Sample records for wash volcanic centers

  1. Understanding thermal energy and mass transport in major volcanic centers (United States)

    Hermance, John F.


    An understanding of the thermal regions of the earth's interior and their associated dynamic processes is of central importance, not only to basic science but to a number of national priorities including resource and the mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards. Major thermal anomalies over large regions of the continent are associated with intraplate rifts and transform faults (e.g., the Salton Trough and the Rio Grande Rift), distributed extensional tectonics (e.g., the Basin and Range Province), and plate margins (e.g., the Cascade Range). However, it is clear that of all classes of volcanic phenomena within the conterminous United States, the major intraplate silicic caldera complexes (e.g., Yellowstone, the Valles Caldera, the Long Valley/Mono Craters volcanic complex) appear to have, according to present estimates, the highest accessible geothermal resource base and the greatest destructive power during major eruptive phases. In addition, the exhumed fossil analogs of these systems are associated with extensive mineralization and economic ore deposits. What is lacking, however, is a predictive scientific theory describing the fundamental physio-chemical processes responsible for the development and longterm sustenance of these major volcanic centers in space and time.

  2. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.


    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  3. Contemporary State of the Elbrus Volcanic Center (The Northern Caucasus) (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Gorbatikov, Andrey; Mironov, Alexey; Myasnikov, Andrey; Stepanova, Marina


    The Elbrus volcanic center is located in southern Russia on the northern slope of the main ridge of the Greater Caucasus. Current classifications define Elbrus as a dormant volcano that could become active even after millennia of quiescence. In this study, we use two new geophysical methods to assess the contemporary state of the Elbrus volcano. The first method is based on an evaluation of parameters of resonant modes "reemitted" by the resonant structure (i.e., volcanic chamber) in response to the excitation of a seismic impact and recorded by a precise laser interferometer-strainmeter. The second method is based on low-frequency microseismic sounding and allows determination of the deep structure of complicated geological objects. Our study locates the magma chamber at depths of 1-8 km and extended magma source at depths of 15-40 km beneath the Elbrus eastern summit. An unknown magmatic structure, comparable to the Elbrus magmatic structure but currently much colder, was also identified 50 km from Mt. Elbrus. Based on our analysis, we assess the Elbrus volcano to be currently in a quasi-stable state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

  4. Thermal regimes of major volcanic centers: Magnetotelluric constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermance, J.F.


    The interpretation of geophysical/electromagnetic field data has been used to study dynamical processes in the crust beneath three of the major tectono-volcanic features in North America: the Long Valley/Mono Craters Volcanic Complex in eastern California, the Cascades Volcanic Belt in Oregon, and the Rio Grande Rift in the area of Socorro, New Mexico. Primary accomplishments have been in the area of creating and implementing a variety of 2-D generalized inverse computer codes, and the application of these codes to fields studies on the basin structures and he deep thermal regimes of the above areas. In order to more fully explore the space of allowable models (i.e. those inverse solutions that fit the data equally well), several distinctly different approaches to the 2-D inverse problem have been developed: (1) an overdetermined block inversion; (2) an overdetermined spline inverstion; (3) a generalized underdetermined total inverse which allows one to tradeoff certain attributes of their model, such as minimum structure (flat models), roughness (smooth models), or length (small models). Moreover, we are exploring various approaches for evaluating the resolution model parameters for the above algorithms. 33 refs.

  5. Hand-washing and diapering equipment reduces disease among children in out-of-home child care centers. (United States)

    Kotch, Jonathan B; Isbell, Patricia; Weber, David J; Nguyen, Viet; Savage, Eric; Gunn, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Fowlkes, Stephen; Virk, Jasveer; Allen, Jonnell


    The objective of this study was to determine whether the installation of equipment for diaper-changing, hand-washing, and food preparation that is specifically designed to reduce the transmission of infectious agents would result in a decrease in the rate of diarrheal illness among children and their teachers in child care centers. Twenty-three pairs of child care centers were matched on size and star-rated license level. One member of each pair was randomly assigned to an intervention group and the other to a control group. Intervention centers received new diaper-changing, hand-washing, and food-preparation equipment, and both intervention and control centers received hygiene and sanitation training with reinforcement and follow-up as needed. Families with children in participating classrooms were called biweekly to ascertain the frequency and severity of any diarrheal illness episodes. Staff attendance was monitored, and staff hygiene and sanitation behaviors were observed and recorded monthly. Although hygiene and sanitation behaviors improved in both intervention and control centers, there was a significant difference favoring the intervention centers with respect to frequency of diarrheal illness (0.90 vs 1.58 illnesses per 100 child-days in control centers) and proportion of days ill as a result of diarrhea (4.0% vs 5.0% in control centers) among the children. Staff in those same classrooms were reported to have a significantly lower proportion of days absent as a result of any illness (0.77% in treatment centers versus 1.73% in control centers). Diapering, hand-washing, and food-preparation equipment that is specifically designed to reduce the spread of infectious agents significantly reduced diarrheal illness among the children and absence as a result of illness among staff in out-of-home child care centers.

  6. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon-Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism (United States)

    Crowe, Bruce M.; Sargent, Kenneth A.


    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13-15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline comendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain-Silent Canyon volcanic centers differs in the total range and distribution of Si02, contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na2O+K2O>Al2O3) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain-Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site.

  7. Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies: 1992--1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The annual report of the Center for Volcanic Studies (CVTS) contains a series of papers, reprints and a Master of Science thesis that review the progress made by the CVTS between October 1, 1992 and February 1, 1994. During this period CVTS staff focused on several topics that have direct relevance to volcanic hazards related to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These topics include: (1) polygenetic/polycyclic volcanism in Crater Flat, Nevada; (2) the role of the mantle during crustal extension; (3) the detailed geology of Crater Flat, Nevada; (4) Pliocene volcanoes in the Reveille Range, south-central Nevada; (5) estimating the probability of disruption of the proposed repository by volcanic eruptions. This topic is being studied by Dr. C.H. Ho at UNLV. The report contains copies of these individual papers as they were presented in various conference proceedings.

  8. Volcanic Centers in the East Africa Rift: Volcanic Processes with Seismic Stresses to Identify Potential Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Patlan, E.; Wamalwa, A. M.; Kaip, G.; Velasco, A. A.


    The Geothermal Development Company (GDC) in Kenya actively seeks to produce geothermal energy, which lies within the East African Rift System (EARS). The EARS, an active continental rift zone, appears to be a developing tectonic plate boundary and thus, has a number of active as well as dormant volcanoes throughout its extent. These volcanic centers can be used as potential sources for geothermal energy. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the GDC deployed seismic sensors to monitor several volcanic centers: Menengai, Silali, and Paka, and Korosi. We identify microseismic, local events, and tilt like events using automatic detection algorithms and manual review to identify potential local earthquakes within our seismic network. We then perform the double-difference location method of local magnitude less than two to image the boundary of the magma chamber and the conduit feeding the volcanoes. In the process of locating local seismicity, we also identify long-period, explosion, and tremor signals that we interpret as magma passing through conduits of the magma chamber and/or fluid being transported as a function of magma movement or hydrothermal activity. We used waveform inversion and S-wave shear wave splitting to approximate the orientation of the local stresses from the vent or fissure-like conduit of the volcano. The microseismic events and long period events will help us interpret the activity of the volcanoes. Our goal is to investigate basement structures beneath the volcanoes and identify the extent of magmatic modifications of the crust. Overall, these seismic techniques will help us understand magma movement and volcanic processes in the region.

  9. Chemical evolution of a high-level magma system: the Black Mountain volcanic center, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, T.A.; Noble, D.C.; Younker, L.W.


    A comprehensive study of stratigraphically controlled samples of both lavas and ash-flow tuffs from the Black Mountain volcanic center enables us to evaluate magmatic processes. The results of this study are used to: (1) determine how this high-level magma system developed; (2) compare this system with other similar systems; and (3) correlate ash-flow sheets using their chemical characteristics.

  10. Changes in magma storage conditions following caldera collapse at Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand (United States)

    Rubin, Allison; Cooper, Kari M.; Leever, Marissa; Wimpenny, Josh; Deering, Chad; Rooney, Tyrone; Gravley, Darren; Yin, Qing-zhu


    Large silicic volcanic centers produce both small rhyolitic eruptions and catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. Although changes in trace element and isotopic compositions within eruptions following caldera collapse have been observed at rhyolitic volcanic centers such as Yellowstone and Long Valley, much still remains unknown about the ways in which magma reservoirs are affected by caldera collapse. We present 238U-230Th age, trace element, and Hf isotopic data from individual zircon crystals from four eruptions from the Okataina Volcanic Center, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, in order to assess changes in trace element and isotopic composition of the reservoir following the 45-ka caldera-forming Rotoiti eruption. Our data indicate that (1) mixing of magmas derived from crustal melts and mantle melts takes place within the shallow reservoir; (2) while the basic processes of melt generation likely did not change significantly between pre- and post-caldera rhyolites, post-caldera zircons show increased trace element and isotopic heterogeneity that suggests a decrease in the degree of interconnectedness of the liquid within the reservoir following collapse; and (3) post-caldera eruptions from different vents indicate different storage times of the amalgamated melt prior to eruption. These data further suggest that the timescales needed to generate large volumes of eruptible melt may depend on the timescales needed to increase interconnectedness and achieve widespread homogenization throughout the reservoir.

  11. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.


    Volcanic rocks in the Sonoma volcanic field in the northern California Coast Ranges contain heterogeneous assemblages of a variety of compositionally diverse volcanic rocks. We have used field mapping, new and existing age determinations, and 343 new major and trace element analyses of whole-rock samples from lavas and tuff to define for the first time volcanic source areas for many parts of the Sonoma volcanic field. Geophysical data and models have helped to define the thickness of the volcanic pile and the location of caldera structures. Volcanic rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field show a broad range in eruptive style that is spatially variable and specific to an individual eruptive center. Major, minor, and trace-element geochemical data for intracaldera and outflow tuffs and their distal fall equivalents suggest caldera-related sources for the Pinole and Lawlor Tuffs in southern Napa Valley and for the tuff of Franz Valley in northern Napa Valley. Stratigraphic correlations based on similarity in eruptive sequence and style coupled with geochemical data allow an estimate of 30 km of right-lateral offset across the West Napa-Carneros fault zones since ~5 Ma.

  12. Effects of Magma Supply on Volcanic Morphology along the Hotspot-Influenced Galapagos Spreading Center (United States)

    White, S. M.; Meyer, J. D.; Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P.; MacDonald, K. C.


    The relationship between lava morphology and spreading rate, with a predominance of pillows at slow- spreading ridges and sheets at fast-spreading ridges, is well known although not well understood. New EM300 and DSL-120A sonar data collected along the GSC from {94.5°}-{89.5°} W in 2006 reveals that increasing magma supply decreases the tendency for eruptions to focus to point-source volcanic vents, and ultimately produces fissure-fed sheet flow eruptions. The change in spreading rate is insignificant over this area, thus the additional magma supply provided by the Galapagos hotspot is the main variable. The high- resolution sonar data images volcanic vents clearly so that their morphology may be analyzed. Approaching the focus of hotspot influence on the GSC at {91.5°}W from {95°}W, volcanic vents become progressively lower in relief and more elongate. Volcanic vent morphology consists primarily of individual cones from {95°}-{92.5°}W presumably produced by eruptions that focus quickly to point-source vents, although the average size of the cones decreases toward the east, as magma supply increases. Where the ridge topography changes from an axial valley to axial rise, the volcanic morphology also becomes dominated by axial volcanic ridges rather than cones. Finally, along the ridge segment farthest east we find that the volcanic vents are simply expressed as fissures. Although the volcanic vent morphology progressively changes, it is only along this last, easternmost segment at {91.5°}W that we find a significant abundance of sheet lava flows based on extensive visual coverage with Medea. Elsewhere, the ridge is composed almost exclusively of pillow lava flows. These results suggest that magma supply, rather than other variables, is responsible for the relationship between lava morphology and spreading rate. Unlike true fast-spreading ridges, each ridge segment on the GSC from {93°}- {91°}W contains a single large volcanic cone centered at the segment

  13. Rifting, volcanism, and magma genesis at the northern end of the Danakil Depression: The Alid volcanic center of Eritrea (Invited) (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Clynne, M. A.; Duffield, W. A.; Smith, J. G.; Woldegiorgis, L.


    The Alid volcanic center, Eritrea, is a structural dome formed by subvolcanic intrusion of pyroxene-bearing rhyolite, subsequently erupted as pumice and lava, during the period 40,000 to 15,000 years ago. The northern Danakil Depression is thought to be the most recently developed part of the Afar, and represents an active continental rift subparallel to the Red Sea spreading center. The location of Alid may be controlled by the intersection of the structural grain of the NE trending Senafe-Alid lineament with the NW trending Danakil Depression. Our work began as a geothermal assessment (Duffield et al., 1997, USGS Open-file 97-291) that found evidence for 300 meters of vertical offset of early Pleistocene basalt flows over the past 1.1 million years. Structural uplift at Alid reveals Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks overlain by Quaternary marine sediments including siltstone, and sandstones interbedded with pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. These units are overlain by subaerial amphibole-bearing rhyolites (dated at ~200 ka), basalts, and andesites that were deposited on a relatively flat surface and before significant growth of a large volcanic edifice. About 1 km of structural uplift of the marine sediments began 40 ka when pyroxene-bearing rhyolitic magma intruded close to the surface. Uplift was accompanied by contemporaneous eruptions of pumice falls and more common obsidian domes and lava flows over the next 20,000 years. Uplift apparently ceased after eruption of pyroclastic flows and vent-clogging lava about 15 ka. The pumice deposits contain cognate xenoliths of granophyric pyroxene-granite (Lowenstern et al., 1997, J. Petrol. 38:1707). Our geochronology of the uplift is consistent with the idea that growth of the Alid volcanic center played a role in isolating the southern Danakil Depression from the Red Sea, helping to initiate dessication of the rift and producing the young evaporites found today at Baddha and further south at Dallol. U

  14. FIERCE: FInding volcanic ERuptive CEnters by a grid-searching algorithm in R (United States)

    Carniel, Roberto; Guzmán, Silvina; Neri, Marco


    Most eruptions are fed by dikes whose spatial distribution can provide important insights into the positions of possible old eruptive centers that are no longer clearly identifiable in the field. Locating these centers can in turn have further applications, e.g., in hazard assessment. We propose a purely geometrical algorithm—implemented as an R open-source script—named FIERCE (FInding volcanic ERuptive CEnters) based on the number of intersections of dikes identified within a grid of rectangular cells overlain onto a given search region. The algorithm recognizes radial distributions, tangential distributions, or combinations of both. We applied FIERCE to both well-known and less-studied volcanic edifices, in different tectonic settings and having different evolution histories, ages, and compositions. At Summer Coon volcano, FIERCE demonstrated that a radial dike distribution clearly indicates the position of the central vent. On Etna, it confirmed the position of the most important ancient eruptive centers and allowed us to study effects of the structural alignments and topography. On Stromboli, FIERCE not only enabled confirmation of some published locations of older vents but also identified possible vent areas not previously suggested. It also highlighted the influence of the regional structural trend and the collapse scars. FIERCE demonstrated that the dikes at the Somma-Vesuvius were emplaced before formation of Mt. Somma's caldera and indicated a plausible location for the old volcanic crater of Mt. Somma which is compatible with previous studies. At the Vicuña Pampa Volcanic Complex, FIERCE highlights the position of two different vents of a highly degraded volcano.

  15. Magnetic anomalies on Io and their relationship to the spatial distribution of volcanic centers (United States)

    Knicely, Joshua; Everett, Mark E.; Sparks, David W.


    Forward modeling of planetary-scale magnetic anomalies due to induced crustal magnetization of Io is developed. The approach involves finite difference modeling of a temporally- and spatially-averaged steady state geotherm superimposed by the thermal evolution of an instantaneously emplaced volcanic pipe with and without an underlying magma chamber. A slight adjustment to previous studies results in a preferred steady state geotherm. The crustal magnetization is based on the calculated distribution of temperature, the strength of an idealized Jovian magnetic field, and a temperature-dependent susceptibility. Magnetite is assumed to be the dominant magnetic mineral. Synthetic satellite flyby data are generated along selected meridional swaths of Io's surface, based on observed locations of volcanic centers, hotspots, and accumulations of ejected volcanic material. This work produces a 1-D geotherm which remains at approximately the surface temperature to within a few kilometers of the thermal lithosphere/mantle boundary. This solution shows little dependence on porosity due to the depth at which rapid temperature change occurs. These conclusions hold for largely varying mantle temperatures. Silicate volcanic centers cool to the temperature of sulfur eruptions rapidly and become indistinguishable from sulfur volcanism within 10,000 years. The magnetic anomaly due to temperature variation is smaller than detectable for nominal conditions. The modeling herein requires a flyby altitude of ∼25 km and a pipe radius of ∼640 m for detection, or, for a more reasonable flyby altitude of 100 km, a pipe radius of ∼6000 m. If a crustal anomaly is detected by future satellite missions, it would suggest different conditions at Io than modeled here.

  16. Preliminary volcano hazard assessment for the Emmons Lake volcanic center, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher; Miller, Thomas P.; Mangan, Margaret T.


    The Emmons Lake volcanic center is a large stratovolcano complex on the Alaska Peninsula near Cold Bay, Alaska. The volcanic center includes several ice- and snow-clad volcanoes within a nested caldera structure that hosts Emmons Lake and truncates a shield-like ancestral Mount Emmons edifice. From northeast to southwest, the main stratovolcanoes of the center are: Pavlof Sister, Pavlof, Little Pavlof, Double Crater, Mount Hague, and Mount Emmons. Several small cinder cones and vents are located on the floor of the caldera and on the south flank of Pavlof Volcano. Pavlof Volcano, in the northeastern part of the center, is the most historically active volcano in Alaska (Miller and others, 1998) and eruptions of Pavlof pose the greatest hazards to the region. Historical eruptions of Pavlof Volcano have been small to moderate Strombolian eruptions that produced moderate amounts of near vent lapilli tephra fallout, and diffuse ash plumes that drifted several hundreds of kilometers from the vent. Cold Bay, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, and Sand Point have reported ash fallout from Pavlof eruptions. Drifting clouds of volcanic ash produced by eruptions of Pavlof would be a major hazard to local aircraft and could interfere with trans-Pacific air travel if the ash plume achieved flight levels. During most historical eruptions of Pavlof, pyroclastic material erupted from the volcano has interacted with the snow and ice on the volcano producing volcanic mudflows or lahars. Lahars have inundated most of the drainages heading on the volcano and filled stream valleys with variable amounts of coarse sand, gravel, and boulders. The lahars are often hot and would alter or destroy stream habitat for many years following the eruption. Other stratocones and vents within the Emmons Lake volcanic center are not known to have erupted in the past 300 years. However, young appearing deposits and lava flows suggest there may have been small explosions and minor effusive eruptive activity

  17. Geologic Evolution of the Sierra de Nanchititla Silicic Volcanic Center, Southern Mexico (United States)

    Gonzalez, N.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez, M.; Cerca, M.; Orozco, M.


    The Sierra de Nanchititla Volcanic Center (SNVC) is located at the borders of the States of Mexico, Michoacán and Guerrero, in the northern sector of Sierra Madre del Sur magmatic province (SMS) of México. Previous studies in the areas of Taxco and Tilzapotla recognized an Early Tertiary brittle deformation along WNW-ESE to NW-SE trending strike slip fault systems at the north of the SMS (Alaniz-Alvarez et al., 2002, JVGR; Morán-Zenteno et al., 2005, JVGR). This fault systems apparently favored the emplacement of several silicic volcanic centers aligned in a WNW-ESE direction during the Eocene and earliest Oligocene. These volcanic centers include Huatla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Sierra de Nanchititla. We carried out a detailed geologic study of the SNVC backed by Ar/Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry. Our results indicate that the SNVC is part of the Eocene magmatic episode recorded in the SMS. The first volcanic rocks in the area are basaltic-andesitic lavas dated at ~42 Ma. However, the activity of the SNVC proper is concentrated between 37.8±0.2 and 35.6±0.5 Ma and was characterized by the emplacement of rhyolitic sub-volcanic bodies (cryptodomes), voluminous pyroclastic deposits and endogenous domes. The oldest magmatic event is the intrusion of WNW-ESE-trending mafic aphyric dikes dated 35.6±0.5 Ma that fed the Puerto El Salitre andesite. Magmatic activity continued with the emplacement of cryptodomes with sub-volcanic texture. The main phase of the SNVC took place in late Eocene with the emplacement of three units: (1) WNW-ESE-trending felsic pyroclastic dikes feeding the large Nanchititla Ignimbrite (35.6±0.5 Ma), (2) rhyolitic domes with vents aligned in a WNW-ESE direction (35.6±0.1 Ma), the and (3) a pyroclastic flow (Tequezquite Ignimbrite) likely vented from a dome. Geochemical data are consistent with a differentiation process, starting with primary mafic magmas and originating both basaltic- andesitic and andesitic rocks

  18. A new user-centered design approach: a hair washing assistive device design for users with shoulder mobility restriction. (United States)

    Wu, Fong-Gong; Ma, Min-Yuan; Chang, Ro-Han


    This study utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for a new Assistive Device (AD) design process. Observation and evaluation results from a Usability Context Analysis (UCA) was used to improve the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis) and the matrix of Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths (TOWS matrix), resulting in two assistive device design methods named AD-SWOT and AD-TOWS. Thus, an AD-design process, tailored for designing assistive devices, was both established and tested. Owing to the information gained from using the design processes and evaluating product efficiency with various cases in the early part of the research, it was decided to use the AD-design process for the entire design process. Using this process, an adjustable hair washer for physically disabled individuals to wash their hair using normal postures was developed. Furthermore, the method derived in this study can also be applied to users suffering from single-sided shoulder-joint mobility disabilities, such as frontal flexion, scapular plan elevation, and restricted abductors.

  19. International collaboration between Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers: Geospatially enabled tools to ensure forecast harmonization across global air routes (United States)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Moore, D.; Kibler, J.; Bensimon, D.


    Volcanic plumes and drifting ash clouds pose a risk to flight operations somewhere across the globe every day. Airborne ash plumes pose a significant hazard to aircraft and timely and accurate forecasts greatly help mitigate the risk of an encounter. The world's nine (9) Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) provide products and services to address the volcanic ash hazard to aviation. These nine centers are operated by the meteorological authority within the state in which they are located. Each VAAC has its unique set of tools and procedures on how the data will be captured, displayed, analyzed and turned into a suite of products. The end products (e.g. Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAA) and Volcanic Ash Graphic (VAG)) are standardized through the International Civil Aviation Organization's International Airways Volcano Watch Operations Group (ICAO IAVWOPSG). Improvements in methods of collaboration between the VAACs are needed to allow for a seamless global harmonization of volcanic ash products. A geospatially enabled tool would allow for a common operating platform, data sharing, and situational awareness. The North American VAACs have been testing a capability to provide this environment to make forecast collaboration simple across the globe. This presentation highlights work that has been done to demonstrate this capability.

  20. U-series disequilibria of trachyandesites from minor volcanic centers in the Central Andes (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Sørensen, Erik V.; Holm, Paul M.; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Lundstrom, Craig C.


    Young trachyandesite lavas from minor volcanic centers in the Central Andes record the magma differentiation processes at the base of the lower continental crust. Here we report U-series disequilibrium data for the historical lavas from the Andagua Valley in Southern Peru to define the time-scale and processes of magmatism from melting in the mantle wedge to differentiation in the crust. The Andagua lavas show (230Th)/(238U), (231Pa)/(235U), and (226Ra)/(230Th) above unity except for one more evolved lava with 230Th depletion likely owing to fractional crystallization of accessory minerals. The 226Ra excess indicates that the time elapsed since magma emplacement and differentiation in the deep crust is within 8000 years. Based on the correlations of U-series disequilibria with SiO2 content and ratios of incompatible elements, we argue that the Andagua lavas were produced by mixing of fresh mantle-derived magma with felsic melt of earlier emplaced basalts in the deep crust. Because of the lack of sediment in the Chile-Peru trench, there is no direct link of recycled slabs with 230Th and 231Pa excesses in the Andagua lavas. Instead, 230Th and 231Pa excesses are better explained by in-growth melting in the upper mantle followed by magma differentiation in the crust. Such processes also produced the 226Ra excess and the positive correlations among (226Ra)/(230Th), Sr/Th, and Ba/Th in the Andagua lavas. The time-scale of mantle wedge melting should be close to the half-life of 231Pa (ca. 33 ka), while it takes less than a few thousand years for magma differentiation to form intermediate volcanic rocks at a convergent margin.

  1. To Determine Some Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Social Hand Washing of Individuals who Apply to a Primary Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan


    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine some knowledge and attitudes related to the social hand washing of individuals who apply to a health center and to examine the relationships with some socio-demographic characteristic. METHODS: The universe of this epidemiological descriptive study was applicants (over 18 years old of a primary health center in five business days. A questionnaire, which was prepared by the researchers, was applied to the applicants who agree to participate in the survey with face to face interview method. The mean scores of the knowledge and positive attitude of participants were calculated and the percentage distribution, t-test and One Way Anova were used in analysis. RESULTS: 77.9% of participants in research were female, 31.0% were primary school graduate and 75.5% were married. Of the participants, 41.5% were washing hands 11 times and over in a day. The mean scores of the knowledge and positive attitudes of participants were 61.6±21.4 and 61.9±13.4, respectively. The mean knowledge and positive attitudes scores were significantly different increases with education (p=0.002, p=0.013 respectively. The mean scores of positive attitudes of females were higher than males and difference is statistically significant (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, it can be said that the knowledge and positive attitudes about hand washing influenced by socio-demographic characteristics. It can be concluded that the most appropriate solution for improving knowledge and positive attitudes about hand washing is to increase the level of education. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 207-216

  2. Storage of Explosive versus Effusive Rhyolite Magma at the Yellowstone Volcanic Center (United States)

    Gardner, J. E.


    The Yellowstone volcanic center has erupted more than 900 km3 of rhyolitic magma in the last 600,000 years (1). Most of that magma extruded as large lava flows, with only a few known explosive eruptions. Why have explosive eruptions been so rare in the recent history of the Yellowstone volcanic system? To explore that question, we focus on the Tuff of Bluff Point (TBP), about 50 km3 of magma that explosively erupted 173 ka, forming the West Thumb caldera (1). Like most other recent eruptions of Yellowstone, TBP is high silica rhyolite, with phenocrysts of quartz, sanidine, and minor ferro-pyroxenes and Fe-Ti oxides. Fe-Ti oxide and pyroxene compositions indicate that the magma had equilibrated at an oxygen fugacity equal to the QFM buffer. Rehomogenized glass inclusions (n=7) in quartz contain 2.2-3.1 wt.% water and between 400-650 ppm CO2. Those volatile contents indicate storage pressures of 90-160 MPa. Ubiquitous pyrrhotite shows that the magma was sulfur saturated, and most likely volatile saturated. The co-existing fluid would be only 42-47% water. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images of quartz phenocrysts reveal mainly concentric growth zones, with occasional dissolution boundaries present. Ti contents in quartz generally decrease from core to rim, indicating cooling of the magma, although the relative temperature changes recorded are only 10-15°, with only minor changes across dissolution boundaries. To put our observations in perspective of the recent Yellowstone magma system, we have begun examining some of the recent rhyolitic lavas, including the Pitchstone Plateau (PP), a single homogeneous lava flow of 70 km3 that erupted 79 ka (1). CL images also reveal mainly concentric quartz growth, with few dissolution boundaries obvious. Ti contents in quartz also generally decrease from core to rim, but are uniformly lower than in those in TBP, suggesting that PP magma was colder than TBP magma. Glass inclusions (n=20) in PP are generally water poor and rarely

  3. Ore-bearing hydrothermal metasomatic processes in the Elbrus volcanic center, the northern Caucasus, Russia (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Dokuchaev, A. Ya.; Gazeev, V. M.; Abramov, S. S.; Groznova, E. O.; Shevchenko, A. V.


    Precaldera, caldera, and postcaldera cycles are recognized in the geological evolution of the Pleistocene-Holocene Elbrus volcanic center (EVC). During the caldera cycle, the magmatic activity was not intense, whereas hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of rocks was vigorous and extensive. The Kyukyurtli and Irik ore-magmatic systems have been revealed in the EVC, with the former being regarded as the more promising one. The ore mineralization in rocks of the caldera cycle comprises occurrences of magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite (including Ni-Co varieties), arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, millerite, galena, and finely dispersed particles of native copper. Pyrite and pyrrhotite from volcanics of the caldera cycle and dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion are similar in composition and differ from these minerals of the postcaldera cycle, where pyrite and pyrrhotite are often enriched in Cu, Co, and Ni and millerite is noted as well. The composition of ore minerals indicates that the hydrothermal metasomatic alteration related to the evolution of the Kyukyurtli hydrothermal system was superimposed on rocks of the caldera cycle, whereas the late mineralization in rocks of the postcaldera cycle developed autonomously. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in quartz and carbonate from crosscutting veinlets in the apical portion of the Kyukyurtli extrusion is 140-170°C and in quartz from geyserite, 120-150°C. The temperature of formation of the chalcopyrite-pyrite-pyrrhotite assemblage calculated using mineral geothermometers is 156 and 275°C in dacite from the middle and lower portions of the Malka lava flow and 190°C in dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion. The hydrothermal solutions that participated in metasomatic alteration of rocks pertaining to the Kyukyurtli ore-magmatic system (KOMS) and formed both secondary quartzite and geyserite were enriched in fluorine, as evidenced from the occurrence of F-bearing minerals-zharchikhite, ralstonite,

  4. Formation stages and ore matter sources of the Devdoraki copper deposit, Kazbek volcanic center, the Greater Caucasus (United States)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Chugaev, A. V.; Vashakidze, G. T.; Parfenov, A. V.


