subjetiva do jovem e sua auto-estima, reforçando o papel do portador de deficiência como uma "não-pessoa". Embora a categoria sexualidade não seja priorizada em outros instrumentos para esta população, o tema se faz presente e central na discussão da experiência da vida dos mesmos.The present article explores the quality of life of adolescents with spina bifida at the Children's National Medical Center in Washington DC. The research is based on a qualitative perspective that utilizes the "Theory of stigma" as the central theoretical framework, in addition to the discussions of the concept of quality of life and its dimensions. Fifteen adolescents were interviewed at the above institution, eight of which then participated in a focal group structured through issues that emerged during this previous phase. The discourses reflected the need for more encompassing categories for quality of life that do not pulverize the life experience. The adolescent's discourses demonstrate an inequality

  13. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  14. Climate change or climate cycles? Snowpack trends in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Dwight; McDonald, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Climate change could significantly influence seasonal streamflow and water availability in the snowpack-fed watersheds of Washington, USA. Descriptions of snowpack decline often use linear ordinary least squares (OLS) models to quantify this change. However, the region's precipitation is known to be related to climate cycles. If snowpack decline is more closely related to these cycles, an OLS model cannot account for this effect, and thus both descriptions of trends and estimates of decline could be inaccurate. We used intervention analysis to determine whether snow water equivalent (SWE) in 25 long-term snow courses within the Olympic and Cascade Mountains are more accurately described by OLS (to represent gradual change), stationary (to represent no change), or step-stationary (to represent climate cycling) models. We used Bayesian information-theoretic methods to determine these models' relative likelihood, and we found 90 models that could plausibly describe the statistical structure of the 25 snow courses' time series. Posterior model probabilities of the 29 "most plausible" models ranged from 0.33 to 0.91 (mean = 0.58, s = 0.15). The majority of these time series (55%) were best represented as step-stationary models with a single breakpoint at 1976/77, coinciding with a major shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. However, estimates of SWE decline differed by as much as 35% between statistically plausible models of a single time series. This ambiguity is a critical problem for water management policy. Approaches such as intervention analysis should become part of the basic analytical toolkit for snowpack or other climatic time series data.

  15. Trends in developed land cover adjacent to habitat for threatened salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista K Bartz

    Full Text Available For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008 land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain, but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008. For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

  16. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  17. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Examination of particulate matter and heavy metals and their effects in at-risk wards in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Natasha Ann

    One of the major contributions to pollution in the Washington, DC urban environment is particulate matter (PM). Quite often, ambient airborne toxics are closely associated with fine PM (PM2.5). We have performed high-resolution aerosol measurements of PM2.5 in four wards (Ward 1, 4, 5, and 7) of Washington, DC during two intensive observational periods (IOP). The first IOP occurred during the summer of 2003 (June 23rd to August 8th). The second IOP transpired during the late fall season of 2003 (October 20th to December 4 th). The measurement platform consisted of a Laser Particle Counter (LPC) and a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor (QCM) to obtain both in-situ number and mass density distributions across the measurement sites. The data shows spatial distributions of particulate matter characterized as a function of size and mass properties. The QCM analyses show significant levels (> 15 mug/m3) of ward-averaged PM2.5 in Wards 4, 1, and 7 respectively during the summer IOP. However, all wards were less than the EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 15 mug/m 3 during the fall IOP ward-averaged measurements. Yet, investigations of the site-averaged measurements during the fall revealed some specific locations in Ward 4 that exceeded the NAAQS. Results also show that the aerosol mass density peaked in the 0.3 mum mode during the summer IOP and in the 0.15 mum mode during the fall IOP. The number density peaked in the 0.3--0.5 mum size range. Accordingly, the distributions have also been analyzed as a function of meteorological factors, such as wind speed and direction via NOAA HYSPLIT trajectories. One important attribute to this study is the evaluation of risks amongst IBC subgroups (youth, adults, elderly, black, white, hispanic, male, and female) for bath pediatric asthma rates and the onset of lung cancer over a lifetime (70-year period) when exposed to these levels of particulates. It has been determined that there are individual excess

  19. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2015: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 20-22, 2015, Washington, DC, and August 5 and August 7, 2015, Washington, DC, and minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2015 meetings of the Board of Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer F

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 20-22, 2015, Washington, DC, and August 5 and August 7, 2015, Washington, DC, and minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2015 meetings of the Board of Directors. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). They are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2014 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 16-20, 2014, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 16-20, 2014, at the Washington Marriott Wardman Park in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  1. Mood sensitivity to seasonal changes in African college students living in the greater Washington D.C. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Alvaro; Rohan, Kelly J; Yousufi, Samina M; Nguyen, Minh-Chau; Jackson, Michael A; Soriano, Joseph J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS) and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  2. Solar Decathlon Visitors Guide 2011, National Mall, West Potomac Park, Washington, D.C., September 23 - October 2, 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Guide to the student-designed houses, ten contests, exhibits, and workshops of the U.S. Department of Energy 2011 Solar Decathlon, held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 through October 2, 2011. Teams of college students designed and built the solar-powered houses on display here. They represent 13 U.S. states, five countries, and four continents. Now the teams are rising to the challenge by competing in 10 contests over nine days, with the championship trophy on the line. This is their time to shine. The 2011 teams may share a common goal - to design and build the best energy-efficient house powered by the sun - but their strategies are different. One house is made of precast concrete, while another 'dances' in response to its environment. Another house is meant to sit atop a building, proving the sky's the limit for energy innovation. Whatever your idea of sustainable living may be, you are bound to find it at the Solar Decathlon.

  3. Movement of a solute in the Potomac River estuary at Washington, D.C., at low inflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1969-01-01

    The movement of a solute, as represented by a soluble fluorescent dye, was observed in the Potomac River estuary at Washington, D.C. The average net rate of downstream movement of the solute centroid was less than 0.6 mile per day. The movement of a solute is highly dependent on the nontidal inflow to the estuary. During the study, the average inflow was 900 cubic feet per second a very low value, equaled or exceeded 98 percent of the time. Using a storage equation, the average movement of a solute was estimated for nontidal inflow of 3,100 and 6,500 cubic feet per second; these inflows are equaled or exceeded 75 and 50 percent of the time, respectively. The study showed that tidal action was fairly efficient in dispersing the solute longitudinally. The solute, which was dumped 1,000 feet upstream from the 14th Street Bridge, was observed as far upstream as Roosevelt Island. A transient longitudinal dispersion coefficient at the end of 150 hours was determined to be 210 square feet per second. On the other hand, the lateral diffusion was a slow process and the lateral distribution of the solute was far from uniform at the end of 6? days after the release.

  4. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  5. Report of a workshop on nuclear forces and nonproliferation Woodrow Wilson international center for scholars, Washington, DC October 28, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    A workshop sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was held at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, on October 28, 2010. The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review and the 2010 NPT Review Conference. The discussions reflected the importance of the NPR for defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21st century threats and providing guidance for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs and, for many but not all participants, highlighted its role in the successful outcome of the NPT RevCon. There was widespread support for the NPR and its role in developing the foundations for a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. However, some participants raised concerns about its implementation and its long-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  6. Expanding veterinary biosurveillance in Washington, DC: The creation and utilization of an electronic-based online veterinary surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennenfent, Andrew; DelVento, Vito; Davies-Cole, John; Johnson-Clarke, Fern

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends. Nine of the 10 facilities that responded expressed interest conducting surveillance. In September 2015, 17 canine parvovirus cases were reported. In response, a campaign encouraging regular veterinary preventative care was launched and featured on local media platforms. Additionally, during the system's first year of operation it detected 5 canine leptospirosis cases and 2 antibiotic resistant infections. No canine influenza cases were reported and syndromic surveillance compliance varied, peaking during National Special Security Events. Small animal veterinarians and the general public are interested in companion animal disease surveillance. The system described can serve as a model for establishing similar systems to monitor disease trends of public health importance in pet populations and enhance biosurveillance capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recasting the Significant: The Transcultural Memory of Alexander von Humboldt’s Visit to Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Howell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexander von Humboldt was internationally known as a world traveler, having collected data and analyzed samples from five of the world’s seven continents. He spoke several languages fluently, and split most of his adult life between the cosmopolitan centers of Berlin and Paris. The great deal of time Humboldt spent in Latin America, along with his staunch belief in human equality, led to his reverence in those countries. Indeed, Humboldt was a world citizen in the truest sense of the word. But what of the United States? What claim can this nation make to the heritage and legacy of the world-exploring baron? A brief stop in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. at the end of Humboldt’s expedition to the equatorial regions of the Americas seems to suffice. This short stay, along with the Humboldt-Jefferson correspondence, constitutes the great American link in Humboldt studies, a link whose nature and importance has, over the years, received an exaggerated amount of attention from authors writing for an American audience. The following analysis, using the tools of transcultural memory studies, investigates why this relatively insignificant event in a long and storied life assumes an inflated role in current accounts of the life and work of Alexander von Humboldt.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 6-10, 2016, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2016-10-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2015, in Washington, D.C.. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington, D.C., and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul McKelvey

    1964-01-01

    constructed. Bored or dug wells allow greater storage capacity and are satisfactory for domestic supplies in some locations, but they are polluted easily. If not properly constructed or of sufficient depth, they may fail in dry weather. Ground-water supplies for domestic use, 5 to 10 gpm (gallons per minute), are obtainable in most places. In the Piedmont, recorded yields in drilled wells range from 0.2 to 212 gpm. In the Coastal Plain, wells yield from 1 to 800 gpm. The quality of the ground water in the report area is generally satisfactory for domestic, industrial, and irrigation use. High iron content and corrosiveness are troublesome in places. The water is soft to moderately hard--2 to 175 ppm (parts per million). Water in the Piedmont province is. dominantly the calcium and bicarbonate type; in the Coastal Plain most water is of calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type. In the Piedmont, careful location of wells with respect to the geology (rock type and structure) and to topography usually results in higher yields and may mean the difference between success and failure. In the Coastal Plain, drilled artesian wells are not affected by topography, but the yield obtained depends upon the penetration of a water-bearing sand or gravel bed at sufficient depth. The early settlers obtained water from the springs and streams, and later from dug wells. After Washington was established as the Capital in 1800, water was obtained from public and privately owned wells. Water was piped from some of the springs to government buildings and to private homes and business houses. In 1863 a diversion dam was completed in the Potomac above Great Falls and a conduit was built into the city to furnish a public water supply. This system with modifications has been in use ever since. A new diversion dam and pumping station at Little Falls was put into service in the summer of 1959. In 1961 the total pumpage from Coastal Plain aquifers in the report area was estimate

  10. Pesticides in groundwater in the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C., 2005 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Dieter, Cheryl A.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the District Department of the Environment, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) determine the presence, concentrations, and distribution of selected pesticides in groundwater, and (b) assess the presence of pesticides in groundwater in relation to selected landscape, hydrogeologic, and groundwater-quality characteristics in the shallow groundwater underlying the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C. With one exception, well depths were 100 feet or less below land surface. The USGS obtained or compiled ancillary data and information on land use (2001), subsurface sediments, and groundwater samples from 17 wells in the lower Anacostia River watershed from September through December 2005, and from 14 wells in the lower Anacostia River and lower Rock Creek watersheds from August through September 2008. Twenty-seven pesticide compounds, reflecting at least 19 different types of pesticides, were detected in the groundwater samples obtained in 2005 and 2008. No fungicides were detected. In relation to the pesticides detected, degradate compounds were as or more likely to be detected than applied (parent) compounds. The detected pesticides chiefly reflected herbicides commonly used in urban settings for non-specific weed control or insecticides used for nonspecific haustellate insects (insects with specialized mouthparts for sucking liquid) or termite-specific control. Detected pesticides included a combination of pesticides currently (2008) in use, banned or under highly restricted use, and some that had replaced the banned or restricted-use pesticides. The presence of banned and restricted-use pesticides illustrates their continued persistence and resistance to complete degradation in the environment. The presence of the replacement pesticides indicates the susceptibility of the surficial aquifer to contamination irrespective of the changes in the pesticides used. A

  11. Integrating Infrastructure-Relevant Climate Projections into City Planning: Learning from Boulder CO, Austin TX and Washington DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, A. M. K.; Hayhoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Over the coming century, climate change has the potential to impact infrastructure in many different ways, particularly in population-dense areas that depend on transportation and built environments. Many of these impacts may occur via changes in the frequency and magnitude of extremes: high and low temperature, heat waves, precipitation, coastal flooding, and storm events. Having a better idea of how the climate might change locally, both within the near future as well as toward the end of the century, can give city planners and engineers guidance when designing new structures and when repairing and fortifying existing components of buildings, bridges, highways, sewers, ports, etc. However, the type of event and the amount of damages that may be incurred are often highly specific to a given location. Over the last 10 years, we have worked with a broad range of cities, states, non-profit organizations, and federal agencies to integrate climate projections into ongoing resiliency, sustainability, and management processes. Drawing on that experience, we describe the broad steps in assimilating climate information into existing decision-making frameworks relevant to most applications, as well as highlighting many of the unique aspects of these analyses using examples from our most recent work with three very different cities - Austin TX, Boulder CO and Washington DC. From initial conversations with local experts to identify relevant thresholds to final integration of projected changes into the planning processes of these cities, these case studies highlight the utility of including future climate projections into infrastructure planning, the challenges to doing so, and the over-arching importance of communication and interaction between infrastructure experts, engineers, and scientists.

  12. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  13. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Seasonality in African Students Living in the Greater Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of seasonality in a vulnerable population, i.e., African students who migrated to a temperate climate. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, we hypothesized lower mood and energy, and higher appetite and weight, in fall/winter than in spring/summer. Four cohorts of African students attending a year-long nursing school program without vacation in Washington, D.C., were assessed monthly for 1 year. Forty-three subjects (mean age = 33.46 ± 6.25, consisting of predominantly females (76.7%, completed the study. The cohorts began their academic program in different seasons (one each in winter, spring, summer, and fall, inherently minimizing confounding influences on seasonality, such as academic and immigration stress, as well as allowing adjustment for an order effect. At each assessment, students completed three 100-mm visual analog scales for mood, energy, and appetite, and were weighed on a digital scale. For each standardized dependent variable, a repeated measure ANOVA was used and, if a significant effect of month was identified, averages for spring/summer and fall/winter were compared using paired ttests. In addition, a mixed model for repeated measures was applied to raw (nonstandardized data. Body weight was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer (p < 0.01. No seasonal differences in mood, energy, or appetite were found. Benefiting from certain unique features of our cohorts allowing adjustment for order effects, this is the first study to identify a seasonal variation in body weight with a peak in winter using longitudinal monthly measurements.

  14. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (< 21 µg kg(-1)) of Sudan dyes were found in 11 out of 57 spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  15. Crafting glass vessels: current research on the ancient glass collections in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Alexander; McCarthy, Blythe; Bowe, Stacy

    Our knowledge of glass production in ancient Egypt has been well augmented by the publication of recently excavated materials and glass workshops, but also by more recent materials analysis, and experiments of modern glass-makers attempting to reconstruct the production process of thin-walled coreformed glass vessels. From the mounting of a prefabricated core to the final glass product our understanding of this profession has much improved. The small but well preserved glass collection of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. is a valid tool for examining and studying the technology and production of ancient Egyptian core formed glass vessels. Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919) acquired most of the material from Giovanni Dattari in Cairo in 1909. Previously the glass had received only limited discussion, suggesting that most of these vessels were produced in the 18th Dynasty in the 15th and 14th centuries BCE, while others date from the Hellenistic period and later. In an ongoing project we conducted computed radiography in conjunction with qualitative x-ray fluorescence analysis on a selected group of vessels to understand further aspects of the ancient production process. This paper will provide an overview of our recent research and present our data-gathering process and preliminary results. How can the examinations of core formed glass vessels in the Freer Gallery contribute to our understanding of ancient glass production and technology? By focusing on new ways of looking at old assumptions using the Freer Gallery glass collections, we hope to increase understanding of the challenges of the production process of core-vessel technology as represented by these vessels.

  16. Effects of rural residential development on forest communities in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Joel L. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Rural residential development in forests of Oregon and Washington continues to be a key driver of land use change. This type of development can have a variety of effects on the goods and services forests provide to the region. We used structure density from photo-interpreted points around forest inventory and analysis plots to examine differences in forest attributes...

  17. Predicting the timing of cherry blossoms in Washington, DC and Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Uran; Mack, Liz; Yun, Jin I; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Cherry blossoms, an icon of spring, are celebrated in many cultures of the temperate region. For its sensitivity to winter and early spring temperatures, the timing of cherry blossoms is an ideal indicator of the impacts of climate change on tree phenology. Here, we applied a process-based phenology model for temperate deciduous trees to predict peak bloom dates (PBD) of flowering cherry trees (Prunus×yedoensis 'Yoshino' and Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan') in the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC and the surrounding Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change. We parameterized the model with observed PBD data from 1991 to 2010. The calibrated model was tested against independent datasets of the past PBD data from 1951 to 1970 in the Tidal Basin and more recent PBD data from other locations (e.g., Seattle, WA). The model performance against these independent data was satisfactory (Yoshino: r(2) = 0.57, RMSE = 6.6 days, bias = 0.9 days and Kwanzan: r(2) = 0.76, RMSE = 5.5 days, bias = -2.0 days). We then applied the model to forecast future PBD for the region using downscaled climate projections based on IPCC's A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Our results indicate that PBD at the Tidal Basin are likely to be accelerated by an average of five days by 2050 s and 10 days by 2080 s for these cultivars under a mid-range (A1B) emissions scenario projected by ECHAM5 general circulation model. The acceleration is likely to be much greater (13 days for 2050 s and 29 days for 2080s) under a higher (A2) emissions scenario projected by CGCM2 general circulation model. Our results demonstrate the potential impacts of climate change on the timing of cherry blossoms and illustrate the utility of a simple process-based phenology model for developing adaptation strategies to climate change in horticulture, conservation planning, restoration and other related disciplines.

  18. Predicting the timing of cherry blossoms in Washington, DC and Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uran Chung

    Full Text Available Cherry blossoms, an icon of spring, are celebrated in many cultures of the temperate region. For its sensitivity to winter and early spring temperatures, the timing of cherry blossoms is an ideal indicator of the impacts of climate change on tree phenology. Here, we applied a process-based phenology model for temperate deciduous trees to predict peak bloom dates (PBD of flowering cherry trees (Prunus×yedoensis 'Yoshino' and Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan' in the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC and the surrounding Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change. We parameterized the model with observed PBD data from 1991 to 2010. The calibrated model was tested against independent datasets of the past PBD data from 1951 to 1970 in the Tidal Basin and more recent PBD data from other locations (e.g., Seattle, WA. The model performance against these independent data was satisfactory (Yoshino: r(2 = 0.57, RMSE = 6.6 days, bias = 0.9 days and Kwanzan: r(2 = 0.76, RMSE = 5.5 days, bias = -2.0 days. We then applied the model to forecast future PBD for the region using downscaled climate projections based on IPCC's A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Our results indicate that PBD at the Tidal Basin are likely to be accelerated by an average of five days by 2050 s and 10 days by 2080 s for these cultivars under a mid-range (A1B emissions scenario projected by ECHAM5 general circulation model. The acceleration is likely to be much greater (13 days for 2050 s and 29 days for 2080s under a higher (A2 emissions scenario projected by CGCM2 general circulation model. Our results demonstrate the potential impacts of climate change on the timing of cherry blossoms and illustrate the utility of a simple process-based phenology model for developing adaptation strategies to climate change in horticulture, conservation planning, restoration and other related disciplines.

  19. Cuando los hijos se quedan en El Salvador: Familias transnacionales y reunificación familiar de inmigrantes salvadoreños en Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Molina, Raúl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Current migratory flows develope new social-cultural patterns such as transnational families. Using ethnographic data collected in Washington, D.C. and El Salvador, this article describes and analyzes the different strategies develop by Salvadoran immigrants living in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area to re-shape their domestic units. The immigrant modes of incorporation into the US societies and the logic of family unity affect these configurations to such an extent that until all the family members can be together again, the pre-migratory cultural patterns and those acquired in the host society affect in the transnational family configurations.

    Los actuales movimientos migratorios están propiciando el desarrollo de patrones socioculturales transnacionales que, en el ámbito de las unidades domésticas, permiten configuraciones de familias transnacionales. A partir de los datos obtenidos en una investigación etnográfica transnacional, este artículo describe y analiza las estrategias de inmigrantes en la reestructuración de sus familias. La lógica de la unidad familiar, por un lado, y los modos de incorporación de los salvadoreños al área metropolitana de Washington, D.C., por otro, explican las estrategias utilizadas por los inmigrantes en las reestructuración de sus unidades domésticas. De tal manera que hasta que los miembros de la familia puedan estar juntos de nuevo, tanto los patrones culturales premigratorios, como los adquiridos en las sociedades de asentamiento influyen en las configuraciones de las familias transnacionales.

  20. Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Lasher, John P.; Lamb, Andrew P.; Mahan, Shannon; Foit, Franklin F.; Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ∼500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ∼10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.

  1. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  2. Factors affecting Navy Working Capital Fund (NWCF) net operating result: a case study of Naval Facilities Engineering Command Washington, Washington D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Tamanh Q.; Uribe, Juan C.; Johnson, Greg R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited MBA Professional Report Over the past four years, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Washington has encountered net operating result (NOR) losses not anticipated in the Navy Working Capital Fund (NWCF) budget. These unanticipated losses primarily stemmed from three major factors associated with financial operations. The first factor is the creation of stabilized rates that turned out to be insufficient during fiscal years...

  3. Environmental contaminants in male river otters from Oregon and Washington, USA, 1994-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, R.A.; Henny, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports hepatic concentrations and distribution patterns of select metals, organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 180 male river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from Oregon and Washington, 1994-1999. Seven regional locations of western Oregon and Washington were delineated based on associations with major population centers, industry or agriculture. Cadmium (Cd) was not found above 0.5 ??g g-1, dry weight (dw) in juveniles, but increased with age in adults though concentrations were generally low (nd-1.18 ??g g-1, dw). Regional geometric means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 3.63 to 8.05 ??g g-1, dw in juveniles and 3.46-2.6 ??g g-1 (dw) in adults. The highest THg concentration was 148 ??g g-1, dw from an apparently healthy adult male from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Although THg increased with age in adult otters, the occurrence of the more toxic form methylmercury (MeHg) was not evaluated. Mean OC and PCB concentrations reported in this study declined dramatically from those reported in 1978-1979 from the lower Columbia River. Organochlorine pesticide and metabolite means for both juvenile and adult river otter males were all below 100 ??g kg-1, wet weight (ww), with only DDE, DDD and HCB having individual concentrations exceeding 500 ??g kg-1, ww. Mean ??PCB concentrations in both juvenile and adult male otters were below 1 ??g g-1 for all regional locations. Mean juvenile and adult concentrations of non-ortho substituted PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were in the low ng kg-1 for all locations studied. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  4. Understanding Climate Policy Data Needs. NASA Carbon Monitoring System Briefing: Characterizing Flux Uncertainty, Washington D.C., 11 January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Climate policy in the United States is currently guided by public-private partnerships and actions at the local and state levels. This mitigation strategy is made up of programs that focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, agricultural practices and implementation of technologies to reduce greenhouse gases. How will policy makers know if these strategies are working, particularly at the scales at which they are being implemented? The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) will provide information on carbon dioxide fluxes derived from observations of earth's land, ocean and atmosphere used in state of the art models describing their interactions. This new modeling system could be used to assess the impact of specific policy interventions on CO2 reductions, enabling an iterative, results-oriented policy process. In January of 2012, the CMS team held a meeting with carbon policy and decision makers in Washington DC to describe the developing modeling system to policy makers. The NASA CMS will develop pilot studies to provide information across a range of spatial scales, consider carbon storage in biomass, and improve measures of the atmospheric distribution of carbon dioxide. The pilot involves multiple institutions (four NASA centers as well as several universities) and over 20 scientists in its work. This pilot study will generate CO2 flux maps for two years using observational constraints in NASA's state-of -the-art models. Bottom-up surface flux estimates will be computed using data-constrained land and ocean models; comparison of the different techniques will provide some knowledge of uncertainty in these estimates. Ensembles of atmospheric carbon distributions will be computed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GEOS-5), with perturbations to the surface fluxes and to transport. Top-down flux estimates will be computed from observed atmospheric CO2 distributions (ACOS/GOSAT retrievals) alongside the forward-model fields, in conjunction with an

  5. Distress of Routine Activities and Perceived Safety Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Alcohol Use: 2002 Washington, DC, Sniper Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Carol S; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Benevides, K Nikki; Morganstein, Joshua C; Ursano, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    For over 3 weeks in October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC, area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. This study examined the relationship of distress associated with routine activities and perceived safety to psychological and behavioral responses. Participants were 1238 residents of the Washington, DC, metropolitan area (aged 18 to 90 years, mean=41.7 years) who completed an Internet survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to distress related to routine activities, perceived safety, and alcohol use. Data were collected at one time point approximately 3 weeks after the first sniper shooting and before apprehension of the suspects. Relationships of distress and perceived safety to post-traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and increased alcohol use were examined by using linear and logistic regression analyses. Approximately 8% of the participants met the symptom criteria for probable post-traumatic stress disorder, 22% reported mild to severe depression, and 4% reported increased alcohol use during the attacks. Distress related to routine activities and perceived safety were associated with increased post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Distress and perceived safety are associated with specific routine activities and both contribute to psychological and behavioral responses during a terrorist attack. These findings have implications for targeted information dissemination and risk communication by community leaders.