    Comprehensive petrological-mineralogical, geochronological, and isotope-geochemical studies have been carried out at the Devdoraki copper deposit situated in the Kazbek neovolcanic center, the frontier territory between Georgia and Russia. The formation history of this deposit has been deciphered on the basis of K-Ar isotopic geochronological data, and the multistage evolution of ore-magmatic system has been established. The subeconomic disseminated and less abundant stringer pyrite mineralization formed at the first stage in the Early Cretaceous back to 130-120 Ma at the retrograde stage of regional metamorphism. The second productive stage was related to intense Quaternary volcanism of the Kazbek center. The late stringer base-metal mineralization formed about 400 ka ago in connection with the activity of minor volcanoes in the eastern part of deposit. In its western part adjoining the Kazbek volcanic cone, ore formation apparently continued over the entire period of recent magmatic activity from 400 to 100 ka ago. It is quite probable that this process is currently proceeding at deep levels of the Devdoraki deposit. Pb-Pb isotope-geochemical data show that Jurassic metasedimentary rocks that host sulfide mineralization could have been a main source of matter for early pyrite. At the second stage of base-metal mineralization formation, the source of ore matter was earlier metamorphic pyrite combined with hydrothermal solutions related to Quaternary endogenic activity within the Kazbek volcanic center. Gangue mineral matter (quartz, carbonates) was supplied simultaneously from the postmagmatic hydrothermal solution and host shale.

  5. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  6. Paleocene on-spreading-axis hotspot volcanism along the Ninetyeast Ridge: An interaction between the Kerguelen hotspot and the Wharton spreading center

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Gopala Rao, D.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; Chaubey, A.K.; Shcherbakov, V.S.; Pilipenko, A.I.; Murthy, I.V.R.

    Investigations of three plausible tectonic settings of the Kerguelen hotspot relative to the Wharton spreading center evoke the on-spreading-axis hotspot volcanism of Paleocene (60-54 Ma) age along the Ninetyeast Ridge. The hypothesis is consistent...

  7. Recycling, Remobilization, and Eruption of Crystals from the Lassen Volcanic Center (United States)

    Schrecengost, K.; Cooper, K. M.; Kent, A. J.; Huber, C.; Clynne, M. A.


    The Lassen Volcanic Center recently produced two relatively small dacitic eruptions (0.03 km3 -1.4 km3) with a complex mixing history. Preliminary data for the 1915 Lassen Peak (LP) and the 1103±13 ybp Chaos Crags (CC) eruptions indicate complex mixing between a remobilized crystal mush (hornblende, biotite, sodic plagioclase, quartz) and basalt or basaltic andesite. U-series bulk ages represent crystallization of plagioclase at an average age of either a single event or a mixture of different plagioclase populations that crystallized during distinct crystallization events separated in time. We present 238U-230Th disequilibria for the LP light dacite and black dacite along with three stages (upper pyroclastic flow deposit, Dome B, and Dome F) of the CC eruption. Initial 230Th/232Th activity ratios for the LP plagioclase are higher than the LP host liquid and modeled equilibrium zero-age plagioclase towards the CC host liquid composition. The LP plagioclase data are inconsistent with crystallization from the LP host liquid. Therefore, at least a portion of the plagioclase carried by the LP eruptive products are antecrystic originating from an older and/or isotopically distinct host liquid composition. Moreover, LP bulk plagioclase is consistent with crystallization from the CC host liquid, suggesting that both eruptions are sourced from a similar host reservoir (i.e., crystal mush). Hornblende and biotite from the LP eruption have isotopic ratios that are consistent with zero age crystallization from the LP liquid composition, suggesting that they are younger and originate from a different magma than the plagioclase, with mixing between the magmas prior to eruption. However, it is more likely that hornblende, biotite, and plagioclase with varying average crystal ages were remobilized and erupted from a common crystal mush reservoir during the LP and CC eruptions. These data are consistent with zircon 238U-230Th model ages [1] that emphasize the importance of local

  8. Response of Hydrothermal System to Stress Transients at Lassen Volcanic Center, California inferred from Seismic Interferometry with Ambient Noise (United States)

    Taira, T.; Brenguier, F.


    Time-lapse monitoring of seismic velocity at volcanic areas can provide unique insight into the property of hydrothermal and magmatic fluids and their temporal variability. We established a quasi real-time velocity monitoring system by using seismic interferometry with ambient noise to explore the temporal evolution of velocity in the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California. Our monitoring system finds temporal variability of seismic velocity in response to stress changes imparted by an earthquake and by seasonal environmental changes. Dynamic stress changes from a magnitude 5.7 local earthquake induced a 0.1% velocity reduction at a depth of about 1 km. The seismic velocity susceptibility defined as ratio of seismic velocity change to dynamic stress change is estimated to be about 0.006 MPa-1, which suggests the Lassen hydrothermal system is marked by high-pressurized hydrothermal fluid. By combining geodetic measurements, our observation shows that the long-term seismic velocity fluctuation closely tracks snow-induced vertical deformation without time delay, which is most consistent with an hydrologic load model (either elastic or poroelastic response) in which surface loading drives hydrothermal fluid diffusion that leads to an increase of opening of cracks and subsequently reductions of seismic velocity. We infer that heated-hydrothermal fluid in a vapor-dominated zone at a depth of 2-4 km range is responsible for the long-term variation in seismic velocity.

  9. Geothermal Potential of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs, with Ranking of Individual Volcanic Centers for their Potential to Host Electricity-Grade Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)


    This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.

  10. Volcanic successions in Marquesas eruptive centers: A departure from the Hawaiian model (United States)

    Guillou, Hervé; Maury, René C.; Guille, Gérard; Chauvel, Catherine; Rossi, Philippe; Pallares, Carlos; Legendre, Christelle; Blais, Sylvain; Liorzou, Céline; Deroussi, Sébastien


    The temporal evolution and geochemical evolution of Marquesas hotspot volcanoes have often been interpreted with reference to the Hawaiian model, where a tholeiitic shield-building stage is followed by an alkali basaltic post-shield stage, followed after a 0.4 to 2.5 Myr long quiescence period, by a rejuvenated basanitic/nephelinitic stage. Here we discuss geochemical data on 110 Marquesas lavas also dated using the unspiked 40K-40Ar method on separated groundmass (including 45 new ages measured on the southern islands of Hiva Oa, Motane, Tahuata and Fatu Hiva). Sample locations were positioned on detailed geological maps to determine their shield or post-shield position with respect to the caldera collapse event(s), without taking into account their geochemical features. A rather regular decrease of the ages towards SE, consistent with the Pacific plate motion, is observed from Eiao (5.52 Ma) to Fatu Hiva (1.11 Ma), and rejuvenated basanitic volcanism occurs only in Ua Huka (1.15-0.76 Ma). The occurrence of intermediate and evolved lavas is restricted to the post-caldera stage, with the exception of Eiao island. However, many other features of the Marquesas chain are rather atypical with respect to those of Hawaii. Although Marquesas shields are tholeiitic, several of them (Eiao, Tahuata) contain interbedded alkali basaltic and basanitic flows. Moreover, post-shield volcanoes are either alkali basalts (Ua Huka), tholeiites (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Fatu Hiva) or both (Nuku Hiva). This feature is consistent with the temporal continuity of the two stages and the usually short length of the post-shield period (< 0.2 Myr). In a given island, the trace element and isotopic compositions of shield and post-shield lavas overlap, although both display large variations. The sources of alkali basalts and basanites are more enriched than those of the contemporaneous tholeiites. These specific features support the hypothesis of an extremely heterogeneous Marquesas plume. The

  11. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.


    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  12. Lahar hazard zones for eruption-generated lahars in the Lassen Volcanic Center, California (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Clynne, Michael A.


    lahar generation, we assume that the maximum historical water equivalent, 3.90 m, covers the entire basin area inside the H/L cone. The product of planimetric area of each basin inside the H/L and the maximum historical water equivalent yields the maximum water volume available to generate a lahar. We then double the water volumes to approximate maximum lahar volumes. The maximum lahar volumes and an understanding of the statistical uncertainties inherent to the LAHARZ calculations guided our selection of six hypothetical volumes, 1, 3, 10, 30, 60, and 90x106 m3, to delineate concentric lahar inundation zones. The lahar inundation zones extend, in general, tens of kilometers away from Lassen Peak. The small, more-frequent lahar inundation zones (1 and 3x106 m3) are, on average, 10 km long. The exceptions are the zones in Warner Creek and Mill Creek, which extend much further. All but one of the small, more-frequent lahar inundation zones reach outside of the Lassen Volcanic National Park boundary, and the zone in Mill Creek extends well past the park boundary. All of the medium, moderately frequent lahar inundation zones (10 and 30x106 m3) extend past the park boundary and could potentially impact the communities of Viola and Old Station and State Highways 36 and 44, both north and west of Lassen Peak. The approximately 27-km-long on average, large, less-frequent lahar inundation zones (60 and 90x106 m3) represent worst-case lahar scenarios that are unlikely to occur. Flood hazards continue downstream from the toes of the lahars, potentially affecting communities in the Sacramento River Valley.

  13. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's (United States)

    ... role in protecting your health. References Wash your hands. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... antibacterial soaps: Effective or just risky? Clinical Infectious Diseases. ... S, et al. Safety of alcohol hand gel use among children and personnel at a ...

  14. Origin of Volcanic Seamounts Offshore California Related to Interaction of Abandoned Spreading Centers with the Continental Margin (United States)

    Davis, A. S.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Cousens, B. L.; Huard, J.


    The numerous NE-SW trending volcanic seamounts at the continental margin offshore central to Southern California owe their existence to the complex tectonics that resulted when small spreading ridge segments intersected and partly subducted beneath the continental margin during the Miocene plate reorganization. A limited number of dredged samples had indicated multiple episodes of coeval, alkalic volcanism at geographically widely separated sites (Davis et al., 2002, GSA Bull. 114, 316-333). 450 new samples were collected from 8 seamounts from 37. 5°N to 32.3°N with MBARI's ROV Tiburon. Ar-Ar ages for 50 of these samples extend the ages of volcanism from 18 Ma to 2.8 Ma. The dominant whole rock compositions are differentiated alkalic basalt, hawaiite, and mugearite, but include minor benmoreite, trachyte, and rare tholeiitic basalt. This entire range of compositions is also present in glassy margins or in volcaniclastic breccias, except for the trachyte, which had no glassy margins. Trace element abundances and ratios (e.g. REE, Zr, Nb, Ta, Th, Ba, etc.) are typical for ocean island basalt, whether the seamount is located on the Pacific plate (e.g. Pioneer, Gumdrop, Guide, Davidson, San Juan, San Marcos) or on the continental slope (Rodriguez) or within the Southern Continental Borderland (Northeast Bank). Nine samples, predominantly from Rodriguez Seamount, show a calc-alkaline trend with lower Nb, Ta, and higher Th. These samples may be erratics (Paduan et al., 2007, Marine Geology, in press). Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions plot within the Pacific N-MORB field for the northern seamounts (Pioneer, Gumdrop, Guide) but suggest progressively more radiogenic sources southward. There is considerable scatter at each site, especially with regard to 87Sr/86Sr, despite severe acid-leaching of the samples. Isotopic and trace element compositions indicate sources that are heterogeneous at a small scale. Chondrite-normalized Ce/Yb suggest smaller degree of melting and

  15. Signs of Recent Volcanism and Hydrothermal Activity Along the Eastern Segment of the Galapagos Spreading Center (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Smart, C.; Mayer, L. A.; Ballard, R. D.; Fisher, C. R.; Marsh, L.; Shank, T. M.


    Since the initial discovery of the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) vents in 1977, large-scale disturbances resulting from eruptive and tectonic activity have both destroyed and created vent habitats along the GSC. In 2015, the E/V Nautilus returned to the GSC with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to explore 17 kilometers of the rift valley from the Rosebud site in the west, to a previously unexplored temperature anomaly east of the Tempus Fugit vent site. In the years to over a decade since scientists last visited the Rosebud, Rose Garden, and Tempus Fugit sites, there were many changes. Most notably, the Rosebud site, where scientists found a nascent vent community and left site markers in 2002, was apparently covered with glassy basaltic sheet flows. In addition to visual exploration, oceanographic sensor measurements and direct sampling, we used the ROV Hercules imaging suite, comprised of stereo cameras and a structured light laser sensor to map an area of diffuse flow in the Tempus Fugit field (100 m x 150 m). The centimeter-level photographic and bathymetric maps created with this system, along with ROV HD video, samples, and environmental sensors, documented hydrothermal activity and changes in biological community structure (e.g., Riftia tubeworms observed in nascent stages of community development in 2011 were now, in 2015, in greater abundance (with tubes almost 4 m in length). The detection of active venting and associated faunal assemblages will provide insight into the temporal and spatial variability of venting activity at the Tempus Fugit site. On a visual survey of the Rift east of the Tempus Fugit site, extinct sulfide chimney structures were discovered and sampled. There were several chimneys and sulfide deposits in a span of over 8 km that ranged in height from over a half meter to 1.5 m tall. Diffuse flow hosting white and blue bacterial mats was observed near the chimneys complexes. The base of a large chimney structure, venting white fluids

  16. Localized rejuvenation of a crystal mush recorded in zircon temporal and compositional variation at the Lassen Volcanic Center, northern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W Klemetti

    Full Text Available Zircon ages and trace element compositions from recent silicic eruptions in the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC allow for an evaluation of the timing and conditions of rejuvenation (reheating and mobilization of crystals within the LVC magmatic system. The LVC is the southernmost active Cascade volcano and, prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, was the site of the only eruption in the Cascade arc during the last century. The three most recent silicic eruptions from the LVC were very small to moderate-sized lava flows and domes of dacite (1915 and 27 ka eruptions of Lassen Peak and rhyodacite (1.1 ka eruption of Chaos Crags. These eruptions produced mixed and mingled lavas that contain a diverse crystal cargo, including zircon. 238U-230Th model ages from interior and surface analyses of zircon reveal ages from ∼17 ka to secular equilibrium (>350 ka, with most zircon crystallizing during a period between ∼60-200 ka. These data support a model for localized rejuvenation of crystal mush beneath the LVC. This crystal mush evidently is the remnant of magmatism that ended ∼190 ka. Most zircon are thought to have been captured from "cold storage" in the crystal mush (670-725°C, Hf >10,000 ppm, Eu/Eu* 0.25-0.4 locally remobilized by intrusion of mafic magma. A smaller population of zircon (>730°C, Hf 0.4 grew in, and are captured from, rejuvenation zones. These data suggest the dominant method to produce eruptible melt within the LVC is small-scale, local rejuvenation of the crystal mush accompanied by magma mixing and mingling. Based on zircon stability, the time required to heat, erupt and then cool to background conditions is relatively short, lasting a maximum of 10 s-1000 s years. Rejuvenation events in the LVC are ephemeral and permit eruption within an otherwise waning and cooling magmatic body.

  17. Localized rejuvenation of a crystallizing pluton recorded in zircon from the Lassen Volcanic Center, southern Cascade Range, California (United States)

    Klemetti, E. W.; Clynne, M. A.; Ring, M.; Bertolett, E. M.


    The Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC) in northern California produced the only eruption in the Cascades other than Mount St. Helens over the past century with its activity in 1914-17. The LVC dates back to ~825 ka and has produced ~215 km3 of dominantly andesite to rhyodacite (with minor basaltic andesite and rhyolite) lava and tephra over that period with activity since 90 ka divided into the Twin Lakes (~90 to 0.01 ka) and Eagle Peak sequences (~66 to 1.1 ka). The Twin Lakes sequences has a higher proportion of basaltic input relative to the Eagle Peak sequence, however both sequence show extensive evidence of magma mixing and mingling. Examining the age spectra and composition of zircon from representative eruptions in the LVC can illuminate the petrologic conditions of the underlying magmatic system. We collected (via SHRIMP-RG) the first 238U-230Th model ages and trace-element compositions of zircon from one Twin Lakes sequence eruption (1915 dacite of Lassen Peak) and three Eagle Peak sequence eruptions (the rhyodacite of Chaos Crags, the 27 ka dacite of Lassen Peak and the 66 ka rhyodacite of Eagle Peak). Zircon age spectra from the rhyodacite of Chaos Crags and 1915 and 27 ka dacites of Lassen Peak (62 zircon analyses) are similar, with a range of 25 ka to secular equilibrium (~350 ka) with no crystals within error of their host eruption age. The dominant period of zircon crystallization falls between 190-90 ka. This is a period of volcanic quiescence in the LVC and this zircon bloom represents the crystallization of a proto-pluton following the end of the Bumpass Sequence (350-193 ka). Surface analyses of zircons from the analyzed eruptions range from 25 ka to 74 ka; none of which is within error of the eruption age of the host lava. This suggests that zircon crystallization effectively ended at ~25-30 ka. The host lavas, when erupted, were zircon undersaturated, so zircon preservation is likely due to inclusion in other phases. Overall, the zircon from these

  18. Volatiles in Olivine Hosted Melt Inclusions from Small Eruptive Centers of the Central Southern Volcanic Zone (CSVZ), Chile (United States)

    Wacaster, S.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Wallace, P.


    This study is a geochemical analysis of basaltic scoria cones of the CSVZ, where bulk rock analyses have revealed two predominant lava types. We consider the relationship of cones to nearby stratovolcanos and the proximity of both to the Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone to understand how primitive melts with wide ranging compositions are generated. We characterize melt inclusions to see if they show similar trends as bulk rocks and to evaluate degassing of melts during ascent and crystallization. We report new CO2, H2O, F, S, and Cl data collected by SIMS and FTIR. Type 1 and Type 2 lavas have been identified in prior studies. Type 1 rocks have significant 238U/232Th excesses and higher abundances of fluid mobile elements. Type 2 lavas and scorias have higher LREE/HREE ratios, lower abundances of fluid mobile elements, lower 87Sr/86Sr and U- series isotopes near secular equilibrium. Type 1, usually associated with composite volcanic centers, erupt at one cone in our field area, while Type 2 is found only at other individual cones aligned with the LOFZ. We characterize olivine-hosted melt inclusions with emphasis on volatile element analyses to test the hypotheses of flux melting beneath Type 1 centers versus a lesser extent of decompression melting beneath Type 2 centers. Melt inclusions show the following overall ranges of volatiles: CO2: below detection-1208 ppm; H2O(Total): 0.11-3.9 wt percent: F: 52-1442 ppm; S: 34-2884 ppm, and Cl: 177-1606 ppm. Inclusions from lavas are generally more degassed when compared to those from scoria for CO2 and H2O. Some Cl and F values are lower in inclusions from lavas, but not all. Sulfur is variably degassed in melt inclusions from both lavas and scoria. Melt inclusions from Type 2 Caburgua scoria show evidence for variable degassing and crystallization pressures. One subset of the inclusions were trapped at low pressures (P CO2 CO2 (1.5-4.0 wt % and 300-800 ppm and all under 1100 bars). Type I San Jorge melt inclusions also show

  19. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.


    Tumescence at the Three Sisters volcanic center began sometime between summer 1996 and summer 1998 and was discovered in April 2001 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Swelling is centered about 5 km west of the summit of South Sister, a composite basaltic-andesite to rhyolite volcano that last erupted between 2200 and 2000 yr ago, and it affects an area ˜20 km in diameter within the Three Sisters Wilderness. Yearly InSAR observations show that the average maximum displacement rate was 3-5 cm/yr through summer 2001, and the velocity of a continuous GPS station within the deforming area was essentially constant from June 2001 to June 2004. The background level of seismic activity has been low, suggesting that temperatures in the source region are high enough or the strain rate has been low enough to favor plastic deformation over brittle failure. A swarm of about 300 small earthquakes ( Mmax = 1.9) in the northeast quadrant of the deforming area on March 23-26, 2004, was the first notable seismicity in the area for at least two decades. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established tilt-leveling and EDM networks at South Sister in 1985-1986, resurveyed them in 2001, the latter with GPS, and extended them to cover more of the deforming area. The 2001 tilt-leveling results are consistent with the inference drawn from InSAR that the current deformation episode did not start before 1996, i.e., the amount of deformation during 1995-2001 from InSAR fully accounts for the net tilt at South Sister during 1985-2001 from tilt-leveling. Subsequent InSAR, GPS, and leveling observations constrain the source location, geometry, and inflation rate as a function of time. A best-fit source model derived from simultaneous inversion of all three datasets is a dipping sill located 6.5 ± 2.5 km below the surface with a volume increase of 5.0 × 10 6 ± 1.5 × 10 6 m 3/yr (95% confidence limits). The most likely cause of tumescence is a pulse of basaltic magma

  20. Petrological insights on the effusive-explosive transitions of the Nisyros-Yali Volcanic Center, South Aegean Sea (United States)

    Popa, Razvan-Gabriel; Bachmann, Olivier; Ellis, Ben; Degruyter, Wim; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos


    Volcanoes erupting silicic, volatile-rich magmas can exhibit both effusive and explosive eruptions, even during closely spaced eruptive episodes. Understanding the effusive-explosive transition is fundamental in order to assess the hazards involved. Magma properties strongly influence the processes during magma ascent that determine the eruptive style. Here, we investigate the link between changing conditions in the magma reservoir and the eruptive style. The Quaternary Nisyros-Yali volcanic center, from the South Aegean Sea, provides an excellent natural laboratory to study this process. Over the last 60-100 kyrs, it produced a series of dacitic to rhyolitic eruptions that emplaced alternating effusive and explosive deposits (with explosive eruptions likely shortly following effusive ones). For this study, nine fresh and well-preserved units (five effusive and four explosive) were sampled and analyzed for whole-rock, groundmass glass and mineral compositions, in order to draw insights into the magma chamber processes and thermodynamic conditions that preceded both types of eruptions. Silicic magmas in Nisyros-Yali record a complex, open-system evolution, dominated by fractionation in mushy reservoirs at mid to upper crustal depths, frequently recharged by warmer input from below. Storage temperatures recorded by the amphibole-plagioclase thermometer span a wide range, and they are always cooler than the pre-eruptive temperatures yielded by Fe-Ti oxide thermometry for the same unit, whether it is effusive or explosive. However, magmas feeding effusive eruptions typically reached cooler conditions (expressed by the presence of low-Al, low-Ti amphiboles) than in the explosive cases. The difference between the pre-eruptive and the lowest storing temperatures in the Nisyros series are in the order of 10-30°C for explosive units, while the difference is of about 40-110°C for the effusive units. The Yali series does not perfectly fit this pattern, where explosive units

  1. Rhyolite genesis at the Picabo Volcanic Center of the Snake River Plain: Progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites revealed by high resolution analysis of individual zircons (United States)

    Drew, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Watts, K. E.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCurry, M. O.


    The Picabo eruptive center of the Snake River Plain (SRP) produced a series of normal and low δ18O rhyolites from 10.44 Ma to 6.62 Ma, providing the first evidence of progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites during the formation of a caldera complex. In this study we present a characterization of ignimbrites and associated lavas based on U-Pb ages and δ18O compositions of individual zircon cores measured by ion microprobe, phenocryst δ18O values measured by laser fluorination, whole rock 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd compositions, and whole rock geochemistry. Our data define rhyolite genesis at the Picabo volcanic center through time and have implications for the transition between volcanic centers. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44 ± 0.27 Ma Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned unit with a normal δ18Omelt value (8.15‰), very high 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.734430) and very low ɛNd (-18). Eruptions continued with the ~9.1 Ma Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite (Kellogg et al., 1988), a unit significant in that it has an even lower ɛNd than the TAV and a normal δ18Omelt value (8.10‰). This low ɛNd of -23, of the Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite, reveals that greater than 40% of Archean crust was assimilated. These normal δ18O eruptions were followed by a series of lower δ18O eruptions distinguishable by Sr and Nd isotopes and whole rock chemistry. The 8.25 ± 0.26 Ma Rhyolite of West Pocatello has the lowest δ18Omelt value (3.34‰) of these eruptions, and based on nearly identical age, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, and whole rock chemistry, we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff (present in the INEL drillcore). Along with a distinct decrease in δ18O, from the TAV to the Rhyolite of West Pocatello, there is a corresponding increase in δ18Ozircon heterogeneity from the TAV (1‰ variation) to the low δ18O units with the greatest δ18Ozircon diversity (up to 5‰). Although morphological evidence for

  2. High-Resolution Studies of Oceanic Spreading Center Volcanic and Hydrothermal Features and Processes - New Insights from Ridge 2000 Program Experiments (United States)

    Fornari, D. J.


    During the past 60 years of research on mid-ocean ridges (MORs) we have exponentially increased our understandings one of the planet's most fundamental features and the myriad processes associated with the transfer of energy from the mantle to the hydrosphere that is focused along accretionary plate boundaries. The past decade's research, implemented by a broad community of scientists in numerous disciplines has yielded a watershed of information that has helped to make both temporal and spatial connections between processes that store and deliver magma to the crust and seafloor, and the consequent hydrothermal and biological phenomena that derive from that energy transfer. Ridge 2000 Program research at each of the three Integrated Study Sites (ISSs) - East Pacific Rise 8-10N, Juan de Fuca - Endeavour Segment, and Eastern Lau Spreading Center - provided an opportunity to coordinate field experiments, laboratory studies and modeling that has lead to new concepts of oceanic spreading center processes. In particular, the latest generation of near-bottom seafloor mapping and sampling systems and a new array of deep submergence vehicles, which include remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), as well more traditional human occupied vehicles (HOVs) like Alvin, have yielded important new views of MOR seafloor. These systems have allowed us to resolve the sub-meter topography of specific volcanic and hydrothermal features and relate them to distributions of hydrothermal communities, chemical variations among hydrothermal chimneys and their fluid effluent, and to axial structures that are surface manifestations of tectonic processes. In situ chemical, biological and microbial studies carried out during the past decade have increasingly shown how tightly linked chemical and biological processes are within MOR hydrothermal communities. Previous hypotheses concerning frequency of magmatism and volcanic eruptions that have related

  3. Hand washing practices in a college town environment. (United States)

    Borchgrevink, Carl P; Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun


    Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease.

  4. Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies, Department of Geoscience annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.I. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies


    This report summarizes our activities during the period October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. Our goal was to develop an understanding of late-Miocene and Pliocene volcanism in the Great Basin by studying Pliocene volcanoes in the vicinity of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Field studies during this period concentrated on the Quaternary volcanoes in Crater Flat, Yucca Mountain, Fortification Hill, at Buckboard Mesa and Sleeping Butte, and in the Reveille Range. Also, a study was initiated on structurally disrupted basaltic rocks in the northern White Hills of Mohave County, Arizona. As well as progress reports of our work in Crater Flat, Fortification Hill and the Reveille Range, this paper also includes a summary of model that relates changing styles of Tertiary extension to changing magmatic compositions, and a summary of work being done in the White Hills, Arizona. In the Appendix, we include copies of published papers not previously incorporated in our monthly reports.

  5. Soil washing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.


    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  6. Volcanic Gas (United States)

    ... often escape continuously into the atmosphere from the soil, volcanic vents , fumaroles , and hydrothermal systems. By far the ... after falling into a snow depression surrounding a volcanic fumarole and filled ... of CO 2 gas in soils can also damage or destroy vegetation, as is ...

  7. What happens at a car wash?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa


    ... "What Happens at a Car Wash?" were Barb Gallick, Pam Morbitzer, and Lisa Lee. During this particular semester, our class consisted of 18 children. The majority of children attended for the full day, 5 days a week. Half of the children had attended the child care center the previous semester and had experienced project work during that time. Eight girls a...

  8. Five million years of compositionally diverse, episodic volcanism: Construction of Davidson Seamount atop an abandoned spreading center (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Duncan, R. A.; Huard, J. J.; Davis, A. S.; Castillo, P. R.; Lonsdale, P.; Devogelaere, A.


    Davidson Seamount, a volcano located about 80 km off the central California coast, has a volume of ˜320 km3 and consists of a series of parallel ridges serrated with steep cones. Davidson was sampled and its morphology observed during 27 ROV Tiburon dives. During those dives, 286 samples of lava, volcaniclastite, and erratics from the continental margin were collected, with additional samples from one ROV-collected push core and four gravity cores. We report glass compositions for 99 samples and 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating age data for 20 of the samples. The glass analyses are of hawaiite (62%), mugearite (13%), alkalic basalt (9%), and tephrite (8%), with minor transitional basalt (2%), benmoreite (2%), and trachyandesite (2%). The lithologies are irregularly distributed in space and time. The volcano erupted onto crust inferred to be 20 Ma from seafloor magnetic anomalies. Ages of the lavas range from 9.8 to 14.8 Ma. The oldest rocks are from the central ridge, and the youngest are from the flanks and southern end of the edifice. The compositions of the 18 reliably dated volcanic cones vary with age such that the oldest lavas are the most fractionated. The melts lost 65% to nearly 95% of their initial S because of bubble loss during vesiculation, and the shallowest samples have S contents similar to lava erupted subaerially in Hawaii. Despite this similarity in S contents, there is scant other evidence to suggest that Davidson was ever an island. The numerous small cones of disparate chemistry and the long eruptive period suggest episodic growth of the volcano over at least 5 Myr and perhaps as long as 10 Myr if it began to grow when the spreading ridge was abandoned.

  9. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's (United States)

    ... for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ... best to wash your hands with soap and water. Follow these steps: Wet your hands with running ...

  10. An emulsion wash fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Yu.G.; Kasyanenko, N.I.; Nedoseko, L.V.; Yablonovskaya, K.M.


    The advantage of making a wash fluid at drill wells far from the clay works from concentrates of pastes delivered there is demonstrated. A formula is cited for the EP-1 emulsion paste, developed in the Dnepropetrovsk section of the Institute of Mineral Resources (IMR), along with its production technology. The low clay emulsion wash liquid, EPZh-1, obtained directly from the drill well from the EP-1 paste, after adding one of the polymers of the acrylic series (hydrolized polyacrylamide, hypan, K-4 and so on) to it is a volume of 1 to 2 percent of the total mass is suitable for use in different geological conditions. Based on the results of broad testing in the geological organizations of the Sevukreologiya and Yuzhukrgeologiya PO, it is established that the EPZh-1 wash fluid promotes an increase in the speed of well passage on the average by 13.7 percent and an increase in the technical drilling speed of 17.3 percent and a reduction in downtime due to the absence of the clearing agent by 53 percent and due to complications by 50 percent. More than 100,000 meters of wells have been drilled using EPZh-1 and a savings of 1.37 rubles per meter drilled has been achieved.

  11. Please wash your hands often


    Moraru, C.


    This poster advises washing hands "before and after using the toilet, handling food, touching animals, eating, drinking, or smoking." It advocates "always use clean water / never wash your hands in used wash water!" The purpose is to protect self and others from diseases. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  12. Responsibility and hand washing behaviour. (United States)

    Taylor, Jasmine; Purdon, Christine


    Recent research suggests that compulsions persist due to a self-perpetuating mechanism of poor memory confidence and repetition. However, most of this work has examined checking compulsions and findings may not generalize well to washing compulsions. This study examined the role of responsibility in the persistence of washing behaviour. Hand washing was examined in undergraduates (n = 80) high and low in contamination fears (CF) under conditions of high or low responsibility (RL). Wash duration and number of visits to objects/locations key to the wash (e.g., soap) were examined. Overvalued responsibility predicted washing duration across groups. Neither wash duration nor number of visits was associated with memory for the wash. Wash duration predicted post-wash certainty that the wash had prevented harm, but only in the high CF group, and that effect varied according to RL: longer wash duration predicted greater certainty under conditions of low RL but predicted less certainty under conditions of high RL. Greater repetition predicted poorer sensory confidence, but only in the high CF group under high RL conditions. The data were collected in an analogue sample of modest size. Replication in a clinical sample is required. Self-perpetuating mechanisms identified in perseverative checking seem to also be present in perseverative washing, but only under conditions of high responsibility. Sensory confidence may be more important to perseverative washing than memory confidence. More research is required to understand self-perpetuating mechanisms at play when washing to under conditions of high responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Little Puerco Wash-Catalpa Canyon Floodplain Management Study (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The City of Gallup requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the McKinley Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Little Puerco Wash...

  14. Continuing inflation at Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR observations (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.


    Uplift of a broad area centered ~6 km west of the summit of South Sister volcano started in September 1997 (onset estimated from model discussed in this paper) and was continuing when surveyed in August 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since August 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since August 2001 with GPS and leveling surveys, and with continuous GPS since May 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR decreased from 3-5 cm/yr during 1998-2001 to ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004-2006. The other datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface uplift and extension rates decreased over time but deformation continued through August 2006. Our best-fit model to the deformation data is a vertical, prolate, spheroidal point-pressure source located 4.9-5.4 km below the surface. The source inflation rate decreased exponentially during 2001-2006 with a 1/ e decay time of 5.3 ± 1.1 years. The net increase in source volume from September 1997 to August 2006 was 36.5-41.9 x 106 m3. A swarm of ~300 small ( M max = 1.9) earthquakes occurred beneath the deforming area in March 2004; no other unusual seismicity has been noted. Similar deformation episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most are small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  15. Temporal and geochemical evolution of Miocene volcanism in the Andean back-arc between 36°S and 38°S and U-series analyses of young volcanic centers in the arc and back-arc, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    of the subducting slab at ca. 20 Ma is inferred. The eruption of 24-20 Ma alkali olivine basalt up to 500 km east of the trench marks the beginning of a long-lasting magmatic episode with widespread volcanism north of the Cortaderas lineament following a regional magmatic hiatus lasting from 39 Ma to 26 Ma...... and showing evidence of a weak, but temporally increasing, arc component in the mantle source were erupted in a contractional regime. The increasing arc-influence in lavas erupted up to 500 km east of the trench indicates a shallowing of the subducting zone. A long period of volcanic quiescence followed......New 40Ar/39Ar, major and trace element, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data for the c. 24-7 Ma volcanic rocks from the Andean back-arc (35°S – 38°S) in the Mendoza and Neuquén (Argentina) regions shed light on the Miocene evolution of the back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone. Incipient shallowing...

  16. Continuing Inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.


    Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South Sister volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  17. Compositional Differences between Felsic Volcanic rocks from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pliocene felsic rift margin and Quaternary rift center volcanic rocks from the northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) exhibit contrasts in major and trace element contents and Sr-Nd isotopic ratios. Quaternary rift center felsic volcanic rocks are mainly peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, whereas Pliocene felsic rift margin volcanic ...

  18. Volcanic gas (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.


    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  19. Are the alteration halos of massive sulfide deposits syngenetic Evidence from U-Pb dating of hydrothermal rutile at the Kidd volcanic center, Abitibi subprovince, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schandl, E.S.; Davis, D.W.; Krogh, T.E. (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))


    The Kidd volcanic complex is composed of felsic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Archean age. Metasomatic events affecting the lithology of the Kidd volcanic complex include silicification, extensive CO{sub 2} metasomatism (carbonate), K-metasomatism (sericite-fuchsite), and chlorite and minor carbonate alterations. Petrographic evidence, supported by stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies, suggests that silicification and early carbonate alteration were synvolcanic, and therefore related to ore deposition. During subsequent extensive K-metasomatism, sericite precipitated in the rhyolite, and fuschsite precipitated in the ultramafic rocks. Although chlorite postdates K-metasomatism, the micas and chlorite are both found in anastomosing microfissures, commonly occupying the same set of fractures. Hydrothermal rutile formed by the breakdown of magnetite-ilmenite during K-metasomatism and chlorite alteration gives an age of 2624 {plus minus} 62 Ma (95% confidence level). It is therefore approximately 100 m.y. younger than syngenetic massive sulfide mineralization (2712 {plus minus} 2 Ma). Sulfide stringers within sericite and chlorite veins suggest some remobilization of the ores during these later events. This alteration assemblage, is identical to that found associated with many lode-gold deposits in the Superior province. Recent dating of micas and rutile associated with gold deposits in the Abitibi subprovince gives comparable ages to the rutile in the Kidd volcanic complex, which must therefore record a widespread, late hydrothermal event affecting mineralized rocks.

  20. Volcanic Catastrophes (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.


    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  1. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders (United States)

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie


    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  2. Are the alteration halos of massive sulfide deposits syngenetic? Evidence from U-Pb dating of hydrothermal rutile at the Kidd volcanic center, Abitibi subprovince, Canada (United States)

    Schandl, E. S.; Davis, D. W.; Krogh, T. E.


    The Kidd volcanic complex is composed of felsic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Archean age. The felsic rocks are intercalated with sedimentary rocks, and are in contact with komatiitic ultramafic rocks. Large diorite plutons were emplaced into the rhyolite, and the complex is overlain by younger basalts. Metasomatic events affecting the lithology of the Kidd volcanic complex include silicification, extensive CO2 metasomatism (carbonate), K-metasomatism (sericite-fuchsite), and chlorite and minor carbonate alterations. Petrographic evidence, supported by stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies, suggests that silicification and early carbonate alteration were synvolcanic, and therefore related to ore deposition. During subsequent extensive K-metasomatism, sericite precipitated in the rhyolite, and fuchsite precipitated in the ultramafic rocks. Although chlorite post-dates K-metasomatism, the micas and chlorite are both found in anastomosing microfissures, commonly occupying the same set of fractures. Hydrothermal rutile formed by the breakdown of magnetiteilmenite during K-metasomatism and chlorite alteration gives an age of 2624 ±62 Ma (95% confidence level) by Pb-Pb isotopic measurements. It is therefore approximately 100 m.y. younger than syngenetic massive sulfide mineralization (2717 ±2 Ma). Sulfide stringers within sericite and chlorite veins suggest some remobilization of the ores during these later events. This alteration assemblage, generally thought to be intimately associated with mineralization, is identical to that found associated with many lode-gold deposits in the Superior province. Recent dating of micas and rutile associated with gold deposits in the Abitibi subprovince gives comparable ages to the rutile in the Kidd volcanic complex, which must therefore record a widespread, late hydrothermal event affecting mineralized rocks.

  3. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  4. H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope geochemistry of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic intrusions, New Mexico, and relations between evolution of a continental magmatic center and modifications of the lithosphere (United States)

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.; Czamanske, G.K.


    Over 200 H, O, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope analyses, in addition to geologic and petrologic constraints, document the magmatic evolution of the 28.5-19 Ma Latir volcanic field and associated intrusive rocks, which includes multiple stages of crustal assimilation, magma mixing, protracted crystallization, and open- and closed-system evolution in the upper crust. In contrast to data from younger volcanic centers in northern New Mexico, relatively low and restricted primary ??18O values (+6.4 to +7.4) rule out assimilation of supracrustal rocks enriched in 18O. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.705 to 0.708), ??18O values (-2 to-7), and 206Pb/204Pb ratios (17.5 to 18.4) of metaluminous precaldera volcanic rocks and postcaldera plutonic rocks suggest that most Latir rocks were generated by fractional crystallization of substantial volumes of mantle-derived basaltic magma that had near-chondritic Nd isotope ratios, accompanied by assimilation of crustal material in two main stages: 1) assimilation of non-radiogenic lower crust, followed by 2) assimilation of middle and upper crust by inter-mediate-composition magmas that had been contaminated during the first stage. Magmatic evolution in the upper crust peaked with eruption of the peralkaline Amalia Tuff (???26 Ma), which evolved from metaluminous parental magmas. A third stage of late, roofward assimilation of Proterozoic rocks in the Amalia Tuff magma is indicated by trends in initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios from 0.7057 to 0.7098 and 19.5 to 18.8, respectively, toward the top of the pre-eruptive magma chamber. Highly evolved postcaldera plutons are generally fine grained and are zoned in initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, varying from 0.705 to 0.709 and 17.8 to 18.6, respectively. In contrast, the coarser-grained Cabresto Lake (???25 Ma) and Rio Hondo (???21 Ma) plutons have relatively homogeneous initial 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of approximately 0.7053 and 17.94 and 17.55, respectively. ??18O values for

  5. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. (United States)

    Ejemot, R I; Ehiri, J E; Meremikwu, M M; Critchley, J A


    Diarrhoea is a common cause of morbidity and a leading cause of death among children aged less than five years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It is transmitted by ingesting contaminated food or drink, by direct person-to-person contact, or from contaminated hands. Hand washing is one of a range of hygiene promotion interventions that can interrupt the transmission of diarrhoea-causing pathogens. To evaluate the effects of interventions to promote hand washing on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. In May 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index, ERIC (1966 to May 2007), SPECTR, Bibliomap, RoRe, The Grey Literature, and reference lists of articles. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Randomized controlled trials, where the unit of randomization is an institution (eg day-care centre), household, or community, that compared interventions to promote hand washing or a hygiene promotion that included hand washing with no intervention to promote hand washing. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Eight trials were institution-based, five were community-based, and one was in a high-risk group (AIDS patients). Interventions promoting hand washing resulted in a 29% reduction in diarrhoea episodes in institutions in high-income countries (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.84; 7 trials) and a 31% reduction in such episodes in communities in low- or middle-income countries (IRR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.87; 5 trials). Hand washing can reduce diarrhoea episodes by about 30%. This significant

  6. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  7. All You Have to Do is Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This CDC Kidtastics podcast teaches children how and when to wash their hands properly.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  8. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stilo


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of  surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from  a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing  demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections

  9. The Martian highland paterae: Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Greeley, Ronald


    The Martian surface exhibits numerous volcanic landforms displaying great diversity in size, age, and morphology. Most research regarding Martian volcanology has centered around effusive basaltic volcanism, including analyses of individual lava flows, extensive lava plains, and large shield volcanoes. These studies were hindered by a lack of definitive morphologic criteria for the remote identification of ash deposits. Knowledge of the abundances, ages, and geologic settings of explosive volcanic deposits on Mars is essential to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of the Martian surface, with implications for the evolution of the lithosphere and atmosphere as well as the histories of specific volcanic centers and provinces.

  10. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities. (United States)

    Lloyd, C R


    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  11. Design of Online Washing Process for an Engine Based on Washing Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yong


    Full Text Available In order to develop online washing process of a carrier-based aircraft engine and improve washing efficiency, washing equipments were employed in cold operation state to carry out experimental study on structural strength of spray frame, selection of nozzle and determination of injection parameters of online washing spray system, determination of washing injection timing, determination of drying procedure, liquid-washing experiments of different concentrations and water-washing experiments and so on. The results show that if engine is washed in cold operation state, mid-nozzle with upward offset angel of 7°30′ can be selected and the feed liquid pressure provided by washing vehicle is 0.9Mpa. The start time is 20s after an engine cold start-up, and sustains 30s for once washing. After a liquid-washing with the use of washing fluid, the liquid concentration of which is no more than 20%, twice water-washing can be carried out to rinse the almost all cleaning agent remaining in the engine runner(the residue is less than 1%. The engine can be thoroughly dried by power-on operation, the procedure of which is engine operating 2min in ideal state, then 2min in state of n2=85% and 2min of ideal state lastly. Washing will not affect the engine function.

  12. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water system...

  13. Postoperative washing of sutured wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Harrison


    Full Text Available A best evidence topic was written according to the structured protocol. The three part question addressed was: [In patients undergoing closure of surgical wounds with sutures] does [keeping the wound dry for the first 48 h after closure] [reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs]? 4 relevant papers were culled from the literature and appraised. The authors, date, country, population, study type, main outcomes, key results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Current NICE guidelines recommend cleaning surgical wounds with sterile saline only for the first 48 h following skin closure. We found no evidence that washing wounds with tap water during this period increases the incidence of SSIs compared to keeping them dry. Further randomised controlled trials will enable the construction of conclusive systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  14. Hand-washing practices of facial plastic surgeons. (United States)

    Leventhal, Douglas D; Lavasani, Leela; Reiter, David


    (1) To define and characterize knowledge of effective hand hygiene and its scientific basis among practicing facial plastic surgeons; (2) to review the existing literature of, basis for, and guidelines on hand washing in clinical practice; and (3) to motivate and facilitate optimum hand hygiene among facial plastic surgeons. National Web-based physician survey and literature review. We conducted a national Web-based survey of members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery regarding general patient safety practices. A subset of the survey assessed physicians' knowledge of hand hygiene, including supporting rationale and actual practices. One hundred and twenty-two facial plastic surgeons of various demographics replied to the online survey. Of these, 65 (53%) correctly knew which hand washing agents are most effective at killing microorganisms, 88 (74%) knew the preferred hand-washing method for visibly soiled hands, and 51 (42%) correctly identified the indications for hand washing. Adherence to hand hygiene practices is suboptimal among facial plastic surgeons. There seems to be a lack of knowledge regarding indications, methods, and appropriate agents for hand hygiene. Promotion of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines is an important step in increasing hand hygiene compliance among facial plastic surgeons.

  15. Silicate volcanism on Io (United States)

    Carr, M. H.


    This paper is mainly concerned with the nature of volcanic eruptions on Io, taking into account questions regarding the presence of silicates or sulfur as principal component. Attention is given to the generation of silicate magma, the viscous dissipation in the melt zone, thermal anomalies at eruption sites, and Ionian volcanism. According to the information available about Io, it appears that its volcanism and hence its surface materials are dominantly silicic. Several percent of volatile materials such as sulfur, but also including sodium- and potassium-rich materials, may also be present. The volatile materials at the surface are continually vaporized and melted as a result of the high rates of silicate volcanism.

  16. Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity. (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Frey, F.A.; Thompson, G.; Rindge, S.


    A wide range of rock types (abyssal tholeiite, Fe-Ti-rich basalt, andesite, and rhyodacite) were dredged from near 95oW and 85oW on the Galapagos spreading center. Computer modeling of major element compositions has shown that these rocks could be derived from common parental magmas by successive degrees of fractional crystallization. However, the P2O5/K2O ratio implies distinct mantle source compositions for the two areas. These source regions also have different rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns. The sequence of fractionated lavas differs for the two areas and indicates earlier fractionation of apatite and titanomagnetite in the lavas from 95oW. The mantle source regions for these two areas are interpreted to be depleted in incompatible (and volatile?) elements, although the source region beneath 95oW is less severely depleted in La and K. -Authors

  17. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.


    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  18. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix...

  19. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  20. Determining a patient's comfort in inquiring about healthcare providers' hand-washing behavior. (United States)

    Clare, Camille A; Afzal, Omara; Knapp, Kenneth; Viola, Deborah


    To determine whether a patient's level of assertiveness and other factors influences her comfort level in asking her provider to wash his or her hands. In this pilot study, we developed a survey to gather cross-sectional information on a variety of factors that might explain patient willingness to ask her health-care provider to wash his or her hands. Three primary predictor variables are analyzed: (1) patient assertiveness; (2) patient familiarity with her healthcare provider; and (3) whether the patient has observed hand-washing behavior. Fifty patients participated from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Metropolitan Hospital Center. Less assertive patients are much less likely than assertive patients to ask physicians to wash hands (25% versus 68%; Fisher's exact test P = 0.0427). Among the 3 assertiveness questions included in the survey, the ability to ask physicians questions during visits is most strongly indicative of willingness to ask about hand washing. Familiarity with the names of regular health-care providers has a statistically significant impact on willingness to ask about hand washing. Evidence suggests that observing hand washing behavior affects willingness to ask, but differences are not statistically significant. Results by socioeconomic status such as age, education, income, and race/ethnicity are inconclusive. A patient's level of assertiveness alone is not sufficient to determine her willingness to inquire about the hand-washing behavior of her provider. A high percentage of patients did not see their provider engaging in adequate hand washing behavior. If patients feel comfortable with their provider to inquire about their care and request hand-washing behavior, health outcomes are affected by reducing the rates of health care-associated infections.

  1. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  2. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet


    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...

  3. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.


    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  4. The pace of arc volcanism (United States)

    Palmer, M. R.; Fraass, A. J.; Hatfield, R. G.; McCanta, M. C.


    Being able to reconstruct the long-term history of activity at an island arc volcanic centre has important implications for a wide variety of geologic processes. On-land records are frequently incomplete and radiometric dating is complicated in many systems. Here, we describe the application of rapid and non-destructive measurements of sediment physical properties (colour reflectance, gamma ray attenuation and magnetic susceptibility) from marine sediments recovered from IODP site U1396 to produce a tephra index (TI). This approach is combined with palaeomagnetic and foram isotope stratigraphy to yield a 4.5 Myr record of volcanic activity in the northern Lesser Antilles. Pb isotope data on visible tephra layers and volcanological models suggest the tephra is predominantly derived from the nearby island of Montserrat. When examined over a range of time-averaged intervals, the TI record shows long term (order 106 year) cycles of relative quiescence and heightened activity. In accordance with the model of Hall & Kincaid (2001, Science, 292, 2472), this record suggests that the long-term pace of volcanic activity in the northern Lesser Antilles is established by diapirs rising from deep within the mantle wedge. The diapirs do not themselves act as the major source of melt, but rather they create a conduit network that facilitates the rapid rise of melt to the surface. Within the order 106 year cycles, there are shorter-term fluctuations (order 104 years) that may reflect cycles of edifice growth and destruction, and/or pulses of melt rising through conduit networks established by the rising diapirs. The U1396 TI record provides the most complete and non-aliased long-term record of activity at an island arc volcanic center yet determined. It thus provides the first field evidence that can be used to test models of the deep mantle processes that control the pace of arc volcanism. Importantly, the approach presented here is readily applicable to other arc and island

  5. Volcanic Rocks and Features (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  6. Languages of volcanic landscapes (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson


    As a young geologist in 1980, I felt a powerful attraction to volcanoes, and I thought I knew volcanoes rather well. I had studied volcanology. I had climbed volcanic peaks in the Cascades. And I had tried to be an attentive citizen of my volcanic region, the Pacific Northwest. But when I had a chance to go with other scientists to Mount St. Helens within days of its...

  7. Bacterial exchange in household washing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eCallewaert


    Full Text Available Household washing machines launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household washing machines. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the washing machine effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin- and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the washing machine. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  8. Chemical washing of contaminated soils and photocatalytic treatments of spent soil washing effluent


    Race, Marco


    This dissertation has been addressed to study the reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils by soil washing, and to investigate the feasibility of photocatalytic processes for the treatment of the spent soil washing solution (SSWS). Indeed, the collected SSWS, containing the extracted metals and chelating agents, represents one of the main drawbacks of the washing technique, as it has to be submitted to further treatments for a complete detoxification before being discharged into the envi...

  9. Quality of red blood cells washed using a second wash sequence on an automated cell processor. (United States)

    Hansen, Adele L; Turner, Tracey R; Kurach, Jayme D R; Acker, Jason P


    Washed red blood cells (RBCs) are indicated for immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient recipients when RBCs from IgA-deficient donors are not available. Canadian Blood Services recently began using the automated ACP 215 cell processor (Haemonetics Corporation) for RBC washing, and its suitability to produce IgA-deficient RBCs was investigated. RBCs produced from whole blood donations by the buffy coat (BC) and whole blood filtration (WBF) methods were washed using the ACP 215 or the COBE 2991 cell processors and IgA and total protein levels were assessed. A double-wash procedure using the ACP 215 was developed, tested, and validated by assessing hemolysis, hematocrit, recovery, and other in vitro quality variables in RBCs stored after washing, with and without irradiation. A single wash using the ACP 215 did not meet Canadian Standards Association recommendations for washing with more than 2 L of solution and could not consistently reduce IgA to levels suitable for IgA-deficient recipients (24/26 BC RBCs and 0/9 WBF RBCs had IgA levels < 0.05 mg/dL). Using a second wash sequence, all BC and WBF units were washed with more than 2 L and had levels of IgA of less than 0.05 mg/dL. During 7 days' postwash storage, with and without irradiation, double-washed RBCs met quality control criteria, except for the failure of one RBC unit for inadequate (69%) postwash recovery. Using the ACP 215, a double-wash procedure for the production of components for IgA-deficient recipients from either BC or WBF RBCs was developed and validated. © 2015 AABB.

  10. Volcanic hazards to airports (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.


    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  11. Volcanism in Eastern Africa (United States)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.


    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  12. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A


    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  13. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by § 133.136...

  14. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  15. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  16. Fit for washing; Human factors and ergonomic evaluations of washing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, N.


    People do the laundry all over the world. About 500 million washing machines are in use at the moment. To reduce the heavy workload, washing machines were invented about 100 years ago. 50 years of innovations led to a reduction in water, energy and detergent consumption and the interface became


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pel

  18. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green


    Full Text Available Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

  19. Development of eco-friendly washing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakidin Hamzah


    Full Text Available A portable, non-electric washing machine powered by human leg identical to cycling is produced in order to fulfil the need of varsity students to wash their clothes in a cheap, eco-friendly and time saving and also to do physical body exercises. A black plastic bin has been used as the main body. At the bottom lies the rotating disk to provide agitation to the water and also cleaning the clothes. Shaft and gears are also been used in the rotating and moving mechanism that is connected to the pedal. This eco-friendly washing machine with an affordable price will benefit the lower income family and also for the college students.

  20. Washing Machine Injuries of the Upper Extremity (United States)

    Suresh, S S


    Washing machines are part of every household and there are various reports of upper extremity injuries due to inadequate safety precautions while operating the machine. Most of the injuries occur when an attempt is made to remove the clothes from the machine and the hand gets caught in the spinning machine. The presentation can vary from minor soft tissue injuries to a mangled upper extremity. The chance of neurovascular damage resulting in compartment syndrome is very high. The author reports three cases of washing machine injuries to draw attention to this not so uncommon injury. The relevant literature is also considered. PMID:21654964

  1. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel


    is to a large extent driven by the desire to realize those losses, either immediately by sharply decreasing the holding of assets carrying unrealized losses, or indirectly by increasing such holdings in order to prepare for a decrease in a future period to earn the tax rebate payment. Our findings are robust......We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  2. Auto-Washing Panty Toilet for Care


    長屋, 幸助; 王, 宇; 小島, 多香子; 福室, 允央


    It is important jobs to change diapers for a bedridden patient. Changing diapers hurts prides of the patient, so that a panty toilet, that can be worn to the patient, is of importance, in which feces and urine are washed automatically. In this study, a new-type automatic washing panty toilet system is presented. The system consists of a rubber made panty toilet with tubes at both thighs and a torso, and the control system. In the panty toilet, air expands the tubes, and water leakage is preve...

  3. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel after the patient contact. Part II. (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szatko, Franciszek


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) state that adequate hand hygiene maintained by medical personnel is an indispensable prerequisite for controlling nosocomial infections. The recommendations of CDC and WHO emphasize the obligation to wash hands after each contact with a patient, after the exposure to a potentially infectious material or upon the contact with objects surrounding the patient. The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff members (nurses and physicians) working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź Province. The procedure of hand washing/disinfection performed directly after the patient contact according to the recommendations of CDC and WHO was observed. The results were subject to statistical analysis (p hand washing were recorded. The medical personnel followed the hand hygiene procedures after the patient contact in 26.4% of the situations that require hygiene according to the guidelines. The level of observance of the hand washing procedures depended significantly on the type of performed activity, profession, degree of workload, index of activity, and time of duty hours. The mean time of hand washing after patient contact was 9.2 s for physicians and 6.7 s for nurses. Both the level of observance of hygienic procedures after the contact with patients as well as the time of hand washing are insufficient. There is an urgent need to work out educational programs on maintaining proper hand hygiene for medical personnel.

  4. Volcanic activity and climatic changes. (United States)

    Bryson, R A; Goodman, B M


    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years to many decades requires broad-scale volcanic activity prediction. Statistical analysis of the volcanic record suggests that some predictability is possible.

  5. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation (United States)

    ,; ,


    International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch. This plan defines agency responsibilities, provides a comprehensive description of an interagency standard for volcanic ash products and their formats, describes the agency backup procedures for operational products, and outlines the actions to be taken by each agency following an occurrence of a volcanic eruption that subsequently affects and impacts aviation services. Since our most recent International Conference on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety, volcanic ash-related product and service activities have grown considerably along with partnerships and alliances throughout the aviation community. In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Centers for Environment Prediction began running the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model in place of the Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport and Dispersion (VAFTAD) model, upgrading support to the volcanic ash advisory community. Today, improvements to the HYSPLIT model are ongoing based on recommendations by the OFCM-sponsored Joint Action Group for the Selection and Evaluation of Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Models and the Joint Action Group for Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Modeling (Research and Development Plan). Two international workshops on volcanic ash have already taken place, noticeable improvements and innovations in education, training, and outreach have been made, and federal and public education and training programs on volcanic ash-related products, services, and procedures iv continue to evolve. For example, in partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and other academic institutions, volcanic ash hazard and mitigation training has been incorporated into aviation meteorology courses. As an essential next step, our volcanic ash-related efforts in the near term will be centered on the development of an interagency implementation plan to

  6. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  7. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee


    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  8. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Washing treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR). (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana


    Worldwide, the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) reaches 50 million units per year. Once the ELV has been processed, it may then be shredded and sorted to recover valuable metals that are recycled in iron and steelmaking processes. The residual fraction, called automotive shredder residue (ASR), represents 25% of the ELV and is usually landfilled. In order to deal with the leachable fraction of ASR that poses a potential threat to the environment, a washing treatment before landfilling was applied. To assess the potential for full-scale application of washing treatment, tests were carried out in different conditions (L/S = 3 and 5L/kgTS; t = 3 and 6 h). Moreover, to understand whether the grain size of waste could affect the washing efficiency, the treatment was applied to ground (<4 mm) and not-ground samples. The findings obtained revealed that, on average, washing treatment achieved removal rates of more than 60% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). With regard to metals and chlorides, sulphates and fluoride leachable fraction, a removal efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained, as confirmed also by EC values. The comparison between the results for ground and not-ground samples did not highlight significant differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van


    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  11. The Boring Volcanic Field of the Portland-Vancouver area, Oregon and Washington: tectonically anomalous forearc volcanism in an urban setting (United States)

    Evarts, Russell C.; Conrey, Richard M.; Fleck, Robert J.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; O'Connor, Jim; Dorsey, Rebecca; Madin, Ian P.


    More than 80 small volcanoes are scattered throughout the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area of northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington. These volcanoes constitute the Boring Volcanic Field, which is centered in the Neogene Portland Basin and merges to the east with coeval volcanic centers of the High Cascade volcanic arc. Although the character of volcanic activity is typical of many monogenetic volcanic fields, its tectonic setting is not, being located in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system well trenchward of the volcanic-arc axis. The history and petrology of this anomalous volcanic field have been elucidated by a comprehensive program of geologic mapping, geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and paleomag-netic studies. Volcanism began at 2.6 Ma with eruption of low-K tholeiite and related lavas in the southern part of the Portland Basin. At 1.6 Ma, following a hiatus of ~0.8 m.y., similar lavas erupted a few kilometers to the north, after which volcanism became widely dispersed, compositionally variable, and more or less continuous, with an average recurrence interval of 15,000 yr. The youngest centers, 50–130 ka, are found in the northern part of the field. Boring centers are generally monogenetic and mafic but a few larger edifices, ranging from basalt to low-SiO2 andesite, were also constructed. Low-K to high-K calc-alkaline compositions similar to those of the nearby volcanic arc dominate the field, but many centers erupted magmas that exhibit little influence of fluids derived from the subducting slab. The timing and compositional characteristics of Boring volcanism suggest a genetic relationship with late Neogene intra-arc rifting.