  6. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  7. Characteristics of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.: Geographic Diversity in Socio-Demographics and HIV Transmission Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Brady, Kathleen; Kuo, Irene; Opoku, Jenevieve; Flynn, Colin; Patrick, Rudy; Park, Ju Nyeong; Adams, Joella; Carroll, Makeda; Simmons, Ron; Smith, Carlton R; Davis, Wendy W

    2017-07-01

    Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC are geographically proximate cities with high HIV prevalence, including among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Using data collected among BMSM in CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, we compared socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, and service utilization to explore similarities and differences that could inform local and regional HIV intervention approaches. BMSM were recruited through venue time location sampling, June-December, 2011. Participants completed identical socio-behavioral surveys and voluntary HIV testing. Analyses were conducted among the full sample and those aged 18-24. Participants included 159 (DC), 364 (Baltimore), and 331 (Philadelphia) eligible BMSM. HIV prevalence was 23.1% (DC), 48.0% (Baltimore), 14.6% (Philadelphia) with 30.6%, 69.0%, 33.3% unrecognized HIV infection, respectively. Among BMSM 18-24, HIV prevalence was 11.1% (DC), 38.9% (Baltimore), 9.6% (Philadelphia) with unrecognized HIV infection 0.0%, 73.8%, 60.0% respectively. Compared with the other 2 cities, Baltimore participants were less likely to identify as gay/homosexual; more likely to report unemployment, incarceration, homelessness, sex exchange; and least likely to use the internet for partners. DC participants were more likely to have a college degree and employment. Philadelphia participants were more likely to report gay/homosexual identity, receptive condomless anal sex, having only main partners, and bars/clubs as partner meeting places. Sexually transmitted disease testing was universally low. Analyses showed especially high HIV prevalence among BMSM in Baltimore including among young BMSM. Socio-demographic characteristics and HIV infection correlates differed across cities but unrecognized HIV infection and unknown partner status were universally high.

  8. Relationships between diatoms and tidal environments in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Yuki; Horton, Benjamin P.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Nagumo, Tamostsu; Nelson, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    A new regional dataset comprising 425 intertidal diatom taxa from 175 samples from 11 ecologically diverse Oregon and Washington estuaries illustrates the importance of compiling a large modern dataset from a range of sites. Cluster analyses and detrended correspondence analysis of the diatom assemblages identify distinct vertical zones within supratidal, intertidal and subtidal environments at six of the 11 study sites, but the abundance of some of the most common species varies widely among and within sites. Canonical correspondence analysis of the regional dataset shows relationships between diatom species and tidal exposure, salinity and substratum (grain size and organic content). Correspondence analyses of local datasets show higher values of explained variation than the analysis of the combined regional dataset. Our results emphasize that studies of the autecology of diatom species require many samples from a range of modern environments to adequately characterize species–environment relationships.

  9. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  10. Glacier modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index melt computation and accumulation is modeled from glacier air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "glacier cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the glacier. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade Glacier, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  11. Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Edward G.; Silsbee, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October, and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas.

  12. Precipitation, landsliding, and erosion across the Olympic Mountains, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2018-01-01

    In the Olympic Mountains of Washington State, landsliding is the primary surface process by which bedrock and hillslope regolith are delivered to river networks. However, the relative importance of large earthquakes versus high magnitude precipitation events to the total volume of landslide material transported to valley bottoms remains unknown in part due to the absence of large historical earthquakes. To test the hypothesis that erosion is linked to precipitation, approximately 1000 landslides were mapped from Google Earth imagery between 1990 and 2015 along a 15 km-wide × 85 km-long (1250 km2) swath across the range. The volume of hillslope material moved by each slide was calculated using previously published area-volume scaling relationships, and the spatial distribution of landslide volume was compared to mean annual precipitation data acquired from the PRISM climate group for the period 1981-2010. Statistical analysis reveals a significant correlation (r = 0.55; p river sediment yield, cosmogenic 10Be, fluvial terrace incision, and thermochronometry. The lack of large historic earthquakes makes it difficult to assess the relative contributions of precipitation and seismic shaking to total erosion, but our results suggest that climate, and more specifically a sharp precipitation gradient, plays an important role in controlling erosion and landscape evolution over both short and long timescales across the Olympic Mountains.

  13. Forest harvest patterns on private lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Walker, Jessica; Griffith, Glenn E.

    2017-01-01

    Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC) products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  14. Acceptability of Rapid HIV Testing Among Latinos in Washington Heights, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L; Cortes, Yamnia I; Long, Yue; Castro-Rivas, Erida; Liu, Jianfang

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a disproportionately large impact on Latino Americans. This study assessed the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among a sample of Latinos from New York City. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 192 participants from The Washington Heights/Inwood Informatics Infrastructure for Community-Centered Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) study. Participants were interviewed and offered rapid HIV testing and post-test counseling. Seventy-five percent (n = 143) accepted rapid HIV testing when offered. More religious participants were less likely than less religious participants to undergo testing (RR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99). Participants tested for HIV within the past year were less likely than those who had not been tested within the past year to agree to undergo testing (RR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.11-0.66). Community-based rapid HIV testing is feasible among Latinos in urban environments. Outreach efforts to engage religious individuals and encouraging routine testing should be reinforced.

  15. Forest Harvest Patterns on Private Lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Soulard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  16. Miocene−Pleistocene deformation of the Saddle Mountains: Implications for seismic hazard in central Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey; Sherrod, Brian; Möller, Andreas; Paces, James B.; Blakely, Richard J.; Styron, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Yakima fold province, located in the backarc of the Cascadia subduction zone, is a region of active strain accumulation and deformation distributed across a series of fault-cored folds. The geodetic network in central Washington has been used to interpret large-scale N-S shortening and westward-increasing strain; however, geodetic data are unable to resolve shortening rates across individual structures in this low-strain-rate environment. Resolving fault geometries, slip rates, and timing of faulting in the Yakima fold province is critically important to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure and population centers.The Saddle Mountains anticline is one of the most prominent Yakima folds. It is unique within the Yakima fold province in that the syntectonic strata of the Ringold Formation are preserved and provide a record of deformation and drainage reorganization. Here, we present new stratigraphic columns, U-Pb zircon tephra ages, U-series caliche ages, and geophysical modeling that constrain two line-balanced and retrodeformed cross sections. These new constraints indicate that the Saddle Mountains anticline has accommodated 1.0−1.3 km of N-S shortening since 10 Ma, that shortening increases westward along the anticline, and that the average slip rate has increased 6-fold since 6.8 Ma. Provenance analysis suggests that the source terrane for the Ringold Formation was similar to that of the modern Snake River Plain. Using new slip rates and structural constraints, we calculate the strain accumulation time, interpretable as a recurrence interval, for earthquakes on the Saddle Mountains fault and find that large-magnitude earthquakes could rupture along the Saddle Mountains fault every 2−11 k.y.

  17. Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: a new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P; Carlisle, Maureen H; Bergen, Silas; Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2014-03-01

    Early land plant fossils can be challenging to interpret due to their morphological simplicity and often fragmentary nature. Morphometric techniques using commonly preserved characters might increase diagnostic value of such material. To evaluate the utility of morphometrics in assessing morphospecies boundaries in the Devonian, we compared degrees of variation within the cosmopolitan lycopsid genus Leclercqia with that of living relatives (Lycopodium-Spinulum spp.) Of particular interest was determining whether a new morphotype of Leclercqia from the Middle Devonian Chilliwack flora of Washington State fell within or outside the range of variation of previously described species. Morphological variation of Leclercqia was assessed across the geographic range of the genus using six vegetative and three reproductive characters. The new morphotype and two previously described species (L. complexa, L. andrewsii) were compared using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Extant Lycopodium-Spinulum species and variants were similarly analyzed to assess inter- vs. intraspecific variation in living lycopsids. The LDA comparisons of Lycopodium-Spinulum yielded notable morphological disparity between species but substantial overlap between intraspecific variants. Among the fossils, LDA separates the new morphotype, Leclercqia complexa, and L. andrewsii to a similar degree as Lycopodium and Spinulum species. Based on these results and further study, we describe a new species of Leclercqia: Leclercqia scolopendra Benca et Strömberg sp. nov. Morphometric analyses can aid in informing taxonomic assignment of fragmentary early land plant fossils using readily preserved features, even in the absence of reproductive structures. Applications of this approach to the Chilliwack flora suggest Leclercqia displayed greater morphological variation, taxonomic diversity, and biogeographic extent than previously thought.

  18. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  19. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  20. Thiocapsa imhoffii, sp. nov., an alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium of the family Chromatiaceae from Soap Lake, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Marie; Takaichi, Shinichi; Madigan, Michael T

    2007-12-01

    An alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium, strain SC5, was isolated from Soap Lake, a soda lake located in east central Washington state (USA). Cells of strain SC5 were gram-negative, non-motile, and non-gas vesiculate cocci, often observed in pairs or tetrads. In the presence of sulfide, elemental sulfur was deposited internally. Liquid cultures were pink to rose red in color. Cells contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as major photosynthetic pigments. Internal photosynthetic membranes were of the vesicular type. Optimal growth of strain SC5 occurred in the absence of NaCl (range 0-4%), pH 8.5 (range pH 7.5-9.5), and 32 degrees C. Photoheterotrophic growth occurred in the presence of sulfide or thiosulfate with only a limited number of organic carbon sources. Growth factors were not required, and cells could fix N2. Dark, microaerobic growth occurred in the presence of both an organic carbon source and thiosulfate. Sulfide and thiosulfate served as electron donors for photoautotrophy, which required elevated levels of CO2. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain SC5 basal to the clade of the genus Thiocapsa in the family Chromatiaceae with a 96.7% sequence similarity to its closest relative, Thiocapsa roseopersicina strain 1711T (DSM217T). The unique assemblage of physiological and phylogenetic properties of strain SC5 defines it as a new species of the genus Thiocapsa, and we describe strain SC5 herein as Tca. imhoffii, sp. nov.

  1. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

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    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  2. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.

    2015-04-01

    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  3. Shifting Regimes and Changing Interactions in the Lake Washington, U.S.A., Plankton Community from 1962–1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tessa B.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Katz, Stephen L.; Holmes, Elizabeth E.; Hampton, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate, nutrient regimes, and invasive species shift food web structure is critically important in ecology. Most analytical approaches, however, assume static species interactions and environmental effects across time. Therefore, we applied multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models in a moving window context to test for shifting plankton community interactions and effects of environmental variables on plankton abundance in Lake Washington, U.S.A. from 1962–1994, following reduced nutrient loading in the 1960s and the rise of Daphnia in the 1970s. The moving-window MAR (mwMAR) approach showed shifts in the strengths of interactions between Daphnia, a dominant grazer, and other plankton taxa between a high nutrient, Oscillatoria-dominated regime and a low nutrient, Daphnia-dominated regime. The approach also highlighted the inhibiting influence of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria on other plankton taxa in the community. Overall community stability was lowest during the period of elevated nutrient loading and Oscillatoria dominance. Despite recent warming of the lake, we found no evidence that anomalous temperatures impacted plankton abundance. Our results suggest mwMAR modeling is a useful approach that can be applied across diverse ecosystems, when questions involve shifting relationships within food webs, and among species and abiotic drivers. PMID:25338087

  4. Shifting regimes and changing interactions in the Lake Washington, U.S.A., plankton community from 1962-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tessa B; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Scheuerell, Mark D; Katz, Stephen L; Holmes, Elizabeth E; Hampton, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate, nutrient regimes, and invasive species shift food web structure is critically important in ecology. Most analytical approaches, however, assume static species interactions and environmental effects across time. Therefore, we applied multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models in a moving window context to test for shifting plankton community interactions and effects of environmental variables on plankton abundance in Lake Washington, U.S.A. from 1962-1994, following reduced nutrient loading in the 1960s and the rise of Daphnia in the 1970s. The moving-window MAR (mwMAR) approach showed shifts in the strengths of interactions between Daphnia, a dominant grazer, and other plankton taxa between a high nutrient, Oscillatoria-dominated regime and a low nutrient, Daphnia-dominated regime. The approach also highlighted the inhibiting influence of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria on other plankton taxa in the community. Overall community stability was lowest during the period of elevated nutrient loading and Oscillatoria dominance. Despite recent warming of the lake, we found no evidence that anomalous temperatures impacted plankton abundance. Our results suggest mwMAR modeling is a useful approach that can be applied across diverse ecosystems, when questions involve shifting relationships within food webs, and among species and abiotic drivers.

  5. Release of elements to natural water from sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Cox, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Reservoir sediments from Lake Roosevelt (WA, USA) that were contaminated with smelter waste discharged into the Columbia River (BC, Canada) were examined using three measures of elemental release reflecting varying degrees of physical mixing and time scales. Aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the interstitial water of reservoir sediments, in the gently stirred overlying waters of incubated sediment cores, and in supernatants of aggressively tumbled slurries of reservoir sediments generally were higher than the concentrations from a reference site. When compared to chronic water-quality criteria, all three measures of release suggest that slag-contaminated sediments near the U.S.-Canadian border are potentially toxic as a result of Cu release and Pb release in two of the three measures. All three measures of Cd release suggest potential toxicity for one site farther down the reservoir, probably contaminated as a result of transport and adsorption of Cd from smelter liquid waste. Releases of Zn and As did not appear to be potentially toxic. Carbonate geochemistry indirectly affects the potential toxicity by increasing water hardness.

  6. Limits of Luminescence Dating: an update regarding quartz of the Southern Alps of New Zealand and the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna E.; Rittenour, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glacial sediments from the South Fork Hoh River valley in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA and the Lake Hawea valley in the Southern Alps, New Zealand were dated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) on feldspar sand from 2011-2013. High sediment supply (typical of glacial environments), short transport distances, and sediment newly eroded from bedrock sources were expected to pose problems for luminescence d...

  7. "Comets, Origins, and Life:” Promoting Interdisciplinary Science in Secondary and Middle Schools in the Washington, DC and Saint Louis, MO Metro Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, Boncho; Gibb, E. L.; Brewer, G.; Novak, R.; Mandell, A. M.; Seaton, P.; Price, J.; Long, T.; Bahar, S.; Edwards, S. S.

    2010-10-01

    Developing a full-year program to support secondary and middle school science education is a key part of the "broader impact” component of NSF Grant AST- 0807939 (PI/Co-PI Bonev/Gibb). This program is realized at two stages: (1) a professional development course for teachers is offered during the summer; (2) during the subsequent academic year we collaborate with educators in lessons planning or curriculum development as demanded in their particular schools. We successfully offered the course “ Comets, Origins, and Life: Interdisciplinary Science in the Secondary Classroom ” (45 contact hours; 3 credits) in the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the Catholic University of America. This class demonstrates how a complex hypothesis - for the delivery of water and prebiotic organic matter to early Earth - is being tested by integrating astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary science. Collaborations with participants from the 2009 class include curriculum development within the Earth Science program in Prince Georges county, MD and strengthening science in Washington DC public schools. Our next step is to offer our class in the Saint Louis, MO area. The main challenge in our work with educators is not to present them with "interesting information", but to fit what we offer within the very particular curriculum expectations of their school districts. These curriculum expectations often vary from district to district and sometimes from year to year. We gratefully acknowledge the support by the NSF, allowing to fully integrate our research area into education. We also gratefully acknowledge our collaborations with the Goddard Center for Astrobiology and the Howard B. Owens Science Center (both in MD) in developing our class curriculum. Educators interested in this program can contact Boncho Bonev (bonev@cua.edu; for the Washington DC and Baltimore, MD areas) and Erika Gibb (gibbe@umsl.edu; for the Saint Louis, MO area).

  8. Βιβλιοκρισία:A. WEYL CARR - A. NICOLAIDES (eds., Asinou across Time: Studies in the Architecture and Murals of the Panagia Phorbiotissa, Cyprus. Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 43. Washington, DC:, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bασιλική ΦΩΣΚΟΛΟΥ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bιβλιοκρισία:Annemarie Weyl Carr -Andréas Nicolaïdès (eds., Asinou across Time: Studies in the Architecture and Murals of the Panagia Phorbiotissa, Cyprus. Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 43. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2012. Pp. xii, 431.  ISBN 9780884023494.

  9. Examining relationships between perceptions and objective assessments of neighborhood environment and sedentary time: Data from the Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaarushi Ahuja

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary time (ST and neighborhood environment (NE are predictors of cardiovascular (CV health. However, little is known about ST's relationship with NE. We examined associations of perceived and objective NE with ST in the predominantly African American faith-based population of the Washington, D.C. CV Health and Needs Assessment. After using community-based research principles, participants reported NE perceptions, including sidewalks, recreational areas, and crime presence. Factor analysis was conducted to explore pertinent constructs; factor sums were created and combined as Total Perception Score (TPS (higher score = more favorable perception. Objective NE was assessed using Google Maps and the Active Neighborhood Checklist (ANC. ST was self-reported. Linear regression determined relationships between TPS and ST, and ANC scores and ST, for 1 overall population, 2 lower median-income D.C. areas, and 3 higher median-income DC and Maryland areas. For the sample (N = 98.9% African-American, 78% female, lower median-income areas had significantly lower mean TPS and ANC scores than higher median-income areas (p < 0.001. Three factors (neighborhood violence, physical/social environment, and social cohesion were associated with overall NE perception. Among those in lower median-income areas, there was a negative association between TPS and ST that remained after covariate adjustment; this was not observed in higher median-income areas. There was no association between ANC scores and ST. Poorer NE perception is associated with greater ST for those in lower income areas, while objective environment is not related to ST. Multi-level interventions are needed to improve NE perceptions in lower-median income areas, reduce ST, and improve CV health.

  10. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Wen, Jun

    2004-03-01

    Liquidambar changii Pigg, Ickert-Bond & Wen sp. nov. (Altingiaceae) is established for anatomically preserved, middle Miocene infructescences from Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA. Specimens are spherical, ∼2.5 cm in diameter, and have ∼25-30 tightly packed, bilocular fruits per head. Fruits are 3.4-4.7 mm wide × 2.6-3.5 mm long and wedge shaped, fused at the base, and free distally. Each locule contains 1-2 mature, elongate seeds proximally and 5-9 aborted seeds of more irregular shape distally. Mature seeds are 1.5 mm long × 1.2 mm wide, elongate, and triangular transversely, with a slight flange. Seeds have a seed coat for which three zones can be well defined, a uniseriate outer palisade layer, a middle region of isodiametric cells comprising most of the integument, and a uniseriate inner layer of tangentially elongate cells lining the embryo cavity. Liquidambar changii is most similar to the eastern Asian L. acalycina H.-T. Chang on features of infructescence, fruit, and seed morphology and quite unlike the North American L. styraciflua L. and other species. Such a close relationship between these two species supports a Beringian biogeographic track between eastern Asia and western North America during the Miocene. Previous phylogenetic and allozyme analysis of modern Liquidambar demonstrates a close relationship between North American-western Asian taxa and suggests a North Atlantic biogeographic track in the middle Miocene. Together, these biogeographic tracks underscore the complexity of the biogeographic history of the Altingiaceae in the Northern Hemisphere throughout the Neogene.

  11. Mercury sedimentation in lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA and its relation to local industrial and municipal atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Using Remote Sensed Imagery to Determine the Impacts from Salvage Logging after the 2015 Tower Fire, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, Anna; Robichaud, Peter; Lewis, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires are part of the natural process in most forested landscapes and during subsequent precipitation, the runoff and consequently erosion of the soil increases. Several factors contribute to the increased runoff: loss of runoff storage in the forest floor, the water repellent soil layer and reduced interception by the canopy. Due to climate change, the number of wildfires and their severity is likely to increase, which will lead to increased erosion; this has been investigated by others. Often, land management protocol is to remove the standing dead trees before they decay. In the past years salvage logging has received more attention in research, yet results have been mixed on its effects on increased erosion. The goal of the current research is to determine the change in surface conditions due to salvage logging operations by comparing the pre- and post-fire and post-salvage surface conditions. To determine this change, high resolution WorldView remote sensing imagery was used after 9000-ha 2015 Tower Fire which was located on the border of Idaho and Washington (USA). Ground validation measurements were taken using the forest soil disturbance protocol as well as GPS coordinates and measurements of highly disturbed areas such as skid trails, skyline drag lines and other machinery impacts. Some correlations were found between disturbance classes, bare soil, exposed wheel tracks (rutting) and soil compaction. High resolution WorldView remote sensing images detected changes in the pre- and post-fire environmental conditions and the change due to salvage logging operations. Classifying disturbances using remote sensing imagery is complicated by natural revegetation processes and by the timing of salvage logging operations. Initial results suggest that high resolution imagery can be used to determine onsite impacts of salvage logging operations.

  13. Fossil plotopterid seabirds from the Eo-Oligocene of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA: descriptions and functional morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Dyke

    Full Text Available The plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae were a group of extinct wing-propelled marine birds that are known from Paleogene-aged sediments (Eocene to Miocene, mostly around the Pacific Rim (especially Japan and the northwest coast of North America. While these birds exhibit a strikingly similar wing morphology to penguins (Spheniscidae, they also share derived characters with pelecaniform birds that are absent in penguins and exhibit apparently superficial similarities with auks (Alcidae: Charadriiformes. Despite quite an abundant fossil record, these birds have been little studied, and in particular their functional morphology remains little understood. Here we present osteological overviews of specimens from the northwest coast of Washington state (USA. We give an amended diagnosis for the well-represented North American genus, Tonsala Olson, 1980, describe a new large species, and examine the functional morphology of plotopterids showing that the ratio of humeral strength to femoral strength is quite low in one well-represented species Tonsala buchanani sp.nov., relative to both extant penguins and alcids. While the femoral strength of Tonsala buchanani is 'penguin-grade', its humeral strength is more 'alcid-grade'. These results have implications for understanding the mode-of-locomotion of these extinct marine birds. Although not related to Spheniscidae, our descriptions and functional results suggest that Tonsala buchanani sustained similar loads in walking, but slightly lower humeral loads during swimming, than a modern penguin. This suggests a swimming mode that is more similar to living alcids, than to the highly-specialised locomotor strategy of living and fossil penguins.

  14. Time Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Benthic and Pelagic Indicator Fishes from Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James E; O'Neill, Sandra M; Ylitalo, Gina M

    2017-08-01

    We modeled temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in two indicator fish species representing benthic and pelagic habitats in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. English sole (Parophrys vetulus, benthic) index sites and larger-scale Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii, pelagic) foraging areas represented a wide range of possible contamination conditions, with sampling locations situated adjacent to watersheds exhibiting high, medium and low development. Consistency in analytical data throughout the study was maintained by either calculating method-bias-correction factors on paired samples as methods evolved or by analyzing older archived samples by current methods. PCBs declined moderately in two herring stocks from a low-development basin (2.3 and 4.0% annual rate of decline) and showed no change in the highly developed and moderately developed basins during a 16- to 21-year period. PCBs increased in English sole from four of ten sites (2.9-7.1%), and the remaining six exhibited no significant change. PBDEs and DDTs declined significantly in all herring stocks (4.2-8.1%), although analytical challenges warrant caution in interpreting DDT results. PBDEs declined in English sole from two high-development and one low-development site (3.7-7.2%) and remained unchanged in the remaining seven. DDTs increased in English sole from one high-development site (Tacoma City Waterway) and declined in two high-development and one low development site. As with herring, analytical challenges warrant caution in interpreting the English sole DDT results. It is likely that source controls and mitigation efforts have contributed to the declines in PBDEs and DDTs overall, whereas PCBs appear to have persisted, especially in the pelagic food web, despite bans in PCB production and use.

  15. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ202Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ202Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger.