  12. The behavior of silver nanotextiles during washing. (United States)

    Geranio, L; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B


    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in commercial products, especially textiles, will likely result in an unknown spread of Ag into the environment. The quantification and characterization of the Ag released from nano-Ag-products is an important parameter needed to predict the effect of Ag-NPs on the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and the form of Ag released during washing from nine fabrics with different ways of silver incorporation into or onto the fibers. The effect of pH, surfactants, and oxidizing agents was evaluated. The results show that little dissolution of Ag-NPs occurs under conditions relevant to washing (pH 10) with dissolved concentrations 10 times lower than at pH 7. However, bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid (formed by the perborate/TAED system) can greatly accelerate the dissolution of Ag. The amount and form of Ag released from the fabrics as ionic and particulate Ag depended on the type of Ag-incorporation into the textile. The percentage of the total silver emitted during one washing of the textiles varied considerably among products (from less than 1 to 45%). In the washing machine the majority of the Ag (at least 50% but mostly >75%) was released in the size fraction >450 nm, indicating the dominant role of mechanical stress. A conventional silver textile did not show any significant difference in the size distribution of the released silver compared to many of the textiles containing nano-Ag. These results have important implications for the risk assessment of Ag-textiles and also for environmental fate studies of nano-Ag, because they show that under conditions relevant to washing, primarily coarse Ag-containing particles are released.

  13. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.


    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  14. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.


    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  15. [A nationwide survey on the hand washing behavior and awareness]. (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Sim; Choi, Jun Kil; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Paek, Kyong Ran; In, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ki Dong


    This study was conducted to evaluate the public's awareness of the importance of hand washing and to compare perceptions on the habit of hand washing with actual hand washing behavior. Data were collected by observing 2,800 participants washing their hands after using public restrooms in seven cities nationwide and by surveying 1,000 respondents (age>14 years) through telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire. Although 94% of the survey respondents claimed to mostly or always wash their hands after using public restrooms, only 63.4% of the observed participants did wash their hands after using public restrooms. Significant factors related to increased adherence to hand washing were female gender, approximate ages of 20 to 39 years by their appearance, and the presence of other people from the observation. About 79% of the survey respondents always washed their hands after using bathrooms at home, 73% washed their hands before handling food, and 67% washed their hands upon returning to their home. However, 93.2% and 86.3% of the survey respondents did not wash their hands after coughing or sneezing and after handling money, respectively. Although most of the survey respondents (77.6%) were aware that hand washing is helpful in preventing communicable diseases, 39.6% of the survey respondents did not do so because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands and 30.2% thought that washing their hands is 'annoying'. This is the first comprehensive report on hand washing behavior and awareness of the general population in Korea. The result of this study in terms of individual behavior and awareness of hand washing are comparable with similar studies conducted in other countries. However adherence to hand washing is still low and needs to be increased. The results of this study can be used as a baseline in setting up strategies and activities to promote adherence to hand washing.

  16. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea. (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A


    Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with

  17. Backprojection of volcanic tremor (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.


    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  18. Food worker hand washing practices: an observation study. (United States)

    Green, Laura R; Selman, Carol A; Radke, Vincent; Ripley, Danny; Mack, James C; Reimann, David W; Stigger, Tammi; Motsinger, Michelle; Bushnell, Lisa


    Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n = 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which hand washing is recommended (e.g., food preparation, handling dirty equipment). Data were also recorded on hand washing behaviors that occurred in conjunction with these work activities. Results indicated that workers engaged in approximately 8.6 work activities per hour for which hand washing is recommended. However, workers made hand washing attempts (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, and placed hands in running water) in only 32% of these activities and washed their hands appropriately (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, placed hands in running water, used soap, and dried hands) in only 27% of these work activities. Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates varied by work activity--they were significantly higher in conjunction with food preparation than other work activities (46 versus hand washing; 41 versus hand washing) and were significantly lower in conjunction with touching the body than other work activities (13 versus > or = 27% for attempted hand washing; 10 versus > or = 23% for appropriate hand washing). Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates were significantly lower when gloves were worn (18 and 16%) than when gloves were not worn (37 and 30%). These findings suggest that the hand washing practices of food workers need to be improved, glove use may reduce hand washing, and restaurants should consider reorganizing their food preparation activities to reduce the frequency with which hand washing is needed.

  19. Volcanic eruptions on Io (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Cook, A. F.; Hansen, C.


    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  20. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.


    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  1. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Why Is Hand Washing So Important? KidsHealth > For Parents > Why Is ... es tan importante lavarse las manos? Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Kids don't always listen ...

  2. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  3. Safety assessment of windshield washing Technologies


    Willersinn, Dieter; Manger, Daniel; Erdnüß, Bastian; Baumgärtner, D.; Giraud, F


    We present a new assessment method for driver visibility based on reaction time measurement and workload in real driving situations from the most relevant accident scenario involving pedestrians. The procedure was validated in a balanced trial to compare a wet flatblade windshield washing system to a conventional Fluidic nozzles system. The test cohort comprised 204 subjects who form a representative sample of German driving license holders. The average reaction time gain of wet flatblade ove...

  4. Mite and mite allergen removal during machine washing of laundry. (United States)

    Arlian, Larry G; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Morgan, Marjorie S


    Few studies have investigated live house dust mite and mite allergen removal from clothing and bedding by washing machines. No studies have investigated the transfer of mites from infested to uninfested clothing and bedding during washing. The purpose of this study was to wash different types of clothing and bedding in residential washing machines to determine the live Dermatophagoides farinae mite and allergen removal and the mite transfer from mite-infested items to mite-free items. Clothing and bedding items were machine washed in 6- and 8-lb loads in warm (36 degrees C-38 degrees C) or cold (22 degrees C-27 degrees C) water with and without recommended concentrations of laundry detergent and sodium hypochlorite bleach. Live mites and allergen present in washed versus unwashed and washed mite-infested versus washed mite-free items were compared. Washing clothing and bedding in water alone, detergent, or detergent plus bleach removed 60% to 83% of the live mites. Washing removed more mites from some items than from others. When mite-infested items were washed with identical sets of mite-free items, many live mites were transferred to the previously mite-free items. Overall, 84% of Der f 1 was removed from items washed in water alone or in detergent and 98% from items washed in detergent plus bleach. Washing clothing and bedding in cold or warm water with detergent or detergent plus bleach removed most allergen and a significant (P washing is required to further reduce mite levels. Live mites were transferred from mite-infested to mite-free items during washing.

  5. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines. (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boon, Nico


    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  6. Holocene Volcanic Records in the Siple Dome Ice Cores (United States)

    Zielinski, G. A.; Dunbar, N. W.; Kurbatov, A. V.; Voisin, D. T.


    Using both the SO42- and Cl- time series and tephrochronological analyses, a highly detailed record of Holocene volcanism is being reconstructed from the Siple Dome A ice core. The volcanic glaciochemical record is being developed at a 2-4 year resolution for the last 10,000 years. Volcanic peaks were identified as those having a concentration of 2{σ } above the mean positive residual of the spline fit, as was done for the GISP2 volcanic record. We identified about 70 volcanic events for the mid-late Holocene. The largest sulfate signal (350 ppb) over the time period evaluated occurs at 2242 years ago. Large signals of volcanically enhanced sulfate in the ice core record also occur around 720 years ago (1280 C.E.;194-249 ppb)and 4710 years ago (378ppb). Ages for large equatorial or southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions are synchronous with identified sulfate peaks in the reconstructed volcanic record. However, the continuous scan for volcanic glass in these same samples yielded glass compositions more in-line with Antarctica volcanic zones (i.e., local eruptions). Nevertheless, our record provides important information on the atmospheric impact of volcanism in Antarctica geochemical cycles. The glass (i.e., tephra) found in various samples indicate that volcanoes within the McMurdo Volcanic Center (Victoria Land and the islands off its coast) including Mt. Melbourne, The Pleaides and Buckle Island appear to be the most active in Antarctica during the late Holocene. Rhyolitic shards of a composition not found in Antarctica also are present in some layers, although they are not overly abundant. The presence of dust with a Patagonian origin in East Antarctica ice cores as well as the nature of the Antarctica vortex indicate that material from this part of the southern hemisphere can reach various parts of Antarctica. Common circulation patterns around the Ross and Amundson Seas as well as the satellite trace of aerosols from the 1991 Cerro Hudson eruption, Argentina

  7. FOCUS ON HAND WASHING Yakubu Tahir Maigari Departm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2014 ... be told to develop the habit of hand washing to avoid infection from various types of diseases? Different organizations have mapped out strategies and schemes for hand washing, enumerating the immense benefits this action. For example, Mayo clinic has this to say: Hand washing does not take much time ...

  8. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b... allowed in paragraph (f) of this section, each cargo tank must have COW machines located to wash all...

  9. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  10. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211... § 211.52 Washing and toilet facilities. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities easily...

  11. Enhancing The Wash Oil Antifouling Action In A Cracked Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure grade samples from operational wash oil (used in cracked gas compression unit), light cycle oil, heavy residue and heavy diesel oil were obtained. Miscible blend samples of ratio 1:1 were also obtained from wash oil/light cycle oil and wash oil/heavy residue. These samples were subjected to characterization and the ...

  12. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I. (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szatko, Franciszek


    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians) working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended significantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical significance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  13. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska


    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as well as the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 hours of observation 4101 activities requiring hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended signifi cantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical signifi cance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. Conclusion: The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  14. California's Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazards: What's at Risk? (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.


    California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat [1] are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery. [1] "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities

  15. The confirmation of a work hypothesis: a new caldera in the center of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; La confirmacion de una hipotesis de trabajo: una nueva caldera en el centro del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguita Virella, Francisco; Pal Verma, Surendra; Milan, Marcos; Garcia Cacho, Luis; Samaniego M, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    After synthesizing the most relevant aspects of the current volcanology and the genesis process of the collapse calderas, a process is described on the location and confirmation of a new caldera (the Mazahua) in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas destacados de la vulcanologia actual y el proceso de genesis de las calderas de colapso, se describe el proceso de localizacion y confirmacion de una nueva caldera (la Mazahua) en la parte central del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (CVM).

  16. Prevention of Catastrophic Volcanic Eruptions


    Fujii, Yoshiaki; Kodama, Jun-ichi; Fukuda, Daisuke; Dassanayake, Abn


    Giant volcanic eruptions emit sulphate aerosols as well as volcanic ash. Needless to say that volcanic ash causes significant damage to the environment and human at large. However, the aerosols are even worse. They reach the Stratosphere and stay there for months to years reflecting insolation. As a result, air temperature at the Earth's surfaces drops. Even a slight temperature drop may cause severe food shortage. Yellowstone supervolcano, for example, can even make human in the Northern Hem...

  17. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.


    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine.

  18. Volcanic Ash Nephelometer Probe Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes may enable unprecedented observations of...

  19. The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields: Pleistocene hot spot volcanism in the Anahim Volcanic Belt, west-central British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Kuehn, Christian; Guest, Bernard; Russell, James K.; Benowitz, Jeff A.


    The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields (SMVF, BMVF) comprise more than three dozen small volcanic centers and erosional remnants thereof. These fields are located in the Chilcotin Highland of west-central British Columbia, Canada, and are spatially associated with the Anahim Volcanic Belt (AVB), a linear feature of alkaline to peralkaline plutonic and volcanic centers of Miocene to Holocene ages. The AVB has been postulated to be the track of a hot spot passing beneath the westward moving Cordilleran lithosphere. We test the AVB hot spot model by applying whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar geochronology ( n = 24) and geochemistry. Whole-rock chemical compositions of volcanic rock samples ( n = 59) from these two fields suggest a strong geochemical affinity with the nearby Itcha Range shield volcano; however, SMVF and BMVF centers are mostly small in volume (<1 km3) and differ in composition from one another, even where they are in close spatial proximity. Trace element and REE patterns of mafic AVB lavas are similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), suggesting a mantle source for these lavas. The age ranges for the SMVF ( n = 11; ~2.21 to ~1.43 Ma) and BMVF ( n = 7; ~3.91 to ~0.91 Ma) are largely coeval with the Itcha Range. The distribution of volcanoes in these two volcanic fields is potentially consistent with the postulated AVB hot spot track. Eruption rates in the SMVF were high enough to build an elongated ridge that deviates from the E-W trend of the AVB by almost 90°. This deviation might reflect the mechanisms and processes facilitating magma generation and ascent through the lithosphere in this tectonically complex region and may also indicate interaction of the potential hot spot with (pre)existing fracture systems in vicinity of the Itcha Range.

  20. Volcan Reventador's Unusual Umbrella (United States)

    Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.


    In the past two decades, field observations of the deposits of volcanoes have been supplemented by systemmatic, and sometimes, opportunistic photographic documentation. Two photographs of the umbrella of the December 3, 2002 eruption of Volcan Reventador, Ecuador, reveal a prominently scalloped umbrella that is unlike any umbrella previously documented on a volcanic column. The material in the umbrella was being swept off a descending pyroclastic flow, and was, therefore, a co-ignimbrite cloud. We propose that the scallops are the result of a turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with no precedents in volcanology. We ascribe the rare loss of buoyancy that drives this instability to the fact that the Reventador column fed on a cool co-ignimbrite cloud. On the basis of the observed wavelength of the scallops, we estimate a value for the eddy viscosity of the umbrella of 4000 ~m2/s. This value is consistent with a previously obtained lower bound (200 ~m2/s, K. Wohletz, priv. comm., 2005). We do not know the fate of the material in the umbrella subsequent to the photos. The analysis suggests that the umbrella was negatively buoyant. Field work on the co-ignimbrite deposits might reveal whether or not the material reimpacted, and if so, where and whether or not this material was involved in the hazardous flows that affected the main oil pipeline across Ecuador.

  1. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkx, H.; Iedema, P.; Reissland, B.; van Velzen, B.


    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  2. Active Volcanic Plumes on Io (United States)


    This color image, acquired during Galileo's ninth orbit around Jupiter, shows two volcanic plumes on Io. One plume was captured on the bright limb or edge of the moon (see inset at upper right), erupting over a caldera (volcanic depression) named Pillan Patera after a South American god of thunder, fire and volcanoes. The plume seen by Galileo is 140 kilometers (86 miles) high and was also detected by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Galileo spacecraft will pass almost directly over Pillan Patera in 1999 at a range of only 600 kilometers (373 miles).The second plume, seen near the terminator (boundary between day and night), is called Prometheus after the Greek fire god (see inset at lower right). The shadow of the 75-kilometer (45- mile) high airborne plume can be seen extending to the right of the eruption vent. The vent is near the center of the bright and dark rings. Plumes on Io have a blue color, so the plume shadow is reddish. The Prometheus plume can be seen in every Galileo image with the appropriate geometry, as well as every such Voyager image acquired in 1979. It is possible that this plume has been continuously active for more than 18 years. In contrast, a plume has never been seen at Pillan Patera prior to the recent Galileo and Hubble Space Telescope images.North is toward the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) per picture element. This composite uses images taken with the green, violet and near infrared filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The images were obtained on June 28, 1997, at a range of more than 600,000 kilometers (372,000 miles).The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  3. Compositional Differences between Felsic Volcanic Rocks from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Plateau unit is in fault contact with the overlying Intoto unit (22.2-22 Ma) (Morton et al. 1979;. Chernet et al. 1998). ... (1986). The alkaline-sub-alkaline boundary is from Irvine and Baragar (1971). .... Volume 1 (1): 4 – 35, 2009. Compositional differences exist between the rift margin and rift center volcanic rocks (Table 1;. Fig.

  4. Gish Bar Patera, Io: Geology and Volcanic Activity, 1996-2001 (United States)

    Perry, Jason; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly; McEwen, Alfred; Keszthelyi, Laszlo


    Since the two Voyagers passed by Jupiter in 1979, it has been known that volcanic activity is ubiquitous on the surface of Io. With over 400 volcanic centers, Io is even more volcanically active than the earth with massive flood basalt-style eruptions and komatitite lavas a common occurrence. Additionally, some volcanoes appear to be giant lava lakes, with violent activity churning the crust of the lake for periods of 20 years or more. Finally, sulfur is believed to play a large role in Io's volcanism, be it as a primary lava or as a secondary product of large, high-temperature eruptions. By studying one volcano in particular, Gish Bar Patera, one can observe many of these characteristics in one volcanic center.

  5. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo


    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  6. Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines. (United States)

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E


    Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum.

  7. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies (United States)

    Dorea, Caetano


    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  8. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi


    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  9. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark


    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  10. Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. L. Lathem; P. Kumar; A. Nenes; J. Dufek; I. N. Sokolik; M. Trail; A. Russell


      Volcanic ash is hygroscopic Water vapor adsorption is the main proceess controlling ash hygroscopicity The results can be parameterized in a simple correlation for use in models Limited observational...

  11. Monogenetic volcanic hazards and assessment (United States)

    Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Richardson, J. A.


    Many of the Earth's major cities are build on the products of monogenetic volcanic eruptions and within geologically active basaltic volcanic fields. These cities include Mexico City (Mexico), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), and Portland (USA) to name a few. Volcanic hazards in these areas are complex, and involve the potential formation of new volcanic vents and associated hazards, such as lava flows, tephra fallout, and ballistic hazards. Hazard assessment is complicated by the low recurrence rate of volcanism in most volcanic fields. We have developed a two-stage process for probabilistic modeling monogenetic volcanic hazards. The first step is an estimation of the possible locations of future eruptive vents based on kernel density estimation and recurrence rate of volcanism using Monte Carlo simulation and accounting for uncertainties in age determinations. The second step is convolution of this spatial density / recurrence rate model with hazard codes for modeling lava inundation, tephra fallout, and ballistic impacts. A methodology is presented using this two-stage approach to estimate lava flow hazard in several monogenetic volcanic fields, including at a nuclear power plant site near the Shamiram Plateau, a Quaternary volcanic field in Armenia. The location of possible future vents is determined by estimating spatial density from a distribution of 18 mapped vents using a 2-D elliptical Gaussian kernel function. The SAMSE method, a modified asymptotic mean squared error approach, uses the distribution of known eruptive vents to optimally determine a smoothing bandwidth for the Gaussian kernel function. The result is a probability map of vent density. A large random sample (N=10000) of vent locations is drawn from this probability map. For each randomly sampled vent location, a lava flow inundation model is executed. Lava flow input parameters (volume and average thickness) are determined from distributions fit to field observations of the low

  12. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,


    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  13. Los volcanes y los hombres


    García, Carmen


    Desde las entrañas de la tierra, los volcanes han creado la atmósfera, el agua de los océanos, y esculpido los relieves del planeta: son, pues, los zahoríes de la vida. Existen volcanes que los hombres explotan o cultivan, y otros sobre los cuales se han construido observatorios en los que se llevan a cabo avanzadas investigaciones científicas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.


    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the

  15. Venus - False Color of Volcanic Plains (United States)


    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic of Venus, centered at 10 degrees north latitude, 301 degrees east longitude, shows an area replete with diverse volcanic features. The image, of an area 489 kilometers long by 311 kilometers wide (303 by 193 miles), is dominated by volcanic plains which appear mottled because of varying roughnesses of each solidified lava flow. The rougher the terrain the brighter it appears in the radar image. The small, bright bumps clustered in the left portion of the image are a grouping of small volcanoes called a shield field. Each shield volcano is approximately 2 to 5 kilometers (1.2 to 3.1 miles) in diameter and has very subdued relief. It is believed that the lava flows that make up each shield originates from a common source. To the right of the shield field is another type of volcano, called a scalloped dome. It is 25 kilometers (16 miles) in diameter and has a central pit. Some of the indistinct lobe-shaped pattern around the dome may either be lava flows or rocky debris which has fallen from the scalloped cliffs surrounding the domes. The small radial ridges characteristic of scalloped domes are remnants of catastrophic landslides. To the right of that feature is a large depression called a volcanic caldera. The caldera was formed when lava was expelled from an underground chamber, which when emptied, subsequently collapsed forming the depression. The feature furthermost to the east (right) is another scalloped dome, 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. That feature is unusual in that lava came out through the southeastern margin, rafting a large portion of the dome for 20 kilometers (12 miles). The lava continues into the lower right portion of the area in the image. Its steep rounded boundaries suggest it was a very sticky, oozing lava. That same type of lava is what scientists propose formed the steep-sided domes such as the bright, round feature, slightly northeast of center. It is highly likely that the features are all part

  16. Hand Washing Practices amongst Doctors in A Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Washing hand with soap and water is said to be the single most important intervention against hospital acquired infections. This study aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices amongst doctors in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out ...

  17. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    org. 4. arvis WR. Handwashing the Semmelweis lesson forgotten? The Lancet 1994: 344: 1311 1312. 5. Teare L, Cookson B, French G, Gould D, Jenner E,. McCollough J, et al (Hand Washing liason group). Hand washing modest measure- big ...

  18. Evaluation of Water Consumption by Car Wash Facilities in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi ...

  19. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hand washing with soap and water is one of the most effective and inexpensive means of preventing infections. Rates of hand washing are low world wide even amongst health care workers who are should know about its importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and hand ...

  20. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset? (United States)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  1. Assessment of knowledge of hand washing among health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase mortality and morbidity although adherence to simple hand washing procedures is suggested to reduce these. Purpose: To assess knowledge of hand washing among health care providers in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan and establish associations with ...

  2. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.


    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  3. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations. (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A


    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a wide disparity between knowledge and practice of hand washing as a way of reducing hospital-acquired infections. Some reasons given for failure to observe proper hand washing include; time wasting, skin irritation and unavailability of soap and water. In addition, we found that the most preferred method of ...

  5. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing


    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Philip J. Chan; Patton, William C.; King, Alan


    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  6. Volcanism on Mercury: Evidence from the first MESSENGER flyby for extrusive and explosive activity and the volcanic origin of plains (United States)

    Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Chapman, Clark R.; Strom, Robert G.; Watters, Thomas R.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Dickson, James L.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Kerber, Laura


    The first MESSENGER flyby of Mercury obtained images of 21% of the surface not seen by Mariner 10, including the center and western half of the Caloris basin and regions near the terminator that show details of the nature of smooth and intercrater plains. These new data have helped to address and resolve a series of longstanding questions on the existence and nature of volcanism on Mercury and the distribution of volcanic materials. Data from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft have shown the following: (1) Numerous volcanic vents, in the form of irregularly shaped rimless depressions, are concentrated around the interior edge of the Caloris basin. (2) These vents appear to be sources for effusive volcanism that in one case built a shield in excess of 100 km in diameter and in some cases formed bright haloes around the vents that are interpreted to represent pyroclastic eruptions. (3) Lobate margins of plains units, seen previously in Mariner 10 data, are documented in MESSENGER images with more clarity and are often distinctive in morphology and color properties, supporting the interpretation that these features are the edges of lava flow units. (4) The interior of the Caloris basin is filled with plains units spectrally distinctive from the rim deposits, and comparison with the lunar Imbrium basin and superposed impact crater stratigraphy provide evidence that these units are volcanic in origin; detailed differences in the mineralogy of lava flow units, so prominent in Imbrium, are not seen in the Caloris interior. (5) Some of the smooth plains surrounding the exterior of the Caloris basin show distinct differences in color and morphological properties, supporting a volcanic origin. (6) Some smooth and intercrater plains units distant from the Caloris basin show evidence of flooding and embayment relations unrelated to Caloris ejecta emplacement; local and regional geological and color relationships support a volcanic origin for

  7. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada (United States)

    Laney, R.L.


    The study is a geohydrologic reconnaissance of about 170 square miles in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area from Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada. The study is one of a series that describes the geohydrology of the recreation area and that indentifies areas where water supplies can be developed. Precipitation in this arid area is about 5 inches per year. Streamflow is seasonal and extremely variable except for that in the Colorado River, which adjoins the area. Pan evaporation is more than 20 times greater than precipitation; therefore, regional ground-water supplies are meager except near the Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave. Large ground-water supplies can be developed near the river and lakes, and much smaller supplies may be obtained in a few favorable locations farther from the river and lakes. Ground water in most of the areas probably contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, but water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids can be obtained within about 1 mile of the lakes. Crystalline rocks of metamorphic, intrusive and volcanic origin crop out in the area. These rocks are overlain by conglomerate and mudstone of the Muddy Creek Formation, gravel and conglomerate of the older alluvium, and sand and gravel of the Chemehuevi Formation and younger alluvium. The crystalline rocks, where sufficiently fractured, yield water to springs and would yield small amounts of water to favorably located wells. The poorly cemented and more permeable beds of the older alluvium, Chemehuevi Formation, and younger alluvium are the better potential aquifers, particularly along the Colorado River and Lakes Mead and Mohave. Thermal springs in the gorge of the Colorado River south of Hoover Dam discharge at least 2,580 acre-feet per year of water from the volcanic rocks and metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The discharge is much greater than could be infiltrated in the drainage basin above the springs

  8. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study. (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J


    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  9. Detection and Classification of Volcanic Earthquakes/Tremors in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (United States)

    Kahraman, Metin; Arda Özacar, A.; Bülent Tank, S.; Uslular, Göksu; Kuşcu, Gonca; Türkelli, Niyazi


    Central Anatolia has been characterized by active volcanism since 10 Ma which created the so called Central Anatolia Volcanic Province (CAVP) where a series of volcanoes are located along the NE-SW trend. The petrological investigations reveal that the magma source in the CAVP has both subduction and asthenospheric signature possibly due to tearing of ongoing northward subduction of African plate along Aegean and Cyprus arcs. Recently, a temporary seismic array was deployed within the scope of Continental Dynamics: Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT) project and provided a unique opportunity to study the deep seismic signature of the CAVP. Passive seismic imaging efforts and magnetotellurics (MT) observations revealed low velocity and high conductivity zones supporting the presence of localized partial melt bodies beneath the CAVP at varying depths, especially around Mt. Hasan which exhibits both geological and archeological evidences for its eruption around 7500 B.C. In Central Anatolia, local seismicity detected by the CD-CAT array coincides well with the active faults zones. However, active or potentially active volcanoes within CAVP are characterized by the lack of seismic activity. In this study, seismic data recorded by permanent stations of Regional Earthquake-Tsunami Monitoring Center were combined with temporary seismic data collected by the CD-CAT array to improve sampling density across the CAVP. Later, the continuous seismic waveforms of randomly selected time intervals were manually analyzed to identify initially undetected seismic sources which have signal characters matching to volcanic earthquakes/tremors. For candidate events, frequency spectrums are constructed to classify the sources according to their physical mechanisms. Preliminary results support the presence of both volcano-tectonic (VT) and low-period (LT) events within the CAVP. In the next stage, the spectral and polarization analyses techniques will be utilized to the entire seismic

  10. Correlating geochemistry, tectonics, and volcanic volume along the Central American volcanic front (United States)

    Bolge, Louise L.; Carr, Michael J.; Milidakis, Katherine I.; Lindsay, Fara N.; Feigenson, Mark D.


    The Central American volcanic front consists of several distinct volcanic lineaments or segments, separated by right steps and/or changes in strike. Each volcanic line is rotated slightly counterclockwise from the strike of the inclined seismic zone. Right stepping volcanic lines, oblique to the strike of the slab, create a sawtooth pattern in the depth to the slab. Zr/Nb is the first geochemical signature with consistent large offsets at the right steps in the volcanic front. Moreover, Zr/Nb mirrors the sawtooth variation in depth to the slab; within a segment it increases from SE to NW, and at the right steps, separating segments, it abruptly decreases. Unfortunately, there is no simple negative correlation between Zr/Nb and depth to the slab because Zr/Nb also has a regional variation, similar to previously documented regional variations in slab tracers in Central America (e.g., Ba/La, U/Th, and 87Sr/86Sr). Within a segment, Zr/Nb decreases with increasing depth to slab. This can be explained in two ways: a Nb retaining mineral, e.g., amphibole, in the subducting slab is breaking down gradually with increasing depth causing more Nb to be released and consequently a smaller Nb depletion in deeper melts; alternatively, all melts have the same initial Nb depletion which is then diluted by acquiring Nb from the surrounding mantle wedge as melts rise and react. Deeper melts have longer paths and therefore more reaction with the mantle wedge diluting the initial Nb depletion. Within each volcanic segment there is variation in eruptive volume. The largest volcanoes generally occur in the middle of the segments, and the smaller volcanoes tend to be located at the ends. Connecting the largest volcanoes in each segment suggests an axis of maximum productivity. This is likely the surface projection of the center of the melt aggregation zone. The largest volcanoes tap the entire melt zone. Those with shallow depths to the slab tap just the front part of the melt zone and

  11. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs. (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido


    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  12. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)


    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  13. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection. (United States)

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa


    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. In-series columns adsorption performance of Kraft mill wastewater pollutants onto volcanic soil. (United States)

    Navia, R; Fuentes, B; Lorber, K E; Mora, M L; Diez, M C


    Two in-series columns systems with volcanic soil were tested for wastewater pollutants adsorption capacity. The first system was tested with acidified volcanic soil and the second with a reactivated volcanic soil. The reactivated soil was obtained by washing the previous spent acidified soil system with an acid solution. The systems parameters were obtained using the Bohardt and Adams model for fixed-beds. The acidified soil parameters indicated an adsorption capacity q of 28 and 139 mg/g of phenolic compounds and color, respectively (for each column), compared to 12 and 39 mg/g for the reactivated soil system. The adsorption rate constant k ranged between 1.5x10(-6) and 2.8x10(-6) l/min mg and no significant difference was observed for each analysed column system and pollutant. Furthermore, the molecular weight distribution analysis of input and output samples of one acidified soil column indicated that the fraction >30000 Da is the most adsorbed until the breakpoint. Moreover, the CODs and tannins and lignin removal efficiencies at the breakpoint reached values between 60% and 70% in each column and each system, indicating that lower biodegradable compounds were retained effectively. The results indicate that it is possible to compare the acidified volcanic soil adsorption capacity with natural zeolites, and a preliminary costs evaluation indicates that volcanic soil could be also competitive, even when comparing with activated carbon.