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Defense Cooperation (5th) Held in Washington, DC on 31 January-1 February 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    guess is as good as mine. Doctor V. Garber Thank you. Bill, in maintaining our naval superiority that you stressed, Janes pointed out that the Soviets...or what we have is the best. I have to say that that statement or~ 165 in Janes , if quoted correctly, is just ridiculous. The U. S. Navy, in a one-to...BRUCE ARNOLD ROTHWELL, CAPPELLO & BERNDTSON- GARRETT CORPORATION LTC FRANK BESSON, III, USA SIR ROY AUSTEN -SMITH RETIRED KBE CB DFC RAF H BIELINSKI RADM

  18. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 6 (Washington, DC-Palm Beach, Florida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C0 000 0 0 0 0N IM0-4 of N4. 4 04C 44 04 0 00 Co 00 0 0 00 )w cDc tD to to 0w w w W (a 0 v 1-4: W 1 M-4 310000 r- Q 40 UN 00 O " f...4-4 .400 40 ZUI-Z * a a 4V) 4Y~if 40 a0 .4 td 40 -40’ w4 a Mwwl- a 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 4 CA a W-4 3a 2 2 22 2z 2 Z 2 22 ZZ 3 * 04-4 U 4c a 0 a: a0 co 0...0 0 0 IN a 0 C 0 lm 00 0,04000000000 0 0 0ly 0011i o m -4 0 cr .0-4WW WW W -4 VC)C)U ,cC)C nmr # c VC) .0 0’a 0 -N eŘ N . C4 .44 NN 00000000.000-gin

  19. Fontan-Associated Liver Disease: Proceedings from the American College of Cardiology Stakeholders Meeting, October 1 to 2, 2015, Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Curt J; Bradley, Elisa A; Landzberg, Mike J; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Beekman, Robert H; Book, Wendy; Gurvitz, Michelle; John, Anitha; John, Binu; Marelli, Ariane; Marino, Bradley S; Minich, L LuAnn; Poterucha, John J; Rand, Elizabeth B; Veldtman, Gruschen R

    2017-12-26

    Over the past decade, as the majority of patients with single ventricle anatomy who have undergone the Fontan operation reach adulthood, a newly recognized disease process, Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD), has emerged. FALD is an extracardiac complication that may lead to substantial comorbid disease and premature mortality. The risk factors, pathophysiology, longitudinal consequences, and therapeutic options related to FALD remain poorly defined. Although we recognize that Fontan circulatory properties are associated with extracardiac organ dysfunction, numerous gaps in our understanding of the nature of this relationship exist. Such extracardiac manifestations, in addition to other late complications of the circulation, can significantly affect quality of life and healthcare use. Therefore, to initiate a formal evaluation of FALD, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) sponsored a stakeholders meeting on October 1 to 2, 2015, in Washington, DC. The goal of the meeting was to bring together subspecialty experts in the fields of adult and pediatric hepatology, congenital cardiology (adult congenital and pediatric cardiology), heart failure/transplant, epidemiology, and cardiothoracic surgery, as well as patient advocates, patients, parents of children and young adults who have had the Fontan procedure, and research organizations and societies to discuss the current state of FALD. Topics included gaps in knowledge, optimal care, research opportunities and barriers, and sound practices to guide providers, patients, and families. This report summarizes findings from the stakeholders meeting and seeks to establish a platform for understanding and addressing FALD. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Anniversary of the First Public Announcement of the Successful Test of Fission Proceedings (50th) Held in Washington, DC on 17 January 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-17

    Larson Energy Consultant Dr. Theodore P. Perros , Chairman Chemistry Department The George Washingtbn University Dr. Sam Rothman Professor and... Perros Ms. Nancy Jo Nicholas Chemistry Department I Graduate Student The George Washington Department of Physics University The George Washington

  1. Tobacco retail outlet advertising practices and proximity to schools, parks and public housing affect Synar underage sales violations in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Villanti, Andrea C; Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Ganz, Ollie; Conway, Kevin P; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-03-01

    To examine the cross-sectional association between illicit sales of tobacco to minors, Washington DC tobacco outlet advertising practices, retail store type, the demographic make-up of the area surrounding each outlet, and the proximity of each outlet to high schools, recreational parks and public housing. Seven hundred and fifty tobacco outlets in the DC area, n=347 of which were randomly selected for inspection by the Synar Inspection Program in 2009-2010. The presence of tobacco advertisements on the interior and exterior of each outlet, and illicit tobacco sales to Synar Inspection Program youth volunteers. The presence of tobacco advertisements on the exterior of gas stations was much greater than on other retail store types (OR=6.68; 95% CI 4.05 to 11.01), as was the absence of any advertisements at bars or restaurants that sold tobacco (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.52). Exterior tobacco advertisements were also more likely in predominantly African-American areas of the city (OR=3.11; 95% CI 2.28 to 4.25), and particularly likely on storefronts located closer to parks (OR=1.87; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.28). Illicit sales to minors were more common at gas stations (OR=3.01; 95% CI 1.5 to 6.3), outlets that displayed exterior tobacco advertisements closer to parks (OR=3.36; 95% CI 1.38 to 8.21), and outlets located closer to high schools in majority African-American block groups (OR=1.29; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.58). Findings demonstrate that while illicit tobacco sales to minors are occurring at acceptably low rates by Synar standards, illicit sales vary considerably by retail store type, advertising approach and proximity to high schools, parks and African-American residential areas. Future work may help inform regulatory efforts to reduce youth access at the neighbourhood, city, state and national levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure on Hydrology, Nitrogen Fluxes, and Combined Sewer Overflows in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Pennino, M. J.; McDonald, R.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Baltimore County, MD, Montgomery County, MD, and Washington, DC, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The watershed scale impact of SGI was evaluated by assessing how increased spatial density of SGI correlates with stream hydrology and nitrogen exports over space and time. The most common SGI types were detention ponds (58%), followed by marshes (12%), sand filters (9%), wet ponds (7%), infiltration trenches (4%), and rain gardens (2%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI (>10% SGI) have 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff than watersheds with lower SGI. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3- and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. Based on specific SGI types, infiltration trenches (R2 = 0.35) showed the strongest correlation with hydrologic metrics, likely due to their ability to attenuate flow, while bioretention (R2 = 0.19) and wet ponds (R2 = 0.12) showed stronger relationships with nitrogen compared to other SGI types, possibly due to greater denitrification in these sites. When comparing individual watersheds over time, increases in SGI corresponded to non-significant reductions in hydrologic flashiness and combined sewer overflows compared to watersheds with no change in SGI. This study shows that while implementation of SGI is ongoing, some regions are beginning to have enough SGI to see significant impacts on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale.

  3. Electronic media time and sedentary behaviors in children: Findings from the Built Environment and Active Play Study in the Washington DC area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Roberts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play (BEAP Study was to examine whether home built environment, bedroom electronic presence, parental rules and demographics predicted children's sedentary behavior (SB. In 2014, BEAP Study questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children (7–12 years within the Washington DC area. SB-Duration (hours/day and SB-Frequency (days/week were assessed by two questions with multiple subparts relating to SB activity type (e.g. car riding and SB companionship (e.g. friends. Built environment, bedroom electronic presence, parental rules and demographic data were obtained through questionnaire items and ordered logistic regression models were used to examine whether these variables were associated with SB. Study sample included 144 children (female (50%; average age (9.7 years; White (56.3%; Black/African-American (23.7%; Asian-Americans (10.4%. Nearly 40% of the sample reported daily solitary SB with car riding being the most frequently reported type of SB. Children living on streets without a dead-end/cul-de-sac exhibited a higher odds in SB-Duration using electric media [2.61 (CI: 1.31, 5.18] and having no television in a child's bedroom was associated with a lower odds in SB-Frequency [0.048 (CI: 0.006, 0.393] and SB-Duration [0.085 (CI: 0.018, 0.395]. Non-Hispanic/Latino children were also found to have higher odds in solitary SB-Frequency when parental rules of electronic use were modeled [8.56 (CI: 1.11, 66.01]. Based on results from this cross-sectional study, home neighborhood built environment, bedroom electronic presence and absence of parental rules can significantly predict children's SB.

  4. Attitudes, perceptions and behaviours towards HIV testing among African-American and East African immigrant women in Washington, DC: implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions and behaviours between African-American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Overall, African-American women held more favourable views towards HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration-related or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including negative assumptions (eg, "Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive"), negative emotions (eg, "Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me") and potential negative reactions from partner or others (eg, "Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity"). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African-American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. A qualidade de vida de jovens portadores de espinha bífida do Children's National Medical Center – Washington DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena Rotta Soares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo explorar a qualidade de vida de jovens portadores de espinha bífida atendidos no Children's National Medical Center em Washington DC. A pesquisa baseia-se em uma perspectiva qualitativa que utiliza como referencial teórico central a "Teoria do estigma" e as discussões conceituais sobre as dimensões de qualidade de vida. Foram entrevistados 15 jovens do serviço acima citado, sendo que 8 deles participaram de um grupo focal construído através das questões levantadas durante entrevistas. Os discursos dos jovens em questão refletem a necessidade de categorias mais englobantes que não remetam a uma pulverização da experiência de vida. Evidenciou-se uma estrutura de desigualdade nas interações entre saudáveis e deficientes, e reproduzida pelos próprios jovens. Os resultados demonstram que o estigma se encontra presente em todas as dimensões da vida dos sujeitos, interferindo na inserção social, construção subjetiva do jovem e sua auto-estima, reforçando o papel do portador de deficiência como uma "não-pessoa". Embora a categoria sexualidade não seja priorizada em outros instrumentos para esta população, o tema se faz presente e central na discussão da experiência da vida dos mesmos.

  6. Improving immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of vaccines through innovation in clinical assay development and trial design: the Phacilitate Vaccine Forum, Washington D.C. 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Ioana R; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena

    2011-06-01

    The 9th Annual Vaccine Forum organized by Phacilitate in Washington D.C. 2011 brought together 50+ senior level speakers and over 400 participants representing all the key stakeholders concerning vaccines. The main focus of the meeting was to define priorities in the global vaccines sector from funding to manufacturing and evaluation of vaccine efficacy. A special session was devoted to improving immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of vaccines through innovation in clinical assay development and trial design. The current regulatory approach to clinical assay specification, validation and standardization that enable more direct comparisons of efficacy between trials was illustrated by the success in meningococcal vaccine development. The industry approach to validation strategies was exemplified by a new serologic test used on the diagnostic of pneumococcal pneumonia. The application of the Animal Rule to bridge clinical and non-clinical studies in botulism has allowed significant progress in developing one of the first vaccines to seek approval under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule. An example of pushing the boundaries in the correlation of immunological responses and efficacy points was represented by a recent cell-based influenza vaccine for which the same correlates of protection apply as for the traditional, egg-based flue vaccine. In the field of HIV phase 2b studies are underway, based on promising results obtained with some vaccine candidates. The conclusion of this session was that creativity in vaccine design and evaluation is beneficial and can lead to innovative new vaccine designs as well as to validated assays to assess vaccine efficacy.

  7. Structure, age, and tectonic setting of a multiply reactivated shear zone in the piedmont in Washington, D.C., and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A.H.; Drake, Avery A.

    1998-01-01

    The Rock Creek shear zone is the dominant tectonic feature in the Piedmont in Washington, D.C. and adjacent parts of Maryland, has an exposed length of 25 km, and a width of up to 3 km. The shear zone is characterized by a complicated composite fabric produced by the imposition of both ductile and brittle structures as well as the reactivation, transposition, and folding of older structures during subsequent antithetic displacement. At least five main types of structural elements are discernible and include: 1) relict, medium- to coarse-grained mylonitic foliation and related structures produced by sinistral shearing under at least middle amphibolite facies conditions; 2) a ductile fault zone having an apparent sinistral displacement of at least several km and an unknown, but possibly significant component of upward throw of the east wall; 3) pervasive, fine-grained ultramylonitic foliation associated with quartz ribbons and late oblique shear bands, generated by dextral shearing under thermal conditions that appear to have progressed from middle greenschist to sub-greenschist (semi-brittle); 4) a system of oblique-(west wall up) and dextralship faults localized chiefly within a tectonic me??lange at the junction of two major strands, and whose motion spanned the ductile-brittle transition; and 5) a system of post-Cretaceous thrust faults that cut Coastal Plain rocks as young as Quaternary as well as the previously deformed crystalline rocks. The first two sets of structures are of probable Ordovician age and are thus believed to coincide with the Taconic event, which produced regional middle to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism, widespread plutonism, and extensive southwest-vergent fold phases in this area. In contrast, the dextral shearing and faulting were generated during final thermal cooling and represent the latest Paleozoic penetrative deformation that affected this area. They are very likely Alleghanian because of their great similarity to other better

  8. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on snag abundance and spatial pattern in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion. Salter

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and prescribed burning practices are commonly used to address tree stocking, spacing, composition, and canopy and surface fuel conditions in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on snag abundance and spatial pattern across 12 10-ha treatment units in central Washington State. A snag...

  9. Implementation of a Multimodal Mobile System for Point-of-Sale Surveillance: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in Washington, DC, and New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Ganz, Ollie; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Kreslake, Jennifer; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Aidala, Angela; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    In tobacco control and other fields, point-of-sale surveillance of the retail environment is critical for understanding industry marketing of products and informing public health practice. Innovations in mobile technology can improve existing, paper-based surveillance methods, yet few studies describe in detail how to operationalize the use of technology in public health surveillance. The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from 2 tobacco, point-of-sale surveillance projects to inform and prepare public health researchers and practitioners to implement new mobile technologies in retail point-of-sale surveillance systems. From 2011 to 2013, 2 point-of-sale surveillance pilot projects were conducted in Washington, DC, and New York, New York, to capture information about the tobacco retail environment and test the feasibility of a multimodal mobile data collection system, which included capabilities for audio or video recording data, electronic photographs, electronic location data, and a centralized back-end server and dashboard. We established a preimplementation field testing process for both projects, which involved a series of rapid and iterative tests to inform decisions and establish protocols around key components of the project. Important components of field testing included choosing a mobile phone that met project criteria, establishing an efficient workflow and accessible user interfaces for each component of the system, training and providing technical support to fieldworkers, and developing processes to integrate data from multiple sources into back-end systems that can be utilized in real-time. A well-planned implementation process is critical for successful use and performance of multimodal mobile surveillance systems. Guidelines for implementation include (1) the need to establish and allow time for an iterative testing framework for resolving technical and logistical challenges; (2) developing a streamlined

  10. Willingness of community-recruited men who have sex with men in Washington, DC to use long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Levy

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are currently investigating the safety and efficacy of long-acting injectable (LAI agents as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP. Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, we assessed the self-reported willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM to use LAI PrEP and their preference for LAI versus daily oral PrEP.In 2014, venue-based sampling was used to recruit MSM aged ≥18 years in Washington, DC. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey followed by voluntary HIV testing. This analysis included MSM who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status at study entry. Correlates of being "very likely" to use LAI PrEP and preferring it to daily oral PrEP were identified using multivariable logistic regression.Of 314 participants who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status, 50% were <30 years old, 41% were non-Hispanic Black, 37% were non-Hispanic White, and 14% were Hispanic. If LAI PrEP were offered for free or covered by health insurance, 62% were very likely, 25% were somewhat likely, and 12% were unlikely to use it. Regarding preferred PrEP modality, 67% chose LAI PrEP, 24% chose oral PrEP, and 9% chose neither. Correlates of being very likely versus somewhat likely/unlikely to use LAI PrEP included age <30 years (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.68, reporting ≥6 (vs. 1 sex partners in the last year (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.22-5.53, previous oral PrEP use (aOR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20-11.24, and being newly identified as HIV-infected during study testing (aOR 4.83; 95% CI 1.03-22.67. Black (vs. White men (aOR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.96 and men with an income of <$20,000 (vs. ≥$75,000; aOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.93 were less likely to prefer LAI to oral PrEP.If LAI PrEP were found to be efficacious, its addition to the HIV prevention toolkit could facilitate more complete PrEP coverage among MSM at risk for HIV.

  11. Application and evaluation of the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Baltimore-Washington D.C. study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, W.; Gilliam, R. C.; Pouliot, G. A.; Godowitch, J. M.; Pleim, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Kang, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Mathur, R.

    2013-12-01

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in urban areas using satellite, aircraft, vertical profiler and ground based measurements (http://discover-aq.larc.nasa.gov). In July 2011, the DISCOVER-AQ project conducted intensive air quality measurements in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, D.C. area in the eastern U.S. To take advantage of these unique data, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the meteorology and air quality in the same region using 12-km, 4-km and 1-km horizontal grid spacings. The goal of the modeling exercise is to demonstrate the capability of the coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate air quality at fine grid spacings in an urban area. Development of new data assimilation techniques and the use of higher resolution input data for the WRF model have been implemented to improve the meteorological results, particularly at the 4-km and 1-km grid resolutions. In addition, a number of updates to the CMAQ model were made to enhance the capability of the modeling system to accurately represent the magnitude and spatial distribution of pollutants at fine model resolutions. Data collected during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campaign, which include aircraft transects and spirals, ship measurements in the Chesapeake Bay, ozonesondes, tethered balloon measurements, DRAGON aerosol optical depth measurements, LIDAR measurements, and intensive ground-based site measurements, are used to evaluate results from the WRF-CMAQ modeling system for July 2011 at the three model grid resolutions. The results of the comparisons of the model results to these measurements will be presented, along with results from the various sensitivity simulations

  12. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  13. Pathogen exposure and blood chemistry in the Washington, USA population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C LeAnn; Schuler, Krysten L; Thomas, Nancy J; Webb, Julie L; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Ip, Hon S; Dubey, J P; Frame, Elizabeth R

    2013-10-01

    Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, United States were evaluated in 2011 to determine health status and pathogen exposure. Antibodies to Brucella spp. (10%) and influenza A virus (23%) were detected for the first time in this population in 2011. Changes in clinical pathology values (serum chemistries), exposure to pathogens, and overall health of the population over the last decade were assessed by comparing 2011 data to the data collected on this population in 2001-2002. Several serum chemistry parameters were different between study years and sexes but were not clinically significant. The odds of canine distemper virus exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2001-2002 (80%) compared to 2011 (10%); likelihood of exposure significantly increased with age. Prevalence of exposure to Sarcocystis neurona was also higher in 2001-2002 (29%) than in 2011 (0%), but because testing methods varied between study years the results were not directly comparable. Exposure to Leptospira spp. was only observed in 2001-2002. Odds of Toxoplasma gondii exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2011 (97%) than otters in 2001-2002 (58%). Substantial levels of domoic acid (n = 2) and saxitoxin (n = 2) were found in urine or fecal samples from animals sampled in 2011. No evidence of calicivirus or Coxiella burnetii exposure in the Washington population of northern sea otters was found in either 2001-2002 or 2011. Changes in exposure status from 2001-2002 to 2011 suggest that the Washington sea otter population may be dealing with new disease threats (e.g., influenza) while also increasing their susceptibility to diseases that may be highly pathogenic in naïve individuals (e.g., canine distemper).

  14. Sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta of three Mid-Atlantic Parks in the George Washington Memorial Parkway, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barrows

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A diverse sawfly fauna of 176 species in 66 genera in 10 families occurred in three parks in the George Washington Memorial Parkway – Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve (DMWP, Great Falls Park (GFP, and Turkey Run Park (TRP. Adult sawflies flew from early March through mid-November. They included the rarely-collected Kerita fidala Ross, a leafminer of Mertensia virginica (L. Pers. ex Link (Boraginaceae and an unidentified Caliroa sp. which consumes Staphylea trifolia L. (Staphyleaceae. Nine of the collected species are alien ones in North America. Based on coefficients of community, DMWP was more similar to TRP than GFP, and GFP and TRP were more similar to one another than to DMWP. In DMWP, most species were uncommon in samples. Ninety-five percent of the reported host genera of the collected sawfly species occurred in all three of the parks.

  15. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore-Washington, D.C. region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Diskin, G. S.; Moore, R. H.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Anderson, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites) and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring) must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type - such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity - and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH), and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD-Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 %) and organics (57 %). A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity) such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs). The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m-3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35 ng m-3 in the free troposphere (above

  16. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore–Washington, D.C. region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Beyersdorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type – such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity – and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH, and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD–Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 % and organics (57 %. A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs. The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m−3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35

  17. Examining the Influence of a New Light Rail Line on the Health of a Demographically Diverse and Understudied Population within the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area: A Protocol for a Natural Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately two-thirds of adults and youth in Prince George’s County, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C. are overweight or obese and less than half are achieving daily physical activity recommendations. Active transportation (AT, such as walking, biking or using public transportation (PT, is a strategic pathway to improving physical activity levels and thus reducing excess weight. Utilizing an expansion of the Washington, D.C. area transportation system with a new light rail line, the Purple Line Outcomes on Transportation (PLOT Study will exam pre- and post-Purple Line PT use, AT behaviors and attitudes and physical activity among Prince George’s County adults and youth. The PLOT Study will take advantage of this natural experiment in an area enduring significant racial/ethnic and gender-based overweight or obesity and physical inactivity disparities. While similar natural experiments on AT have been conducted in other U.S. cities, those studies lacked diverse and representative samples. To effectively evaluate these physical activity outcomes among this population, efforts will be used to recruit African American and Latino populations, the first and second most common racial/ethnic groups in Prince George’s County. Finally, the PLOT Study will also examine how contextual effects (e.g., neighborhood built environment impact PT, AT and physical activity.

  18. Awareness, Willingness, and Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Washington, DC and Miami-Dade County, FL: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rudy; Forrest, David; Cardenas, Gabriel; Opoku, Jenevieve; Magnus, Manya; Phillips, Gregory; Greenberg, Alan; Metsch, Lisa; Kharfen, Michael; LaLota, Marlene; Kuo, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Despite the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, knowledge, and uptake of this new prevention intervention over time has not been fully studied. Using NHBS data from 2 urban areas highly impacted by HIV, we examined awareness, use, and willingness to use daily oral PrEP and factors associated with willingness to take oral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) over time. MSM from Washington, DC and Miami, FL were recruited in 2011 and 2014 using venue-based sampling. Participants completed behavioral surveys and HIV testing. Awareness, use, and willingness to use oral PrEP were examined. Demographic and behavioral correlates of being "very likely" to use PrEP in 2011 and 2014 were assessed. PrEP awareness increased from 2011 to 2014 in both cities (DC: 39.1%-73.8% and Miami: 19.4%-41.2%), but use remained low in 2014 (DC: 7.7%; Miami: 1.4%). Being very likely to use PrEP decreased over time in DC (61%-48%), but increased in Miami (48%-60%). In DC, minority race was associated with increased odds of being very likely to use PrEP, whereas reduced odds of being very likely to use PrEP was observed for MSM with 1 or 2-5 partners versus having 6+ partners. In Miami, a higher proportion of white versus Hispanic MSM reported being very likely to use PrEP in 2011, but this observation was reversed in 2014. Geographic differences in awareness, use, and willingness to use PrEP indicate that innovative strategies are needed to educate MSM about this effective prevention strategy.

  19. Magnetostratigraphy and Tectonic Rotation of the Eocene-Oligocene Makah and Hoko River Formations, Northwest Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Prothero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene-Oligocene Makah Formation and subjacent middle Eocene Hoko River Formation of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, yield mollusks, crustaceans, foraminifera, and early neocete whales; their age has never been precisely established. We sampled several sections; most samples showed a stable single-component remanence held largely in magnetite and passed a Class I reversal test. The upper Refugian (late Eocene and lower Zemorrian (early Oligocene rocks at Baada Point correlate with Chron C13r (33.7–34.7 Ma and Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The Ozette Highway section of the Makah Formation spanned the early Refugian to late Refugian, with a sequence that correlates with Chrons C15r-C13r (33.7–35.3 Ma, and a long reversed early Zemorrian section that correlates with Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The type section of the Hoko River Formation correlates with Chron C18r (40.0–41.2 Ma. The area sampled shows about 45∘ of post-Oligocene counterclockwise tectonic rotation, consistent with results obtained from the Eocene-Oligocene rocks in the region.

  20. Neogene Fallout Tuffs from the Yellowstone Hotspot in the Columbia Plateau Region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P.; Perkins, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16–4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas. PMID:23071494

  1. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  2. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P; Perkins, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  3. The story of a Yakima fold and how it informs Late Neogene and Quaternary backarc deformation in the Cascadia subduction zone, Manastash anticline, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Ladinsky, Tyler C.; Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Pratt, Thomas; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jackson K.; Wan, Elmira

    2017-01-01

    The Yakima folds of central Washington, USA, are prominent anticlines that are the primary tectonic features of the backarc of the northern Cascadia subduction zone. What accounts for their topographic expression and how much strain do they accommodate and over what time period? We investigate Manastash anticline, a north vergent fault propagation fold typical of structures in the fold province. From retrodeformation of line- and area-balanced cross sections, the crust has horizontally shortened by 11% (0.8–0.9 km). The fold, and by inference all other folds in the fold province, formed no earlier than 15.6 Ma as they developed on a landscape that was reset to negligible relief following voluminous outpouring of Grande Ronde Basalt. Deformation is accommodated on two fault sets including west-northwest striking frontal thrust faults and shorter north to northeast striking faults. The frontal thrust fault system is active with late Quaternary scarps at the base of the range front. The fault-cored Manastash anticline terminates to the east at the Naneum anticline and fault; activity on the north trending Naneum structures predates emplacement of the Grande Ronde Basalt. The west trending Yakima folds and west striking thrust faults, the shorter north to northeast striking faults, and the Naneum fault together constitute the tectonic structures that accommodate deformation in the low strain rate environment in the backarc of the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

  4. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intraerythrocytic parasite(s) in Puget Sound rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Straaten, N.; Jacobson, A.; Halos, D.; Hershberger, P.; Kocan, A.A.; Kocan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two morphologically distinct forms of an intraerythrocytic parasite(s) were detected by microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained blood films in 45.7% of 119 rockfish (Sebastes emphaeus) from the San Juan Archipelago (Washington State, U.S.A.). Infection prevalence for both forms was 53% in males, 44% in females, and 33% in fish of undetermined gender. A binucleate "ring-stage" was present at all 4 geographic sites, with a mean prevalence of 45.7%, while mean prevalence of a larger gamont-like form from the same sites was 5.1%. The relationship of the 2 forms to each other could not be determined. Neither schizogony nor binary fission was evident in any of the infected erythrocytes and the parasites contained no obvious pigment. The possibility of the 2 morphologic forms being 2 distinct species is supported by the observation that no difference in parasitemia was seen in the binucleate form among sites (1.6-1.9%), while parasitemia of the gamont-like form varied significantly among sites, ranging from a high of 4% to a low of 0.1%. Taxonomic status of either form could not be determined at this time based on limited existing morphologic data. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  5. Characteristics and Dynamics of a Large Sub-Tidal Sand Wave Field—Habitat for Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes personatus, Salish Sea, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gary Greene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water sand wave fields in the San Juan Archipelago of the Salish Sea and Pacific Northwest Washington, USA, have been found to harbor Pacific sand lance (PSL, Ammodytes personatus, a critical forage fish of the region. Little is known of the dynamics of these sand waves and the stability of the PSL sub-tidal habitats. Therefore, we have undertaken an initial investigation to determine the dynamic conditions of a well-known PSL habitat in the San Juan Channel within the Archipelago using bottom sediment sampling, an acoustical doppler current profiling (ADCP system, and multi-beam echo sounder (MBES bathymetry. Our study indicates that the San Juan Channel sand wave field maintained its shape and bedforms geometry throughout the years it has been studied. Based on bed phase diagrams for channelized bedforms, the sand waves appear to be in a dynamic equilibrium condition. Sea level rise may change the current regime within the Archipelago and may alter some of the deep-water or sub-tidal PSL habitats mapped there. Our findings have global significance in that these dynamic bedforms that harbor PSL and sand-eels elsewhere along the west coast of North America and in the North Sea may also be in a marginally dynamic equilibrium condition and may be prone to alteration by sea level rise, indicating an urgency in locating and investigating these habitats in order to sustain the forage fish.

  6. Geochemical characterization and dating of R tephra, a post-glacial marker bed in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolczyk, Mary; Vallance, James W.; Cubley, Joel; Osborn, Gerald; Clark, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The oldest postglacial lapilli–ash tephra recognized in sedimentary records surrounding Mount Rainier (Washington State, USA) is R tephra, a very early Holocene deposit that acts as an important stratigraphic and geochronologic marker bed. This multidisciplinary study incorporates tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, petrography, and electron microprobe analysis to characterize R tephra. Tephra samples were collected from Tipsoo Lake and a stream-cut exposure in the Cowlitz Divide area of Mount Rainier National Park. Field evidence from 25 new sites suggests that R tephra locally contains internal bedding and has a wider distribution than previously reported. Herein, we provide the first robust suite of geochemical data that characterize the tephra. Glass compositions are heterogeneous, predominantly ranging from andesite to rhyolite in ash- to lapilli-sized clasts. The mineral assemblage consists of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and magnetite with trace apatite and ilmenite. Subaerial R tephra deposits appear more weathered in hand sample than subaqueous deposits, but weathering indices suggest negligible chemical weathering in both deposits. Statistical analysis of radiocarbon ages provides a median age for R tephra of ∼10 050 cal years BP, and a 2σ error range between 9960 and 10 130 cal years BP.

  7. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoko; Takahashi, Shin; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins>total octyltins> or = total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years.

  8. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yun, Se Hun; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations.

  9. Effects of geoduck (Panopea generosa) aquaculture on resident and transient macrofauna communities of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, P. Sean; Galloway, Aaron W.E.; McPeek, Kathleen C.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    In Washington state, commercial culture of geoducks (Panopea generosa) involves large-scale out-planting of juveniles to intertidal habitats, and installation of PVC tubes and netting to exclude predators and increase early survival. Structures associated with this nascent aquaculture method are examined to determine whether they affect patterns of use by resident and transient macrofauna. Results are summarized from regular surveys of aquaculture operations and reference beaches in 2009 to 2011 at three sites during three phases of culture: (1) pregear (-geoducks, -structure), (2) gear present (+geoducks, +structures), and (3) postgear (+geoducks, -structures). Resident macroinvertebrates (infauna and epifauna) were sampled monthly (in most cases) using coring methods at low tide during all three phases. Differences in community composition between culture plots and reference areas were examined with permutational analysis of variance and homogeneity of multivariate dispersion tests. Scuba and shoreline transect surveys were used to examine habitat use by transient fish and macroinvertebrates. Analysis of similarity and complementary nonmetric multidimensional scaling were used to compare differences between species functional groups and habitat type during different aquaculture phases. Results suggest that resident and transient macrofauna respond differently to structures associated with geoduck aquaculture. No consistent differences in the community of resident macrofauna were observed at culture plots or reference areas at the three sites during any year. Conversely, total abundance of transient fish and macroinvertebrates were more than two times greater at culture plots than reference areas when aquaculture structures were in place. Community composition differed (analysis of similarity) between culture and reference plots during the gear-present phase, but did not persist to the next farming stage (postgear). Habitat complexity associated with shellfish

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.; Johnson, B.L.; Letcher, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-??-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of ???PBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did ???PBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and ???PBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs from

  11. Miocene to present deformation rates in the Yakima Fold Province and implications for earthquake hazards in central Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Kelsey, Harvey; Blakely, Richard; Möller, Andreas; Styron, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Yakima fold province (YFP), located in the Cascadia backarc of central Washington, is a region of active distributed deformation that accommodates NNE-SSW shortening. Geodetic data show modern strain accumulation of 2 mm/yr across this large-scale fold province. Deformation rates on individual structures, however, are difficult to assess from GPS data given low strain rates and the relatively short time period of geodetic observation. Geomorphic and geologic records, on the other hand, span sufficient time to investigate deformation rates on the folds. Resolving fault geometries and slip rates of the YFP is imperative to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure, including a large nuclear waste facility and hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Yakima Rivers. We present new results on the timing and magnitude of deformation across several Yakima folds, including the Manastash Ridge, Umtanum Ridge, and Saddle Mountains anticlines. We constructed several line-balanced cross sections across the folds to calculated the magnitude of total shortening since Miocene time. To further constrain our structural models, we include forward-modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data. We estimate total shortening between 1.0 and 2.4 km across individual folds, decreasing eastward, consistent with geodetically and geologically measured clockwise rotation. Importantly, we find that thrust faults reactivate and invert normal faults in the basement, and do not appear to sole into a common décollement at shallow to mid-crustal depth. We constrain spatial and temporal variability in deformation rates along the Saddle Mountains, Manastash Ridge and Umtanum Ridge anticlines using geomorphic and stratigraphic markers of topographic evolution. From stratigraphy and geochronology of growth strata along the Saddle Mountains we find that the rate of deformation has increased up to six-fold since late Miocene time. To constrain deformation rates along other Yakima folds

  12. Background Air Mass Can Impact U.S. Northeastern Corridor Urban GHG Emission Analysis: A Study to Isolate Incoming CO2 Air Mass with Tower Measurements in the Washington DC/Baltimore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. L.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Yadav, V.

    2016-12-01

    City governments worldwide have made commitments to cut over 3GtCO2e above their respective national government's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). To help assess the progress of such activities, atmospheric GHG observations may be vital as they contain true emission signatures. Since GHG observations contain the sum of city, regional and global sources and sinks, the city emission signal must first be isolated in the observations to render them useful for evaluating urban mitigation policies. This is especially true for regions that are downwind from large sources and sinks, such as the U.S. Northeastern corridor (NEC). Regional and global signals are generally removed through the use of tower locations that observe "background" air masses. To site these background tower locations, many urban studies use average wind directions which may not be suitable for cities in the NEC. In this work, we focus on the Washington DC/Baltimore urban area. We assume a 12 tower network that is currently being installed to quantify CO2 emissions. Using the Weather Research Forecasting model coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport Model, we create synthetic observations at these 12 locations using Vulcan model sources and Carbon Tracker sinks for a 500km radius area around Washington DC/Baltimore during February and July 2013. Using these observations, we assess the impact of regional and local sources and sinks on network measurements. We then identify possible background tower locations and generate synthetic data at these sites. Using a statistical model, we select four background towers that have the greatest likelihood of capturing incoming CO2 air mass. This works shows that CO2 emission estimates for Washington DC/Baltimore will be significantly biased if the background air masses are not isolated properly. We also show that the NEC observations can be impacted by both intermediate and far field sources and sinks. The additional variability in

  13. Assessing climate-change risks to cultural and natural resources in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Waste, Stephen M.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of an interdisciplinary special issue that examines the influence of climate change on people and fish in the Yakima River Basin, USA. Jenni et al. (2013) addresses stakeholder-relevant climate change issues, such as water availability and uncertainty, with decision analysis tools. Montag et al. (2014) explores Yakama Tribal cultural values and well-being and their incorporation into the decision-making process. Graves and Maule (2012) simulates effects of climate change on stream temperatures under baseline conditions (1981–2005) and two future climate scenarios (increased air temperature of 1 °C and 2 °C). Hardiman and Mesa (2013) looks at the effects of increased stream temperatures on juvenile steelhead growth with a bioenergetics model. Finally, Hatten et al. (2013) examines how changes in stream flow will affect salmonids with a rule-based fish habitat model. Our simulations indicate that future summer will be a very challenging season for salmonids when low flows and high water temperatures can restrict movement, inhibit or alter growth, and decrease habitat. While some of our simulations indicate salmonids may benefit from warmer water temperatures and increased winter flows, the majority of simulations produced less habitat. The floodplain and tributary habitats we sampled are representative of the larger landscape, so it is likely that climate change will reduce salmonid habitat potential throughout particular areas of the basin. Management strategies are needed to minimize potential salmonid habitat bottlenecks that may result from climate change, such as keeping streams cool through riparian protection, stream restoration, and the reduction of water diversions. An investment in decision analysis and support technologies can help managers understand tradeoffs under different climate scenarios and possibly improve water and fish conservation over the next century.

  14. Topographic controls on pyroclastic density current dynamics: Insight from 18 May 1980 deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Self, Stephen; Pollock, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Our ability to interpret the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical for understanding the transport and depositional processes that control PDC dynamics. This paper focuses on the influence of slope on flow dynamics and criticality as recorded in PDC deposits from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (USA). PDC deposits are found along the steep flanks (10°-30°) and across the pumice plain ( 5°) up to 8 km north of the volcano. Granulometry, componentry and descriptions of depositional characteristics (e.g., bedform morphology) are recorded with distance from source. The pumice plain deposits are primarily thick (3-12 m), massive and poorly-sorted, and represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs. By contrast, the steep flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes. We propose that acceleration of the concentrated PDCs along the steep flanks resulted in thinning of the concentrated, basal region of the current(s). Enhanced entrainment of ambient air, and autofluidization from upward fluxes of air from substrate interstices and plunging breakers across rugged, irregular topography further inflated the currents to the point that the overriding turbulent region strongly influenced transport and depositional mechanisms. Acceleration in combination with partial confinement in slot canyons and high surface roughness would also increase basal shear stress, further promoting shear and traction transport in the basal region of the current. Conditions along the steep flank resulted in supercritical flow, as recorded by regressive bedforms, which gradually transitioned to subcritical flow downstream as the concentrated basal region thickness increased as a function of decreasing slope and flow energy. We also find that (1) PDCs were erosive into the underlying granular substrate along high slopes (> 25°) where currents were

  15. Mobile Health Technology Can Objectively Capture Physical Activity (PA) Targets Among African-American Women Within Resource-Limited Communities-the Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Yingling, L; Adu-Brimpong, J; Mitchell, V; Ayers, C R; Wallen, G R; Peters-Lawrence, M; Brooks, A T; Sampson, D M; Wiley, K L; Saygbe, J; Henry, J; Johnson, A; Graham, A; Graham, L; Powell-Wiley, T M

    2016-12-02

    Little is understood about using mobile health (mHealth) technology to improve cardiovascular (CV) health among African-American women in resource-limited communities. We conducted the Washington, D.C. CV Health and Needs Assessment in predominantly African-American churches in city wards 5, 7, and 8 with the lowest socioeconomic status based on community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. The assessment measured CV health factors: body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose and cholesterol, blood pressure, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, physical activity (PA), and smoking. Participants were trained to use a PA monitoring wristband to measure 30 days of PA, wirelessly upload the PA data to hubs at the participating churches, and access their data from a church/home computer. CV health factors were compared across weight classes. Among females (N = 78; 99 % African-American; mean age = 59 years), 90 % had a BMI categorized as overweight/obese. Across weight classes, PA decreased and self-reported sedentary time (ST) increased (p ≤ 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure and glucose increased across weight classes (p ≤ 0.05); however, cholesterol, glucose, and BP were near intermediate CV health goals. Decreased PA and increased ST are potential community intervention targets for overweight and obese African-American women in resource-limited Washington D.C. areas. mHealth technology can assist in adapting CBPR intervention resources to improve PA for African-American women in resource-limited communities.

  16. George Washington: A Grounded Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highway, Suite 1204·, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC......a broad array of experiences, enabled him to become a leader who profoundly affected those around him. George Washington reflected a man of the

  17. Proceedings of Colloquium 110 of the International Astronomical Union on Library and Information Services in Astronomy Held in Washington, DC on 26 July- 1 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Netherlands)); Miley, G.K. (Space Telescope Science Inst.. Baltimore, MO (USA)) SO Astron. Astrophys. ( Sep 1988) v. 203(2) p. 250-254 ISSN 0004-6361; CODEN...colleagues. The whole body of accumulated information became universally available. A celebrated example is the famous Historia Coelestis of Tycho Brahe. An

  18. Channel-planform evolution in four rivers of Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A.: The roles of physical drivers and trophic cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Randle, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history. All four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, evident from landslide response on the Elwha River. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. In this sediment-routing system with high connectivity, such climate-driven signals appear to propagate downstream without being buffered substantially by sediment storage. Legacy effects of anthropogenic modification likely also affect the Quinault River planform. We infer no correspondence between channel geomorphic evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that trophic-cascade effects in this setting are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park fluvial dynamics and contrast with the classic example of Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of elk overuse are apparent in channel morphology; we attribute these differences to hydrologic regime and large-wood availability.

  19. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  20. Nota biobibliográfica + poética + creaciones («Campo de girasoles», «Hierápolis I», «La diosa fortuna», «One life», «Acción por la paz (Washington DC 2012» y «Encruzcijada» + cuestionario (Victoria Pineda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Peralto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nota biobibliográfica + poética + creaciones («Campo de girasoles», «Hierápolis I», «La diosa fortuna», «One life», «Acción por la paz (Washington DC 2012» y «Encruzcijada» + cuestionario (Victoria Pineda

  1. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2006: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 17-19, 2006, Washington, DC; and August 17 and 21, 2006, New Orleans, LA; and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2006 Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Ruth Ullmann

    2007-01-01

    Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives (February 17-19, 2006, Washington, DC; and August 17 and 21, 2006, New Orleans, LA) and of the 2006 meetings of the Board of Directors (February, June, August, and December) are provided. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the American Psychological Association…

  2. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY 88. Part 5. (Air Force Academy, Colorado-Washington, DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Security Classification) All Prime Contract Awards by State or Countr,, Placer and Contractol.) FY 88- Part 5, (Air Force Academy, Colorado-Washington...N I wo- I -~ 0 4’DN mqO O01Oj0ro) (01N -c’ 0 4𔃺oo (1V(DWW CY w I I01- I -4 qr NO0-4M-M-4( N -4 sJ UflI w0P-- a -4 .4 aMor - IC c CC C cC Mor- 1o 0 0 0

  3. HYDRAULICS, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. SURVEY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. ORTHOIMAGERY, CLARK COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  6. BASEMAP, CLALLAM COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  7. Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place and Contractor. Part 5 (Long Beach-Lakewood, California - Washington, DC), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    02>2 66 00 00 000> 00C C w 0 C 00 00 C0 0 0 6 (D If v. r- 0 24 6 -t-FP-- or- orr -- u r- -- v P.- ur or- o r- or uI- o r- or-, o6 0 ui I: &-02 6 0 00...D0C 0 I- o4 o-o0 C) o o 11a2%1I0MID 11W I0 -OO O C0 NIPC NI I C> L-00 D< 1 󈧄 100 4OO N , 0 O 0 N ) o0) C D DC 0) C. II L Moo 11 s- -.4 S--L 4- -4 -4

  8. Taste and smell function in chronic disease: a review of clinical and biochemical evaluations of taste and smell dysfunction in over 5000 patients at The Taste and Smell Clinic in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Levy, Lucien M; Fordyce, April

    2013-01-01

    To describe systematic methods developed over 40 years among over 5000 patients at The Taste and Smell Clinic in Washington, DC to evaluate taste and smell dysfunction. A tripartite methodology was developed. First, methods to determine clinical pathology underlying the multiple disease processes responsible for taste and smell dysfunction were developed. Second, methods to determine biochemical parameters responsible for these pathologies were developed. Third, methods to implement these techniques were developed to form a unified basis upon which treatment strategies can be developed to treat these patients. Studies were performed in 5183 patients. Taste loss was present in 62% of patients, smell loss in 87%. Most patients with taste loss (52%) exhibited Type II hypogeusia; most patients with smell loss (56%) exhibited Type II hyposmia. Sensory distortions were present in 60%. Four common diagnostic entities were found: post influenza-type hyposmia and hypogeusia (27% of patients), idiopathic causes (16%), allergic rhinitis (15%) and post head injury (14%). Regardless of clinical diagnosis the major biochemical abnormality found in most patients (~70%) was diminished parotid salivary and nasal mucus secretion of cAMP and cGMP. Taste and smell dysfunctions are common clinical problems associated with chronic disease processes. These symptoms require a systematic, integrated approach to understand their multiple and complex components. The approach presented here can and has led to effective treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Shackling the shoulders of giants. A report on excerpts from the National Academies' Symposium on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain, Washington, DC, September 5-6, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardenier, John S

    2003-07-01

    This paper informally summarizes a two-day symposium held at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., September 5-6, 2002. The issue was to what extent the progress of science and societal capacity for continued technological innovation are threatened by excessive protection of intellectual property. Excessive protection creates disadvantages not only for scientists and inventors but also for educators/students and for librarians/clientele. Speakers from a variety of disciplines and institutions agreed unanimously that scientific and technological progress is, indeed, under serious threat. Various opinions were expressed about the degree of threat, currently and prospectively, as well as what counter-measures are best suited to resist undue restrictions on creative uses of scientific and technical data and information. This summary is based entirely on the author's notes from the symposium, and the commentary offered is his alone. My apologies to the speakers if this paper does not accurately reflect the primary intent of their presentations. The "Suggested Readings" offered at the end are not specific to the speakers' statements but rather are offered as a general resource to aid further research. The definitive record of the symposium is planned to be available from the National Academies Press as a Proceedings publication in the summer of 2003.

  10. Socrates in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    We wandered over to the Lincoln Memorial souvenir shop, which suddenly looked more out of place than our robed sage. He took all the postcards...turkeys offering to drive out the chaos or expecting you to do so. They try to put bad tools in yours hands—tools designed to increase certainty and

  11. Privatizing Airports in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Omepe Be Wafs Aesept11i0 te Labar?" Avg 1976 (balted tsr policetlem is liifrell ad Labor Reltions Avion ), 40 pal 9n MPlufeseiMe Pows with an AD "Now a...1981) 66, Factors Affecting Iberian Security,- (Factors* Maritleas qiuo 421-439, AD A100 423 *AfeCtan Ill Seguridad Dancec) 14 pp., Oct 1980, AD

  12. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, F.

    2008-09-01

    The presented bidirectional DC/DC converter design concept is a further development of an already existing converter used for low battery voltage operation.For low battery voltage operation a high efficient low parts count DC/DC converter was developed, and used in a satellite for the battery charge and battery discharge function.The converter consists in a bidirectional, non regulating DC/DC converter connected to a discharge regulating Buck converter and a charge regulating Buck converter.The Bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter performs with relatively high efficiency even at relatively high currents, which here means up to 35Amps.This performance was obtained through the use of power MOSFET's with on- resistances of only a few mille Ohms connected to a special transformer allowing paralleling several transistor stages on the low voltage side of the transformer. The design is patent protected. Synchronous rectification leads to high efficiency at the low battery voltages considered, which was in the range 2,7- 4,3 Volt DC.The converter performs with low switching losses as zero voltage zero current switching is implemented in all switching positions of the converter.Now, the drive power needed, to switch a relatively large number of low Ohm , hence high drive capacitance, power MOSFET's using conventional drive techniques would limit the overall conversion efficiency.Therefore a resonant drive consuming considerable less power than a conventional drive circuit was implemented in the converter.To the originally built and patent protected bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter, is added the functionality of regulation.Hereby the need for additional converter stages in form of a Charge Buck regulator and a Discharge Buck regulator is eliminated.The bidirectional DC/DC converter can be used in connection with batteries, motors, etc, where the bidirectional feature, simple design and high performance may be useful.

  13. DC + RSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1996-01-01

    This document gives some initial ideas of how the Duration Calculus (DC) can be integrated with the RAISE Specification Language (RSL).......This document gives some initial ideas of how the Duration Calculus (DC) can be integrated with the RAISE Specification Language (RSL)....

  14. Modeling the effects of urban expansion on natural capital stocks and ecosystem service flows: A case study in the Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Ben; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Villa, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Urban expansion and its associated landscape modifications are important drivers of changes in ecosystem service (ES). This study examined the effects of two alternative land use-change development scenarios in the Puget Sound region of Washington State on natural capital stocks and ES flows. Land-use change model outputs served as inputs to five ES models developed using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) platform. While natural capital stocks declined under managed (1.3–5.8%) and unmanaged (2.8–11.8%) development scenarios, ES flows increased by 18.5–56% and 23.2–55.7%, respectively. Human development of natural landscapes reduced their capacity for service provision, while simultaneously adding beneficiaries, particularly along the urban fringe. Using global and local Moran’s I, we identified three distinct patterns of change in ES due to projected landuse change. For services with location-dependent beneficiaries – open space proximity, viewsheds, and flood regulation – urbanization led to increased clustering and hot-spot intensities. ES flows were greatest in the managed land-use change scenario for open space proximity and flood regulation, and in the unmanaged land-use change scenario for viewsheds—a consequence of the differing ES flow mechanisms underpinning these services. We observed a third pattern – general declines in service provision – for carbon storage and sediment retention, where beneficiaries in our analysis were not location dependent. Contrary to past authors’ finding of ES declines under urbanization, a more nuanced analysis that maps and quantifies ES provision, beneficiaries, and flows better identifies gains and losses for specific ES beneficiaries as urban areas expand.

  15. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  16. Case History: Merging the Tools of DC Resistivity and Fracture Trace Analysis for Locating High Yield Domestic Water Wells in Karst Terrain, Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, W.; Eaton, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    The karstic eastern margin of Virginia's Shenandoah Valley hosts large volumes of high quality ground water in discrete zones or pockets. Industrial and culinary exploitation poses a challenging exploration problem. Recent work by the authors using geophysical and aerial photogrammetric techniques resulted in the successful location of three high- yield water wells. This indirect methodology increases the probability of locating valuable wells by locating geologic features that may harbor water-bearing zones. The eastern Shenandoah Valley is geologically complex. The underlying bedrock is dominantly limestones, dolomites, and shales of Cambrian age that have been extensively folded, fractured, and faulted. Geomorphologic features such as solution cavities, caves, disappearing streams, and sinkholes are common. Extensive alluvial fan and river terrace deposits, comprised dominantly of quartzite gravel and sand, cover much of the land surface, and fill surface depressions. The combination of sand and gravel filtering and large storage capacity in the voids makes this region ideal for producing a large quantity of high quality groundwater. Two sites were investigated for karst aquifers near the town of Stuarts Draft. Interbedded limestones and dolomites underlie Barth Farm, situated on the north bank of the South River. The owners attempted to installed a water well to service an active vineyard. The drilling located a previously unknown, water-filled cavern ~5 m below the surface; subsequent high pumping rates in finishing the well resulted in a surface collapse and the creation of a sinkhole. A second effort, offset by ~30 meters, resulted in a catastrophic collapse, and seriously endangered the lives of the drillers. A subsequent dipole-dipole DC resistivity survey delineated a conductive zone coincident with the two sinkholes. Fracture trace analysis of pre-drilling aerial photographs indicates the presence of lineaments that pass through this drilling site

  17. Drainage effects on the transient, near-surface hydrologic response of a steep hillslope to rainfall: implications for slope stability, Edmonds, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biavati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow landslides on steep (>25° hillsides along Puget Sound have resulted in occasional loss of life and costly damage to property during intense or prolonged rainfall. As part of a larger project to assess landslide hazards in the Seattle area, the U.S. Geological Survey instrumented two coastal bluff sites in 2001 to observe the subsurface hydrologic response to rainfall. The instrumentation at one of these sites, near Edmonds, Washington, consists of two rain gauges, two water-content probes that measure volumetric water content at eight depths between 0.2 and 2.0 m, and two tensiometer nests that measure soil-water suction at six depths ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 m. Measurements from these instruments are used to test one- and two-dimensional numerical models of infiltration and groundwater flow. Capillary-rise tests, performed in the laboratory on soil sample from the Edmonds site, are used to define the soil hydraulic properties for the wetting process. The field observations of water content and suction show an apparent effect of porosity variation with depth on the hydraulic response to rainfall. Using a range of physical properties consistent with our laboratory and field measurements, we perform sensitivity analyses to investigate the effects of variation in physical and hydraulic properties of the soil on rainfall infiltration, pore-pressure response, and, hence, slope stability. For a two-layer-system in which the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer is at least 10 times greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, and the infiltration rate is greater than the conductivity of the lower layer, a perched water table forms above the layer boundary potentially destabilizing the upper layer of soil. Two-dimensional modeling results indicate that the addition of a simple trench drain to the same two-layer slope has differing effects on the hydraulic response depending on the initial pressure head conditions. For slope

  18. DC electric springs with DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qingsong; Cheng, Ming; Jiang, Yunlei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi-directio......The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi...

  19. FIS STUDY FOR Pacific COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — For this revision, STARR conducted over 38 miles of revised Coastal Hazard Analysis that included computing wave runup. STARR utilized 79 transects in this study. No...

  20. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Jennifer K.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

  1. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  2. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage...

  3. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  4. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor of the s......The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor...

  5. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  6. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M Koehler; Benjamin T. Maletzke; Jeff A. Von Kienast; Keith B. Aubry; Robert B. Wielgus; Robert H. Naney

    2008-01-01

    Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington are poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we...

  7. GLASS FORMULATION TESTING TO INCREASE SULFATE INCORPORATION - Final Report VSL-04R4960-1, Rev 0, 2/28/05, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of American, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The melter tests described in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared

  8. Soft switched DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, K.; Kavitha, K. V. N.; Saravanan, K.

    2017-11-01

    A soft switched single switch isolated dc-dc conveys proposed in this paper. This converter works on the principle of zero current switching (zcs) and zero voltage switching (zvs). The circuit comprises lossless snubber with low rating. The switch works on zcs during turn on and zvs during turnoff. The diodes are based on zcs turn on and turnoff conditions. This paper presents the concept of soft switching and its applications to dc-dc converter. The losses due to soft switching and hard switching are compared.

  9. IGBT Based DC/DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akherraz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-depth analytical and experimental investigation of an indirect DC-DC converter. The DC-AC conversion is a full bridge based on IGBT power modules, and the AC-DC conversion is done via a high  frequency AC link and a first diode bridge. The AC link, which consists of snubbing capacitors and a variable air-gap transformer, is analytically designed to fulfill Zero Voltage commutation requirement. The proposed converter is simulated using PSPICE and a prototype is designed built and tested in the laboratory. PSPICE simulation and experimental results are presented and compared.

  10. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  11. Predators collected from balsam woolly adelgid and Cooley spruce gall adelgid in western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., with reference to biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Glenn R. Kohler; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2017-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive study to survey predators associated with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, 1928 in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), U.S.A. (Kohler et al. 2008), predators of balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg, 1844) and Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Adelges cooleyi (Gillette...

  12. 76 FR 31462 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Model DC-10-10, DC- 10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to all The Boeing Company Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10- 40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11, and MD-11F airplanes...