  15. Washing the guilt away: Effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.


    For centuries people have washed away their guilt by washing their hands. Do people need to wash their own hands, or is it enough to watch other people wash their hands? To induce guilt, we had participants write about a past wrong they had committed. Next, they washed their hands, watched a

  16. Facial skin physiology recovery kinetics during 180 min post-washing with a cleanser. (United States)

    Eo, J; Seo, Y K; Baek, J H; Choi, A R; Shin, M K; Koh, J S


    Facial cleansing is important to clean and exfoliate the skin while maintaining optimal physiologic function. However, there is insufficient data on the very early stage of skin change after applying soap or cleansing foam. We investigated the recovery kinetics of facial skin physiology during 180 min after exposure to the cleanser. For the study, 22 Korean female subjects with normal and dry to oily skin type were recruited in this study. Study subjects were required to have face washing done within the 12 hours prior to visiting the research center, with only toner, lotion, or cream applied. The next day, the subjects visited the research center without face washing. We evaluated the skin hydration (Corneometer(®) CM 825), sebum (Sebumeter(®) SM 815), transepidermal water loss (Tewameter(®) TM 300), and pH (Skin-pH-Meter(®) PH 905) to define recovery kinetics of facial skin physiology during 180 min exposure post-cleansing. Skin hydration, sebum, and TEWL were significantly decreased at 20 min after washing, as compared to the baseline (P < 0.05). And skin hydration returned at 40 min, and skin sebum and TEWL returned at 120 min after washing. However, skin pH did not show significant differences at all times points. This study indicated that each of the skin parameters was restored at defined time points post-cleansing. Our result could be a useful reference to set the resting time in the estimation of skin bioengineering parameters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić


    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  18. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water (United States)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.


    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  19. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services. (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell


    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  20. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Fleck, Robert J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Allen, James R.; Deino, Alan L.


    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10–8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8–2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ± 0.06 and 9.13 ± 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the Rodgers Creek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek–Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and

  1. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration. (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard


    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  2. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.


    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  3. Sismos y volcanes en Colombia


    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo


    Notas sobre las zonas de amenaza sísmica y principales fuentes sísmicas de Colombia, y los segmentos volcánicos de los Andes colombianos con los principales volcanes activos, de conformidad con los estudios del Ingeominas. Anexos a títulos con sus correspondientes enlaces, para ofrecer artículos relacionados con sismos y volcanes, en los que se consideran aspectos de interés para la gestión del riesgo sísmico y volcánico en Colombia

  4. Morphological Analysis of Apo Volcanic Complex in Southern Mindanao, Philippines: implications on volcano-tectonic evolution of different volcanic units (United States)

    Herrero, T. M. L.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Eco, R. C.


    The Apo Volcanic Complex (AVC) is one of the largest volcanic centers in the Philippines, located in the southern island of Mindanao. It is composed of four edifices and several smaller cones. The youngest volcanic unit, the Apo Dome, is the highest elevation in the Philippines. This unit is classified as potentially active, whereas other units, Talomo, Sibulan and Kitubod, are inactive. The study gives insight to the construction and deformation history of the volcanic units and imparts foresight to subsequent events that can affect populated areas. A morphological analysis integrating high-resolution digital terrain models and public domain satellite data and images was done to recognize and discriminate volcanic units and characterize volcano-tectonic features and processes. Morphological domains were defined based on surface textures, slope variation, degrees and controls of erosion, and lineament density and direction. This establishes the relative ages and extent of volcanic units as well as the volcano-tectonic evolution of the complex. Six edifice building events were recognized, two of which form the elevated base of Apo dome. The geodynamic setting of the region is imprinted in the volcanic units as five morphostructural lineaments. They reveal the changes in maximum regional stress through time such as the N-S extension found across the whole volcanic complex displaying the current stress regime. This has implications on the locality and propagation of geothermal activity, magma ascent, and edifice collapses. One main result of the compounded effects of inherited structures and current stress regime is the Sandawa Collapse Zone. This is a large valley formed by several collapses where NE-SW fractures propagate and the increasing lateral spreading by debuttressing continue to eat away the highest peak. The AVC is surrounded by the major metropolitan area of Davao City to the east and the cities of Kidapawan and Digos to the west and south, respectively

  5. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing. (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W


    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Controls on volcanism at intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (United States)

    van den Hove, Jackson C.; Van Otterloo, Jozua; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Cas, Ray A. F.


    A broad range of controlling mechanisms is described for intraplate basaltic volcanic fields (IBVFs) in the literature. These correspond with those relating to shallow tectonic processes and to deep mantle plumes. Accurate measurement of the physical parameters of intraplate volcanism is fundamental to gain an understanding of the controlling factors that influence the scale and location of a specific IBVF. Detailed volume and geochronology data are required for this; however, these are not available for many IBVFs. In this study the primary controls on magma genesis and transportation are established for the Pliocene-Recent Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) of south-eastern Australia as a case-study for one of such IBVF. The NVP is a large and spatio-temporally complex IBVF that has been described as either being related to a deep mantle plume, or upper mantle and crustal processes. We use innovative high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D modelling analysis, constrained by well-log data, to calculate its dimensions, volume and long-term eruptive flux. Our estimates suggest volcanic deposits cover an area of 23,100 ± 530 km2 and have a preserved dense rock equivalent of erupted volcanics of least 680 km3, and may have been as large as 900 km3. The long-term mean eruptive flux of the NVP is estimated between 0.15 and 0.20 km3/ka, which is relatively high compared with other IBVFs. Our comparison with other IBVFs shows eruptive fluxes vary up to two orders of magnitude within individual fields. Most examples where a range of eruptive flux is available for an IBVF show a correlation between eruptive flux and the rate of local tectonic processes, suggesting tectonic control. Limited age dating of the NVP has been used to suggest there were pulses in its eruptive flux, which are not resolvable using current data. These changes in eruptive flux are not directly relatable to the rate of any interpreted tectonic driver such as edge-driven convection. However, the NVP and other

  7. Cryogenic Origin for Mars Analog Carbonates in the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex Svalbard (Norway) (United States)

    Amundsen, H. E. F.; Benning, L.; Blake, D. F.; Fogel, M.; Ming, D.; Skidmore, M.; Steele, A.


    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell eruptive centers in the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex (BVC) on Svalbard (Norway) formed by subglacial eruptions ca. 1 Ma ago. These eruptive centers carry ubiquitous magnesian carbonate deposits including dolomitemagnesite globules similar to those in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Carbonates in mantle xenoliths are dominated by ALH84001 type carbonate globules that formed during quenching of CO2-rich mantle fluids. Lava hosted carbonates include ALH84001 type carbonate globules occurring throughout lava vesicles and microfractures and massive carbonate deposits associated with vertical volcanic vents. Massive carbonates include < or equal 5 cm thick magnesite deposits protruding downwards into clear blue ice within volcanic vents and carbonate cemented lava breccias associated with volcanic vents. Carbonate cements comprise layered deposits of calcite, dolomite, huntite, magnesite and aragonite associated with ALH84001 type carbonate globules lining lava vesicles. Combined Mossbauer, XRD and VNIR data show that breccia carbonate cements at Sverrefjell are analog to Comanche carbonates at Gusev crater.

  8. Washington (Wash) C. Winn: In Memoriam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Mike Miller and Dr. David Walker dicuss the career and life of noted clinical biologist, Dr. Washington C. Winn Jr.  Created: 3/8/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  9. A 12,000 year record of explosive volcanism in the Siple Dome Ice Core, West Antarctica (United States)

    Kurbatov, A. V.; Zielinski, G. A.; Dunbar, N. W.; Mayewski, P. A.; Meyerson, E. A.; Sneed, S. B.; Taylor, K. C.


    Air mass trajectories in the Southern Hemisphere provide a mechanism for transport to and deposition of volcanic products on the Antarctic ice sheet from local volcanoes and from tropical and subtropical volcanic centers. This study extends the detailed record of Antarctic, South American, and equatorial volcanism over the last 12,000 years using continuous glaciochemical series developed from the Siple Dome A (SDMA) ice core, West Antarctica. The largest volcanic sulfate spike (280 μg/L) occurs at 5881 B.C.E. Other large signals with unknown sources are observed around 325 B.C.E. (270 μg/L) and 2818 B.C.E. (191 μg/L). Ages of several large equatorial or Southern Hemisphere volcanic eruptions are synchronous with many sulfate peaks detected in the SDMA volcanic ice chemistry record. The microprobe "fingerprinting" of glass shards in the SDMA core points to the following Antarctic volcanic centers as sources of tephra found in the SDMA core: Balenny Island, Pleiades, Mount Berlin, Mount Takahe, and Mount Melbourne as well as Mount Hudson and possibly Mount Burney volcanoes of South America. Identified volcanic sources provide an insight into the poorly resolved transport history of volcanic products from source volcanoes to the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  10. 2014 volcanic activity in Alaska: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Schaefer, Janet R.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2014. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash eruptions from long-active Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, and two eruptive episodes at Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. Semisopochnoi and Akutan volcanoes had seismic swarms, both likely the result of magmatic intrusion. The AVO also installed seismometers and infrasound instruments at Mount Cleveland during 2014.

  11. 2015 Volcanic activity in Alaska—Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Iezzi, Alexandra M.; Wallace, Kristi


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 14 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2015. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of continuing intermittent ash eruptions from Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands. Two eruptive episodes, at Veniaminof and Pavlof, on the Alaska Peninsula ended in 2015. During 2015, AVO re-established the seismograph network at Aniakchak, installed six new broadband seismometers throughout the Aleutian Islands, and added a Multiple component Gas Analyzer System (MultiGAS) station on Augustine.

  12. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  13. Control of IPMSM drive system for drum washing machine (United States)

    Lee, Woncheol; Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen


    The use of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has increased in the industrial field because of its excellent characteristics such as high efficiency, wide range of speed operation, and flexibility of the rotor structure. Therefore, IPMSM, especially one using the rare earth permanent magnet, is being actively studied. In IPMSM using the rare earth permanent magnet, typically the permanent magnet is deeply embedded in the rotor. The washing machine has large load variation and needs high torque. So, IPMSM is better than any other motor types for washing machines. This paper suggests a control algorithm of IPMSM for washing machines. Some experimental results are given in order to show the feasibility of the proposed control schemes for washing machines.

  14. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash. (United States)

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection.

  15. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan


    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS...

  16. Emissions of microplastic fibers from microfiber fleece during domestic washing. (United States)

    Pirc, U; Vidmar, M; Mozer, A; Kržan, A


    Microplastics are found in marine and freshwater environments; however, their specific sources are not yet well understood. Understanding sources will be of key importance in efforts to reduce emissions into the environment. We examined the emissions of microfibers from domestic washing of a new microfiber polyester fleece textile. Analyzing released fibers collected with a 200 μm filter during 10 mild, successive washing cycles showed that emission initially decreased and then stabilized at approx. 0.0012 wt%. This value is our estimation for the long-term release of fibers during each washing. Use of detergent and softener did not significantly influence emission. Release of fibers during tumble drying was approx. 3.5 times higher than during washing.

  17. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions. (United States)


    ... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in..., cabinet washers, and ultrasonic cleaners. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product...

  18. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.J.


    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  19. Evaluation of four commercial automatic endoscope washing machines. (United States)

    Lynch, D A; Porter, C; Murphy, L; Axon, A T


    Four commercially available endoscope washing machines (Pyser System 83, Wolf Fiberscope Disinfector, Olympus EW20, Keymed Auto-Disinfector) were evaluated. In most cases the machines were expensive, immobile and noisy, and could only wash one endoscope per cycle. Daily use involved repetitive chores and contact with glutaraldehyde. Disinfection procedures were flawed; no machine auto-disinfected adequately. In conclusion, these machines are unsatisfactory and represent a potential source of serious infection.

  20. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method


    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any se...

  1. Hand Washing Rituals in Trauma Theatre: Clean or Dirty? (United States)

    Hajipour, L; Longstaff, L; Cleeve, V; Brewster, N; Bint, D; Henman, P


    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of a surgeon's hand following use of chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol gel as disinfectants. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective, randomised trial, orthopaedic surgeons were allocated to one of two different hand-washing protocols using a randomisation table. The hand-washing protocol dictated that all surgeons should wash for 5 min with chlorhexidine for their first case. Thereafter, the surgeon was randomised to wash for 3 min with either alcohol gel or chlorhexidine. At the end of each procedure, the gloves of each surgeon were carefully removed and the fingertips from each hand were placed on an agar plate. The number of bacterial colonies present after 24 h and 48 h of incubation were recorded for each agar plate by a microbiologist blinded to the washing protocol used. RESULTS Overall, 41 procedures and 82 episodes of hand washings were included in the study. Two episodes were discarded due to contamination at the time of glove removal. Four hands (8%) were contaminated in the chlorhexidine group compared to 19 (34%) in the alcohol group. Fisher's exact test confirmed a significantly higher risk of contamination using alcohol gel compared to chlorhexidine (P = 0.002). In addition, the average bacterial colony count was substantially higher in the alcohol group (20 colony forming units) compared to the chlorhexidine group (5 colony forming units). There was no relationship between the duration of surgery and the degree of contamination (P = 1.12). CONCLUSIONS Alcohol gel disinfectant is not a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine when hand washing before surgery. This study has identified a higher risk of bacterial contamination of surgeons' hands washed with alcohol. This may lead to higher levels of postoperative infection in the event of glove perforation. PMID:16460630

  2. Washing machine related injuries in children: a continuing threat. (United States)

    Warner, B L; Kenney, B D; Rice, M


    To describe washing machine related injuries in children in the United States. Injury data for 496 washing machine related injuries documented by the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and death certificate data files were analyzed. Gender, age, diagnosis, body part injured, disposition, location and mechanism of injury were considered in the analysis of data. The upper extremities were most frequently injured in washing machine related injuries, especially with wringer machines. Fewer than 10% of patients required admission, but automatic washers accounted for most of these and for both of the deaths. Automatic washer injuries involved a wider range of injury mechanism, including 23 children who fell from the machines while in baby seats. Though most injuries associated with washing machines are minor, some are severe and devastating. Many of the injuries could be avoided with improvements in machine design while others suggest a need for increased education of potential dangers and better supervision of children if they are allowed access to areas where washing machines are operating. Furthermore, washing machines should only be used for their intended purpose. Given the limitations of educational efforts to prevent injuries, health professionals should have a major role in public education regarding these seemingly benign household appliances.

  3. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal


    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.


    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  5. [Microbial contamination of wash water in automatic washing and disinfection machines]. (United States)

    Kolch, A; Krizek, L; Schoenen, D


    Samples were taken from the water containing tube system of 7 cleaning and disinfection machines located at the university clinics. The machines were used for the treatment of medical tools. The samples were bacteriologically examined. The results showed systemic contaminations of the tubes of all tested machines. The well known positive effect of common ion-exchangers on bacterial growth was not the only reason for the high degree of microbial contaminations. Partial bacterial growth on the inner sides of the water tubes was detected. The reason was the use of bacteriological objectionable tube materials. Recontamination of the post treated medical tools is possible at any time by the last washing water. Preceding sterile filtration showed as supposed no effect. Consequences for the use of cleaning and disinfection machines are discussed.

  6. A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools. (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon M; McKeon, Thomas; Desai, Richa; Ejelonu, Akudo; Laskowski, Stanley; Murphy, Heather M


    Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs.

  7. A reliable procedure for decontamination before thawing of human specimens cryostored in liquid nitrogen: three washes with sterile liquid nitrogen (SLN2). (United States)

    Parmegiani, Lodovico; Accorsi, Antonio; Bernardi, Silvia; Arnone, Alessandra; Cognigni, Graciela Estela; Filicori, Marco


    To report a washing procedure, to be performed as frozen specimens are taken out of cryobanks, to minimize the risk of hypothetical culture contamination during thawing. Basic research. Private assisted reproduction center. Two batches of liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) were experimentally contaminated, one with bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) and the other with fungi (Aspergillus niger). Two hundred thirty-two of the most common human gamete/embryo vitrification carriers (Cryotop, Cryoleaf, Cryopette) were immersed in the contaminated LN(2) (117 in the bacteria and 25 in the fungi-contaminated LN(2)). The carriers were tested microbiologically, one group without washing (control) and the other after three subsequent washings in certified ultraviolet sterile liquid nitrogen (SLN(2)). The carriers were randomly allocated to the "three-wash procedure" (three-wash group, 142 carriers) or "no-wash" (control group, 90 carriers) using a specific software tool. Assessment of microorganism growth. In the no-wash control group, 78.6% of the carriers were contaminated by the bacteria and 100% by the fungi. No carriers were found to be contaminated, either by bacteria or fungi, after the three-wash procedure. The three-wash procedure with SLN(2) produced an efficient decontamination of carriers in extreme experimental conditions. For this reason, this procedure could be routinely performed in IVF laboratories for safe thawing of human specimens that are cryostored in nonhermetical cryocontainers, particularly in the case of open or single-straw closed vitrification systems. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  9. Potential volcanic impacts on future climate variability (United States)

    Bethke, Ingo; Outten, Stephen; Otterå, Odd Helge; Hawkins, Ed; Wagner, Sebastian; Sigl, Michael; Thorne, Peter


    Volcanic activity plays a strong role in modulating climate variability. Most model projections of the twenty-first century, however, under-sample future volcanic effects by not representing the range of plausible eruption scenarios. Here, we explore how sixty possible volcanic futures, consistent with ice-core records, impact climate variability projections of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) under RCP4.5 (ref. ). The inclusion of volcanic forcing enhances climate variability on annual-to-decadal timescales. Although decades with negative global temperature trends become ~50% more commonplace with volcanic activity, these are unlikely to be able to mitigate long-term anthropogenic warming. Volcanic activity also impacts probabilistic projections of global radiation, sea level, ocean circulation, and sea-ice variability, the local-scale effects of which are detectable when quantifying the time of emergence. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of representing volcanic uncertainty in future climate assessments.

  10. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing. (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A


    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  11. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis. (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël


    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador (United States)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel


    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the

  13. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.


    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  14. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.


    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  15. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation. (United States)

    Stapleton, K; Hill, K; Day, K; Perry, J D; Dean, J R


    A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to investigate and identify the source of malodour in washing machines and the potential for cross-contamination of laundry. Four washing machines were olfactively graded, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) bacteria was determined in four specific locations. Then, samples of terry-towel and fleece were washed, without the use of detergent, in the machines, and the occurrence of malodour over a 52-h period was assessed. Analysis of the scrapings from the four locations in the two malodorous machines identified a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by either olfactory detection or mass spectral identification post-gas chromatographic separation. In addition, microbiological analysis from the swabs from the four locations within all four washing machines was carried out. Quantitative analysis of VOCs from 66 microbiological isolates from either the washing machines or fabrics was carried out. In total, 10 VOCs were identified: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,4-dithiapentane, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-tridecanone, indole, 2-phenylethanol, isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid and 1-undecene. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Consumers' Risk Perception of Household Cleaning and Washing Products. (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Miesler, Linda; Siegrist, Michael


    A large share of accidental and nonaccidental poisonings are caused by household cleaning and washing products, such as drain cleaner or laundry detergent. The main goal of this article was to investigate consumers' risk perception and misconceptions of a variety of cleaning and washing products in order to inform future risk communication efforts. For this, a sorting task including 33 commonly available household cleaning and washing products was implemented. A total of 60 female consumers were asked to place the cleaning and washing products on a reference line 3 m in length with the poles "dangerous" and "not dangerous." The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively and by means of multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and linear regression. The dimensionality of the sorting data suggests that both analytically (i.e., written and graphical hazard notes and perceived effectiveness) and intuitively driven risk judgments (i.e., eco vs. regular products) were applied by the participants. Furthermore, results suggest the presence of misconceptions, particularly related to consumers' perceptions of eco cleaning products, which were generally regarded as safer than their regular counterparts. Future risk communication should aim at dispelling these misconceptions and promoting accurate risk perceptions of particular household cleaning and washing products. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Evaluation of quantitative satellite-based retrievals of volcanic ash clouds (United States)

    Schneider, D. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Bojinski, S.; Siddans, R.; Thomas, G.


    Volcanic ash clouds are a serious hazard to aviation, and mitigation requires a robust system of volcano monitoring, eruption detection, characterization of cloud properties, forecast of cloud movement, and communication of warnings. Several research groups have developed quantitative satellite-based volcanic ash products and some of these are in operational use by Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers around the world to aid in characterizing cloud properties and forecasting regions of ash hazard. The algorithms applied to the satellite data utilize a variety of techniques, and thus produce results that differ. The World Meteorological Organization has recently sponsored an intercomparison study of satellite-based retrievals with four goals: 1) to establish a validation protocol for satellite-based volcanic ash products, 2) to quantify and understand differences in products, 3) to develop best practices, and 4) to standardize volcanic cloud geophysical parameters. Six volcanic eruption cases were considered in the intercomparison: Eyjafallajökull, Grimsvötn, Kelut, Kirishimayama, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, and Sarychev Peak. Twenty-four algorithms were utilized, which retrieved parameters including: ash cloud top height, ash column mass loading, ash effective radius, and ash optical depth at visible and thermal-infrared wavelengths. Results were compared to space-based, airborne, and ground-based lidars; complementary satellite retrievals; and manual "expert evaluation" of ash extent. The intercomparison results will feed into the International Civil Aviation Organization "Roadmap for International Airways Volcano Watch", which integrates volcanic meteorological information into decision support systems for aircraft operations.

  18. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.


    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  19. Detecting Volcanic Ash Plumes with GNSS Signals (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Larson, K. M.; Palo, S. E.; Mattia, M.; Rossi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Roesler, C.; Fee, D.


    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers are commonly placed near volcanic sites to measure ground deformation. In addition to the carrier phase data used to measure ground position, these receivers also record Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) data. Larson (2013) showed that attenuations in SNR data strongly correlate with ash emissions at a series of eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. This finding has been confirmed at eruptions for Tongariro, Mt Etna, Mt Shindake, and Sakurajima. In each of these detections, very expensive geodetic quality GNSS receivers were used. If low-cost GNSS instruments could be used instead, a networked array could be deployed and optimized for plume detection and tomography. The outputs of this sensor array could then be used by both local volcanic observatories and Volcano Ash Advisory Centers. Here we will describe progress in developing such an array. The sensors we are working with are intended for navigation use, and thus lack the supporting power and communications equipment necessary for a networked system. Reliably providing those features is major challenge for the overall sensor design. We have built prototypes of our Volcano Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR), with solar panels, lithium-ion batteries and onboard data storage for preliminary testing. We will present results of our field tests of both receivers and antennas. A second critical need for our array is a reliable detection algorithm. We have tested our algorithm on data from recent eruptions and have incorporated the noise characteristics of the low-cost GNSS receiver. We have also developed a simulation capability so that the receivers can be deployed to optimize vent crossing GNSS signals.

  20. Scientific Drilling in a Central Italian Volcanic District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Montone


    Full Text Available The Colli Albani Volcanic District, located 15 km SE of Rome (Fig. 1, is part of the Roman Magmatic Province, a belt of potassic to ultra-potassic volcanic districts that developed along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin since Middle Pleistocene time (Conticelli and Peccerillo, 1992; Marra et al., 2004; Giordano et al., 2006 and references therein. Eruption centers are aligned along NW-SE oriented majorextensional structures guiding the dislocation of Meso-Cenozoic siliceous-carbonate sedimentary successions at the rear of the Apennine belt. Volcanic districts developed in structural sectors with most favorable conditions for magma uprise. In particular, the Colli Albani volcanism is located in a N-S shear zone where it intersects the extensional NW- and NE-trending fault systems. In the last decade, geochronological measurements allowed for reconstructions of the eruptive history and led to the classification as "dormant" volcano. The volcanic history may be roughly subdivided into three main phases marked by different eruptive mechanisms andmagma volumes. The early Tuscolano-Artemisio Phase (ca. 561–351 ky, the most explosive and voluminous one, is characterized by five large pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions. After a ~40-ky-long dormancy, a lesser energetic phase of activity took place (Faete Phase; ca. 308–250 ky, which started with peripheral effusive eruptions coupled with subordinate hydromagmatic activity. A new ~50-ky-long dormancypreceded the start of the late hydromagmatic phase (ca. 200–36 ky, which was dominated by pyroclastic-surge eruptions, with formation of several monogenetic or multiple maars and/or tuff rings.

  1. Volcanism and associated hazards: The Andean perspective (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.


    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  2. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.


    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity.

  3. Mechanical interaction between volcanic systems in Libya (United States)

    Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Gudmundsson, Agust


    The spatial distributions of monogenetic volcanoes, primarily volcanic craters, within the four principal volcanic provinces of Libya are examined and presented on a volcano-density map. Six main volcanic clusters have been identified, referred to as volcanic systems. Remarkably, the Al Haruj (AHVP) and Nuqay (NVP) volcanic provinces have double-peak volcano-density distributions, while the Gharyan (GVP) and As Sawda (SVP) volcanic provinces have single-peak volcano-density distributions. We interpret each volcano-density peak as corresponding to a separate volcanic system, so that there is a total of six systems in these four provinces. There was an overlap in volcanic activity in these provinces with at least three simultaneously active. We propose that each of the 6 volcanic systems was/is supplied with magma from a large sill-like reservoir - similar in lateral dimensions to the systems/clusters themselves. Numerical results show zones of high tensile and shear stresses between the reservoirs that coincide roughly with the main swarms of extension (dykes and volcanic fissures) and shear (faults) fractures in the areas. The most recent volcanic eruptions in Libya fall within the modelled high-stress concentration zones, primarily eruptions in the volcano Waw an Namus and the Holocene Al Mashaqaq lava flow. There are no known eruptions in Libya in historical time, but some or all the volcanic systems may have had one or more arrested historical dyke injections. In particular, part of the recurrent seismic events in the Hun Graben in the northwest Libya may be related to dyke propagation and arrest. If some of the inferred magma reservoirs are still fluid, as is likely, they pose earthquake and volcanic hazards to parts of Libya, particularly to the city of Gharyan and Zallah town, as well as to many oil-field operations.

  4. Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine. (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A


    Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds.

  5. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue. (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R


    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities.

  6. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.


    This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

  7. Release of titanium dioxide from textiles during washing. (United States)

    Windler, L; Lorenz, C; von Goetz, N; Hungerbühler, K; Amberg, M; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B


    Nano-TiO(2) has the highest production of all nanomaterials, and pigment-TiO(2) is a commodity used on the million tons/year scale. Information on the release of TiO(2) from consumer products is therefore an important part of analyzing the potential environmental exposure to TiO(2). For this study, we investigated the release of TiO(2) from six different functional textiles during washing. TiO(2) is used in textiles because of its UV-absorbing properties and as pigment. Analysis of fiber cross sections showed that the TiO(2) was contained in the fiber matrix. The sun-protection textiles had Ultraviolet Protection Factors that were between 58 and 6100 after washing and therefore above the labeled factor of 50+. Five of the textiles (sun-protection clothes) released low amounts of Ti (0.01 to 0.06 wt % of total Ti) in one wash cycle. One textile (with antimicrobial functionality) released much higher amounts of Ti (5 mg/L, corresponding to 3.4 wt % of total Ti in one wash cycle). Size fractionation showed that about equal amounts were released as particles below and above 0.45 μm. After 10 washings, only in two textiles significantly lower Ti contents were measured. Electron microscopy showed that the TiO(2) particles released into washing solution had a roundish appearance with primary particle sizes between 60 and 350 nm that formed small aggregates with up to 20 particles. The results indicate that functional textiles release some TiO(2) particles, but that the amounts are relatively low and mostly not in the nanoparticulate range.

  8. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)


    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  9. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite


    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  10. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.


    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  11. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER (United States)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.