  13. An Investigation of DC-DC Converter Power Density Using Si and SiC MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    were fabricated by Cree Inc., for use in vehicular converter applications. The MOSFETs are rated for 1200V and 50A. Device characteristics were...Washington, DC, 2008. [5] Callanan, R. J., and Et Al. "Recent Progress in SiC DMOSFETs and JBS Diodes at Cree ", 34th Annual Conference of IEEE...1 -- 16 X 2 LCD Module LCD_ON, -- Power ON/OFF LCD_BLON, -- Back Light ON/OFF

  14. Ma'ii Washindoongoo Deeya [A Coyote Goes to Washington].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This children's reader in the Navajo language describes the experiences of a personified coyote as he leaves home to go on a business trip to Washington, D.C. It is designed for children in kindergarten through third grade in a bilingual education setting. (NCR)

  15. Tiger Team assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tiger Team Assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) conducted from January 14 through February 15, 1991. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs at LBL. The Tiger Team concluded that curtailment of cessation of any operations at LBL is not warranted. However, the number and breadth of findings and concerns from this assessment reflect a serious condition at this site. In spite of its late start, LBL has recently made progress in increasing ES H awareness at all staff levels and in identifying ES H deficiencies. Corrective action plans are inadequate, however, many compensatory actions are underway. Also, LBL does not have the technical expertise or training programs nor the tracking and followup to effectively direct and control sitewide guidance and oversight by DOE of ES H activities at LBL. As a result of these deficiencies, the Tiger Team has reservations about LBL's ability to implement effective actions in a timely manner and, thereby, achieve excellence in their ES H program. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Doubly fed machine review: agenda. Conference report, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The visual aids presented at the doubly fed machine review are presented. The doubly fed machine is a generating system either for wind turbines or hydro systems. Conceptual design and trade-offs are included, as well as testing. (LEW)

  17. 147 between the holocaust museum in washington dc and ghana's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP-G61

    concerns trade relations, the middle passage and the African diaspora. A fifteen to twenty minutes film was commissioned from the famous Ghanaian filmmaker, Kwaw Ansah “in other to orient visitors to the themes of the exhibition.” The artifacts of the exhibition include archaeological materials, including nineteenth century ...

  18. Variable-Speed Screw Chiller, Sidney Yates Building, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrouchov, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howett, Daniel H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report captures the findings from an evaluation ORNL performed on a new chiller technology as part of GSA's Proving Ground Program. Note: Appendices B&C were removed from this report while the author looks for a way to insert them without consuming over 200MB of file size.

  19. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    .... Built over 100 years ago, the tunnel is nearing the end of its useful life and is subject to an ever.... Lawson, Division Administrator, District of Columbia Division, Federal Highway Administration. BILLING...

  20. The Capitol Experience in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, R. Anne

    Designed for 11th grade U.S. history students, the teaching unit combines the history of the U.S. Capitol building and its Greek and Roman revival architecture to tell the story of the nation's government buildings. While the unit uses the U.S. Capitol, any other public building could be used, such as a state capitol, court house, or public…

  1. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  2. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  3. DC-to-DC switching converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor); Middlebrook, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter having nonpulsating input and output current uses two inductances, one in series with the input source, the other in series with the output load. An electrical energy transferring device with storage, namely storage capacitance, is used with suitable switching means between the inductances to DC level conversion. For isolation between the source and load, the capacitance may be divided into two capacitors coupled by a transformer, and for reducing ripple, the inductances may be coupled. With proper design of the coupling between the inductances, the current ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, or the reduction achievable in that way may be divided between the input and output.

  4. Arsenic and lead distribution and mobility in lake sediments in the south-central Puget Sound watershed: the long-term impact of a metal smelter in Ruston, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, James E; Asplund, Jessica A; Burdick, Sarah; Miller, Michelle; Peterson, Shawna M; Tollefson, Amanda; Ziegler, Kara

    2014-02-15

    The American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) smelter in Ruston, Washington, contaminated the south-central Puget Sound region with heavy metals, including arsenic and lead. Arsenic and lead distribution in surface sediments of 26 lakes is significantly correlated with atmospheric model predictions of contaminant deposition spatially, with concentrations reaching 208 mg/kg As and 1,375 mg/kg Pb. The temporal distribution of these metals in sediment cores is consistent with the years of operation of the ASARCO smelter. In several lakes arsenic and lead levels are highest at the surface, suggesting ongoing inputs or redistribution of contaminants. Moreover, this study finds that arsenic is highly mobile in these urban lakes, with maximum dissolved arsenic concentrations proportional to surface sediment levels and reaching almost 90 μg/L As. With 83% of the lakes in the deposition zone having surface sediments exceeding published "probable effects concentrations" for arsenic and lead, this study provides evidence for possible ongoing environmental health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oletus : USA luurevanglad on Poolas ja Rumeenias / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    USA ajalehe Washington Post andmeil hoiab USA terrorismis kahtlustavaid Ida-Euroopa riikides. Poola ajalehe allikate väitel on üks neist riikidest Poola. Poola, Rumeenia, Bulgaaria tõrjuvad kahtlustusi, Tšehhi väitel on ameeriklaste palvele vange majutada ära öeldud

  6. Hello Mr. President! Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hello Mr. President Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington Am 8. November 2016 entscheidet sich, wer zum 58. Präsidenten der USA gewählt wird: Die ehemalige Außenministerin Hillary Clinton oder der republikanische Kandidat Donald Trump. In der heißen Phase des Wahlkampfs fällt besonders

  7. 75 FR 38943 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10-40, and DC-10-40F Airplanes AGENCY... propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10- 40, and DC-10-40F airplanes. This proposed AD would require installing a support...

  8. 75 FR 63040 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10-40, and DC-10-40F Airplanes AGENCY... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10-40, and DC-10- 40F airplanes, certificated in any category...

  9. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  10. President George Washington: A Timeless Model of Great Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    illustrated in this paper. There are also many examples of this leadership quality throughout history but few ever reach the level that Washington...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-01BB) Washington, DC...model of great leadership . N/A Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER LCDR MatthewS. Jones, SC, USN

  11. Three new DC-to-DC Single-Switch Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new family of three previously unidentified dc-to-dc converters, buck, boost, and buck-boost voltage-transfer-function topologies, which offer advantageous transformer coupling features and low capacitor dc voltage stressing. The three single-switch, single-diode, converters offer the same features as basic dc-to-dc converters, such as the buck function with continuous output current and the boost function with continuous input current. Converter time-domain simulations and experimental results (including transformer coupling support and extol the dc-to-dc converter concepts and analysis presented.

  12. Geologic setting and characterization of coals and the modes of occurrence of selected elements from the Franklin coal zone, Puget Group, John Henry No. 1 mine, King County, Washington, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Cathcart, James D.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A. [U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 939, DFC, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Johnson, Samuel Y. [U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 999, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2005-08-19

    Upper middle and upper Eocene coal-bearing strata in the Green River coal district of Washington state are in the Franklin coal zone of the undivided Puget Group. Coal-bearing strata accumulated in intertidal and deltaic environments along a tidally influenced delta plain. Numerous shale and tonstein partings within the coals indicate that the coal formed in low-lying peat mires. To evaluate variations in element distribution within these coals, vertical bench channel samples from the Franklin No. 7-8-9 (n=24) and the No. 10 (n=11) coal beds were collected. Coal beds in the John Henry No. 1 mine of the Green River coal district have an apparent rank of high volatile B bituminous. No. 7-8-9 and No. 10 have a mean sulfur content of 0.67 wt.% and 0.9 wt.% respectively. When compared statistically to other western U.S. Tertiary coals, the Franklin coal zone in the John Henry No. 1 mine Franklin coal zone is significantly higher in contents of ash, Si, Al, Mg, K, Ti, Ag, As, Cu, F, Ga, Hg, Li, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, V, Y, Yb, and Zr, and has significantly lower contents of Ca, Na, B, Nd, and Se. Mean contents of several elements in the Franklin No. 7-8-9 and No. 10 coal beds are uncommonly high compared to western U.S. Tertiary coals. The No. 7-8-9 bed is higher in As (6.6X, 44 ppm), Cu (3.8X, 42 ppm), F (3X, 190 ppm), Hg (44X, 4.4 ppm), Mn (3.4X, 170 ppm), Nb (4.4X, 10 ppm), Ni (3.5X, 16 ppm), V (4X, 68 ppm), and Zr (4.9X, 88 ppm). The No. 10 bed is higher in As (11X, 81 ppm), Cu (3.2X, 35 ppm), Hg (75X, 7.5 ppm), Ni (3.3X, 15 ppm), P (5.4X, 1300 ppm), Sc (4.1X, 8 ppm), Sr (2.5X, 680 ppm), V (3.7X, 63 ppm), and Zr (2.7X, 48 ppm). X-ray diffraction analysis of the low-temperature ash from these coals reveals the predominance of quartz and clays (kaolinite, minor illite, smectite group, and mixed layer) and minor plagiociase feldspar (albite, disordered, and ordered Ca-bearing), carbonate (ankerite, calcite, kutnohorite, and siderite), pyrite, and clinoptilolite. Minor

  13. Application of the Best Available Science in Ecosystem Restoration: Lessons Learned From Large-Scale Restoration Project Efforts in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Washington. Available at http://pugetsoundnearshore. org. Cover: Cama Beach on Camano Island , Washington is an example of a bluff backed beach...Restoration Program. Lee, K. N. 1993. Compass and Gyroscope: Integrating Science and Politics for the Environment. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 243 p

  14. Three new DC-to-DC Single-Switch Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Barry W. Williams; Mona Fouad Moussa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new family of three previously unidentified dc-to-dc converters, buck, boost, and buck-boost voltage-transfer-function topologies, which offer advantageous transformer coupling features and low capacitor dc voltage stressing. The three single-switch, single-diode, converters offer the same features as basic dc-to-dc converters, such as the buck function with continuous output current and the boost function with continuous input current. Converter time-domain simulations ...

  15. 75 FR 68246 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F... to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10- 10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11...

  16. 75 FR 20790 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F... (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC- 10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11, and MD-11F airplanes. This proposed AD would require...

  17. 75 FR 23571 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD...

  18. 75 FR 60602 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD...

  19. Three-port DC-DC converter with new integrated transformer for DC Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated transformer for three-port dc-dc converter is proposed to overcome the power coupling effect existed in some known multiple inputs dc-dc converters. Orthogonal primary windings arrangement and in series connection of diagonal secondary Windings enables a fully power decoupling...

  20. The fifth International Geological Congress, Washington, 1891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 5th International Geological Congress (IGC), the initial meeting in North America, was the first of the three IGCs that have been held in the United States of America (USA). Of the 538 registrants alive when the 5th IGC convened in Washington, 251 persons, representing fifteen countries, actually attended the meeting. These participants included 173 people from the USA, of whom forty-two represented the US Geological Survey (USGS). Fourteen of the US State geological surveys sent representatives to Washington. Eight participants came from other countries in the Western Hemisphere - Canada (3), Chile (1), Mexico (3), and Peru (1). The sixty-six European geologists and naturalists at the 5th IGC represented Austro-Hungary (3), Belgium (3), Britain (12), France (7), Germany (23), Norway (1), Romania (3), Russia (8), Sweden (4), and Switzerland (2). The USGS and the Columbian College (now the George Washington University) acted as the principal hosts. The American Association for the Advancement of Science and then the Geological Society of America (GSA) met in the Capital immediately before the Congress convened (26 August-1 September 1891). The 5th IGC's formal discussions treated the genetic classification of Pleistocene rocks, the chronological correlation of clastic rocks, and the international standardization of colors, symbols, and names used on geologic maps. The third of those topics continued key debates at the 1st through 4th IGCs. The GSA, the Korean Embassy, the Smithsonian Institution's US National Museum, the USGS, and one of the two Secretaries-General hosted evening receptions. Field excursions examined Paleozoic exposures in New York (18-25 August), Cretaceous-Pleistocene localities along the Potomac River south of Washington (30 August), and classic Precambrian-Pleistocene sequences and structures in the Great Plains, Yellowstone, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin (2-26 September), with optional trips to the Grand Canyon (19-28 September) and Lake

  1. More than 6,500 Buildings Face Off in EPAs Sixth Annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition/U.S. commercial buildings in all 50 states and Washington, D.C. race to save energy, water and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the 2015 Energy Star Battle of the Buildings. Nationwide, more than 6,500 buildings and 125 teams are competing to reduce their energy and water use. In support of President

  2. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  3. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  4. DC arc weld starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  5. 78 FR 53498 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... and Consumer Standards, NHTSA, W43- 302, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Ms.... FUSA stated that it presently has immobilizer devices on all of its product lines (Forester, Tribeca...

  6. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  7. 75 FR 6160 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Douglas Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11, and MD-11F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC- 10A and...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, CLARK COUNTY, WASHINGTON (AND INCORPORATED AREAS), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, YAKIMA COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  10. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR CLALLAM COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR GRAYS HARBOR COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WASHINGTON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. Business leaders bring their clout to Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M

    1990-04-20

    Big business has always been opposed to government interference in its affairs. But now, besieged by the high cost--increasing at an annual rate of 20 to 30 percent--of health benefits for employees, their families, and retirees, a significant number of major corporate executives are seeking greater government involvement in finding a solution to the problem. Interest in health care policy decisions is so high that business leaders are participating in special health care commissions as members or by providing testimony. Some corporations even send company advocates to Washington, DC, to track and influence health care policymaking. What exactly do these corporate leaders want? They are not all in agreement about the degree of government involvement that is necessary or desirable. Nevertheless, they do have strong opinions about delivery of health care at the local level.

  16. Design of a kilowatt DC-DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the low power of traditional DC-DC converters, a DC-DC converter with a kilowatt power is designed. The input signal's frequency is 1 kHz and the duty cycle is 5%. The PWM signal controls the high-speed conduction or cut-off of the switch tube. The input DC voltage is 36V, and the output voltage is twice as high as the input voltage. The output power is greater than 1 KW; the circuit conversion efficiency is 87.21%.

  17. DC micro-grids

    OpenAIRE

    Mia, Gredelj

    2014-01-01

    The conventional electrical system in place today sees our electrical devices powered by AC mains. But as renewable technologies such as solar photovoltaic and wind power become more prevalent at a household level, DC micro-grids could be a cheaper and more efficient alternative. New lighting devices (LED) can reduce the electricity consumption substantially. Two alternatives are envisioned in this paper: A stand-alone alternative in which there is no grid connection, that would require local...

  18. 77 FR 46118 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ..., Washington, DC, and Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, have completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, and have determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the...

  19. Dynamic Evolution Control for Fuel Cell DC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saudi Samosir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are new alternative energy resource that has a great promise for distributed generation and electric vehicle application. However, fuel cells have a slow response due to their slow internal electromechanical and thermodynamic response. To optimize the fuel cell system performance, a fuel cell DC-DC converter with an appropriate controller which can regulate the power flow and automatically adjust the converter output voltage is needed. This paper proposes a new control technique for fuel cell DC-DC power converter. Design of the proposed control method for fuel cell DC-DC power converter is provided. A new approach for converter controllers synthesis based on dynamic evolution control theory is presented. In this paper, synthesis example of boost DC-DC converter is discussed. Performance of the proposed dynamic evolution control under step load variation condition is simulated under Matlab-Simulink environment. Simulation results show that the proposed techniques are capable for controlling fuel cell DC-DC converter.

  20. USA ja Iraak püüavad jõuda sel aastal vägede lepinguni / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraak püüavad enne 31. juulit sõlmida lepingu, mis käsitleb USA vägede viibimist Iraagis. Washington Posti andmeil on valitsused loobunud laiahaardelise ja pikaajalise vägede lepingu sõlmimisest, keskendudes nn. sillakavale, mis oleks üleminekuleping ja peaks võimaldama USA sõjaliste operatsioonide jätkamist pärast ÜRO mandaadi lõppu. Lisa: USA taandub roheliset tsoonist?

  1. A new optimum topology switching dc-to-dc converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, S.; Middlebrook, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A novel switching dc-to-dc converter is presented, which has the same general conversion property (increase or decrease of the input dc voltage) as does the conventional buck-boost converter, and which offers through its new optimum topology higher efficiency, lower output voltage ripple, reduced EMI, smaller size and weight, and excellent dynamic response. One of its most significant advantages is that both input and output current are not pulsating but are continuous (essentially dc with small superimposed switching current ripple), thus resulting in a close approximation to the ideal physically nonrealizable dc-to-dc transformer. The converter retains the simplest possible structure with the minimum number of components which, when interconnected in its optimum topology, yield the maximum performance.

  2. PENGGUNAAN FUZZY LOGIC UNTUK KONTROL PARALLEL CONVERTER DC-DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Prio Hartono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Using system fuzzy logic as control  technology have been used on low load dc-dc converter with combined parallel compiled  dc-dc converter can  obtain big load.   With existence of differrence of component parameter and each parallel compiled converter can obtained different current  and voltage output.  Function of controller  for to do adjustment, so that current which is applied  to  load by each converter  can be obtained  difference error as small as possible or same. The object of research is developing design of large signal dc-dc converter which is  combined with using  FLC so that  obtain  better performance.  To get better performance have been made plant model and simulation with CDE method.  The more systematic  system and design is needed to overcome bigger load  on dc-dc converter, so that parallel  compiled current master slave control system on dc-dc converter with using fuzzy logic  controller is used. Result of  research showed that error or difference of  current  which is applied to load can handled by fuzzy logic  controller.  Technic of current and voltage controller co to do adjustment current and voltage distribution  equally to load.  Distribution of iL1,iL2 and  output voltage Vo on dc-dc  converter with load 2,25 until  7,875 and voltage  100  until 120 volt,  load current beetwen  12 until 48, % relatif  error  Vo  0,4% until  0,9%.

  3. Direct Sensitivity Analysis of the DC-to-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Niculescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principle of the directsensitivity analysis of the dynamic systems and itsapplication to the DC-to-DC PWM converters arepresented. The model of the dynamic system associatedto the PWM Sepic converter with parasitic includedand continuous conduction mode (CCM, and coupledinductors was used in this study. The modelling of theconverter and the state sensitivity analysis with respectto some parameters of the converter have beenperformed with MATLAB environment. The algorithmcarried out for computing the state sensitivity functionsof converter can be applied to other configurations ofDC-to-DC PWM converters, for the two operatingmodes (CCM and DCM, with parasitic included andwith coupled or separate inductors, regardless ofsystem order.

  4. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  5. DC Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative overview of different hardware topologies and control systems for DC MGs has been presented in this chapter. Some challenges and design considerations of DC protections systems have also been discussed. Finally, applications of DC MGs in emerging smart grid applications have been su...... in different industries and gradually lead to new ways of rethinking of the future power distribution philosophies, especially with the emergence of SSTs. Research in DC systems, especially in the power electronics-based technologies will be highly attractive in the future....

  6. SCM Handbooks for dc-to-dc Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Mohmoud, M.; Yu, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Two documents aid in design of control modules for dc-to-dc converters. Features of SCM include: Adaptive stability, power component stress limiting, implementation of various control laws, unified design approach. Analysis and quidelines contained in handbooks enable engineer to design SCM circuit and confidently predict resulting overall performance.

  7. Dc-To-Dc Converter Uses Reverse Conduction Of MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.; Gott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    In modified high-power, phase-controlled, full-bridge, pulse-width-modulated dc-to-dc converters, switching devices power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Decreases dissipation of power during switching by eliminating approximately 0.7-V forward voltage drop in anti-parallel diodes. Energy-conversion efficiency increased.

  8. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  9. A DC Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  10. A comparative study of the molecular evolution of signalling pathway ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... George Washington University, 333 Lisner Hall, 2023 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA; Institute for Neuroscience, George Washington University, 636 Ross Hall, 2300 I St. NW, Washington DC 20037, USA; Department of Biology, Genome Evolution Laboratory, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, ...

  11. Wildland-urban interface housing growth during the 1990s in California, Oregon, and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Hammer; V.C. Radeloff; J.S. Fried; S.I. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examine housing growth in California, Oregon, and Washington in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where homes and other structures abut or intermingle with wildland vegetation. We combine housing density information from the 1990 and 2000 USA censuses with land cover information from the 1992/93 National Land Cover data set to...

  12. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  13. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  14. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  15. Forest statistics for northeast Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Hazard

    1963-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of six northeast Washington counties: Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman. The collection of field data was made during the years 1957 to 1961 in three separate inventory projects.

  16. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  17. Step-Up DC-DC Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    capacitor coupled between the positive and negative input terminals and the secondary side circuit comprises an output capacitor chargeable to a converter output voltage between a first positive electrode and a second negative electrode. A switched energy storage network is configured for alternatingly...... being charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The step-up DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short-circuit connection across the galvanic......The present invention relates to a step-up DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage and an input...

  18. Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.

  19. Fuzzy Control of DC-DC Converters with Input Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saifia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for designing fuzzy control of DC-DC converters under actuator saturation. Because linear control design methods do not take into account the nonlinearity of the system, a T-S fuzzy model and a controller design approach is used. The designed control not only handles the external disturbance but also the saturation of duty cycle. The input constraint is first transformed into a symmetric saturation which is represented by a polytopic model. Stabilization conditions for the state feedback system of DC-DC converters under actuator saturation are established using the Lyapunov approach. The proposed method has been compared and verified with a simulation example.

  20. Decentralized Interleaving of Paralleled Dc-Dc Buck Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rodriguez, Miguel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinha, Mohit [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Poon, Jason [University of California at Berkeley

    2017-08-21

    We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving among parallel-connected dc-dc buck converters. The proposed method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator circuit as the controller. Each controller is fully decentralized, i.e., it only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier waveform and no communication between different controllers is needed. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, the nonlinear oscillator-based controllers converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across PWM carriers. To the knowledge of the authors, this work presents the first fully decentralized strategy for switch interleaving in paralleled dc-dc buck converters.

  1. Decentralized Interleaving of Paralleled Dc-Dc Buck Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rodriguez, Miguel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinha, Mohit [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Poon, Jason [University of California at Berkeley

    2017-09-01

    We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving among parallel connected dc-dc buck converters without communication. The proposed method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator circuit as the controller. Each controller is fully decentralized, i.e., it only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier waveform. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, the nonlinear oscillator-based controllers converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across PWM carriers. To the knowledge of the authors, this work represents the first fully decentralized strategy for switch interleaving of paralleled dc-dc buck converters.

  2. RESONANT STEP-DOWN DC-DC POWER CONVERTERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant step-down DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage...... charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier by a semiconductor switch arrangement in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The resonant step-down DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short......-circuit connection across the galvanic isolation barrier connecting, in a first case, the second negative electrode of the output capacitor to the positive input terminal of the primary side circuit or, in a second case, connecting the second positive electrode of the output capacitor to the negative input terminal...

  3. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  4. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  5. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  6. Isolated step-down DC -DC converter for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovinets, O. V.; Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.

    2018-02-01

    Modern motor-vehicle industrial sector is moving rapidly now towards the electricity-driving cars production, improving their range and efficiency of components, and in particular the step-down DC/DC converter to supply the onboard circuit 12/24V of electric vehicle from the high-voltage battery. The purpose of this article - to identify the best circuitry topology to design an advanced step-down DC/DC converters with the smallest mass, volume, highest efficiency and power. And this will have a positive effect on driving distance of electric vehicle (EV). On the basis of computational research of existing and implemented circuit topologies of step-down DC/DC converters (serial resonant converter, full bridge with phase-shifting converter, LLC resonant converter) a comprehensive analysis was carried out on the following characteristics: specific volume, specific weight, power, efficiency. The data obtained was the basis for the best technical option - LLC resonant converter. The results can serve as a guide material in the process of components design of the traction equipment for electric vehicles, providing for the best technical solutions in the design and manufacturing of converting equipment, self-contained power supply systems and advanced driver assistance systems.

  7. Ethics committees for biomedical research in some African emerging countries: which establishment for which independence? A comparison with the USA and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwabihama, Jean-Paul; Girre, Catherine; Duguet, Anne-Marie

    2010-04-01

    The conduct of medical research led by Northern countries in developing countries raises ethical questions. The assessment of research protocols has to be twofold, with a first reading in the country of origin and a second one in the country where the research takes place. This reading should benefit from an independent local ethical review of protocols. Consequently, ethics committees for medical research are evolving in Africa. To investigate the process of establishing ethics committees and their independence. Descriptive study of 25 African countries and two North American countries. Data were recorded by questionnaire and interviews. Two visits of ethics committee meetings were conducted on the ground: over a period of 3 months in Kigali (Rwanda) and 2 months in Washington DC (USA). 22 countries participated in this study, 20 from Africa and two from North America. The response rate was 80%. 75% of local African committees developed into national ethics committees. During the last 5 years, these national committees have grown on a structural level. The circumstances of creation and the general context of underdevelopment remain the major challenges in Africa. Their independence could not be ensured without continuous training and efficient funding mechanisms. Institutional ethics committees are well established in USA and in Canada, whereas ethics committees in North America are weakened by the institutional affiliation of their members. The process of establishing ethics committees could affect their functioning and compromise their independence in some African countries and in North America.

  8. DC Microgrids – Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of control strategies, stability analysis and stabilization techniques for DC microgrids (MGs). Overall control is systematically classified into local and coordinated control levels according to respective functionalities in each level. As opposed to local control...

  9. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Yong, X.

    2000-01-01

    Duration Calculus (DC) is an interval-based real-time logic, which can be used in capturing and eliciting users' real-time requirements. The Timed RAISE Specification Language (TRSL) is an extension of the RAISE Specification Language with real-time features. This paper links DC and TRSL together...... approach for linking state-based real-time logics together with event-based, timed process algebra languages....

  10. SMALL-SCALE MELTER TESTING WITH LAW SIMULANTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE MELTER OPERATIONS - Final Report, VSL-04R49801-1, Rev. 0, 2/13/03, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHL W product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The tests describes in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by

  11. Assessing urban forest effects and values, Washington, D.C.'s urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Jeffrey T. Walton

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of trees in Washington, D.C. reveals that this city has about 1,928,000 trees with canopies that cover 28.6 percent of the area. The most common tree species are American beech, red maple, and boxelder. The urban forest currently store about 526,000 tons of carbon valued at $9.7 million. In addition, these trees remove about 16,200 tons of carbon per year...