    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) imager onboard the NASA Terra Spacecraft is a joint project of the Japanese Ministry for Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and NASA. ASTER has acquired over one million multi-spectral 60km by 60 km images of the earth over the last six years. It consists of three sub-instruments: (a) a four channel VNIR (0.52-0.86um) imager with a spatial resolution of 15m/pixel, including three nadir-viewing bands (1N, 2N, 3N) and one repeated rear-viewing band (3B) for stereo-photogrammetric terrain reconstruction (8-12m vertical resolution); (b) a SWIR (1.6-2.43um) imager with six bands at 30m/pixel; and (c) a TIR (8.125-11.65um) instrument with five bands at 90m/pixel. Returned data are processed in Japan at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) and at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS Center for Earth Resource Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Within the ASTER Project, the JPL Volcano Data Acquisition and Analyses System (VDAAS) houses over 60,000 ASTER volcano images of 1542 volcanoes worldwide and will be accessible for downloads by the general public and on-line image analyses by researchers in early 2007. VDAAS multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) de-correlation stretch products are optimized for volcanic ash detection and have a spatial resolution of 90m/pixel. Digital elevation models (DEM) stereo-photogrammetrically derived from ASTER Band 3B/3N data are also available within VDAAS at 15 and 30m/pixel horizontal resolution. Thus, ASTER visible, IR, and DEM data at 15-100m/pixel resolution within VDAAS can be combined to provide useful boundary conditions on local volcanic eruption plume location, composition, and altitude, as well as on topography of underlying terrain. During and after eruptions, low- altitude winds and ash transport can be affected by topography, and other orographic thermal and water vapor

  12. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview


    Jim W. Simons


    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  13. The San Franciscan volcanic field, Arizona (United States)

    Robinson, Henry Hollister


    LOCATION OF AREAThe San Franciscan volcanic field, which takes its name from San Francisco Mountain, the largest volcano of the group, covers about 3,000 square miles in the north-central part of Arizona, as shown by the shaded space on the index map forming figure 1. The center of the field lies about 50 miles south of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado and the southern boundary is in part coterminous with that of the San Francisco Plateau, which forms the southwestern division of the great Colorado Plateau.The region is easily reached, for the main line of the Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railway traverses it from east to west for more than 60 miles. Flagstaff, a town of 1,500 inhabitants 10 miles south of the summit of San Francisco Mountain, is on the railroad, amid a branch line runs from Williams, 34 miles farther west, to the Grand Canyon. All the more important points of interest in the field may be reached without difficulty by wagon, and outfits may be obtained at Flagstaff.OUTLINE OF THE REPORTThis report deals primarily with the volcanic phenomena of the region as determined in the field and laboratory. Chapter I contains a brief description of the geography of the field and Chapter II is devoted largely to the sedimentary formations and structure. The rest of the report Chapters III to VI—treats entirely of the various features of the volcanoes and igneous rocks, both individually and collectively. Detailed descriptions of the volcanoes and lava fields are given in Chapter III; the volcanic history of the region and its correlation with the general history of the surrounding country are presented in Chapter IV. These two chapters will presumably suffice for the general reader who may desire to become acquainted with the broader volcanic features of the region. Chapter V (Petrography) is devoted entirely to the detailed description of the individual igneous rocks of the region, as represented by a selected set of type specimens. In Chapter VI (Petrology

  14. Nephelometric Dropsonde for Volcanic Ash Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced dropsondes that could effectively be guided through atmospheric regions of interest such as volcanic plumes could enable unprecedented observations of...

  15. Felsic Volcanics on the Moon (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J.; Braden, S.; Hawke, B. R.; Robinson, M. S.; Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Seddio, S. M.


    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) imaging and thermal data provide new morphologic and compositional evidence for features that appear to be expressions of nonmare silicic volcanism. Examples reflecting a range of sizes and volcanic styles include the Gruithuisen and Mairan Domes, and the Hansteen Alpha (H-A) and Compton-Belkovich (C-B) volcanic complexes. In this work we combine new observations with existing compositional remote sensing and Apollo sample data to assess possible origins. Images and digital topographic data at 100 m scale (Wide Angle Camera) and ~0.5 to 2 m (Narrow Angle Camera) reveal (1) slopes on volcanic constructs of ~12° to 27°, (2) potential endogenic summit depressions, (3) small domical features with dense boulder populations, and (4) irregular collapse features. Morphologies in plan view range from the circular to elliptical Gruithuisen γ and δ domes (~340 km2 each), to smaller cumulodomes such as Mairan T and C-B α (~30 km2, each), to the H-A (~375 km2) and C-B (~680 km2) volcanic complexes. Heights range from ~800-1800 m, and most domes are relatively flat-topped or have a central depression. Positions of the Christiansen Feature in LRO Diviner data reflect silicic compositions [1]. Clementine UVVIS-derived FeO varies from ~5 to 10 wt%. Lunar Prospector Th data indicate model values of 20-55 ppm [2,3], which are consistent with compositions ranging from KREEP basalt to lunar granite. The Apollo collection contains small rocks and breccia clasts of felsic/granitic lithologies. Apollo 12 samples include small, pristine and brecciated granitic rock fragments and a large, polymict breccia (12013) consisting of felsic material (quartz & K-feldspar-rich) and mafic phases (similar to KREEP basalt). Many of the evolved lunar rocks have geochemically complementary compositions. The lithologic associations and the lack of samples with intermediate composition suggest a form of magmatic differentiation that produced mafic and felsic

  16. Volcanic hazards and public response (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.


    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.

  17. Control of Montmorillonite Surface Coatings on Quartz Grains in Bentonite by Precursor Volcanic Glass (United States)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Harrison, W. J.


    The pathogenic tendencies of respirable-sized quartz grains may be dependent on inherent characteristics of the quartz as well as external factors. Surface coatings on quartz are of particular interest as they modify both physical and chemical properties of quartz grain surfaces and sequester the grain from contact with reactive lung fluids. Wendlandt et al. (Appl. Geochem. 22, 2007) investigated the surface properties of respirable-sized quartz grains in bentonites and recognized pervasive montmorillonite surface coatings on the quartz that resisted removal by repeated vigorous washings and reaction with HCl. To understand the persistence of montmorillonite coatings on quartz grains of igneous origin, volcanic ash deposits of varying age and degree of alteration to montmorillonite were sampled in Utah, including the distal Lava Creek (c. 0.64 Ma) and Bishop Tuffs (c. 0.74 Ma), and SW Colorado (Conejos Fm, San Juan Volcanic Field) for comparison with commercial grade Cretaceous-age "western" and "southern" bentonites. Quartz grains, hand-picked from these samples, were analyzed using FE-SEM and HRTEM. Continuous coatings of volcanic glass occur on quartz grains from the distal volcanic ash samples. As glass alteration to montmorillonite becomes more extensive, quartz grain surfaces start to display patches of montmorillonite. These patches become continuous in extent on quartz grains from the bentonites. Late precipitation of opal- CT lepispheres is consistent with the alteration reaction for volcanic glass: Volcanic glass + H2O = montmorillonite + SiO2(am) + ions(aq). HRTEM of quartz grains reveals an amorphous surface layer, consistent with a volcanic glass coating. Our results indicate that persistent montmorillonite coatings on quartz grains in bentonites are related to precursor volcanic glass coatings on these grains. The absence of glass coatings on other mineral grains in bentonite (feldspar, biotite) may be a consequence of the presence of strong cleavage

  18. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed material loads in a forest watershed in Iran ... Keywords. Laser particle size distribution; sand and gravel mining; sediment dynamic; suspended sediment; watershed management.

  19. Freeze concentration of proteins in Antarctic krill wash water (United States)

    Qi, Xiangming; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Kuo; Guo, Hui; Ma, Lei


    Water-washing removes fluoride from Antarctic krill but produces large volumes of wash water containing water- soluble proteins and fluoride. The freeze concentration method was tested to determine if it could be used to recover water-soluble proteins while leaving the fluoride in solution. After freezing and thawing the wash water, protein and fluoride contents of the thawed fractions were determined to explore the melting regularity of components in the wash water. The highest concentration factors of protein and fluoride were obtained after 80 min of thawing, such as 1.48 ± 0.06 and 1.35 ± 0.04 times, respectively. The free amino-nitrogen (FAN) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern results revealed that the highest concentrations of all ingredients were obtained after 80 min of the process. The degree of hydrolysis of all fractions from the thawing process fluctuated in a narrow range around 12% during the entire process, indicating that the thawing order did not change with various proteins or time during the entire thawing course. These results demonstrate that the freeze concentration method can be used to concentrate protein solutions, even those with fluoride. It was concluded that condensation was achieved and no ingredient could be separated, regardless of fluoride, amino acids, or different proteins in the water.

  20. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs. (United States)

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A


    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  1. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components ...

  2. ignas semmelweis: the doctor who championed hand -washing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the high contrasting statistics and several causes were attributed. He also noted that women who gave birth in the street never got the fever. The two clinics ... washing. However his doctrine was finally accepted by medical science and became a pillar in infection control and hailed by Joseph Lister the father of modern.

  3. The population of coloured textile fibres in domestic washing machines. (United States)

    Watt, Rebecca; Roux, Claude; Robertson, James


    A population survey was carried out to analyse examples of the coloured fibre population that may be expected to exist in both front- and top-loading domestic washing machines during Spring, in Sydney, Australia. White cotton T-shirts were washed both individually, and with a normal household wash load, then taped to recover extraneous fibres transferred during the wash cycle. Twelve thousand one hundred and seventy-eight fibres were classified according to length, colour and generic class. Cotton fibres were most prevalent (69.4%), followed by man-made fibres (24.2%). The most common colour/generic class combinations were black/grey cotton (27%), blue cotton (20%) and red cotton (15.6%). Other combinations generally represented under 2% of the total fibre population. Two thirds (65.9%) of the recovered fibres were under 2 mm in length, the proportion of fibres decreasing with increasing fibre length. Variations in machine type did not affect the distribution of fibres with respect to fibre type, colour or length.

  4. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines. (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah A; Gaunt, Matthew C; Taylor, Susan M; Snead, Elizabeth C R


    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

  5. Effects of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on biochemical and microbiological quality of dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea). ... Results indicated that TBARS values increased significantly (p<0.05) from 1.39 mgMA/kg in fresh fish to 10.55 mgMA/kg in the market samples. The TVBN values increased ...

  6. Abstract: Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives Caring for Newborn Babies in Selected Health Facilities of the Eastern Province, Rwanda. ... No relationship between handwashing performance and participants' demographic factors was found; thus strategies focusing on the identified predictors of hand ...

  7. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest. (United States)

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E


    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    southern Arizona, the wash load concentration could be predicted by rainfall better than water discharge. Gellis (2013) studied the significant characteristics controlling the variability in storm generated suspended sediment loads and concen- trations in four watersheds with different land uses in humid-tropical Puerto Rico.

  9. assessment of soil wash and soil erodibility indices on miniature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 3, 1976 ... 1., University of Ibadan, Ibadan,. Mallo, I.I.Y. (1988), Slope morphology, soil property variation and rates of soil wash in an area in southern Zaria'. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis,. Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello. University, Zaria, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ...

  10. Effectiveness Of Different House-Hold Hand Washing Agents On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in infection control. Washing agents commonly in use were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, and imperial leather. The hands were inoculated (deliberate ...

  11. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi


    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  12. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls ...

  13. Comparative studies on dyeing rate migration and wash fastness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration and diffusion properties of synthesized azo dyes from 2-aminothiazole derivatives applied on commercial grade undyed cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) were investigated using dyeing conditions of 2% on weight of fabric (owf), 50:1 liquor ratio and subjected to ISO3 and ISO4 standard wash ...

  14. 49 CFR 393.78 - Windshield wiping and washing systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windshield wiping and washing systems. 393.78 Section 393.78 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION...

  15. Cultivation of freshwater microalgae in biodiesel wash water. (United States)

    Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; Sassi, Roberto; Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; Abrahão, Raphael


    Biodiesel wash water is a contaminating industrial effluent that must be treated prior to disposal. The use of this effluent as a low-cost alternative cultivation medium for microalgae could represent a viable supplementary treatment. We cultivated 11 microalgae species with potential use for biodiesel production to assess their growth capacities in biodiesel industrial washing waters. Only Monoraphidium contortum, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum sp., and one unidentified Chlorophyceae species grew effectively in that effluent. M. contortum showed the highest growth capacity and had the second highest fatty acid content (267.9 mg g(-1) of DW), predominantly producing palmitic (20.9%), 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic (14%), oleic (16.2%), linoleic (10.5%), and linolenic acids (23.2%). In the second phase of the experiment, the microalgae were cultivated in biodiesel wash water at 75% of its initial concentration as well as in WC (control) medium. After 21 days of cultivation, 25.8 and 7.2% of the effluent nitrate and phosphate were removed, respectively, and the chemical oxygen demand was diminished by 31.2%. These results suggest the possibility of cultivating biodiesel producing microalgae in industrial wash water effluents.

  16. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Washing fastness of dyed cotton fabrics by malachite green (MG) blended with nanosols composite of SiO2–TiO2 has been significantly enhanced. The nanoparticulate inorganic sols were prepared by acidcatalyzed hydrolysis of titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) in ethanol at room ...

  17. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County Kenya. D.M. Kavoo, S.H. Ali, A.B. Kihara, R.J. Kosgei, H Tweya, W Kizito, Omondi Ogutu, C.N. Tauta ...

  18. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F


    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, ...

  20. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  1. Osmotic Fragility in Stored Non-Detergent Washed Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic fragility (OF) of non-detergent washed erythrocytes was evaluated in Nigerian human male erythrocytes stored for 0h, 12h, 24h and 48h. Storage of these human erythrocytes for up to 24h did not significantly alter their membrane characteristics. Mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) diminished and correlated negatively ...

  2. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia (United States)

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul


    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  3. Bronchial wash cytology: A study on morphology and morphometry (United States)

    Rao, Shalinee; Rao, Shivani; Lal, Archana; Barathi, Gunabooshanam; Dhanasekar, Thangaswamy; Duvuru, Prathiba


    Background: Bronchial wash cytology of lung lesions is a non/minimally invasive procedure utilized for diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial wash cytology in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary lesions and assess the role of morphometry in categorizing dysplastic/malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: All cases of bronchial wash cytology received from January 2006 to June 2010 were retrieved and reviewed. Cases with adequate clinical data or a subsequent biopsy were selected for the study and cytodiagnosis was correlated with available clinical details. Morphometry was done on alcohol fixed hematoxylin and eosin stained cytosmears using computer assisted Image Pro software. Results: One hundred and seventy-six cases of the 373 cases of bronchial cytology received were included for the study. Bronchial wash cytology technique showed high specificity. Cytohistopathology correlation showed 62.06% concordance rate. Cells from normal epithelium, reactive atypia, neoplastic atypia, squamous metaplasia, non-small cell and small cell carcinoma showed a mean nuclear diameter of 7.4 μm, 11.7 μm, 13.9 μm, 13.0 μm, 10.7 μm, and 17.7 μm, respectively, which was statistically significant with P < 0.05. Multiple comparisons between various groups using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests also showed remarkable statistical significance. Conclusions: Bronchial wash cytology has low sensitivity in detecting pulmonary lesions. It can be of value in patients with contraindication for biopsy. Morphometry can be a useful adjunct to cytomorphology, especially in situations where biopsy is contraindicated. PMID:25210231

  4. Volcanic eruptions; energy and size (United States)

    de la Cruz-Reyna, S.


    The Earth is a dynamic planet. Many different processes are continuously developing, creating a delicate balance between the energy stored and generated in its interior and the heat lost into space. The heat in continuously transferred through complex self-regulating convection mechanisms on a planetary scale. The distribution of terrestrial heat flow reveals some of the fine structure of the energy transport mechanisms in the outer layers of the Earth. Of these mechanisms in the outer layers of the Earth. Of these mechanisms, volcanism is indeed the most remarkable, for it allows energy to be transported in rapid bursts to the surface. In order to maintain the subtle balance of the terrestrial heat machine, one may expect that some law or principle restricts the ways in which these volcanic bursts affect the overall energy transfer of the Earth. For instance, we know that the geothermal flux of the planet amounts to 1028 erg/year. On the other hand, a single large event like the Lava Creek Tuff eruption that formed Yellowstone caldera over half a million years ago may release the same amount of energy in a very small area, over a short period of time. 

  5. Monogenetic volcanism in the Cordillera Central of Colombia: unknown volcanic fields associated with the northernmost Andes' volcanic chain related subduction (United States)

    Murcia, Hugo; Borrero, Carlos; Németh, Károly


    Monogenetic volcanic fields are commonly related to rifts and/or intraplate tectonic settings. However, although less common, they appear also associated with subduction zones, including both front and back-arc volcanoes. To nourish this uncommon tectonic location, it is shown here that monogenetic volcanic fields, in addition to polygenetic volcanoes, also appear at the northernmost part of the Andes Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) (2° S to 4°30´N). These fields are associated with the main axe of the Quaternary active volcanic structures; they are linked to the polygenetic Cerro Bravo - Cerro Machín Volcanic Chain ( 80 km long; CBCMVC) in Colombia, the chain that hosts the iconic Nevado del Ruiz volcano. To the present, three monogenetic volcanic fields, with a typical calc-alkaline signature, have been identified in both sides of this chain: 1) Villamaría - Termales Monogenetic Volcanic Field (VTMVF) located to the northwestern part (>5 km) of the CBCMVC. This field is made up of at least 14 volcanoes aligned with the Villamaría - Termales fault zone. The volcanism has been mainly effusive, represented by lava domes and some lava flows. The volcanoes are andesitic to dacitic in composition. It is inferred that the magmatic source is a magma chamber close to Nevado del Ruiz volcano. Based on stratigraphic relationships, it is assumed that the last eruption occurred 10 wt.%) in the whole CBCMVC. Its source is related to the same magmas that feed the volcanoes in the CBCMVC. Stratigraphic relationships show that the volcanoes are younger than the underlying alluvial and volcaniclastic Ibagué fan (<1 Ma). Overall, it is clear that monogenetic volcanic fields are not atypical in the area, although their relationship with the magmatism feeding the polygenetic arc of the Andes' volcanic chain related subduction, is still unknown.

  6. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions. (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C


    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of magmatic loads and rift jumps in generating seaward dipping reflectors on volcanic rifted margins (United States)

    Buck, W. Roger


    The largest volcanic constructs on Earth are the seismically imaged seaward dipping reflector (SDR) units found offshore of many rifted continental margins, including most that border the Atlantic Ocean. Whether their formation requires large magnitude (i.e. 10 s of km) of normal fault slip or results from the deflection of the lithosphere by the weight of volcanic flows is controversial. Though there is evidence for faulting associated with some SDRs, this paper considers the range of structures that can be produced by magmatic and volcanic loading alone. To do this an idealized mechanical model for the construction of rift-related volcanic flow structures is developed. Dikes open as plates move away from the center of a model rift and volcanic flows fill the depression produced by the load caused by dike solidification. The thin elastic plate flexure approximation allows a closed form description of the shape of both the contacts between flows and between the flows and underlying dikes. The model depends on two independent parameters: the flexure parameter, α, and the maximum isostatically supported extrusive layer thickness, w0. For reasonable values of these parameters the model reproduces the observed down-dip thickening of flows and the range of reflector dip angles. A numerical scheme using the analytic results allows simulation of the effect of temporal changes in the locus of magmatic spreading as well as changes in the amount of volcanic infill. Either jumps in the location of the center of diking or periods with no volcanism result in separate units or "packages" of model SDRs, in which the flow-dike contact dips landward, consistent with observations previously attributed only to listric normal fault offset. When jumps in the spreading center are small (i.e. less than α) they result in thicker, narrower volcanic units on one side of a rift compared to those on the other side. This is similar to the asymmetric distributions of volcanic packages seen

  8. Soils of volcanic regions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnalds, O.; Bartoli, F.; Buurman, P.; Oskarsson, H.; Stoops, G.; García-Rodeja, E.


    Soils of volcanic areas often exhibit unique properties differentiating them from other soils on Earth. This book gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. It covers a range of issues such as mineralogy, chemistry,

  9. Optical properties of volcanic ash: improving remote sensing observations. (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick; Colarco, Peter; Aquila, Valentina; Krotkov, Nickolay; Bleacher, Jake; Garry, Brent; Young, Kelsey; Rocha Lima, Adriana; Martins, Vanderlei; Carn, Simon


    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation.

  10. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  11. Volcanic unrest and hazard communication in Long Valley Volcanic Region, California (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McNutt, Stephen R.


    The onset of volcanic unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, in 1980 and the subsequent fluctuations in unrest levels through May 2016 illustrate: (1) the evolving relations between scientists monitoring the unrest and studying the underlying tectonic/magmatic processes and their implications for geologic hazards, and (2) the challenges in communicating the significance of the hazards to the public and civil authorities in a mountain resort setting. Circumstances special to this case include (1) the sensitivity of an isolated resort area to media hype of potential high-impact volcanic and earthquake hazards and its impact on potential recreational visitors and the local economy, (2) a small permanent population (~8000), which facilitates face-to-face communication between scientists monitoring the hazard, civil authorities, and the public, and (3) the relatively frequent turnover of people in positions of civil authority, which requires a continuing education effort on the nature of caldera unrest and related hazards. Because of delays associated with communication protocols between the State and Federal governments during the onset of unrest, local civil authorities and the public first learned that the U.S. Geological Survey was about to release a notice of potential volcanic hazards associated with earthquake activity and 25-cm uplift of the resurgent dome in the center of the caldera through an article in the Los Angeles Times published in May 1982. The immediate reaction was outrage and denial. Gradual acceptance that the hazard was real required over a decade of frequent meetings between scientists and civil authorities together with public presentations underscored by frequently felt earthquakes and the onset of magmatic CO2 emissions in 1990 following a 11-month long earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain on the southwest rim of the caldera. Four fatalities, one on 24 May 1998 and three on 6 April 2006, underscored the hazard posed by the CO2

  12. Active Volcanism on Io as Seen by Galileo SSI (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Geissler, P.; Simonelli, D.P.; Carr, M.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Senske, D.A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Schubert, G.


    -150 km high, long-lived, associated with high-temperature hot spots) may result from silicate lava flows or shallow intrusions interacting with near-surface SO2. A major and surprising result is that ~30 of Io's volcanic vents glow in the dark at the short wavelengths of SSI. These are probably due to thermal emission from surfaces hotter than 700 K (with most hotter than 1000 K), well above the temperature of pure sulfur volcanism. Active silicate volcanism appears ubiquitous. There are also widespread diffuse glows seen in eclipse, related to the interaction of energetic particles with the atmosphere. These diffuse glows are closely associated with the most active volcanic vents, supporting suggestions that Io's atmopshere is dominated by volcanic outgassing. Globally, volcanic centers are rather evenly distributed. However, 14 of the 15 active plumes seen by Voyager and/or Galileo are within 30?? of the equator, and there are concentrations of glows seen in eclipse at both the sub- and antijovian points. These patterns might be related to asthenospheric tidal heating or tidal stresses. Io will continue to be observed during the Galileo Europa Mission, which will climax with two close flybys of Io in late 1999. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  13. A Field Trip Guide to the Petrology of Quaternary Volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Stelten, Mark; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Cooper, Kari M


    The Yellowstone Plateau is one of the largest manifestations of silicic volcanism on Earth, and marks the youngest focus of magmatism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The earliest products of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism are from ~17 million years ago, but may be as old as ~32 Ma, and include contemporaneous eruption of voluminous mafic and silicic magmas, which are mostly located in the region of northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. Since 17 Ma, the main locus of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism has migrated northeastward producing numerous silicic caldera complexes that generally remain active for ~2–4 million years, with the present-day focus being the Yellowstone Plateau. Northeastward migration of volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot resulted in the formation of the Snake River Plain, a low relief physiographic feature extending ~750 kilometers from northern Nevada to eastern Idaho. Most of the silicic volcanic centers along the Snake River Plain have been inundated by younger basalt volcanism, but many of their ignimbrites and lava flows are exposed in the extended regions at the margins of the Snake River Plain. 

  14. A field trip guide to the petrology of Quaternary volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Stelten, Mark; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Cooper, Kari


    The Yellowstone Plateau is one of the largest manifestations of silicic volcanism on Earth, and marks the youngest focus of magmatism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The earliest products of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism are from ~17 million years ago, but may be as old as ~32 Ma, and include contemporaneous eruption of voluminous mafic and silicic magmas, which are mostly located in the region of northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. Since 17 Ma, the main locus of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism has migrated northeastward producing numerous silicic caldera complexes that generally remain active for ~2–4 million years, with the present-day focus being the Yellowstone Plateau. Northeastward migration of volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot resulted in the formation of the Snake River Plain, a low relief physiographic feature extending ~750 kilometers from northern Nevada to eastern Idaho. Most of the silicic volcanic centers along the Snake River Plain have been inundated by younger basalt volcanism, but many of their ignimbrites and lava flows are exposed in the extended regions at the margins of the Snake River Plain. 

  15. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, B.W.


    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10/sup -9//km/sup 2//y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10/sup -7//y.

  16. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa


    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is the most effective method of preventing the transmission of diseases through hands. Objective: To identify relationships between gender, availability of hand washing facilities, perception of barriers toward hand washing compliance and subjective norm in implementing hand washing practice among students of public elementary school in Belitung district, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional research study was used in this study. Of 309 participants were recruited in 11 public elementary schools from 3 sub districts that has been implemented the hand washing program in Belitung, Indonesia. Purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. This study was used a self-administered questionnaire with minimal interference in order to minimize bias and by emphasizing to the students that this is not an examination. Results: The results showed that 71.8% of the students were not hand washing properly. It also showed that availability of hand washing facilities and gender were not related with hand washing behavior. In regards of barrier perception toward hand washing compliance also showed that was not related to hand washing practice among elementary schools students. However, subjective norm (χ² =4.459, p < .05 was related to hand washing practice among elementary schools students. Conclusion: Subjective norm has a significant relationship to hand washing behavior. Thus health care provider could develop specific intervention programs based on TPB to promote subjective norm among elementary schools students since this norm or perception of norm can motivate hand washing behavior among elementary schools students effectively.

  18. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.


    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  19. Io Eclipse/Volcanic Eruption (United States)


    This image was acquired while Io was in eclipse (in Jupiter's shadow) during Galileo's eighth orbit, and reveals several dynamic processes. The most intense features are red, while glows of lesser intensity are yellow or green, and very faint glows appear blue in this color-coded image. The small red or yellow spots mark the sites of high-temperature magma erupting onto the surface in lava flows or lava lakes.This image reveals a field of bright spots near Io's sub-Jupiter point (right-hand side of image). The sub-Jupiter hemisphere always faces Jupiter just as the Moon's nearside always faces Earth. There are extended diffuse glows on the equatorial limbs or edges of the planet (right and left sides). The glow on the left is over the active volcanic plume Prometheus, but whereas Prometheus appears to be 75 kilometers (46.6 miles) high in reflected light, here the diffuse glow extends about 800 kilometers (497 miles) from Io's limb. This extended glow indicates that gas or small particles reach much greater heights than the dense inner plume. The diffuse glow on the right side reaches a height of 400 kilometers (249 miles), and includes a prominence with a plume-like shape. However, no volcanic plume has been seen at this location in reflected light. This type of observation is revealing the relationships between Io's volcanism, atmosphere and exosphere.Taken on May 6, 1997, north is toward the top. The image was taken with the clear filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft at a range of 1.8 million kilometers (1.1 million miles).The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL Background information and educational

  20. Comparison of hand hygiene monitoring using the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method versus a wash in-wash out method. (United States)

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Meranda, David; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Zabarsky, Trina F; McKee, Melissa; Macinga, David R; Donskey, Curtis J


    One strategy to promote improved hand hygiene is to monitor health care workers' adherence to recommended practices and give feedback. For feasibility of monitoring, many health care facilities assess hand hygiene practices on room entry and exit (wash in-wash out). It is not known if the wash in-wash out method is comparable with a more comprehensive approach, such as the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method. During a 1-month period, a surreptitious observer monitored hand hygiene compliance simultaneously using the wash in-wash out and My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene methods. For 283 health care worker room entries, the methods resulted in similar rates of hand hygiene compliance (70% vs 72%, respectively). The wash in-wash out method required 148 hand hygiene events not required by the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method (ie, before and after room entry with no patient or environmental contact) while not providing monitoring for 89 hand hygiene opportunities in patient rooms. The monitoring methods resulted in similar overall rates of hand hygiene compliance. Use of the wash in-wash out method should include ongoing education and intermittent assessment of hand hygiene before clean procedures and after body fluid exposure in patient rooms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The NASA Applied Sciences Program: Volcanic Ash Observations and Applications (United States)

    Murray, John J.; Fairlie, Duncan; Green, David; Haynes, John; Krotkov, Nickolai; Meyer, Franz; Pavolonis, Mike; Trepte, Charles; Vernier, Jean-Paul


    Since 2000, the NASA Applied Sciences Program has been actively transitioning observations and research to operations. Particular success has been achieved in developing applications for NASA Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) sensors, integrated observing systems, and operational models for volcanic ash detection, characterization, and transport. These include imager applications for sensors such as the MODerate resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) on NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NASA/NOAA Suomi NPP satellite; sounder applications for sensors such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi NPP; UV applications for the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) on the NASA Aura Satellite and the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) on Suomi NPP including Direct readout capabilities from OMI and OMPS in Alaska (GINA) and Finland (FMI):; and lidar applications from the Caliop instrument coupled with the imaging IR sensor on the NASA/CNES CALIPSO satellite. Many of these applications are in the process of being transferred to the Washington and Alaska Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) where they support operational monitoring and advisory services. Some have also been accepted, transitioned and adapted for direct, onboard, automated product production in future U.S. operational satellite systems including GOES-R, and in automated volcanic cloud detection, characterization and alerting tools at the VAACs. While other observations and applications remain to be developed for the current constellation of NASA EOS sensors and integrated with observing and forecast systems, future requirements and capabilities for volcanic ash observations and applications are also being developed. Many of these are based on technologies currently being tested on NASA aircraft, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and balloons. All of these efforts and the potential advances

  2. The in vitro effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green on Enterococcus faecalis: Influence of a washing vs non-washing procedure. (United States)

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Parker, Steven; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of washing and non-washing of indocyanine green (ICG) as photosensitizer (PS) on bacterial count, biofilm formation, development and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis. The anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm formation, anti-biofilm development and biofilm degradation of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against E. faecalis was determined at concentrations of 3 to 2000μg/mL of ICG, subject to 18J/cm(2) dose of diode laser (808nm) in washing and non-washing producers. Bacterial viability measurements and biofilm assays were evaluated by broth microdilution method and crystal violet assays, respectively. ICG-mediated aPDT, using 25 to 2000μg/mL and 50 to 2000μg/mL showed significant reduction in E. faecalis growth when compared to the control in non-washing and washing producers, respectively (Pfaecalis in concentration of 6 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups (P<0.05). The biofilm development was inhibited by concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups. The biofilm degradation increased from concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 250 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups, respectively. This study shows that the application of ICG should be accompanied by laser irradiation without being washed out to achieve better result for bacterial count reduction and anti-biofilm effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure of the Volcanic Vent Distribution of the Cascades Arc from a New Database of Holocene and Pleistocene Volcanism, with Focus on Pre-Caldera Monogenetic Volcanism at Mount Mazana, Oregon (United States)

    Loh, L.; Karlstrom, L.; Ramsey, D. W.; Wright, H. M.