  12. Atmel Microcontroller Based Soft Switched PWM ZVS Full Bridge DC to DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK KUMAR NAYAK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the simulation and implementation of soft switched PWM ZVS full bridge DC to DC converter. The 48V DC is efficiently reduced to 12V DC using a DC to DC converter. This converter has advantages like reduced switching losses, stresses and EMI. Input DC is converted into high frequency AC and it is stepped down to 12V level. Later it is rectified using a full wave rectifier. Laboratory model of microcontroller based DC to DC converter is fabricated and tested. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results.

  13. Very High Frequency Half Bridge DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first, off chip, class DE (resonant half bridge) converter working in the Very High Frequency (VHF) range. The benefits of using half bridge circuits both in the inverter and rectifier part of a VHF resonant dc/dc converter are analyzed and design equations for all...... components in the power stage are given. The circuit has been simulated to verify the accuracy of the presented equations and an efficiency of 89% has been shown. A prototype has been implemented with self-oscillating resonant gate drives driving the switches. The prototype has been used to drive an LED...

  14. A SOFT SWITCHED INTERLEAVED HIGH GAIN DC-DC CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHESHIDHAR REDDY ADDULA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel soft-switched interleaved DC-DC converter which provides a high voltage gain of 12 is proposed. Voltage gain of the basic interleaved boost converter is extended by using diode-capacitor multiplier (DCM cells. The switches are operated at a nominal duty ratio of 0.5. The voltage stress on the power switches and diodes is only a fraction of the output voltage. To enhance the operating power conversion efficiency, the switches are turned ON at zero voltage condition. Experimental results of 18-216V, 100W prototype converter validate the operating principle and the advantageous features of the presented converter.

  15. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification...... is carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization in the upper level...... control can also be made accordingly. Case studies on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation are carried out using proposed power flow analysis....

  16. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2008-01-01

    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  17. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  18. DC grid for home applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, D.; Archana, R.; Jayadeep, V. J.; Nithin, M.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    More than fifty percent Indian population do not have access to electricity in daily lives. The distance between the power generating stations and the distribution centers forms one of the main reasons for lack of electrification in rural and remote areas. Here lies the importance of decentralization of power generation through renewable energy resources. In the present world, electricity is predominantly powered by alternating current, but most day to day devices like LED lamps, computers and electrical vehicles, all run on DC power. By directly supplying DC to these loads, the number of power conversion stages was reduced, and overall system efficiency increases. Replacing existing AC network with DC is a humongous task, but with power electronic techniques, this project intends to implement DC grid at a household level in remote and rural areas. Proposed work was designed and simulated successfully for various loads amounting to 250 W through appropriate power electronic convertors. Maximum utilization of the renewable sources for domestic and commercial application was achieved with the proposed DC topology.

  19. Linking DC together with TRSL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne; Yong, Xia

    1999-01-01

    for high-level specifications of real-time requirementsand TRSL for specifying real-time implementations in the form of timed communicating concurrent processes.In order to link DC and TRSL together in a well-founded way, we formally define what it means for a TRSL process to satisfy a DC requirement...... of constraints on the durations of states of the system, i.e. at a high level of abstraction.However, as a state-based logic, it lacks the ability to specifysequential programs and communicating concurrent processes at a concrete level. The Timed RAISE Specification Language (TRSL) [XG99] has this ability.......TRSL is a real-time extension of the RAISE Specification Language (RSL) [Rlg92] which together with its associated method [Rmg95]and tools has shown to be very useful in the industrial development of software systems. Therefore, a promising approach for the development of real-time systemscould be to use DC...

  20. Libraries in Washington: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/washington.html Libraries in Washington To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Bellingham PeaceHealth St. Joseph Medical Center Library 2901 Squalicum Parkway Bellingham, WA 98225 360-788- ...

  1. Foundations of DC plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Gudmundsson, Jon; Hecimovic, Ante

    2017-12-01

    A typical dc discharge is configured with the negative cathode at one end and a positive anode at the other end, separated by a gas filled gap, placed inside a long glass cylinder. A few hundred volts between the cathode and anode is required to maintain the discharge. The type of discharge that is formed between the two electrodes depends upon the pressure of the working gas, the nature of the working gas, the applied voltage and the geometry of the discharge. We discuss the current–voltage characteristics of the discharge as well as the distinct structure that develops in the glow discharge region. The dc glow discharge appears in the discharge current range from μA to mA at 0.5–300 Pa pressure. We discuss the various phenomena observed in the dc glow discharge, including the cathode region, the positive column, and striations. The dc glow discharge is maintained by the emission of secondary electrons from the cathode target due to the bombardment of ions. For decades, the dc glow discharge has been used as a sputter source. Then it is often operated as an obstructed abnormal glow discharge and the required applied voltage is in the range 2–5 kV. Typically, the cathode target (the material to be deposited) is connected to a negative voltage supply (dc or rf) and the substrate holder faces the target. The relatively high operating pressure, in the range from 2 to 4 Pa, high applied voltages, and the necessity to have a conductive target limit the application of dc glow discharge as a sputter source. In order to lower the discharge voltage and expand the operation pressure range, the lifetime of the electrons in target vicinity is increased through applying magnetic field, by adding permanent magnets behind the cathode target. This arrangement is coined the magnetron sputtering discharge. The various configurations of the magnetron sputtering discharge and its applications are described. Furthermore, the use of dc discharges for chemical analysis, the

  2. Modeling and analysis of fractional order DC-DC converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ahmed G; Emira, Ahmed A; AbdelAty, Amr M; Azar, Ahmed Taher

    2017-07-11

    Due to the non-idealities of commercial inductors, the demand for a better model that accurately describe their dynamic response is elevated. So, the fractional order models of Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost DC-DC converters are presented in this paper. The detailed analysis is made for the two most common modes of converter operation: Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). Closed form time domain expressions are derived for inductor currents, voltage gain, average current, conduction time and power efficiency where the effect of the fractional order inductor is found to be strongly present. For example, the peak inductor current at steady state increases with decreasing the inductor order. Advanced Design Systems (ADS) circuit simulations are used to verify the derived formulas, where the fractional order inductor is simulated using Valsa Constant Phase Element (CPE) approximation and Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC). Different simulation results are introduced with good matching to the theoretical formulas for the three DC-DC converter topologies under different fractional orders. A comprehensive comparison with the recently published literature is presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Integrated Multifunctional Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Electric Vehicles Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an on-board vehicular battery charger that integrates bidirectional AC/DC converter and DC/DC converter to achieve high power density for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The integrated charger is able to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the electric traction system and to function as an AC/DC battery charger. The integrated charger topology is presented and the design of passive components is discussed. The control schemes are developed for motor drive system and battery-charging system with a power pulsation reduction circuit. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a 30-kW motor drive and 3.3-kW AC/DC charging prototype validate the performance of the proposed technology. In addition, power losses, efficiency comparison and thermal stress for the integrated charger are illustrated. The results of the analyses show the validity of the advanced integrated charger for electric vehicles.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Washington's public and private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  6. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  7. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  8. Juvenile salmon and steelhead occupancy of stream pools treated and not treated with restoration structures, Entiat River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl M. Polivka; E. Ashley Steel; Jenni L. Novak; Bror Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    We observed habitat occupancy by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at in-stream habitat restoration structures constructed in the Entiat River, Washington, USA. In 2009–2013, fish abundance measurements during rearing (July–October) showed high temporal variability in...

  9. DC Microgrids—Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    . Closely coupled with protection, conflicting grounding objectives, e.g. minimization of stray current and common mode voltage are explained and several practical solutions are presented. Also, standardization efforts for DC systems are addressed. Finally, concluding remarks and important future research...

  10. Electricity-AC versus DC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Electricity - AC versus DC. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 46-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0046-0053. Author Affiliations.

  11. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  12. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  13. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  14. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori...

  15. Sheppard-Taylor Isolated High Boost DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chub, Andrii; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Vinnikov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    be implemented with fewer passive components. Soft-switching in semiconductors allows achieving high efficiency. In addition, the input side current is continuous. The operating principle and the design guidelines derived for the converter are presented. Theoretical results are supported with experimental......This paper presents a new galvanically isolated step-up dc-dc converter intended for low-power but high step-up applications. The proposed converter is capable of regulating output voltage within a wide range of the input voltage or load variations. In contrast to competitors, the converter can...... results obtained using a 100 W prototype. The converter proposed can be used in photovoltaic module level power electronics applications, where a wide input voltage and load regulation range are highly demanded....

  16. A Current-Fed Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Shen, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a current-fed isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter (CF-IBDC) which has the advantages of wide input voltage range, low input current ripple, low conduction losses, and soft switching over the full operating range. Compared with conventional CF-IBDCs, the voltage spikes...... of the low-voltage (LV) side switches in the proposed converter can be eliminated without additional clamp circuits. The converter adopts the pulse width modulation (PWM) plus hybrid phase-shift control scheme such that the bus voltage can match the output voltage by means of the transformer. Thus......, the current stresses and conduction losses of the converter become lower. In addition, the practical ZVS of the secondary-side switches can be realized by adjusting the phase-shift angle within the secondary side when in light load or no load condition. The operating principles and characteristics including...

  17. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and Curettage ( ... February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage (D& ...

  18. NAMMA DC-8 DROPSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA DC-8 Dropsonde dataset were collected by the DC-8 dropsonde system, which uses an integrated, highly accurate, GPS-located atmospheric profiling dropsonde...

  19. Geomorphic modeling of macro-tidal embayment with extensive tidal flats: Skagit Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    with comparable flows to those of fall 2008. January 2009 includes flows from runoff events that peak at about 2300 m3/s (a 10-year flood event was...that TSS increased during the storm event in January, and typically trended higher with increased supply from the river. The lower- frequency episodic... Mastin , and R. L. Huffman. Sediment load and distribution in the Lower Skagit River, Washington, USA. Manuscript in preparation, 2011. R. A. Feely and M

  20. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  1. Implementation of hierarchical control in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chi; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Jianfang

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrids are becoming popular in low-voltage distribution systems due to the better compatibility with photovoltaic panels, electric vehicles, and dc loads. This paper presents a practical dc microgrid developed in the Water and Energy Research Laboratory (WERL) in the Nanyang University of ...

  2. Toward the Universal DC Distribution System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackay, L.J.; van der Blij, N.H.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Bauer, P.

    2017-01-01

    AbstractDue to an increasing number of power generation units and load devices operating with direct current (DC) at distribution level, there is a potential benefit of leading efforts toward building a DC distribution system. However, the implementation of DC distribution systems faces important

  3. Hierarchical Power Sharing Control in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Because of the advances in power electronics, DC-based power systems, have been used in industrial applications such as data centers [18], space applications [10], aircraft [12], offshore wind farms, electric vehicles [56], DC home systems [5, 20], and high-voltage DC transmission systems...

  4. High efficiency high step-up DC/DC converters - a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszuk, A; Krupa, A

    2011-01-01

    .... This review is focused on high efficiency step-up DC/DC converters with high voltage gain. The differentiation is based on the presence or lack of galvanic isolation. A comparison and discussion of different DC/DC step-up topologies will be performed across number of parameters and presented in this paper.

  5. High Power Zero-Voltage and Zero-Current Switching DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Dudrik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principles and properties of the soft switching PWM DC-DC converters. The attention is focused mainly on high power applications and thus the full-bridge inverters are used in DC-DC converters. Considerations are also given to the control methods and principles of the switching and conduction losses reduction.

  6. A Family of Four Quadrant DC/DC Converters with Reduced Number of Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A family of four quadrant DC/DC converters is presented in this paper. Compare with existing four quadrant DC/DC converters that have been introduced in literature, the proposed converters have lower number of components. There are two bidirectional switches, two coupled inductors and one capacitor...

  7. Kust sai USA president oma välispoliitika? / Vello Saarme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarme, Vello

    2003-01-01

    Autor tutvustab Morton Abramowitzi art., mis ilmus 11. sept. 2001 Washington Postis. Artikkel osutus kokkuvõtteks USA presidendi George W. Bushi senisest välispoliitikast ja lõi aluse praeguse välispoliitika analüüsiks

  8. 75 FR 36579 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, and MD-10-30F...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC- 10-40, DC10-40F, and MD-10-30F airplanes. This proposed AD would...

  9. 75 FR 61352 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, and MD-10-30F... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC- 10-40F, and MD-10-30F airplanes. This AD requires doing a one-time inspection of the...

  10. A Feed-Forward Control Realizing Fast Response for Three-Branch Interleaved DC-DC Converter in DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haojie; Han, Minxiao; Yan, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    changing. A prototype of the TIDC is developed and an experimental platform is built. The experiment results show that DC bus voltage sags or swells caused by load changing can be reduced and the time for voltage recovery can be decreased significantly with the proposed feed-forward control.......It is a common practice for storage batteries to be connected to DC microgrid buses through DC-DC converters for voltage support on islanded operation mode. A feed-forward control based dual-loop constant voltage PI control for three-branch interleaved DC-DC converters (TIDC) is proposed...... for storage batteries in DC microgrids. The working principle of TIDC is analyzed, and the factors influencing the response rate based on the dual-loop constant voltage control for TIDC are discussed, and then the method of feed-forward control for TIDC is studied to improve the response rate for load...

  11. A Feed-Forward Control Realizing Fast Response for Three-Branch Interleaved DC-DC Converter in DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a common practice for storage batteries to be connected to DC microgrid buses through DC-DC converters for voltage support on islanded operation mode. A feed-forward control based dual-loop constant voltage PI control for three-branch interleaved DC-DC converters (TIDC is proposed for storage batteries in DC microgrids. The working principle of TIDC is analyzed, and the factors influencing the response rate based on the dual-loop constant voltage control for TIDC are discussed, and then the method of feed-forward control for TIDC is studied to improve the response rate for load changing. A prototype of the TIDC is developed and an experimental platform is built. The experiment results show that DC bus voltage sags or swells caused by load changing can be reduced and the time for voltage recovery can be decreased significantly with the proposed feed-forward control.

  12. FLYWHEEL AND A DC MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN ALCALÁ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el análisis, modelado y simulación de un vehículo eléctrico (EV enfocado al desarrollo de un banco de pruebas para reproducir la dinámica del EV. El banco está formado por un drive de motor de inducción (IM acoplado directamente a una máquina de DC y a un volante de inercia a través de una transmisión. El volante de inercia y la máquina de DC reproducen la dinámica y las fuerzas que actúan en el vehículo. Se propone una metodología para diseñar un banco de pruebas de EV para estudiar el comportamiento de vehículos eléctricos cercano a las condiciones de operación reales. El análisis de las fuerzas en el EV en conjunto con la máquina DC define las condiciones de operación del EV. El modelado y la simulación son desarrollados en MATLAB/Simulink, el banco de pruebas implementado es controlado por un DSP. Finalmente, los resultados de simulación y experimentales obtenidos validan el funcionamiento del banco de prueba.

  13. Focus on: Washington Hospital Center, Biomedical Engineering Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J D

    1995-01-01

    The Biomedical Engineering Department of the Washington Hospital Center provides clinical engineering services to an urban 907-bed, tertiary care teaching hospital and a variety of associated healthcare facilities. With an annual budget of over $3,000,000, the 24-person department provides cradle-to-grave support for a host of sophisticated medical devices and imaging systems such as lasers, CT scanners, and linear accelerators as well as traditional patient care instrumentation. Hallmarks of the department include its commitment to customer service and patient care, close collaboration with clinicians and quality assurance teams throughout the hospital system, proactive involvement in all phases of the technology management process, and shared leadership in safety standards with the hospital's risk management group. Through this interactive process, the department has assisted the Center not only in the acquisition of 11,000 active devices with a value of more than $64 million, but also in becoming one of the leading providers of high technology healthcare in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

  14. Active DC Bus Signaling Control Method for Coordinating Multiple Energy Storage Devices in DC Microgrid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fulong; Lin, Zhengyu; Qian, Zhongnan; Wu, Jiande

    2017-01-01

    This paper will be presented in 2017 Second IEEE International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM) on 28th June 2017. Abstract: Management of multiple energy storage devices in a DC microgrid is a challenge. Conventional method, such as droop control, cannot ensure accurate current sharing in coordinating multiple battery banks, which limits the DC microgrid system performance. This paper proposed an active DC bus signaling (ADBS) method to coordinate multiple battery banks in a DC microg...

  15. Annual Research Progress Report (U.S. Army Institute of Dental Research, Washington, DC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Materials) Natural History of Oral Lesions Encountered in the Soldier (Pathology) Role of Pressurized Water Lavage in the Practice of Military Dentistry...17 18 19 20 21 -TT: ’^~~~’~~~~*~~l~~~~m***~m*r~mmmmmmm 1 ’ Page No. % \\ DA ÜH 6038 Development of Endodontic Procedures for... medicament -carrying wound coverings, fixation devices in maxillofacial wounds and slow-drug-release systems are continuing to show positive results. The

  16. Proceedings of the Acquisition Research Symposium Held in Washington, DC, October 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    different states of nature. In this paper we provide a general formulation of this type of decision milking . The Dempster-Shafer evidential...Dmmmtat 1 1 t 4 t A-RFl C RFO D RFP. E 6uati«Di F. RavoDan G. Pre*«* H Clvifutin KQ I RmoDM «« CUriutioDi J. AnnndonutoRFF K. Rc« uHt lor BAJO

  17. IEEE 1990 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Washington, DC, Aug. 21-23, 1990, Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present conference discusses topics in EM shielding effectiveness, system-level EMC, EMP effects, circuit-level EMI testing, EMI control, analysis techniques for system-level EMC, EMP protective measures, EMI test methods, electrostatic-discharge testing, printed circuit-board design for EMC, and EM environment effects. Also discussed are EMI measurement procedures, EM spectrum-management issues for the 21st century, antenna and propagation effects on EMI testing, EMI control in cables, socioeconomic aspects of EMC, systemwide EMI controls, and EM radiation and coupling.

  18. Between the holocaust museum in Washington D.C and Ghana's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossroads of People, Crossroads of Trade” at the Cape Coast Castle Museum. While the exhibition represents five hundred years of Ghana‟s history, it stands as an epochal reflection of the economic and socio-political events marking the ...

  19. The Role of Federal Troops in Quelling Civil Disturbance in Washington, DC, April 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    than 700 fires illuminated the night sky. Rampaging blacks there forced Army units in combat gear to set up machine-gun emplacements outside the Capitol...shooting looters and to cease shooting out streetlights , which they had been doing because of their fear of snipers.ŕ 0 "Major General Charles P

  20. MTADS Geophysical Survey of Potential Burial Pits Along the C&O Canal in Washington, DC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    .... We have identified, however, 30 magnetic anomalies in and adjacent to the survey site. Many of the anomalies have been identified with ferrous metal objects visible on the surface or arise from shallow trash and scrap. There are eight anomalies that appear to arise from relatively large ferrous metal objects buried at depths greater than 6 to 8 feet. These remalning anomalies may require further investigation.

  1. Proceedings of the ICA Conference (4th, Washington, D.C., November 11-13, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICA Information, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the Intergovernmental Council for ADP-ICA, are contained in this, the 7th issue of the ICA-Information, the Council's official publication. The proceedings include the edited minutes of the sessions, which covered the following topics: Management information systems for the government, Policy…

  2. Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Sinha, Archana; Sarraf-Yazdy, Mariam; Gajjala, Jhansi

    2016-06-01

    As endemic malaria is not commonly seen in the United States, most of the cases diagnosed and reported are associated with travel to and from the endemic places of malaria. As the number of imported cases of malaria has been increasing since 1973, it is important to look into these cases to study the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease in the United States. In this study, we would like to share our experience in diagnosing and treating these patients at our institution. We did a retrospective chart review of 37 cases with a documented history of imported malaria from 1998 to 2012. Among them, 16 patients had complicated malaria during that study period, with a mean length of hospital stay of 3.5 days. Most common place of travel was Africa, and chemoprophylaxis was taken by only 11% of patients. Travel history plays a critical role in suspecting the diagnosis and in initiating prompt treatment.

  3. Computers in Libraries, 2000: Proceedings (15th, Washington, D.C., March 15-17, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.; Burmood, Jennifer, Comp.

    Topics of the Proceedings of the 15th Annual Computers in Libraries Conference (March 15-17, 2000) include: Linux and open source software in an academic library; a Master Trainer Program; what educators need to know about multimedia and copyright; how super searchers find business information online; managing print costs; new technologies in wide…

  4. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (17th, Washington, DC, March 13-15, 2002): Collected Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains presentations from the 17th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Topics covered include: chatting with a librarian; verbots for library Web sites; collaborative IT (Information Technology) planning at Montgomery County Public Library (Maryland); designing a local government taxonomy; Weblogs; new roles for librarians in…

  5. Andrews AFB, Washington DC Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-15

    13.8 12.7 NNW .3 1o2 4.1 2.5 .6 .2 ___ __ __ 8.9 10.2 VARK ____ CAL.M95 TOTAL NUMIER OP OSUVATIONS90 USAFETAC -i-0-8.5 (OL-Al PUIvIOUS ICITIONS OF... VARK I (CALM 1 TOTAL NUMala OF OBERVATIONS 900 UISAFETAC "ORm 0.8.5 (OL.A) PREVIOUS EDITI0NS OF TIS FORNI ARE OBSOLETECJA 64 GLOBAL...wsw .9. 1.3 . 1 . w 2.4 1. .81 4*4 4a wNw .6’ 9_ . 6 T.t __ ___ ___- 2oSr 5.6 __ S_ .96 2_2_ If_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ 35 VARK - i i 19.5 35.1 -0. -. .2...1

  6. Proceedings of the Seminar on Freelance Indexing (2nd, Washington, D.C., January 13, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebo, Jay D., Ed.

    Transcribed and edited from tape recordings and prepared papers, these proceedings present the topics covered in the four sessions of the Second Seminar on Freelance Indexing: (1) how to get started as an indexer--making contracts, setting up the office, billing and bookkeeping, reference tools, filing for trade-name, and indexing apprenticeship;…

  7. GPS/GNSS Antenna Characterization : GPS-ABC Workshop V RTCA Washington, DC October 14, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    One component of the Department of Transportations GPS Adjacent Band : Compatibility Study is the characterization of GPS/GNSS receiver antennas : Such characterization is needed to: : Compare radiated and conducted (wired) test result...

  8. Bike Ed '77: A Conference Report (Washington, D.C., May 4-6, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson (Lawrence) and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    As a result of intensified need for sound safety education programs for both young and mature bicyclists due to the dramatic increase in bicycling as a form of transportation and recreation, the first national conference on bicyclist safety education was held--Bike Ed '77. Major purposes of the conference were to stimulate communication among…

  9. Invited Speaker Support for SBP Conference Series (SBP 2014) held in April, 2014 in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Robin Baker and Paul Burns Break 9:30 AM Refreshments: muffins, bagels, hardcooked eggs, fruit, beverages Keynote 10:00 AM Keynote by...Emoticon Use in First and Second Languages Cecilia Aragon, Nan-Chen Chen, Judith Kroll and Laurie Feldman SBP Poster Social Maintenance and

  10. 75 FR 1406 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Notice of Availability of an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... nation, dating from 1790. The study area contains a significant concentration of our Nation's memorials...: If you wish to comment, you may submit your comments online by visiting http://www.nps.gov...

  11. 77 FR 37737 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... development of the program. NEC FUTURE is being advanced consistent with the federal High-Speed Intercity... socioeconomic conditions, ecological resources, water resources, cultural resources, hazardous contamination... June 18, 2012. John Tunna, Director of the Office of Research and Development, Federal Railroad...

  12. Proceedings of Conference on Variable-Resolution Modeling, Washington, DC, 5-6 May 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Other models convert the wire frame diagram into a faceted image and degrade that image as a function of sensor and atmospheric characteristics. There...data supporting an iid intermessage time model is readily accessible, no organization currently collects information on the intergeneration time of

  13. Cost-effectiveness of trees for demand-side management Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    Trees can reduce demand for air conditioning to cool buildings by shading residences and lowering summertime air temperatures. During winter, trees can reduce heating needs by lowering wind speeds and thereby reducing infiltration of cold air. On the otherhand, winter shade from improperly located trees can increase heating requirements. Projections from computer simulations indicate that 100 million mature trees in U.S. cities (3 trees for every other single family home) could reduce energy use for heating and cooling by 30 billion kWh and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by as much as 9 million tons per year. This energy analysis is part of a larger study that quantifies costs and benefits of proposed tree plantings in 12 U.S. cities. While energy savings is an important benefit from community forests, other benefits (e.g., air quality improvement, reduced stormwater runoff, increased property values) can have equal or greater value. Tree planting, care, and other costs (e.g., water-sewer line repair, green waste disposal, litigation/liability, program administration) from the cost-benefit study can be used to help estimate costs associated with a tree planting program for demand-side management. Data from this energy analysis should be of direct value to local utilities, urban foresters, planners, landscape designers, and non-profit tree planting groups.

  14. McMillan Pumping Station, Washington, D.C.; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    about visual observations of flow conditions with each of the pump operating combinations. Various stages of air - entrained vortices and other smaller...vortices were observed during these tests. An air - entrained surface vortex can clearly be seen in Photo 4 where dye was inserted to contrast its outline...causes of the adverse hydraulic conditions were the uneven 16 "I L EVELA. SURFACE VORTEX B. -WALL VORTEX FLOO VOREX c SECTION A-A VORTEX FORMATIONS A

  15. Proceedings: energy from urban wastes workshop, Washington, DC, September 11-12, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.S.; Brooks, C. (eds.)

    1979-06-01

    This workshop, for members of public interest groups, was sponsored by DOE's Urban Waste Technology Branch to provide information on the use of urban waste as an energy resource. A separate abstract was prepared for each of seven presentations plus the Summary of discussions. Two acts are included as appendices: (1) Public Law 95-238: Department of Energy Act of 1978 - Civilian Applications; and (2) Public Law 94-580: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976.

  16. Learning from Recent Advances in Measuring Teacher Effectiveness. Meeting Summary (Washington, DC, August 9, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Education Sciences, 2012

    2012-01-01

    On August 9, 2012, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) convened a meeting of researchers and U.S. Department of Education (ED) and IES staff to discuss recent advances in measuring teacher effectiveness. The objectives of the meeting were to: (1) Identify and discuss recent advances in the use of value-added models (VAMs) and student growth…

  17. Learning from Recent Advances in Measuring Teacher Effectiveness (Washington, DC, August 9, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betebenner, Damian; Braun, Henry; Corcoran, Sean; Darling-Hammond, Linda; Friedman, John; Goldhaber, Daniel; Ho, Andrew; Kane, Thomas; Ladd, Helen; Pianta, Robert; Rockoff, Jonah; Rothstein, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    On August 9, 2012, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) convened a meeting of researchers and U.S. Department of Education (ED) and IES staff to discuss recent advances in measuring teacher effectiveness. The objectives of the meeting were to: (1) Identify and discuss recent advances in the use of value-added models (VAMs) and student growth…

  18. Proceedings of Nutrition Education Conference, February 20-22, 1967, Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Included are reports of present nutritional habits and problems in different communities, a discussion of psychological factors influencing consumer decisions about foods, and suggestions for the use of media such as magazines, newspapers, radio, and television to communicate basic nutritional concepts. Several new programs are reported concerned…

  19. Symposium on International Terrorism Held in Washington, DC on 2-3 December 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    nonpolitical realms such as sexual practices. The Weathermen, for example, attempted to ban monogamy. Menmbers of terrorist organizations are often...the literature to the "Identification with the aggressor" (A. Freud ), as manifesting itself in the positive attitude some hostages show towards their...captors. This has als been referred to as "Stockholm syndrome", a term coined when a female Swedish hostage fell in love with her captor. Perhaps one

  20. Criminal Justice Statistics for Washington, D.C. and Other Major Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    On July 20, 2001, we testified at an oversight hearing-which focused on prisoner releases and reintegration programs-held by the Subcommittee on the District of Columbia, House Committee on Government Reform...

  1. A History of the Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1927-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-22

    20. Cheryl Joyal 21. Chuck Dulcey 21. Rich Colton 21. Leslie Polka 22. Bob Fox 22. Greg Burks 22. Pete Mah 23. Bob Brady 23. Jim Holtzclaw 24. Elaine...Delozier 21. Douglas Nordman 22. Mark Ross 22. Robert Nowak 23. Marc Beebe 23. Terrence Barrett 24. Steve Lloyd 24. Mark Beymer 4 25. Graham Cheek 26

  2. Pluralism, Place, and Gertrude Bonnin's Counternativism from Utah to Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    In the first three decades of the twentieth century, racial nativism wielded considerable direct and indirect influence on policies that affected broader American attitudes concerning Native American people. In this three-decade period, many factors caused the kinds of national insecurity and instability that make a cultural climate ripe for…

  3. Breakfast and Learning in Children. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, April 22, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    Noting that many schools do not participate in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Breakfast Program despite evidence that poor nutrition affects children's school attendance and performance, this document presents the proceedings of a 1999 symposium on links between breakfast and school performance and the implications for public policy.…

  4. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC Annual Progress Report FY-89. Volume 2. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-02

    predictor of future complications such asmyocardial infarction, development of unstable angina or sudden death. I TECHNICAL APPROACH One to six months...after hospitalization for acute ., unstable angina or congestive heart failure with ischemic etiology, sf-idy subjects will have a physical exam...Continuous Long-term Cultures 3 KEYWORDS: stem cells, differentiation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: La Russa, Vincent PhD ASSOCIATES: Salvado, August COL MC; Knight

  5. 77 FR 74347 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for Printing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Printing Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... (FWS) special wage schedule for printing and lithographic positions. Printing and lithographic... fund FWS wage schedule. This change is necessary because Federal employment in printing and...

  6. NOAA & Academia Partnership Building Conference. Highlights (3rd, Washington, DC, November 14-15, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Silver Spring, MD.

    In November 2001 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hosted the third NOAA and Academia Partnership to evaluate, maintain, and expand on efforts to optimize NOAA-university cooperation. Close partnership between the NOAA and U.S. universities has produced many benefits for the U.S. economy and the environment. Based on the…

  7. Image Understanding Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Washington, DC, April 23, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    discussion of MIT work on Image Sketch, the line terminations ,orresponding to the rulings Understanding, see Volume 2 of Artificial Intelligece : an...York 14627 Abstract Image Understanditog (I.U.) shares with It is a tenet of’ this research that a Artificial Intelligence the need for program to do...field of Artificial specific value or range of a feature. The Intelligence (A.I.). The use of knowledge Operator an1 Image Problem Expert can to control

  8. 77 FR 58439 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... trip characteristics. It will also ask for travel preferences under alternative choice scenarios that... travel preference questions. The Phase 2 Survey is estimated to take 15 minutes to complete. The... Household Travel Attitudes and Behavior. Type of Request: New information collection requirement. Status...

  9. 78 FR 63250 - Workshop; November 18-19, 2013 in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... nuclear utilities for onsite storage will affect future handling, storage, transportation and geologic... Rowe at [email protected] or Karyn Severson at [email protected] . For information on meeting logistics...

  10. 78 FR 53237 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) commented that they do not support the establishment of T-287 and T-299 and advocated that the FAA withdraw the proposal. AOPA contended that aircraft already are able to.... AOPA further contended that T-routes must be established within Class B airspace to retain an...

  11. Proceedings of the AMEDD Psychology Symposium Held at Washington, DC on 27-31 October 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Department of Neurosciences , Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He is also a member of the faculty of the Uniformed Services University of the...Area of Specialization: Child and Family Studies 1 Health Education 1 Child and Adolescent 3 Comnunity Psychology’ 2 Neuropsychology 1 Clinical Hypnosis ... Neurosciences , WRAIR. 5. Dr. Theodore H. Blau, past president of the American Psychological Association and Consultant to the Arnm Surgeon General. 6. Dr

  12. 75 FR 39969 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Final Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... unchanged. Existing spaces which have not been designed for the current level of use would continue to... maintenance and aging infrastructure, pedestrian and bicycle circulation issues, and the lack of adequate... National Mall, with its memorials and planned vistas, would be protected, and the designed landscape would...

  13. Minutes of the Speech Understanding Workshop Convened on 13 November 1975 in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-13

    function in order for bipolar signals to be recordable as an intensity transmittance on a medium such as photographic film. So Fj(x) is written as F(x...8217 plete mirror sweep as plane is N-I N- IIN-I QM~clc 2c3 f~trnhmn (13) UxY =- - fnam k n0( m= k-0 (12) yPd Elxamk -0 Om A’- reet tr-apt ZI L 2 ’ 2 -- b

  14. Acceleration and Performance Modeling Workshop, Washington, DC, 14-17 May 79,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    LATERAL TRACKING ERROR AND MODEL ESTIMATES . . . . . . . . . 17 8 EXTENSIONS OF THIS WORK TO STUDY PHYSIOLOGY. . . .. .. . 18 9 SENSITIVITY USED TO...INFORMATION ON PHYSIOLOGY? o WHAT OCM PARAMETER IS IMPORTANT IN THE MODELING OF THE STRESS DATA? o EXTENSION OF THE MODEL (OCM) TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE...vascular compliance is totally linear and independent of transmural pressure which we know not to be the case. In fact, what we know to be the case from

  15. 76 FR 55157 - Final Public Meeting in Washington, DC for the Proposed Keystone XL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Presidential Permit to the applicant would serve the national interest. This decision on the application will... name or number is called or they will forfeit their time. Comments: Remarks made at the meetings will... consideration of the proposed Keystone XL pipeline. Each speaker will be allowed 3-5 minutes to make remarks...

  16. Evidence for ongoing introduction of non-native earthworms in the Washington, DC metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Bruce A. Snyder; Samuel W. James; Erik T. Oberg

    2016-01-01

    Earthworm introductions and invasions are ongoing, with significant consequences for ecological characteristics and function where populations of invasive species reach high densities. In North America the influx of people, goods and materials to coastal cities has long been recognized to be related to introduction and establishment of...

  17. 78 FR 4790 - Security Zone, Potomac and Anacostia Rivers; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... to address the aforementioned security concerns and to take steps to prevent the catastrophic impact... bypassing the security measures established on shore for the events and engaging in waterborne terrorist.... Although the security zone will apply to the entire width of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers, traffic may...

  18. "Records of Rights": A New Exhibit at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    America's founding documents--the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights--are icons of human liberty. But the ideals enshrined in those documents did not initially apply to all Americans. They were, in the words of Martin Luther King, Jr., "a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir."…

  19. The association between fracture rates and neighborhood characteristics in Washington, DC children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Leticia Manning; Guagliardo, Mark; Teach, Stephen J.; Wang, Jichuan; Marsh, Jennifer E.; Singer, Steven A.; Wright, Joseph L.; Chamberlain, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of neighborhood contextual features have been found for many diseases, including bone fractures in adults. Our study objective was to evaluate the association between neighborhood characteristics and pediatric bone fracture rates. We hypothesized that neighborhood indices of deprivation would be associated with higher fracture rates. Pediatric bone fracture cases treated at a tertiary, academic, urban pediatric emergency department between 2003 – 2006 were mapped to census block groups using geographical information systems software. Fracture rates were calculated as fractures per 1,000 children in each census block. Exploratory factor analysis of socioeconomic indicators was performed using 2000 census block data. Factor scores were used to predict odds of bone fracture at the individual level while adjusting for mean age, gender composition, and race/ethnicity composition at census block level using our sample data. We analyzed 3764 fracture visits in 3557 patients representing 349 distinct census blocks groups. Fracture rates among census blocks ranged from 0 to 207 per 1,000 children/study period. Logistic regression modeling identified two factors (race/education and large families) associated with increased fracture risk. Census variables reflecting African American race, laborer/service industry employment, long term block group residence and lower education levels strongly loaded on the race/education factor. The large families factor indicated the children-to-families ratio within the block group. The poverty factor was not independently associated with fracture risk. Thus, neighborhood characteristics are associated with risk for fractures in children. These results can help inform translational efforts to develop targeted strategies for bone fracture prevention in children. PMID:23360838

  20. 78 FR 29615 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... via a direct routing to the HACKS intersection, thus reducing miles flown for RNAV-equipped aircraft...) of 11,000 feet MSL. The new T-routes provide more efficient and predictable routing for aircraft... regulation is within the scope of that authority as it establishes RNAV routes to enhance the safe and...

  1. 78 FR 10562 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... the RAMAY, VA, WP. It would provide an alternate route for jet route J-149 via a direct routing to the...,000 feet MSL. The T-routes would provide more efficient and predictable routing for aircraft utilizing... authority as it establishes RNAV routes as required to preserve the safe and efficient flow of air traffic...

  2. Southeast Asia: Problems and Prospects Held at Washington, DC on 4-5 December 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    divisions. By the 1972 Easter offensive, about 90 percent of the day-to-day combat in the South was by PAVN, that is, North Vietnamese regulars in uniform...were cakravatans, universalistic rulers who unified and conquered to bring about the new Buddhist era. It is not surprising that folk mythology

  3. World Materials Summit (3rd). Held in Washington, DC on 9-12 October, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    will supply 45.8 million CFL bulbs to replace incandescent bulbs on a free and voluntary basis. They also have an appliance replacement program that...ySKSiBois.Slanfo-d Urive’silyGicaalC » male & Energy Project End Of OH 2006 (a^er Join Edvua’da American Aascciatort Df Pel’oietri Geoogisia). SRI...accelerate developments in this field WHY & WHERE are there international cooperation needs - Tools - Scale - Critical players - Benefits to these

  4. Biennial Wind Energy Conference and Workshop, 5th, Washington, DC, October 5-7, 1981, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The results of studies funded by the Federal government to advance the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) construction, operation, applications, and financial viability are presented. The economics of WECS were considered in terms of applicable tax laws, computer simulations of net value of WECS to utilities, and the installation of Mod-2 2.5 MW and WTS-4 4MW wind turbines near Medicine Bow, WY to test the operation of two different large WECS on the same utility grid. Potential problems of increasing penetration of WECS-produced electricity on a utility grid were explored and remedies suggested. The structural dynamics of wind turbines were analyzed, along with means to predict potential noise pollution from large WECS, and to make blade fatigue life assessments. Finally, Darrieus rotor aerodynamics were investigated, as were dynamic stall in small WECS and lightning protection for wind turbines and components.

  5. 78 FR 1753 - Security Zone, Potomac and Anacostia Rivers; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ..., including the waters of the Georgetown Channel Tidal Basin; and all waters of the Anacostia River, from..., Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of...

  6. A Feedback Passivation Design for DC Microgrid and Its DC/DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are difficulties in analyzing the stability of microgrids since they are located on various network structures. However, considering that the network often consists of passive elements, the passivity theory is applied in this paper to solve the above-mentioned problem. It has been formerly shown that when the network is weakly strictly positive real (WSPR, the DC microgrid is stable if all interfaces between the microgrid and converters are made to be passive, which is called interface passivity. Then, the feedback passivation method is proposed for the controller design of various DC–DC converters to achieve the interface passivity. The interface passivity is different from the passivity of closed-loop systems on which the passivity based control (PBC concentrates. The feedback passivation design is detailed for typical buck converters and boost converters in terms of conditions that the controller parameters should satisfy. The theoretical results are verified by a hardware-in-loop real-time labotray (RTLab simulation of a DC microgrid with four generators.

  7. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  8. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  9. Uddannelsespolitik i USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Washington Post har stillet præsidentkandidaterne en række konkrete spørgsmål om deres planer for uddannelsesområdet. Der er mange interessante overvejelser om test, fælles mål, finansiering af skoler mv....

  10. 77 FR 1973 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Fuji Heavy Industries U.S.A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., NHTSA, W43- 439, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. Ms. Ballard's phone number is (202... (Forester, Tribeca, Impreza, Legacy and Outback models) and it believes the data show immobilization has had.... Specifically, the agency's theft rate data for the Subaru Tribeca, Forester, Impreza, Legacy and Outback...

  11. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  12. DC Voltage Droop Control Implementation in the AC/DC Power Flow Algorithm: Combinational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, F.; Macpherson, D.E.; Harrison, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a combinational AC/DC power flow approach is proposed for the solution of the combined AC/DC network. The unified power flow approach is extended to include DC voltage droop control. In the VSC based MTDC grids, DC droop control is regarded as more advantageous in terms...... of operational flexibility, as more than one VSC station controls the DC link voltage of the MTDC system. This model enables the study of the effects of DC droop control on the power flows of the combined AC/DC system for steady state studies after VSC station outages or transient conditions without needing...... to use its complete dynamic model. Further, the proposed approach can be extended to include multiple AC and DC grids for combined AC/DC power flow analysis. The algorithm is implemented by modifying the MATPOWER based MATACDC program and the results shows that the algorithm works efficiently....

  13. Using PBL to Improve Educational Outcomes and Student Satisfaction in the Teaching of DC/DC and DC/AC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rodrigo, Fernando; Herrero-De Lucas, Luis Carlos; de Pablo, Santiago; Rey-Boue, Alexis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the question of how to use project-based learning to increase student performance and satisfaction in a power electronics course addressing the topics of dc/dc and dc/ac converters, the assembly of a dc/dc converter, and the use of a commercial speed drive. A detailed presentation of the methodology is shown, and the results…

  14. Elimination of output voltage oscillations in DC-DC converter using PWM with PI controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasappa Veeranna Bhupasandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the SIMULINK model of a PWM controlled DC-DC converter is modeled using switching function concept to control the speed of the DC motor. The presence of the voltage oscillation cycles due to higher switching frequency in the DC-DC converter is identified. The effect of these oscillations on the output voltage of the converter, Armature current, Developed torque and Speed of the DC motor is analyzed. In order to minimize the oscillation cycles the PI controller is proposed in the PWM controller.

  15. Block clustering based on difference of convex functions (DC) programming and DC algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoai Minh; Le Thi, Hoai An; Dinh, Tao Pham; Huynh, Van Ngai

    2013-10-01

    We investigate difference of convex functions (DC) programming and the DC algorithm (DCA) to solve the block clustering problem in the continuous framework, which traditionally requires solving a hard combinatorial optimization problem. DC reformulation techniques and exact penalty in DC programming are developed to build an appropriate equivalent DC program of the block clustering problem. They lead to an elegant and explicit DCA scheme for the resulting DC program. Computational experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its superiority over standard algorithms such as two-mode K-means, two-mode fuzzy clustering, and block classification EM.

  16. Chaos analysis and chaotic EMI suppression of DC-DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Introduces chaos theory, its analytical methods and the means to apply chaos to the switching power supply design DC-DC converters are typical switching systems which have plenty of nonlinear behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos. The nonlinear behaviors of DC-DC converters have been studied heavily over the past 20 years, yet researchers are still unsure of the practical application of bifurcations and chaos in switching converters. The electromagnetic interference (EMI), which resulted from the high rates of changes of voltage and current, has become a major design criterion in DC-DC co

  17. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  18. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  19. Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-15

    FINANCIAL REPORTING AT THE WASHINGTON HEADQUARTERS SERVICES Report No. D-2001-081 March 15, 2001...to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number...underlying financial reporting processes that cause abnormal balances on the trial balances of Other Defense Organizations. An account balance is abnormal

  20. High gain high efficiency resonant DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Fei

    Low voltage power sources have played an important role in applications such as automotive system, renewable energy power generation and so on, where require a high gain DC-DC step-up converter. The converter is going to sustain a very high input current which can bring many design challenges in the existing topologies, such as high component current stress and power loss, complex and costly design for magnetic components, high input current ripple, etc. A new topology of high gain DCDC step-up converter proposed in this dissertation. The topology has many merits such as high gain capability, high efficiency, low components stress and requirement of the transformer, simple topology with less number of active switching devices, and easy to control. The dissertation carries out theoretical analysis of the proposed topology under different operating modes and the voltage gain has been deduced for each mode. The design of circuit components has been well studied, including the power devices current stress and power, the selection of transformer turns-ratio, the design method of the resonant tank and input current ripple. System dynamic state-space models are acquired by using generalized averaging method. Small signal model of the converter is achieved by linearization of the dynamic model around the operating points. The stability study indicates that the open loop system is stable at all operating points, except some operating points containing RHP zeros which can cause closed loop system unstable. The parameter sensitivity study shows that the system transfer function is not greatly affected by the variation of the leakage inductance and load resistance. A design of PI controller is implemented to achieve the output voltage regulation. Simulations have been carried out to validate the circuit operation and support the design analysis. A 2kW prototype has been built for experimental testing. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the theoretical

  1. Two new families of high-gain dc-dc power electronic converters for dc-microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhala, Venkata Anand Kishore

    Distributing the electric power in dc form is an appealing solution in many applications such as telecommunications, data centers, commercial buildings, and microgrids. A high gain dc-dc power electronic converter can be used to individually link low-voltage elements such as solar panels, fuel cells, and batteries to the dc voltage bus which is usually 400 volts. This way, it is not required to put such elements in a series string to build up their voltages. Consequently, each element can function at it optimal operating point regardless of the other elements in the system. In this dissertation, first a comparative study of dc microgrid architectures and their advantages over their ac counterparts is presented. Voltage level selection of dc distribution systems is discussed from the cost, reliability, efficiency, and safety standpoints. Next, a new family of non-isolated high-voltage-gain dc-dc power electronic converters with unidirectional power flow is introduced. This family of converters benefits from a low voltage stress across its switches. The proposed topologies are versatile as they can be utilized as single-input or double-input power converters. In either case, they draw continuous currents from their sources. Lastly, a bidirectional high-voltage-gain dc-dc power electronic converter is proposed. This converter is comprised of a bidirectional boost converter which feeds a switched-capacitor architecture. The switched-capacitor stage suggested here has several advantages over the existing approaches. For example, it benefits from a higher voltage gain while it uses less number of capacitors. The proposed converters are highly efficient and modular. The operating modes, dc voltage gain, and design procedure for each converter are discussed in details. Hardware prototypes have been developed in the lab. The results obtained from the hardware agree with those of the simulation models.

  2. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  3. Teaching about operation of brushless DC motors

    OpenAIRE

    Čufar, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Brush DC motor is being replaced by brushless DC motors on every area of application. My diploma thesis is a presentation of brushless DC motor, how it works and its application. Within first part we describe various electric motors and their application. There are several types of electric motors division. Last to be added is a brushless motor. Within second part of thesis we look into a brushless DC motor, how it works, its application and control. In the third part of thesis we construct a...

  4. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008 Pledges: Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, B.; Bilello, D. E.; Cowlin, S. C.; Mann, M.; Wise, A.

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) was held in Washington, D.C., from March 4-6, 2008, and involved nearly 9,000 people from 125 countries. The event brought together worldwide leaders in renewable energy (RE) from governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to discuss the role that renewables can play in alleviating poverty, growing economies, and passing on a healthy planet to future generations. The conference concluded with more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy. The U.S. government authorized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) savings that would result from the pledges made at the 2008 conference. This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions derived from those pledges.

  5. A Survey on Voltage Boosting Techniques for Step-Up DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Gorji, Saman Asghari

    2016-01-01

    Step-up dc-dc converters are used to boost the voltage level of the input to a higher output level. Despite of its features such as simplicity of implementation, the fundamental boost dc-dc converter has shortcomings such as low boost ability and low power density. With these limitations, researc......Step-up dc-dc converters are used to boost the voltage level of the input to a higher output level. Despite of its features such as simplicity of implementation, the fundamental boost dc-dc converter has shortcomings such as low boost ability and low power density. With these limitations......, researches on new voltage boosting techniques are inevitable for various power converter applications. This can be achieved either by additional magnetic or by electric field storage elements with switching elements (switch and/or diode) in different configurations. Such combination of primary voltage...

  6. Digitally intensive DC-DC converter for extreme space environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Micro –Arizona State University (ASU) team will develop an all-digitally controlled, wide temperature range point-of-load switch-mode DC-DC regulator...

  7. Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    with the PCB layout and the magnetics. This thesis mainly covers the design and implementation of various high efficiency isolated dcdc converters in the range of 1 to 2.5 kW of output power. Both hard-switched and soft-switched topologies in isolated dc-dc converters has been studied and realized......The demands for high efficiency dc-dc power converters are increasing day by day in various applications such as telecommunication, data-centers, electric vehicles and various renewable energy systems. Silicon (Si) has been used as the semiconductor material in majority of the power devices...... properties of GaN devices can be utilized in power converters to make them more compact and highly efficient. This thesis entitled “Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN devices” focuses on achieving ultra-high conversion efficiency in an isolated dc-dc converter by the optimal utilization of Ga...

  8. Digitally intensive DC-DC converter for extreme space environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Micro-Arizona State University (ASU) team will develop an all-digitally controlled, wide temperature range point-of-load switch-mode DC-DC regulator core...

  9. Real-Time Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for DC-DC Switching Converters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a successful implementation of a fuzzy logic controller structure for dc-dc switching converters and evaluates experimentally its sensitivity for variable supply voltages and load...

  10. Wide Temperature Range DC-DC Boost Converters for Command/Control/Drive Electronics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We shall develop wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that can be fabricated using commercial CMOS foundries. The boost converters will increase the low...

  11. Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Max Rauch; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.

  12. Decentralized Nonlinear Controller Based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a Decentralized Control based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) with targeted application for...

  13. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter and...

  14. DIAGNOSTIC/PROGNOSTIC EXPERIMENTS FOR CAPACITOR DEGRADATION AND HEALTH MONITORING IN DC-DC CONVERTERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studying and analyzing the ageing mechanisms of electronic components avionics in systems such as the GPS and INAV are of critical importance. In DC-DC power...

  15. Improved Control Strategy for T-type Isolated DC/DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2017-01-01

    . Under the proposed strategy, the primary circulating current flows through the auxiliary switches (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors) instead of their body diodes in free-wheeling periods. Such feature can reduce conduction losses, thereby improving the efficiency of T-type isolated DC......T-type isolated DC/DC converters have recently attracted attention due to their numerous advantages, including few components, low cost, and symmetrical operation of transformers. This study proposes an improved control strategy for increasing the efficiency of T-type isolated DC/DC converters....../DC converters. The operation principles and performances of T-type isolated DC/DC converters under the proposed control strategy are analyzed in detail and verified through the simulation and experimental results....

  16. INDIAN HEAVEN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Barnes, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mining activity surveys the Indian Heaven Roadless Area, Washington offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic or nonmetallic mineral resources. Preliminary investigations of the geothermal potential of the area are inconclusive; however, a hot spring is located approximately 10 mi south of the roadless area, and the data indicate an aquifer of unknown extent at a temperature of less than 212 degree F. Geothermal lease applications were filed on about 23. 5 sq mi of the roadless area indicating potential interest in the development of a geothermal resource. In addition, about 39 sq mi of the roadless area have been leased for oil and gas exploration.

  17. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  19. A Decentralized Current-Sharing Controller Endows Fast Transient Response to Parallel DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haojie; Han, Minxiao; Han, Renke

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized current-sharing control strategy to endow fast transient response to paralleled DC-DC converters systems, such as DC microgrids or distributed power systems. The proposed controller consist of two main control loops: an external voltage droop control for curren...

  20. Fuzzy Logic Controlled DC-DC Converter Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa İnci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fuzzy logic controlled dc-dc boost converter based Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR to compensate severe voltage sag problems in an electrical system. DVR absorbs real power from battery to compensate voltage sags in the system. This condition causes reduction in voltage magnitude of dc-link capacitor. Additionally, DVR requires large dc capacitors to compensate long and severe voltage sags in the system. In this study, dc-dc boost converter is connected to DVR for keeping dc link voltage constant. For this propose, a control algorithm based on Fuzzy Logic (FL control is developed for dc-dc boost converter. The main contribution of this study is that Fuzzy Logic (FL is firstly used to generate reference signal for PWM signals of dc-dc converter applied in DVR. FL is a very flexible controller which keeps the dc link voltage constant during voltage sag. The performance results of proposed study are verified with PSCAD/EMDTC.