    The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, USA,reflects modulation of time-varying mantle melt influx by crustal magmatic plumbing and tectonic forces. The relative contribution of spatio-temporal source variations versus crustal focusing in generating the observed distribution of vents is poorly constrained. To identify patterns in preserved eruptive products and validate models for crustal magma transport we have assembled the most complete database of Cascades volcanism to date. Our database contains >2900 volcanic vent locations from the Holocene and Pleistocene, and includes vent types, ages, and major element geochemistry of eruptive products from the Holocene and Pleistocene. Bulk geochemistry is obtained from USGS Professional Papers and the American Volcanic and Intrusive Rock Database (NAVDAT). We also include arc-wide heat flow data, modeled ambient noise crustal seismic tomography and crust thickness interpolated to each vent. We perform spectral clustering on vent locations to define volcanic centers for the Holocene and Pleistocene. Centers found through Spectral Clustering reproduce the major loci of volcanism in the Cascades, and show time-varying structure in the number, type and distribution eruptions. There is significant North-South variation in vent type and distribution that correlates with variations in heat flow, bulk silica content and average crustal shear velocity. Although precise eruption ages for the complete dataset are not yet available, Mount Mazama, OR, has a well-resolved time/composition/volume/location history of eruptions <400 ka that allow for further analysis. The spatial distribution of Mazamaeruptive units does not follow a Poisson distribution when well resolved in time, but rather clusters around an evolved center that exhibits progressively more evolved eruptive products in time. Monogenetic eruptions preceding the 7.8 ka Crater Lake eruption define a spatial and temporal pattern that is

  4. Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing (United States)

    ... Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing Areas with lowest rates are in Africa, research ... that they do without, a new study finds. Hand-washing with soap can help prevent the spread of ...

  5. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene (United States)

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.


    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  6. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa


    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  8. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  9. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method. (United States)

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi


    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  11. Will Astronauts Wash Clothes on the Way to Mars? (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Jeng, Frank F.


    Future human space exploration missions will lengthen to years, and keeping crews clothed without a huge resupply burden is an important consideration for habitation systems. A space laundry system could be the solution; however, the resources it uses must be accounted for and must win out over the reliable practice of simply bringing along enough spare underwear. NASA has conducted trade-off studies through its Logistics Reduction Project to compare current space clothing systems, life extension of that clothing, traditional water-based clothes washing, and other sanitizing techniques. The best clothing system depends on the mission and assumptions but, in general, analysis results indicate that washing clothes on space missions will start to pay off as mission durations approach a year.

  12. Large Volume 18O-depleted Rhyolitic Volcanism: the Bruneau-Jarbidge Volcanic Field, Idaho (United States)

    Boroughs, S.; Wolff, J.; Bonnichsen, B.; Godchaux, M. M.; Larson, P. B.


    The Bruneau-Jarbidge (BJ) volcanic field is located in southern Idaho at the intersection of the western and eastern arms of the Snake River Plain. The BJ region is an oval structural basin of about 6000 km2, and is likely a system of nested caldera and collapse structures similar to, though larger than, the Yellowstone Volcanic Plateau. BJ rocks are high-temperature rhyolite tuffs, high-temperature rhyolite lavas, and volumetrically minor basalts. Exposed volumes of individual rhyolite units range up to greater than 500 km3. We have analyzed feldspar and, where present, quartz from 30 rhyolite units emplaced throughout the history of the BJ center. All, including the Cougar Point Tuff, are 18O depleted (δ 18OFSP = -1.3 to 3.7‰ ), while petrographically, temporally, and chemically similar lavas erupted along the nearby Owyhee Front have "normal" rhyolite magmatic δ 18O values of 7 - 9‰ . There is no evidence for significant modification of δ 18O values by post-eruptive alteration. No correlation exists between δ 18O and age, magmatic temperature, major element composition or trace element abundances among depleted BJ rhyolites. The BJ and WSRP rhyolites possess the geochemical characteristics (depressed Al, Ca, Eu, and Sr contents, high Ga/Al and K/Na) expected of liquids derived from shallow melting of calc-alkaline granitoids with residual plagioclase and orthopyroxene (Patino-Douce, Geology v.25 p.743-746, 1997). The classic Yellowstone low δ 18O rhyolites are post-caldera collapse lavas, but at BJ, both lavas and caldera-forming ignimbrites are strongly 18O-depleted. The total volume of low δ 18O rhyolite may be as high as 10,000 km3, requiring massive involvement of meteoric-hydrothermally altered crust in rhyolite petrogenesis. Regional hydrothermal modification of the crust under the thermal influence of the Yellowstone hotspot apparently preceded voluminous rhyolite generation at Bruneau-Jarbidge.

  13. Study of Soil Washing for Remediation of Pb and Zn Contaminated Coastal Landfill (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.


    As a result of analyzing the pre-treatment process of Pb, Zn in contaminated coastal landfill soil presented by Korean Soil Analysis Method, the each concentration was presented 577.00mg/kg, 3894.34mg/kg. This soil was critically contaminated with Pb and Zn because it was exceeded the Standard of soil contamination(2area: Pb-400mg/kg, Zn-600mg/kg). Soil remediation efficiency of the soil washing process for the removal of Pb and Zn was determined to be consistent with the results. The batch experiment on the several washing solutions(HCl, HNO3), washing solutions concentrations(0.1-0.8M) and the ratio of soil vs. solution for soil washing(1:3, 1:5 and 1:10) was performed. The results of experiments, washing time was appropriate in 30 minutes. The removal efficiency of soil washing increased as the ratio of soil vs. washing solution increased. But, in the case of heavy metals, the soil vs. solution for soil washing was determined as the optimal ratio of 1 : 5. Five consecutive soil washing with 0.5M of HCl and HNO3 solutions were performed. Results of experiments, in case of Pb was removed by target removal efficiency from soil on the twice washing. With in case of Zn was over on the first washing by target removal efficiency, but suggesting that twice consecutive soil washing is desirable as stability at field. Results of consecutive soil washing experiments, the removal efficiency maintained lower than 10 % after the 4th washing. From the results, demanding consecutive washing is not recommended. Results about the heavy metal contaminated soil washing experiments of the coastal landfill, in the case of HCl with more than 0.5 M of solution was performed at 1:5 of soil ratio vs. solution, 30 minutes of washing time and 2-3 consecutive soil washing. And in the case of HNO3 with 0.8 M of solution was performed various ratios of soil vs. washing solution, suggesting that 2-3 consecutive soil washing was reached to Pb and Zn target removal efficiency. Key words

  14. Characteristics of penicillinase release by washed cells of Bacillus licheniformis. (United States)

    Sargent, M G; Ghosh, B K; Lampen, J O


    Saline-washed cells of Bacillus licheniformis strain 749/C (constitutive for penicillinase) were able to release exopenicillinase in the presence of concentrations of chloramphenicol that prevented protein synthesis completely. The release reaction was strongly pH-dependent, occurring at a faster rate at alkaline pH in anionic or cationic buffers than at neutral pH. A strongly pH-dependent release reaction was noted in growing cells also. The reaction in washed cells can be stopped completely by changing the pH to 6.0. Within 30 min at pH 9.0, about 55% of the cell-bound penicillinase was released; thereafter, release continued at a greatly reduced rate. Suspensions of washed cells retained their capacity to release penicillinase at pH 9.0 for 90 min. Penicillinase released at pH 9.0 from either cells or protoplasts was not readsorbed over a 60-min period after changing the pH to 6.0. The release reaction was strongly temperature-dependent. We examined the effect of a large number of metabolic inhibitors and other compounds on the pH-dependent release phenomenon. Quinacrine hydrochloride, chloroquine diphosphate, and chlorpromazine hydrochloride reduced secretion substantially at 10(-4)m. Deoxycholate and Triton X-100 were active at 10(-3)m, but tungstate, arsenate, and molybdate had small effects at 10(-1)m. The rate of exopenicillinase release at pH 9.0 from fully stabilized protoplasts was one-half that of intact cells. Protoplasts lysed in hypotonic media or detergents showed even greater reduction in releasing activity. Penicillinase released from washed cells at pH 7.5 or 9.0 appeared to be derived from the periplasmic tubule and vesicle fraction that was released by protoplast formation.

  15. Human papillomavirus gene sequences in washed human sperm deoxyribonucleic acid. (United States)

    Chan, P J; Su, B C; Kalugdan, T; Seraj, I M; Tredway, D R; King, A


    The present study demonstrated the presence of HPV gene sequences in Percoll-washed sperm cells using polymerase chain reaction primers targeting smaller gene regions. Up to 64% of the sperm specimens were shown to contain gene sequences indicative of the presence of HPV. Human papillomavirus type 16 was detected about twice as often as HPV type 18. The results suggest the possible role of sperm as a vector for HPV.

  16. Effects of Types of Washing and Peeling in Relation to Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes


    Andrade,Graziela C. R. M.; Monteiro, Sérgio H.; Francisco,Jeane G.; Figueiredo,Leila A.; Rocha, Aderbal A.; Tornisielo,Valdemar L


    Tomatoes are widely consumed and most often without cooking, therefore it is important to estimate the reduction of residues using simple washing procedures. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of household processing such as: washing with water, washing with 10% of vinegar solution and washing with 10% of sodium bicarbonate solution on pesticide residue levels of acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, diflubenzuron, dimethoate, fipronil, imidacloprid, procymidone and thiamethoxam, in s...



    Nazliansyah; Susheewa Wichaikull; Kanokwan Wetasin


    Background: Hand washing is the most effective method of preventing the transmission of diseases through hands. Objective: To identify relationships between gender, availability of hand washing facilities, perception of barriers toward hand washing compliance and subjective norm in implementing hand washing practice among students of public elementary school in Belitung district, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional research study was used in this study. Of 309 participants were recrui...

  18. Abdominopelvic washings in gynecologic pathology: A comprehensive review. (United States)

    Schulte, Jefree J; Lastra, Ricardo R


    Abdominopelvic washings (APW) performed during gynecologic surgeries have become a common specimen evaluated by cytopathologists. Their role in staging of female genital tract tumors has changed significantly since they were first described, and continue to evolve. The ability of these washings to detect microscopic disease, even in the absence of gross disease, warrants the critical role that these washings play in the staging of certain female gynecologic tract tumors, allowing for optimal staging and subsequent treatment of the patient. Irrespective of the underlying pathology, the gamut of cytomorphologic findings that may be observed in APW is extensive, and ranges from benign lesions that may act as mimickers of malignancy, to both common and rare malignancies. This review discusses the changing role of APW in the staging of gynecologic tumors, and highlights the salient cytomorphologic features of these lesions, with emphasis in their correct identification, including cautionary notes to avoid over or misinterpretation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1039-1057. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Food washing and placer mining in captive great apes. (United States)

    Allritz, Matthias; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep


    Sweet potato washing and wheat placer mining in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are among the most well known examples of local traditions in non-human animals. The functions of these behaviors and the mechanisms of acquisition and spread of these behaviors have been debated frequently. Prompted by animal caretaker reports that great apes [chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii)] at Leipzig Zoo occasionally wash their food, we conducted a study of food washing behaviors that consisted of two parts. In the first part we assessed the current distribution of the behavior on the basis of caretaker reports. In the second (experimental) part, we provided subjects individually with a water basin and two types of food (apples and cereal) that was either clean or covered/mixed with sand. We found that subjects of all species (except gorillas) placed apples in the water before consumption, and that they did so more often when the apples were dirty than when they were clean. Several chimpanzees and orangutans also engaged in behaviors resembling wheat placer mining.

  20. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers. (United States)

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan


    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  1. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines... (United States)


    ...; (Washing Machines): Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool), operator of Subzone 8I... standard and high capacity washing machines using certain imported components. The current request would add subassemblies and other unfinished washing machine parts to the list of approved finished products...

  2. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.


    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood,

  3. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. (United States)


    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  4. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.


    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  5. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.


    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  6. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.


    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  7. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons


    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  8. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Volcanism of the Mexico Basin and Assessment of Volcanic Hazards in One of the World’s Largest Cities (United States)

    Layer, P. W.; Macías, J.; Arce, J.; García, F.


    The Mexico City metropolitan area is home to more than 22 million people living in sight of, or living on, several volcanoes that either are currently active or show evidence of Late Pleistocene-Holocene activity (e.g., pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches and lahars). The volcanic rocks are located in five main belts or ranges: Sierra Nevada, Sierra de las Cruces, Sierra Guadalupe, Sierra de Santa Catarina, and the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field which surround the Mexico Basin and belong to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, preserving approx. 14 Ma of geologic history. Much attention has been devoted to the youngest of the volcanoes such as Popocatépetl in the Sierra Nevada which resumed activity in 1994-present and Chichinautzin which includes the 1600 year bp Xitle volcano. Surprisingly, the pre-Holocene history is not well constrained in the Mexico City area, due of the lack of detailed mapping coupled with high precision geochronology. Our new 40Ar/39Ar and petrologic data and detailed mapping focus on the earliest history of these volcanic systems and their temporal, spatial and geochemical evolution. For example, data from Tlaloc and Telapón volcanoes in the Sierra Nevada show at least two significant periods of edifice building (1.0 to 1.5 Ma and 0 to 400 ka) with an apparent long period of quiescence that clearly suggests that volcanism in the region did not migrate from north to south but that it has a more complex evolution that continues to pose a serious threat to the population of Mexico City. In addition, a 450 ka age, based on dome and pumice dating, constrains the timing of a major sector collapse of Iztaccíhuatl volcano that produced a Mt. St. Helens - sized debris avalanche deposit towards the present metropolitan area of the City of Puebla. In the Sierra de las Cruces Range, volcanic centers do show a north-south age progression from ~5 Ma, cumulating with the Zempoala edifice collapse approximately 900 ka, producing lahars and block and ash

  9. Volcanism and an Ancient Atmosphere on the Moon (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    One of the distinguishing features of the Moon is its flimsy atmosphere, which has a pressure 300 trillion times smaller than Earth's pressure at sea level. The density is so low that gas molecules rarely collide and readily escape into space. Micrometeorites hit the surface at their full cosmic velocities and the solar wind implants hydrogen, helium, carbon, and other elements into the dusty lunar surface. This airless body has been like this for billions of years. However, Debra Needham (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center) and David Kring (Center for Lunar Science and Exploration at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston) show that the Moon probably had a significant atmosphere for about 70 million years during the peak production rate of the lunar maria 3.5 billion years ago. The maria (dark regions that decorate the lunar nearside) are composed of overlapping lava flows. Needham and Kring show that the lavas would have transported sufficient volatiles such as carbon monoxide, sulfur gases, and H2O to the surface to create an atmosphere. The volcanism would have released about 20 quadrillion kilograms of gases, creating an atmosphere with a pressure 50% higher than in the current Martian atmosphere. Calculations show that the loss rate to space from this atmosphere would have been 10 kilograms per second, implying that it would take about 70 million years to remove this volcanically produced atmosphere.

  10. Caldera volcanoes of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Wilson, C. J. N.; Rogan, A. M.; Smith, I. E. M.; Northey, D. J.; Nairn, I. A.; Houghton, B. F.


    The Taupo volcanic zone (TVZ) has been active since 2 Ma and has erupted >104 km3 of dominantly rhyolitic magma during the last 1 m.y. Most of the volcanism is concentrated in a 125×60 km area forming the central TVZ and is expressed largely as six major caldera volcanoes, Rotorua, Okataina, Kapenga, Mangakino, Maroa, and Taupo, marked by localized collapse of the underlying basement and clustering of known or inferred vent sites. These centers have activity spans from 150 to 600 ka and have each erupted at least 300 to 1000 km3 of magma. All centers except Rotorua are known or inferred to have had complex histories of multiple caldera collapse, which have occurred alongside general basement collapse within the TVZ accompanying regional extension. Deep-seated NE trending basement lineations and/or faults have influenced vent sites at Okataina, Maroa, and Taupo. Welded ignimbrites are prominent in the pre-140 ka record; their absence since then is attributed to the effects of surface water on eruption styles rather than to a change in eruptive behavior. Volcanism from the centers has been overwhelmingly rhyolitic (>97% SiO2 69-77 wt%) with minor high-A1 basalt and dacite and traces of andesite, mostly as lithic fragments in ignimbrites from Okataina and Mangakino. Although insignificant in volume, the basalt is important as a low-Si end-member in mixing relationships with the rhyolite (at one extreme generating the dacites) and occasionally as a trigger for the rhyolitic eruptions. The current average rhyolite magma eruption rate from the central TVZ is ˜0.27 m3 s-1, equally divided between Okataina and Taupo, a figure close to the long-term average for the last 1.1 Ma. However, geothermal heat flow data imply that a further 1.4-1.8 m3 s-1 of magma may be intruded within the crust. The ratio of inferred intruded material to erupted material is higher at centers where lava extrusions are volumetrically significant (Okataina, Maroa), and this is correlated with

  11. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  12. Palaeoclimate: Volcanism caused ancient global warming (United States)

    Meissner, Katrin J.; Bralower, Timothy J.


    A study confirms that volcanism set off one of Earth's fastest global-warming events. But the release of greenhouse gases was slow enough for negative feedbacks to mitigate impacts such as ocean acidification. See Letter p.573

  13. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  14. Volcanic rock properties control sector collapse events (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Hornby, Adrian; Di Toro, Giulio


    Volcanoes constructed by superimposed layers of varying volcanic materials are inherently unstable structures. The heterogeneity of weak and strong layers consisting of ash, tephra and lavas, each with varying coherencies, porosities, crystallinities, glass content and ultimately, strength, can promote volcanic flank and sector collapses. These volcanoes often exist in areas with complex regional tectonics adding to instability caused by heterogeneity, flank overburden, magma movement and emplacement in addition to hydrothermal alteration and anomalous geothermal gradients. Recent studies conducted on the faulting properties of volcanic rocks at variable slip rates show the rate-weakening dependence of the friction coefficients (up to 90% reduction)[1], caused by a wide range of factors such as the generation of gouge and frictional melt lubrication [2]. Experimental data from experiments conducted on volcanic products suggests that frictional melt occurs at slip rates similar to those of plug flow in volcanic conduits [1] and the bases of mass material movements such as debris avalanches from volcanic flanks [3]. In volcanic rock, the generation of frictional heat may prompt the remobilisation of interstitial glass below melting temperatures due to passing of the glass transition temperature at ˜650-750 ˚C [4]. In addition, the crushing of pores in high porosity samples can lead to increased comminution and strain localisation along slip surfaces. Here we present the results of friction tests on both high density, glass rich samples from Santaguito (Guatemala) and synthetic glass samples with varying porosities (0-25%) to better understand frictional properties underlying volcanic collapse events. 1. Kendrick, J.E., et al., Extreme frictional processes in the volcanic conduit of Mount St. Helens (USA) during the 2004-2008 eruption. J. Structural Geology, 2012. 2. Di Toro, G., et al., Fault lubrication during earthquakes. Nature, 2011. 471(7339): p. 494-498. 3

  15. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling


    Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

    The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent

  16. Using high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to understand volcanic hazards within the Rio Grande rift and along the Jemez lineament, New Mexico (United States)

    Zimmerer, M. J.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Lafferty, J.


    High-precision Ar/Ar ages were generated for late Quaternary volcanic fields in the Rio Grande rift and along the Jemez Lineament, New Mexico, to assess the time-space patterns of volcanism and begin quantifying volcanic hazards for the region. The published chronology of most late Quaternary volcanic centers in the region is not sufficiently precise, accurate, or complete for a comprehensive volcanic hazard assessment. Ar/Ar ages generated as part of this study were determined using the high-sensitivity, multi-collector ARGUS VI mass spectrometer, which provides about an order of magnitude more precise isotopic measurements compared to older generation, single-detector mass spectrometers. Ar/Ar ages suggest an apparent increase in eruption frequency during the late Quaternary within the Raton-Clayton volcanic field, northeastern NM. Only four volcanoes erupted between 426±8 and 97±3 ka. Contrastingly, four volcanoes erupted between 55±2 and 32±5 ka. This last eruptive phase displays a west to east migration of volcanism, has repose periods of 0 to 17 ka, and an average recurrence rate of 1 eruption per 5750 ka. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, west-central NM, is composed of the ~100 late Quaternary basaltic vents. Preliminary results suggest that most of the Chain of Craters, the largest and oldest part of the Zuni-Bandera field, erupted between ~100 and 250 ka. Volcanism then migrated to the east, where published ages indicate at least seven eruptions between 50 and 3 ka. Both volcanic fields display a west to east migration of volcanism during the last ~500 ka, although the pattern is more pronounced in the Zuni-Bandera field. A reassessment of low-precision published ages for other late Quaternary volcanic fields in region indicates that most fields display a similar west to east migration of volcanism during the last ~500 ka. One possible mechanism to explain the observed patterns of volcanism is the westward migration of the North American plate relative

  17. Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing. PMID:23396332

  18. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing. (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Sampers, Imca; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

  19. Shape measurements of volcanic particles by CAMSIZER


    Lo Castro, Maria Deborah; Andronico, Daniele; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro; Torrisi, Alessio


    The shape of volcanic particles is an important parameter holding information related to physical and geochemical processes. The study of particle shape may help improving knowledge on the main eruptive processes (fragmentation, transport and sedimentation) during explosive activity. In general, volcanic ash is formed by different components, namely juvenile, lithic and crystal particles, each one characterized by peculiar morphology. Moreover, quantifying the shape of pyroclasts is needed by...

  20. About the Mechanism of Volcanic Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei


    A new approach to the volcanic eruption theory is proposed. It is based on a simple physical mechanism of the imbalance in the system "magma-crust-fluid". This mechanism helps to explain from unified positions the different types of volcanic eruptions. A criterion of imbalance and magma eruption is derived. Stratovolcano and caldera formation is analyzed. High explosive eruptions of the silicic magma is discussed

  1. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  2. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties. (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile


    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hand washing practices in urban and rural communities in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. (United States)

    Ray, S K; Dobe, M; Lahiri, A; Basu, S S


    Public health importance of hand washing was known since 19th century. Many researchers also highlighted how hand washing could bring down the incidence of diarrhea, ARI & other diseases. To find out the extent of hand washing as practiced by the community, to what extent suggested steps of hand washing was followed and to assess the changes in bacteriological count of hand before and after hand washing. A community based cross sectional study was carried out during January-February 2007 among 161 respondents in and around Kolkata through interview, observation of hand washing in some situations as well as carrying out microbiological test. 100% respondents interviewed practiced hand washing after defecation either with soap (59%) or with plain water, ash & mud (41%). But 64%, 51.6% and only 21.7% practiced hand washing before preparation of food; after using urinals; after changing the babies' nappies and disposing their feces respectively. Only 16.1% respondents washed their hands as per the recommended time of 15-30 seconds. Majority (75%) dried hands with apparently unclean materials. 90.7% followed step1 but none followed all the steps. Swab collection before and after hand washing revealed a decrease in colony count in 60% of the samples. It can be concluded that extent of desirable practices regarding hand washing is still lacking and needs to be emphasized.

  4. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study. (United States)

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu


    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  5. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona


    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time, poor adult modelling of regular hand washing and unattractive facilities were seen as important barriers to regular hand washing. Reminders and explanations for the importance of hand hygiene were thought to have a positive impact. Influencing individual choices about hand washing through education and information may be necessary, but not sufficient, for initiating and maintaining good hand washing practices. Structural factors, including having time to wash hands using accessible, clean facilities, and being encouraged through the existence of hand washing opportunities in the daily routine and hand washing being viewed as the social norm, will also influence hand washing behaviour. The effectiveness of educational interventions at improving hand hygiene in primary schools may be improved by changing priorities of staff and increasing accessibility to quality facilities. PMID:22623617

  6. Medical effects of volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Baxter, Peter J.


    Excluding famine and tsunamis, most deaths in volcanic eruptions have been from pyroclastic flows and surges (nuées ardentes) and wet debris flows (lahars). Information on the causes of death and injury in eruptions is sparse but the available literature is summarised for the benefit of volcanologists and emergency planners. In nuées, thermal injury may be at least as important as asphyxia in causing immediate deaths. The high temperature of the gases and entrained particles readily causes severe burns to the skin and the air passages and the presence of both types of injury in an individual may combine to increase the delayed mortality risk from respiratory complications or from infection of burns. Trauma from missiles or body displacement is also common, but the role of asphyxiant or irritant gases, and steam, remains unclear. The ratio of dead: injured is much higher than in other natural disasters. At the periphery of a nuée being protected inside buildings which remain intact appears to greatly increase the chances of survival. In lahars, infected wounds and crush injury are the main delayed causes of death, and the scope for preventive measures, other than evacuation, is small. The evidence from Mount St. Helens, 1980, and other major eruptions indicates that, although mortality is high within the main zone of devastation and in the open, emergency planning should concentrate on the periphery of a nuée where preventive measures are feasible and could save many lives in densely populated areas.

  7. Satellite Derived Volcanic Ash Product Inter-Comparison in Support to SCOPE-Nowcasting (United States)

    Siddans, Richard; Thomas, Gareth; Pavolonis, Mike; Bojinski, Stephan


    In support of aeronautical meteorological services, WMO organized a satellite-based volcanic ash retrieval algorithm inter-comparison activity, to improve the consistency of quantitative volcanic ash products from satellites, under the Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Nowcasting (SCOPEe Nowcasting) initiative (http:/ nowcasting_en.php). The aims of the intercomparison were as follows: 1. Select cases (Sarychev Peak 2009, Eyjafyallajökull 2010, Grimsvötn 2011, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle 2011, Kirishimayama 2011, Kelut 2014), and quantify the differences between satellite-derived volcanic ash cloud properties derived from different techniques and sensors; 2. Establish a basic validation protocol for satellite-derived volcanic ash cloud properties; 3. Document the strengths and weaknesses of different remote sensing approaches as a function of satellite sensor; 4. Standardize the units and quality flags associated with volcanic cloud geophysical parameters; 5. Provide recommendations to Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and other users on how to best to utilize quantitative satellite products in operations; 6. Create a "road map" for future volcanic ash related scientific developments and inter-comparison/validation activities that can also be applied to SO2 clouds and emergent volcanic clouds. Volcanic ash satellite remote sensing experts from operational and research organizations were encouraged to participate in the inter-comparison activity, to establish the plans for the inter-comparison and to submit data sets. RAL was contracted by EUMETSAT to perform a systematic inter-comparison of all submitted datasets and results were reported at the WMO International Volcanic Ash Inter-comparison Meeting to held on 29 June - 2 July 2015 in Madison, WI, USA (http:/ /cimss.ssec.wisc.edujmeetings/vol_ash14). 26 different data sets were submitted, from a range of passive imagers and spectrometers and

  8. [The responsibility schema in obsessive compulsive checking and washing]. (United States)

    Palermou, B; Efstathiou, G; Kalantzi-Azizi, A


    According to the theory of cognitive therapy, mental disorders are related to specific dysfunctional schemata, assumptions and automatic thoughts. Various pathogenic schemata have been identified in the context of the cognitive explanation of obsessive compulsive disorder, among which is the responsibily schema, proposed by Salkovskis in 1985. The responsibility schema has been defined as the belief that one possesses pivotal power to provoke or prevent subjective crucial negative outcomes. In order to investigate the relationship between the major obsessive compulsive themes and the cognitive schema of responsibility, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Responsibility Questionnaire were administered to a non-clinical sample of 366 college students. Two groups, consisting of 15 participants each, were identified having obsessive compulsive manifestations (complaints). The first group manifested obsessive compulsive checking and the second group manifested obsessive compulsive washing. No significant sex differences were found between the groups (x²=0.186, df=1, p>0.005), but significant age differences were observed (t=-2.41, df=19.68, pobsessive compulsive checking and washing on responsibility were analyzed. The findings seem to verify this relationship for obsessive compulsive checking (F=5.63, df=1.307, pobsessive-compulsive checking reported an increased sense of responsibility as compared to those who experienced obsessive-compulsive washing or were free of obsessive-compulsive manifestations. The available questionnaires did not allow the investigation of the relationship between other types of obsessive compulsive manifestations and responsibility. The use of a non-clinical sample should also be noted.

  9. The Application Queueing Theory in Singkil Service Car Wash


    Bongkriwan, Melisa Irene; Tumewu, Ferdinand


    In the service industry, long queuing will for waiting to be served is a taboo. Since, customers will switch to other competitors and reduce revenues. This research is conducted to find out the effectiveness and efficiency in queuing system in order to achieve customer satisfaction in the Singkil Service Car Wash. This research used model B M/M/S formula to get the average incoming customer. In normal condition, there were 2 customers and 3 line services, in the quiet condition, 1 customer an...

  10. Washing, Leaching, and Other Ways to Disturb Geochronological Samples (United States)

    Scherer, E. E.; Bast, R.