  1. Health care reform in the USA: Recommendations from USA and non-USA radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauren Mb; Martin, Diego R; Bader, Till; Semelka, Richard C

    2012-02-28

    To compare the opinions and recommendations of imaging specialists from United States (USA) and non-USA developed nations for USA health care reform. A survey was emailed out to 18 imaging specialists from 17 non-USA developed nation countries and 14 radiologists within the USA regarding health care reform. The questionnaire contained the following questions: what are the strengths of your health care system, what problems are present in your nation's health care system, and what recommendations do you have for health care reform in the USA. USA and non-USA radiologists received the same questionnaire. Strengths of the USA health care system include high quality care, autonomy, and access to timely care. Twelve of 14 (86%) USA radiologists identified medicolegal action as a major problem in their health care system and felt that medicolegal reform was a critical aspect of health care reform. None of the non-USA radiologists identified medicolegal aspects as a problem in their own country nor identified it as a subject for USA health care reform. Eleven of 14 (79%) USA radiologists and 16/18 (89%) non-USA radiologists identified universal health care coverage as an important recommendation for reform. Without full universal coverage, meaningful health care reform will likely require medicolegal reform as an early and important aspect of improved and efficient health care.

  2. Journal of Computer Science and Its Application: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . F. J. Ogwu Department of Computer Science University of Bostwana, South Africa Prof. Abiodun Bada The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA. Prof. Many C. Aniebonam School of Business & Public Management

  3. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  4. DC/DC converters for integration of double-layer condensers in onboard power supply; DC/DC-Wandler zur Einbindung von Doppelschichtkondensatoren in das Fahrzeugenergiebordnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polenov, Dieter

    2010-01-15

    The paper discusses DC/DC converters for integration of double layer condensers into the onboard power system. First, requirements on DC/DC converters are listed and compared on the basis of three exemplary applications. A DC/DC converter concept is developed for decoupling transient high-power loads like electric steering systems. Three different topologies are compared using a specially developed method in order to find the best solution for the given application. In order to establish adequate criteria for selecting the switching frequency and inductivities of storage throttles, the influence of the trottle power change on the switching characteristics of the MOSFETs and on certain ranges of EMP interference emissions is investigated. As methods of optimising the operation of the synchronous rectifiers, parallel connection of Schottky diodes and synchronous rectifiers as well as the variation of the shut-off dead times of synchronous rectifiers were investigated. Further, a concept for converter control was developed in consideration of the intended application and topology. Finally, selected aspects for implementation of the DC/DC converter concept are presented as well as the results of experimental investigations.

  5. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  6. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  7. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  8. Analysis of a Hybrid DC Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Web

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional controllable saturation reactor (CSR consists of single toroidal core, DC (direct current controlled loop (including DC controlled winding and DC biasing source and AC (alternating current excitation loop (including excitation winding and AC source. A detection winding and secondary winding are added up to the CSR configuration and form a hybrid DC comparator. The excitation current is asymmetric waveform when the CSR core is commonly stimulated by both AC and DC biasing sources, which just is the fundamental characteristic for the proposed comparator. Research shows the terminal voltage of the detection winding is asymmetric waveform when the secondary winding of the comparator is open and the CSR core is stimulated both by AC and DC biasing sources. Both theory analysis and experiment verify the feasibility of the differential RMS (root-mean-square between positive and negative half waves of the terminal voltage from the detection winding fitting for the feedback variance to balance DC biasing magnetic potential and form a self-balancing comparator. The zero-flux technique that the primary ampere-turn is equal to the secondary is the function base for the comparator. The operation details of the comparator including the control characteristics both of open-loop and close loop, the satiability judgment criterion, static error property and test range are introduced. The experimental results testify to the truth of the principle of the proposed DC comparator.

  9. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  10. USA kaitseb Iisraeli / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus peetud arutelul ei võetud USA vastuseisu tõttu vastu üleskutset viivitamatuks tingimusteta vaherahuks, USA toetab Iisraeli rünnakuid Hizbollah' sisside vastu. Lisa: Eesti mõistab hukka

  11. Control and dynamic analysis of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for DC-grid wind farm application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a control strategy and its dynamic analysis of a high-power dc-dc converter, which is constructed with the parallel-connected single active bridge (SAB) dc-dc converters for dc-grid wind farm applications. The structural and operational characteristics of the SAB dc-dc convert...... for dc-grid wind farm applications, an input voltage control method based on the PI control will be introduced and the dynamics of the overall system will be analysed. The analysis results are to be verified by means of simulations and experiments.......This study presents a control strategy and its dynamic analysis of a high-power dc-dc converter, which is constructed with the parallel-connected single active bridge (SAB) dc-dc converters for dc-grid wind farm applications. The structural and operational characteristics of the SAB dc-dc converter...... have several advantages for high-power applications, and the modular concept of the parallel-connected converter is highly beneficial especially for offshore wind farm applications in terms of maintenance cost and fault tolerance. To justify the feasibility of the parallel-connected SAB dc-dc converter...

  12. A Component-Reduced Zero-Voltage Switching Three-Level DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Pang, Ying; Wang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    The basic Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS) three-level DC-DC converter has one clamping capacitor to realize the ZVS of the switches, and two clamping diodes to clamp the voltage of the clamping capacitor. In order to reduce the reverse recovery loss of the diode as well as its cost, this paper...... proposes to remove one of the clamping diodes in basic ZVS three-level DC-DC converter. With less components, the proposed converter can still have a stable clamping capacitor voltage, which is clamped at half of the dc link voltage. Moreover, the ZVS performance will be influenced by removing the clamping...

  13. Review of applications of microneedling in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte, Christopher; Awosika, Olabola; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Ehrlich, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Christopher Iriarte,1 Olabola Awosika,2 Monica Rengifo-Pardo,1,2 Alison Ehrlich1,2 1George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, The George Washington Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Microneedling (MN) is a novel therapeutic modality in dermatology. Through physical trauma from needle penetration, MN induces a wound healing cascade with minimal damage to the epidermis. This allows for enhanceme...

  14. Reproductive Health Knowledge among African American Women Enrolled in a Clinic-Based Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Psychosocial and Behavioral Risk: Project DC-HOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A; Wallace, Maeve E; Flores, Katrina F; Kiely, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Washington, DC, has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women's reproductive health knowledge may help to address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Project DC-HOPE was a randomized, controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, recruited during prenatal care (PNC). Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual PNC. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n = 1,044) and postpartum (n = 830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via χ(2) tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared with women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, DC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Legacy of the Georgetown College Observatory (D.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Laura; Maglieri, Grace; Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Founded in 1841 as part of a nascent worldwide network of Jesuit-run astronomical observatories, the Georgetown College Observatory of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. has been home to more than 125 years of astronomical research, from Father Curley’s calculations of the latitude and longitude of D.C. to Father McNally’s award-winning solar eclipse photography. But the impact of the Georgetown astronomy program was not limited to the observatory itself: it reached much further, into the local community and schools, and into the lives of everyone involved. This was never more apparent than under the directorship of Father Francis J Heyden, S.J., who arrived at Georgetown after World War II and stayed for almost three decades. He started a graduate program with over 90 graduates, hosting student researchers from local high schools and colleges, teaching graduate and undergraduate astronomy courses, and speaking at schools in the area, all while simultaneously managing Georgetown’s student radio station and hosting astronomical conferences on campus. Father Heyden’s research focused mainly on solar eclipses for geodetic purposes and planetary spectroscopy. But perhaps even more than research, Father Heyden dedicated his time and energy to the astronomy students, the notable of which include Vera Rubin, John P. Hagen of Project Vanguard, and a generation of Jesuit astronomers including Martin McCarthy, George Coyne, and Richard Boyle. Following the closure of the astronomy department in 1972, Father Heyden returned to Manila, where he had begun his astronomical career, to become Chief of the Solar Division at the Manila Observatory. His dedication to his work and to students serves as an inspiration for academic researchers across fields, and for the Georgetown University Astronomical Society, which, even in the absence of a formal astronomy program at Georgetown, continues his work in education and outreach today. In 1987, almost 150 years after its

  16. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  17. Southwestern Washington 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  19. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  20. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  1. EAARL Topography George Washington Birthplace National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of George Washington Birthplace National Monument was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  2. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  3. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  4. DC-10 winglet flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a flight evaluation of winglets on a DC-10 Series 10 aircraft are presented. For sensitive areas of comparison, effects of winglets were determined back-to-back with and without winglets. Basic and reduced-span winglet configurations were tested. After initial encounter with low-speed buffet, a number of acceptable configurations were developed. For maximum drag reduction at both cruise and low speeds, lower winglets were required, having leading edge devices on upper and lower winglets for the latter regime. The cruise benefits were enhanced by adding outboard aileron droop to the reduced-span winglet aircraft. Winglets had no significant impact on stall speeds, high-speed buffet boundary, and stability and control. Flutter test results agreed with predictions and ground vibration data. Flight loads measurement, provided in a concurrent program, also agreed with predictions. It was estimated that a production version of the aircraft, using the reduced-span winglet and aileron droop, would yield a 3-percent reduction in fuel burned with capacity payload. This range was 2% greater than with winglets. A 5% reduction in takeoff distance at maximum takeoff weight would also result.

  5. Expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in placentas of HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komala Pillay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN is a mannose-binding lectin that initiates interaction between dendritic cells and resting T-lymphocytes. DC-SIGN is highly expressed in placental tissue on dendritic cells and Hofbauer cells, and it is suggested that HIV may become adsorbed to DC-SIGN on Hofbauer cells as part of the mechanism of mother-to-child HIV transmission. A possible mechanism of transfer of the virus from the Hofbauer cells to the fetus is the subsequent adsorption to DC-SIGN-related molecules (DC-SIGNRs, present on immediately adjacent capillary vascular endothelium. However, data on DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression in the placenta are few.Methods. Forty term placentas from HIV-positive mothers and 21 term placentas from HIV-negative mothers underwent immunohistochemistry staining for DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression. Five random sets of 10 villi were assessed, and the average number of positive cells were counted in each case. In addition, where possible, maternal and cord blood viral loads and maternal CD4+ counts were performed in the HIV-positive group only.Results. The median maternal CD4+ count was 377 cells/µl and 27% of participants had undetectable viral loads; the median detectable viral load was 3.72 log. Most (97% of the cord bloods tested in infants from HIV-positive mothers had lower than detectable viral loads. HIV-positive cases had significantly greater expression of both DC-SIGNRs (median values in HIV-positive cases, 14.5 positive cells/10 villi (pc/10villi, compared with 11 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.020 and DC-SIGN (median value in HIV-positive cases, 26.5 pc/10villi, compared with 23 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.037. DC-SIGNR expression was also noted in Hofbauer cells and decidual macrophages in addition to endothelium (reported currently. There was no difference in expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in patients

  6. Homeopathy in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2001-04-01

    Homeopathy was introduced into the USA by Hans Burch Gram in 1825. It developed largely through immigration of German homeopaths. The first homeopathic medical college was established in Allentown, PA in 1835. The American institute of Homeopathy (AIH) was founded in 1844. The American Medical Association was founded in 1847 and pursued policies hostile to homeopathy from the outset. Eclectic medicine was widespread in nineteenth century medicine, one of the greatest homeopaths, JT Kent had originally been an eclectic. The International Hahnemannian Association split from the AIH in 1880. The Flexner Report of 1910 resulted in many homeopathic medical colleges being closed down. Homeopathy in the USA was in steep decline from the 1920s to the 1960s but has had a strong recovery since the 1970s.

  7. DC-Compensated Current Transformer †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  8. Central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This view of central Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) shows both coasts of the Florida peninsula with Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center readily visible in the center on the Atlantic coast. Other features on the Earth which are visible through the clouds include Tampa Bay, several lakes and the Gulf of Mexico on Florida's east coast. The space shuttle's tail fin and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are seen in the foreground.

  9. Study on the Control Algorithm of Two-Stage DC-DC Converter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhao Piao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast response, high efficiency, and good reliability are very important characteristics to electric vehicles (EVs dc/dc converters. Two-stage dc-dc converter is a kind of dc-dc topologies that can offer those characteristics to EVs. Presently, nonlinear control is an active area of research in the field of the control algorithm of dc-dc converters. However, very few papers research on two-stage converter for EVs. In this paper, a fixed switching frequency sliding mode (FSFSM controller and double-integral sliding mode (DISM controller for two-stage dc-dc converter are proposed. And a conventional linear control (lag is chosen as the comparison. The performances of the proposed FSFSM controller are compared with those obtained by the lag controller. In consequence, the satisfactory simulation and experiment results show that the FSFSM controller is capable of offering good large-signal operations with fast dynamical responses to the converter. At last, some other simulation results are presented to prove that the DISM controller is a promising method for the converter to eliminate the steady-state error.

  10. Studi Komparasi Fungsi Keanggotaan Fuzzy sebagai Kontroler Bidirectional DC-DC Converter pada Sistem Penyimpan Energi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Prasetyono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional DC-DC converter is needed in the energy storage system. The converter topology used in this paper was a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC buck-boost converter. This converter worked in two ways, which the charging mode stored energy into battery when load current was less than nominal main DC current (set point and discharging mode transferred energy from battery to the load when its current exceeded set point value. Both of these modes worked automatically according to the load current. The charging and discharging currents were controlled by fuzzy logic controller which was implemented on microcontroller ARM Cortex-M4F STM32F407VG. This paper compares two types of fuzzy membership function (triangular and sigmoid in controlling bidirectional DC-DC converter. The results showed that fuzzy logic controller with triangle membership function and sigmoid as control bidirectional DC-DC converter had no significant different response, both had an average error for charging and discharging process under 4% with ripple current on the main DC bus around 0.5%. The computing time of program for fuzzy logic controller with triangular membership functions had 19.01% faster than sigmoid, and fuzzy logic computation time on a microcontroller with hardware floating point was 60% faster than software floating point.

  11. A Double Phase-Shift Control Strategy for A Full-Bridge Three-Level DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Gong, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a double phase-shift control strategy is proposed for the full-bridge three-level (FBTL) DC/DC converter applied into DC distribution systems with the medium DC bus voltage. By utilizing the proposed control strategy, the voltage change rate dv/dt and voltage stress of the transfor......In this paper, a double phase-shift control strategy is proposed for the full-bridge three-level (FBTL) DC/DC converter applied into DC distribution systems with the medium DC bus voltage. By utilizing the proposed control strategy, the voltage change rate dv/dt and voltage stress...

  12. Direct Strain Tensor Approximation for Full-Field Strain Measurement Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    DC, USA 2Code 6394 Computational Multiphysics Systems Laboratory, Center of Computational Material Science, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC... Shearography [16–18] and Moiré interferometry [19, 20] that exploit implicit differentiations of the displacement fields, com- pute only a subset of the strain...Michopoulos, Code 6394 Computational Multiphysics Systems Laboratory, Center of Computational Material Science, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC

  13. NAMMA DC-8 DROPSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The DC-8 dropsonde system uses an integrated, highly accurate, GPS-located atmospheric profiling dropsonde, which measures and records current atmospheric conditions...

  14. GRIP DC-8 DROPSONDE V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP DC-8 Dropsonde V3 dataset consists of atmospheric pressure, dry-bulb temperature, dew point temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and...

  15. Early Oscillation Detection for Hybrid DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel fault detection technique for hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation diagnosis. The technique is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and Is realized by using signal spectral analysis. Real-circuit simulation and analytical study reveal critical factors of the oscillation and indicate significant correlations between the spectral analysis method and the gain/phase margin method. A stability diagnosis index (SDI) is developed as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to the DC/DC converter. This technique Is capable of detecting oscillation at an early stage without interfering with DC/DC converter's normal operation and without limitations of probing to the converter.

  16. The Topologies Research of a Soft Switching Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yongping; Sun, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    A soft-switching solution implemented to the traditional bidirectional DC/DC converter is developed. The soft-switching cell, which composed of three auxiliary switches, one resonant capacitor and one resonant inductor, is equipped in the traditional bidirectional DC/DC converter to realize circuit...... circle. And the proposed topology of bidirectional soft-switching dc-dc converter(TASBC) performs ideal soft switching at boost operations. The characteristics of the proposed converter has been verified by MATLAB simulations and experimental results....... from a hard turning off process in one of the auxiliary switches, while the others experience the soft operation. As for the other method, the zero voltage or zero current transmissions in all switches are realized, however, the relative higher but fixed conduction losses are introduced by the resonant...

  17. Modelling and Simulation of Digital Compensation Technique for dc-dc Converter by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenbagalakshmi, R.; Sree Renga Raja, T.

    2015-09-01

    A thorough and effective analysis of the dc-dc converters is carried out in order to achieve the system stability and to improve the dynamic performance. A small signal modelling based on state space averaging technique for dc-dc converters is carried out. A digital state feedback gain matrix is derived by pole placement technique in order to achieve the stability of a completely controllable system. A prediction observer for the dc-dc converters is designed and a dynamic compensation (observer plus control law) is provided using separation principle. The output is very much improved with zero output voltage ripples, zero peak overshoot, and much lesser settling time in the range of ms and with higher overall efficiency (>90 %).

  18. Optimized photovoltaic generator-water electrolyser coupling through a controlled DC-DC converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valverde, R.; Miguel, C.; Urbina, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Electronica, Tecnologia de Computadoras y Proyectos, Plaza del Hospital, 1, Cartagena, 30203 Murcia (Spain); Martinez-Bejar, R. [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Ingenieria de la Informacion y las Comunicaciones, Facultad de Informatica, Campus de Espinardo, 30071 Murcia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    The coupling of a photovoltaic generator and an electrolyser is one of the most promising options for obtaining hydrogen from a renewable energy source. Both are well known technologies, however, since the high variability of the solar radiation, an efficient coupling still presents some challenges. Direct or through a DC-DC converter couplings are the options in isolated applications. In this work, three models, respectively, for a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a controlled DC-DC converter and a complete proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser have been designed by using Matlab/Simulink. A PV-electrolyser specific algorithm to search for the optimum and safe working point for both elements is presented. Simulation results demonstrate that the use of a controlled DC-DC converter with the proposed algorithm shows better adaptability to the variable radiation conditions than the other coupling options. Therefore, it leads to a better compliance between the electrolyser and the sizing of the PV generator. (author)

  19. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  20. dc illusion and its experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lei Mei, Zhong; Ma, Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-07-01

    Based on the transformation optics method, we propose a dc illusion device, which can transform a metallic object into a magnified dielectric object using anisotropic conducting materials. Utilizing the analogy between electric conductivities and resistor networks, we design and fabricate the device using metal film resistors. The practical measurement data agree very well with simulation results. The proposed dc illusion device is easy to process and measure, and thus has potential applications in various sectors.

  1. Departure from Washington / Jüri Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Jüri, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti-USA suhetest ja rahvusvahelisest olukorrast aastatel 2003-2007. Artikli autor oli aastatel 2003-2007 Eesti Vabariigi suursaadik Ameerika Ühendriikides. Juttu on ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Valgesse Majja ja kohtumisest USA presidendi George W. Bushiga 2007. a. juunis

  2. Interleaved DC-DC Converter with Discrete Duty Cycle and Open Loop Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroics K.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the control principle of the multiphase interleaved DC-DC converter that can be used to vastly reduce output current ripple of the converter. The control algorithm can be easily implemented by using microcontroller without current loop in each phase. The converter works in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM but close to boundary conduction mode (BCM. The DC-DC converter with such a control algorithm is useful in applications that do not require precise current adjustment. The prototype of the converter has been built. The experimental results of the current ripple are presented in the paper.

  3. Design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    This technical report presents the design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters. The power stage is based on a half bridge series resonant converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). This simple and robust topology allows obtaining a current source behavior with a low switching losses power stage. The associated control stage is implemented using a commercial controller which has differenti nternal circuits that allows a high integration of the converter control system. The report presents the design and tuning criteria for the DC-DC converter, including the power stage and the control system.

  4. Diseño de un convertidor DC-DC Flyback para aplicaciones fotovoltaicas

    OpenAIRE

    MOLINA TOBOSO, MARIANO

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design a Flyback DC-DC converter. The values of all the internal elements of the converter, including the transformer, will be calculated in order to obtain the desired response. Afterwards several simulations will be carried out to test the results. Este trabajo de fin de grado tiene como objetivo el diseño de un convertidor elevador DC-DC tipo Flyback propuesto en la asignatura de Sistemas Electónicos para Energías Renovables. Se trata de un convertidor D...

  5. Laboratory manual for pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2015-01-01

    Designed to complement a range of power electronics study resources, this unique lab manual helps students to gain a deep understanding of the operation, modeling, analysis, design, and performance of pulse-width modulated (PWM) DC-DC power converters.  Exercises focus on three essential areas of power electronics: open-loop power stages; small-signal modeling, design of feedback loops and PWM DC-DC converter control schemes; and semiconductor devices such as silicon, silicon carbide and gallium nitride. Meeting the standards required by industrial employers, the lab manual combines program

  6. High power density dc/dc converter: Component selection and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    Further work pertaining to design considerations for the new high power, high frequency dc/dc converters is discussed. The goal of the project is the development of high power, high power density dc/dc converters at power levels in the multi-kilowatt to megawatt range for aerospace applications. The prototype converter is rated for 50 kW at a switching frequency of 50 kHz, with an input voltage of 200 Vdc and an output of 2000 Vdc. The overall power density must be in the vicinity of 0.2 to 0.3 kg/kW.

  7. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    So far, all existing offshore wind farms have an ac collection system, and the collected power in the offshore wind farm is sent to an onshore ac grid through high-voltage ac (HVAC) or DC (HVDC) transmission lines. However, future of fshore wind farms may use dc also for power collection. Consequ......So far, all existing offshore wind farms have an ac collection system, and the collected power in the offshore wind farm is sent to an onshore ac grid through high-voltage ac (HVAC) or DC (HVDC) transmission lines. However, future of fshore wind farms may use dc also for power collection....... Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD...

  8. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  9. Magnetically integrated high step-up resonant DC-DC converter for distributed photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinnikov, Dmitri; Chub, Andrii; Liivik, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    In this paper magnetically integrated resonant single-switch quasi-Z-source DC-DC converter is evaluated as a candidate topology for the low-cost photovoltaic microconverter. The derivation of the topology and its basic operation principle are explained. Generalized design guidelines...

  10. Selection of DC/DC converter for offshore wind farms with MVDC power collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Kjær, Philip Carne; Chen, Yu-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Four DC/DC converters are analyzed and compared with respects to availability, efficiency, ratings, repair costs and power density. Intended application is offshore wind farms with MVDC power collection. The selected topology is a new series resonant converter, which offers 99% efficiency across...... the entire operational range, but needs components designed for high voltage stress....

  11. Analysis and design of PPFHB bidirectional DC-DC converter with coupled inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel push-pull-forward half-bridge (PPFHB) bi-directional DC-DC converter with coupled inductors is proposed. All switches can operate under zero-voltage-switching (ZVS). The operation principle with phase-shift modulation scheme, characteristics of coupled inductors, the steady...

  12. Modeling methodology of the conducted emission of a DC-DC converter board

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Alexandre; Gonzalez Sentis, Manuel; Ghfiri, Chaimae; Durier, André

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a methodology to model an electronic board according to a bottom-up approach. This method is applied to build the model of a synchronous buck DC-DC converter board for conducted emission prediction purpose. The different steps to select the model terminals and the construction of the component and PCB interconnect models are described.

  13. A New Sliding Mode Controller for DC/DC Converters in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DC/DC converters are widely used in many industrial and electrical systems. As DC/DC converters are nonlinear and time-variant systems, the application of linear control techniques for the control of these converters is not suitable. In this paper, a new sliding mode controller is proposed as the indirect control method and compared to a simple direct control method in order to control a buck converter in photovoltaic applications. The solar arrays are dependent power sources with nonlinear voltage-current characteristics under different environmental conditions (insolation and temperature. From this point of view, the DC/DC converter is particularly suitable for the application of the sliding mode control in photovoltaic application, because of its controllable states. Simulations are performed in Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation results are presented for a step change in reference voltage and input voltage as well as step load variations. The simulations results of proposed method are compared with the conventional PID controller. The results show the good performance of the proposed sliding mode controller. The proposed method can be used for the other DC/DC converter.

  14. Integrated S-band transmitter with on-chip DC-DC converter and control loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouzes, H.; Geurts, S.; Besselink, M.; Telli, A.; Hek, A.P. de; Bent, G. van der; Vliet, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    A highly integrated high-power transmitter has been designed in a high breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. The transmitter includes, on top of an S-Band 10 W class-F HPA, a DC/DC converter and its associated gate driver, the full voltage regulation control loop, which provides a significant step for

  15. Y-Source Boost DC/DC Converter for Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a versatile Y-source boost dc/dc converter intended for distributed power generation, where high gain is often demanded. The proposed converter uses a Y-source impedance network realized with a tightly coupled three-winding inductor for high voltage boosting that is presently...

  16. Common mode noise in three-level DC-DC converters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Inus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available that three-level buck DC-DC converters in general generate much lower common mode currents than conventional two-level buck converters. Further, reductions in common mode currents are achieved by using the improved three-level topologies that have been...

  17. A DC-DC Converter with Wide Input Voltage Range for Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional DC-DC converter based on fuel cells and supercapacitors. The described converter employs two high frequency transformers to couple the half-bridge and full-bridge circuits together in the primary side...

  18. A VHF Class E DC-DC Converter with Self-Oscillating Gate Driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Toke Meyer; Christensen, Søren K.; Knott, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of a DC-DC converter topology which is operational at frequencies in the Very High Frequency (VHF) band ranging from 30 MHz − 300 MHz. The presented topology, which consists of a class E inverter, class E rectifier, and self-oscillating gate driver, is...

  19. Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter...

  20. High-Voltage DC-DC Converter Topology for PV Energy Utilization - Investigation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploited the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy system with high-voltage (HV) output DC-DC converter. Classical boost converters are used for both renewable energy integration and HV applications, but limited by reducing output/efficiency in performance. Moreover, as parasitic el...