    Contamination effects in geochronology depend on the mass fraction of contaminant and how much its composition differs from that of the sample. Attempts to remove contamination range from gentle washing of grains in cold water or dilute acids to harsh leaching of powders in hot, concentrated acids. It is often assumed that 1) for the element(s) of interest, the portion contributed by contamination is more readily removed than that originally hosted by the target minerals, and 2) washing neither fractionates parent-daughter ratios nor changes the isotope composition of the daughter element by contamination or fractionation. The latter may even be relevant for Pb-Pb [1]. These assumptions are seldom tested. Leaching experiments and differences between variously treated aliquots of the same samples imply that they may not always hold, e.g., in the case of Lu-Hf: for grt [2], ol [3 cf. 4], and plag [3-6 cf. 7]. Similar issues may affect mineral separations done by "selective digestion" of grt [8] or ol [4], or "cleansing" grt of phosphate inclusions [9]. The effectiveness of washing procedures depends on the relative solubilities of the contamination host (salts, fine-grained silicates, or alteration products at grain boundaries and cracks) and the target mineral. We found that 2 M HNO3 was ineffective at removing terrestrial contamination from meteorite minerals, but did not adversely affect those minerals [10]. Whereas much has been done to understand washing, leaching, and stepwise dissolution, especially for U-Pb [11, 12] and Pb-Pb [13-15], there is still an urgent need for systematic testing of such methods to determine which are effective yet safe for other minerals and isotope systems. [1] Amelin et al. (2016) Goldschmidt, A57. [2] Scherer et al. (2000) GCA 64, 3413-3432. [3] Bast et al., GCA submitted. [4] Sanborn et al. (2015) GCA 171, 80-99. [5] Lundgaard et al. (2004) GCA 68 suppl, 738. [6] Thrane et al. (2006) MAPS 41, A173. [7] Bouvier et al., (2015) MAPS

  11. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  12. Hand washing with soap and WASH educational intervention reduces under-five childhood diarrhoea incidence in Jigjiga District, Eastern Ethiopia: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Hashi, Abdiwahab; Kumie, Abera; Gasana, Janvier


    Despite the tremendous achievement in reducing child mortality and morbidity in the last two decades, diarrhoea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Hand washing with soap promotion, water quality improvements and improvements in excreta disposal significantly reduces diarrhoeal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand washing with soap and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) educational Intervention on the incidence of under-five children diarrhoea. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 24 clusters (sub-Kebelles) in Jigjiga district, Somali region, Eastern Ethiopia from February 1 to July 30, 2015. The trial compared incidence of diarrhoea among under-five children whose primary caretakers receive hand washing with soap and water, sanitation, hygiene educational messages with control households. Generalized estimating equation with a log link function Poisson distribution family was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The results of this study show that the longitudinal adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of diarrhoeal diseases comparing interventional and control households was 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) suggesting an overall diarrhoeal diseases reduction of 35%. The results are similar to other trials of WASH educational interventions and hand washing with soap. In conclusion, hand washing with soap practice during critical times and WASH educational messages reduces childhood diarrhoea in the rural pastoralist area.

  13. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran (United States)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.


    The region in northeastern Iran, bordered by the Miami fault and the Doruneh fault, mainly exposes the Eocene volcanic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and sporadic outcrops of pre- Jurassic metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and mica-schist. We have divided the volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks into six main units: E1 through the youngest E6. North of Abbas Abad, the Lower Eocene is conglomerate, sandstone, and red shale with lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone at the base, and dacitic lava (E1) at the top. The nummulites give an Early Eocene age for the limestone lenses. The E2 unit includes vesicular basalt, intercalated, intraformational conglomerate, and lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone. E3 is volcanic- sedimentary, and is made of green tuff, tuffite, shale, and nummulite bearing limestone. E4 includes basalt and vesicular trachy-basalt, and E5 is mostly sedimentary, made of tan marl, sandstone, shale, and lenses of Middle Eocene nummulite-bearing limestone. The E6 unit is the most extensive, with at least three levels of nummulite-bearing limestone lenses which give a Middle to Early Eocene age. The volcanic rocks of the E6 unit include few hundred meters of epiclastic to hyaloclastic breccia, with intercalations of lava at the base. These are overlain by four horizons of aphyric olivine basalt and basalt, and phyric trachy-andesite and trachy-basalt. The volume of the aphyric lavas decreases, and that of the phyric lavas increases upsection. The Eocene volcanic sequence is covered by turbidite; the marl washings give an Eocene-Oligocene age range. Chondrite-normalized multi-element plots indicate enrichment of the Eocene Abbas Abad volcanic rocks in the LILE elements, with variable ratios of La/Yb (4.36-19.33) and La/Sm (3.10-7.91). These plots show a gentle slope, and the volcanic rocks in the E1 to E4 units are less enriched than those in the E6 unit, probably reflecting the difference in the original source for the melt. The multi-element plots

  14. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  15. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california (United States)

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    Neogene volcanism associated with the subduction of the Farallon-Pacific spreading center and the transition from a subduction zone to a rift zone has been studied extensively in Baja, California, Mexico. One of the main goals of these studies was to find a geochemical correlation with slab windows that may have formed during that complicated transition. While workers have been able to find distinct geochemical signatures in samples from Baja California, none have shown statistically significant correlation with samples from southern California that are thought to be related to the same arc-rift transition events. All of the basaltic samples from this study of southern California rocks have prominent Nb depletions typical of island-arc subduction-related volcanism, in contrast to the chemistry of Baja California volcanics that have trace element patterns typical of synrift related volcanism. The work done by previous investigators has been additionally complicated due to each investigator's choice of important ratios or patterns, which bears little, if any, correlation with work done by others working in the same area. For example, Martin-Barajas et al. (1995) use K/Rb ratios in their study of the Puertocitos Volcanic Province, while Castillo (2008) argues that Sr/Y vs. Y is a better indicator of petrogenetic processes. Little petrologic work has been done on Neogene volcanic rocks in the Imperial Valley and eastern San Diego County region of Southern California. This thesis combines new research with that of previous workers and attempts to establish a better understanding of the processes involved with the transition volcanism. Prior work documents significant differences in the geochemistry between some of these areas, especially those in close proximity to each other (e.g. the Volcanic Hills and Coyote Mountains). These differences were thought to be largely the result different magmatic sources. The potential of finding two differing magma types in close

  16. Assessment of hand washing facilities, personal hygiene and the bacteriological quality of hand washes in some grocery and dairy shops in alexandria, egypt. (United States)

    Fawzi, Mohamed; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Bakr, Wafaa M


    Food produced with satisfactory hygienic standards is one of the essential conditions for promoting and preserving health. A total of 15 grocery and dairy shops were randomly selected from Alexandria, Egypt to assess their hand washing facilities and personal hygiene of food handlers using a pre-designed sanitation checklist. Also the bacteriological profile of the handlers' hand washes was determined. Only 20% of these shops were acceptable concerning their hand washing facilities ((3) 50% score percentages). Observing 29 food handlers revealed that only 3.4% of them were acceptable in their personal hygiene with a mean score percentage of only 31.0 +/- 9.2. Although the hand washing method followed by the food handlers significantly decreased both aerobic mesophilic and staphylococci counts, they were still high. Moreover, fecal coliforms increased insignificantly from 5 to 7 MPN/100ml indicating that the hand washing was improperly done due several pitfalls. Most of the handlers who washed their hands for less than 10 seconds (41.4%) had higher counts of aerobic mesophiles and staphylococci than those who washed for more 10 seconds. Most of the handlers (93.1%) did not avoid contamination from the tap after hand washing. Moreover, their hand washes were contaminated with fecal coliforms (8 MPN/100ml) and with slightly higher staphylococci counts than those who avoid contamination either by rinsing a tap or closing it by elbow. Much effort should be done from the responsible authority to improve the sanitation inside these shops and food handlers should be given in-service training to know how to efficiently wash their hands.

  17. On the Role of Climate Forcing by Volcanic Sulphate and Volcanic Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baerbel Langmann


    Full Text Available There is overall agreement that volcanic sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere can reduce solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface for years, thereby reducing surface temperatures, affecting global circulation patterns and generally the global climate system. However, the response of the climate system after large volcanic eruptions is not fully understood and global climate models have difficulties to reproduce the observed variability of the earth system after large volcanic eruptions until now. For geological timescales, it has been suggested that, in addition to the stratospheric climate forcing by volcanic sulphate aerosols, volcanic ash affects climate by modifying the global carbon cycle through iron fertilising the surface ocean and stimulating phytoplankton growth. This process has recently also been observed after the eruption of the volcano Kasatochi on the Aleutian Islands in summer 2008. To trigger future research on the effect of volcanic ash on the climate system via ocean iron fertilisation, this review paper describes the formation processes and atmospheric life cycles of volcanic sulphate and volcanic ash, contrasts their impact on climate, and emphasises current limitations in our understanding.

  18. Backscattering and geophysical features of volcanic ridges offshore Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Gulf of California, Mexico (United States)

    Fabriol, Hubert; Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Córdoba, Diego; González, Antonio; García-Abdeslem, Juan; Bartolomé, Rafael; Martín-Atienza, Beatriz; Frias-Camacho, Víctor


    Volcanic ridges formed by series of volcanic edifices are identified in the central part of the Gulf of California, between Isla Tortuga and La Reforma Caldera-Santa Rosalı´a region. Isla Tortuga is part of the 40-km-long Tortuga Volcanic Ridge (TVR) that trends almost perpendicular to the spreading center of the Guaymas Basin. The Rosalı´a Volcanic Ridge (RVR), older than TVR, is characterized by volcanic structures oriented towards 310°, following a fracture zone extension and the peninsular slope. It is interpreted that most of the aligned submarine volcanic edifices are developed on continental crust while Isla Tortuga lies on oceanic-like crust of the Guaymas Basin. From a complete Bouguer anomaly map, it is observed that the alignments of gravity highs trending 310° and 290° support the volcanic and subvolcanic origin of the bathymetric highs. Volcanic curvilinear structures, lava flows and mounds were identified from backscattering images around Isla Tortuga and over a 400-m high (Vı´rgenes High), where the TVR and the RVR intersect. A refraction/wide-angle seismic profile crossing perpendicular to the Vı´rgenes High, together with gravity and magnetic data indicate the presence of shallow intrusive bodies presumably of basaltic or andesitic composition. It is inferred that most volcanic edifices along the ridges have similar internal structures. We suggest that the growth of different segments of the ridges have a volcano-tectonic origin. The older RVR lies along the extension of a fracture zone and it probably is associated with Pliocene NE-SW extension.

  19. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  20. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe


    Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth

  1. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al


    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  2. Characterization of the effluent from a nanosilver producing washing machine. (United States)

    Farkas, Julia; Peter, Hannes; Christian, Paul; Gallego Urrea, Julián Alberto; Hassellöv, Martin; Tuoriniemi, Jani; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Hylland, Ketil; Thomas, Kevin Victor


    The increasing number of nanomaterial based consumer products raises concerns about their possible impact on the environment. This study provides an assessment of the effluent from a commercially available silver nanowashing machine. The washing machine released silver in its effluent at an average concentration of 11μgL(-1), as determined by inductive coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by single particle ICP-MS as well as ion selective electrode measurements and filtration techniques. Size measurements showed particles to be in the defined nanosize range, with an average size of 10nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 60-100nm determined with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The effluent was shown to have negative effects on a natural bacterial community as its abundance was clearly reduced when exposed to the nanowash water. If washing machines capable of producing AgNPs become a common feature of households in the future, wastewater will contain significant loadings of AgNPs which might be released into the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia


    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  4. A review of hand-washing techniques in primary care and community settings. (United States)

    Smith, Sheree M S


    This review seeks to identify the most effective hand-washing and hand-cleansing practice that could be used in primary care. Healthcare associated infection is a major problem in the UK causing 5000 deaths every year. Current guidelines indicate expert opinion is the level of evidence for hand washing as an activity to reduce infection. Systematic review. Publications on hand-washing, hand-cleansing studies, policy and practice-based documents were sought by searching several databases. Terms used included hand washing, hand cleansing, hand hygiene, hand decontamination, infection control and primary care. Few articles described the hand-washing technique in detail and some publications simply referred to either the European and British Standards or the Centre for Disease Control statement on hand washing. Major discrepancies in hand position and water flow direction were found. Several methodological problems were also identified and few studies were undertaken in primary care. This review has found a lack of evidence for hand-washing techniques being undertaken in practice today. Findings from hand-washing technique studies were inconclusive and methodological issues exist resulting in sparse reliable evidence. There is an urgent need to undertake methodologically sound studies of hand-washing techniques for use in the ever expanding scope of primary care practice. Evidence for hand-washing and hand-cleansing techniques will inform healthcare professional practice, and contribute to the overall management of infection control in primary care.

  5. Examining the relationship between socio-economic status, WASH practices and wasting. (United States)

    Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Haque, Md Ahshanul; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; McCormick, Ben; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed


    Childhood wasting is a global problem and is significantly more pronounced in low and middle income countries like Bangladesh. Socio Economic Status (SES) and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices may be significantly associated with wasting. Most previous research is consistent about the role of SES, but the significance of WASH in the context of wasting remains ambiguous. The effect of SES and WASH on weight for length (WHZ) is examined using a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to explicitly describe the direct and indirect role of WASH in the context of SES.A nationally representative survey of 10,478 Bangladeshi children under 5 were examined. An expert defined SEM was used to construct latent variables for SES and WASH. The SEM included a direct pathway from SES to WHZ and an indirect pathway from SES to WHZ via WASH along with regression of relevant covariates on the outcome WHZ and the latent variables. Both SES (p<0.01) and WASH (p<0.05) significantly affect WHZ. SES (p<0.01) also significantly affects WASH. Other structural components showed that child's age (p<0.01) affects WHZ and types of residence (p<0.01) affects SES. WASH practices at least partially mediate the association between SES and wasting status. WASH and SES are both significantly associated with WHZ.

  6. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition. (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F


    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of volcanism in climate and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, D.I.


    Several major episodes of Tertiary explosive volcanism coincided with sharply lowered temperature as inferred from oxygen-isotope composition of foraminiferal tests in deep-sea cores. At these times, fossil floras in the western interior recorded significant changes. Reductions in taxa that required warmth occurred early in the Paleogene. Later, taxa that demand ample summer rain were reduced during a progressive change reflecting growth of the subtropic high. Other ecosystem changes that appear to have responded to volcanically induced climatic modifications include tachytely in Equidae (12 to 10 m.y. B.P.), rapid evolution of grasses (7 to 5 m.y. B.P.), evolution of marine mammals, and plankton flucuations. Although Lake Cretaceous extinctions commenced as epeiric seas retreated, the pulses of sharply lowered temperature induced by explosive volcanism, together with widespread falls of volcanic ash, may have led to extinction of dinosaurs, ammonites, cycadeoids, and other Cretaceous taxa. earlier, as Pangaea was assembled, Permian extinctions resulted not only from the elimination of oceans, epeiric seas, and shorelines, and the spread of more-continental climates, bu also from the climatic effects of major pulses of global volcanism and Gondwana glaciation.

  8. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io (United States)


    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL Background information and educational context for the images can

  9. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi. (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Taneja, Davendra Kumar; Badhan, Suresh Kumar; Ingle, Gopal Krishan


    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, slogan writing competition; classroom interactions. Data were analyzed in the SPSS 16.0 software and Mcnemar test and Student paired t-test were used. After the program, 95% felt that hand should be washed frequently. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding hand-washing and frequency of hand-washing practices after the intervention. 42% children shared this information with their parents. The intervention proved effective in improving awareness and highlights the potential of school for hand-washing promotion activities.

  10. How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003. (United States)

    Fung, Isaac C-H; Cairncross, Sandy


    We reviewed evidence of hand-washing compliance in community settings during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Literature was searched through PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wan Fang database and Google. English and Chinese papers were reviewed. Studies containing data on hand-washing, self-reported or directly observed, in community settings were selected. Case-control studies and studies in healthcare settings were excluded. Fourteen studies were reviewed. Self-reported hand-washing compliance increased in the first phase of the SARS outbreak and maintained a high level 22 months after the outbreak. The decline of hand-washing in Hong Kong after SARS was relatively slow. A significant gender difference in hand-washing compliance (female > male) was found in eight studies. The importance of family support and 'significant female others' in hand hygiene promotion are noted. The impact of education is uncertain. Perceived susceptibility to and severity of SARS, and perceived efficacy of hand-washing in preventing SARS, also predicted self-reported hand-washing compliance.

  11. Petrologic and petrographic variation of youthful eruptive products in the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico (United States)

    Parrish, C. B.; Kobs Nawotniak, S. E.; Fredrick, K. C.; Espindola, J.


    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is located near the Gulf of Mexico in the southern part of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Volcanism in the region began around 7 Ma and has continued until recent times with the volcano San Martín Tuxtla’s latest eruptions in AD 1664 and 1793. The TVF rocks are mainly of alkaline composition and have been divided into two separate volcanic series, an older and younger. The TVF is a structural high located between the Veracruz Basin to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the northeast, characterized by relatively thin crust with the depth to the Moho around 28 to 34 km. The TVF is unique because it is isolated from the nearest volcanic fields (the Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central American Volcanic Belt and the Eastern Alkaline Province) by at least 230km and because of the on-going debate over its magmatic origin. Many models have been proposed to explain the TVF’s alkaline nature in a unique location with most linking it either to the subduction of the Cocos plate to the west of Mexico and/or to extensional faulting in the region. The purpose of our study was to determine systematic changes in the youthful volcanic deposits across the TVF. Regional and local mapping was conducted and lava and scoria samples were collected from seven sites associated with two vent clusters in the TVF. Mapping of the easternmost cluster of deposits suggests chronological emplacement of the deposits through superposition and vent location and morphology. The petrography of lava and tephra deposits may further indicate magmatic origins and other factors influencing the development of the field, including chronology and possible mixing and/or differentiation. Previous published studies analyzed samples near the San Martin Tuxtla volcanic center. Their data is used as a comparative reference for these samples, most of which were collected from another, younger cluster east of Laguna Catemaco. From this study, a better understanding of past eruptive

  12. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs. (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui


    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.


    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  14. Insights into volcanic processes using seismic data techniques (United States)

    Patlan Almeida, Ezer

    The country of Kenya, lying within the East African Rift System (EARS), has been continuously studied for geothermal energy production. EARS, an active continental rift zone, has a number of active and inactive volcanoes throughout its extent that represent potential sources for geothermal energy. The University of Texas at El Paso and the Kenyan Geothermal Development Company (GDC) collaborated to monitor several volcanic centers by deploying 14 passive seismic instruments around Menengai caldera. The temporary seismic network is located close to Nakuru city and it is southeast from the main capital of Nairobi city. Using this local seismic network, we located 198 earthquake hypocenters, which help to identify the margin of the volcano and caldera and faults that could form conduits for fluid flow. In particular, we performed double-difference location and a b-value analysis to define the behavior of magma systems feeding the caldera. Focal mechanisms delineate a normal and low-angle thrust fault striking NE-SW of the caldera floor. We compare our seismicity to InSAR results from different timelines in order to better understand the volcanic process. We suggest that the seismicity is related to magma passing through conduits of the magma chamber and/or fluid being transported as a function of magma movement or hydrothermal activity.

  15. A new way to detect volcanic plumes (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.


    of volcanic plumes, especially ash-laden ones, is important both for public health and aircraft safety. A variety of geophysical tools and satellite data are used to monitor volcanic eruptions and to predict the movement of ash. However, satellite-based methods are restricted by time of day and weather, while radars are often unavailable because of cost/portability. Here a method is proposed to detect volcanic plumes using GPS signal strength data. The strengths and limitations of the method are assessed using GPS data collected during the 2008 and 2009 eruptions of the Okmok and Mt. Redoubt volcanoes. Plume detections using this GPS technique are consistent with independently collected seismic and radar data.

  16. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.


    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  17. Cell saver autologous transfusion: metabolic consequences of washing blood with normal saline. (United States)

    Halpern, N A; Alicea, M; Seabrook, B; Spungen, A M; McElhinney, A J; Greenstein, R J


    To evaluate acid-base and electrolyte changes in high volume cell saver autologous blood transfusion when normal saline (0.9% NaCl) is used as the wash solution. Open-label study. Nine anesthetized and anticoagulated mongrel dogs underwent 15 cycles of cell saver autologous blood transfusion. Eight percent of the circulating blood volume (125 mL) was withdrawn, washed with normal saline, and retransfused for each cycle. Analyses of acid-base, electrolyte, and hematologic parameters were performed on both systemic and the washed blood. The washed blood had increased levels of sodium and chloride. There were decreased levels in pH, Pco2, total CO2 (bicarbonate), lactic acid, potassium, total and ionized calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, and albumin. Systemically, in the animals, by the end of the study, there were significant increases in the levels of chloride, inorganic phosphorus, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and significant decreases in the levels of pH, total CO2, total and ionized calcium, magnesium, total protein, and albumin. Acid-base, electrolyte, and hematologic changes occur when normal saline is used as the wash solution in high volume cell saver autologous blood transfusion. The washed blood with its elevation of sodium and chloride appears to reflect the constituents of the wash solution, normal saline. The depletion in the washed blood of PCO2, total CO2, potassium, total calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin we feel is because of the absence of these electrolytes in the wash solution and their physical removal during salvaged blood separation and washing. The systemic acid-base and electrolyte changes primarily reflect the electrolyte pattern of the reinfused washed blood except for inorganic phosphorus. Inorganic phosphorus was maintained systemically, despite its wash out in the cell salvage process. This paradoxical finding may be caused by intracellular to extracellular inorganic

  18. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial


    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona


    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time...

  19. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi


    Ankur Garg; Davendra Kumar Taneja; Suresh Kumar Badhan; Gopal Krishan Ingle


    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, sloga...

  20. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Francis K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p ® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703 respectively. For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p 0.0001. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence the insecticidal activity of LLINs. The standard WHOPES washing protocol underestimates the amount of insecticide washed from LLINs compared to the abrasive washing procedures that are used in the field

  1. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  2. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils. (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D


    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  3. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum]. (United States)

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M


    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis.

  4. Imaging of volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io by Galileo during the Galileo Europa Mission and the Galileo Millennium Mission (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.; Phillips, C.B.; Milazzo, M.; Geissler, P.; Turtle, E.P.; Radebaugh, J.; Williams, D.A.; Simonelli, D.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Denk, T.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez, Del; Castillo, E.M.; Belton, M.J.S.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Mueller, B.; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Bender, K.; Chuang, F.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, E.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Schenk, P.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Procter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Schuster, P.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Jaeger, W.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Gran,


    The Solid-State Imaging (SSI) instrument provided the first high- and medium-resolution views of Io as the Galileo spacecraft closed in on the volcanic body in late 1999 and early 2000. While each volcanic center has many unique features, the majority can be placed into one of two broad categories. The "Promethean" eruptions, typified by the volcanic center Prometheus, are characterized by long-lived steady eruptions producing a compound flow field emplaced in an insulating manner over a period of years to decades. In contrast, "Pillanian" eruptions are characterized by large pyroclastic deposits and short-lived but high effusion rate eruptions from fissures feeding open-channel or open-sheet flows. Both types of eruptions commonly have ???100-km-tall, bright, SO2-rich plumes forming near the flow fronts and smaller deposits of red material that mark the vent for the silicate lavas. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products. (United States)

    Magnano, Michela; Silvani, Simonetta; Vincenzi, Colombina; Nino, Massimiliano; Tosti, Antonella


    Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on the product information found on the website of household cleaning products marketed in Italy. We examined the labels and the product information of 291 liquid household washing and cleaning products, including 43 washing-up liquids, 63 laundry detergents, 61 fabric conditioners, 47 spray detergents, and 77 hard surface cleaning products. We obtained the data from the product information found on the websites for 263 products and directly on the product packages for 28 products. For each product we specifically recorded the presence of surfactants, preservatives, and fragrances listed in Annex III of Directive 76/768/EEC. The websites of two Italian brands do not respect EU regulations as they provide product information only with bar codes of the products. Preservatives and fragrances are the main allergens declared in the label of household cleaning products with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) listed in 35.7% and limonene in 43.6% of the products. Surfactants were listed in 16.5% of the studied products. Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and fragrances. For consumers, at least in Italy, it may not be easy to retrieve product information from the website for two widely sold brands. The information had to be taken from the actual package.

  6. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen


    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg{sup -1} Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8{+-}1.3 mg kg{sup -1} Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg{sup -1} exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53{+-}0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  7. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff


    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  8. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco


    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  9. Volcanic Pipe of the Namuaiv Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Karzhavin


    Full Text Available This research was aimed at reconstructing thermodynamic conditions required for the studied mineral assemblages to be created and exist in nature. The results of the investigations confirm to the recent ideas about an important, even leading, role of temperature, pressure and dioxide carbon in diamond formation in volcanic pipers. The results of this theoretical research allows assuming that one of the reasons for the absence of diamonds in the Namuaiv Mountain volcanic pipe may lie in the increased content of water and oxidizing environmental conditions of their formation

  10. Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed


    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

  11. Emplacement Scenarios for Volcanic Domes on Venus (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.; Stofan, Ellen R.


    One key to understanding the history of resurfacing on Venus is better constraints on the emplacement timescales for the range of volcanic features visible on the surface. A figure shows a Magellan radar image and topography for a putative lava dome on Venus. 175 such domes have been identified with diameters ranging from 19 - 94 km, and estimated thicknesses as great as 4 km. These domes are thought to be volcanic in origin and to have formed by the flow of viscous fluid (i.e., lava) on the surface.

  12. AVAL - The ASTER Volcanic Ash Library (United States)

    Williams, D.; Ramsey, M. S.


    Volcanic ash is a rich data source for understanding the causal mechanisms behind volcanic eruptions. Petrologic and morphometric information can provide direct information on the characteristics of the parent magma. Understanding how erupted ash interacts with the atmosphere can help quantify the effect that explosive volcanism has on the local to regional climate, whereas a measure of the particle size distribution enables more accurate modeling of plume propagation. Remote sensing is regularly employed to monitor volcanic plumes using a suite of high temporal/low spatial resolution sensors. These methods employ radiative transfer modeling with assumptions of the transmissive properties of infrared energy through the plume to determine ash density, particle size and sulfur dioxide content. However, such approaches are limited to the optically-transparent regions, and the low spatial resolution data are only useful for large-scale trends. In a new approach, we are treating the infrared-opaque regions of the plume in a similar way to a solid emitting surface. This allows high spatial resolution orbital thermal infrared data from the dense proximal plume to be modeled using a linear deconvolution approach coupled with a spectral library to extract the particle size and petrology. The newly created ASTER Volcanic Ash Library (AVAL) provides the end member spectral suite, and is comprised of laboratory emission measurements of volcanic ash taken from a variety of different volcanic settings, to obtain a wide range of petrologies. These samples have been further subdivided into particle size fractions to account for spectral changes due to diffraction effects. Once mapped to the ASTER sensor's spectral resolution, this library is applied to image data and the plume deconvolved to estimate composition and particle size. We have analyzed eruptions at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Chaitén and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, both Chile, and Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

  13. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol


    Full Text Available Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters, chefs, food processors and so on is not up to the mark. Monitoring hand wash compliance along with a reminder system increases the compliance rate significantly. Quality of a hand wash is also important which can be achieved by washing hands in accordance with standard guidelines. In this paper, we present Harmony, a hand wash monitoring and reminder system that monitors hand wash events and their quality, provides real time feedback, reminds the person of interest when he/she is required to wash hands, and stores related data in a server for further use. Worker worn smart watches are the key components of Harmony that can differentiate hand wash gestures from other gestures with an average accuracy of about 88%. Harmony is robust, scalable, and easy to install, and it overcomes most of the problems of existing related systems.

  14. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.


    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  15. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza (United States)

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E.


    Abstract Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China. Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  16. Hand washing practice among health care workers in a teaching hospital. (United States)

    Joshi, S K; Joshi, A; Park, B J; Aryal, U R


    Health care associated infection has been identified as one of the major challenges of modern medicine and remains as a major health concern around the globe. Hands of the health-care workers are potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic organisms within the healthcare environment. Hand washing is widely accepted as one of the most effective measures in prevention of health care associated infections. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the hand washing practice among the doctors, intern doctors, nurses, medical students and nursing students in a multi specialty, non government tertiary care teaching hospital in Kathmandu. Summary statistics and chi-square tests were performed and the type I error was set at 0.05 for analysis. Out of the total 336 participants of the study, there was significant difference in hand washing practice among the participants (PHand washing practice both before and after the patient examination was found to be highest among the nursing students followed by the nurses. The frequency of hand washing after exposure to hospital instruments, blood or other body fluids among the participants was remarkably high (more than 90%) in all groups. Nearly 99% of the participants agreed upon the fact that hand washing could be an effective measure in preventing health care associated infections. The healthcare workers understand the importance of hand washing but tend to wash their hands selectively depending upon the indications. The majority of the health care workers wash their hands after the patient care than before.

  17. Improving volcanic ash predictions with the HYSPLIT dispersion model by assimilating MODIS satellite retrievals (United States)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Crawford, Alice; Stunder, Barbara; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel


    Currently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) runs the HYSPLIT dispersion model with a unit mass release rate to predict the transport and dispersion of volcanic ash. The model predictions provide information for the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) to issue advisories to meteorological watch offices, area control centers, flight information centers, and others. This research aims to provide quantitative forecasts of ash distributions generated by objectively and optimally estimating the volcanic ash source strengths, vertical distribution, and temporal variations using an observation-modeling inversion technique. In this top-down approach, a cost functional is defined to quantify the differences between the model predictions and the satellite measurements of column-integrated ash concentrations weighted by the model and observation uncertainties. Minimizing this cost functional by adjusting the sources provides the volcanic ash emission estimates. As an example, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite retrievals of the 2008 Kasatochi volcanic ash clouds are used to test the HYSPLIT volcanic ash inverse system. Because the satellite retrievals include the ash cloud top height but not the bottom height, there are different model diagnostic choices for comparing the model results with the observed mass loadings. Three options are presented and tested. Although the emission estimates vary significantly with different options, the subsequent model predictions with the different release estimates all show decent skill when evaluated against the unassimilated satellite observations at later times. Among the three options, integrating over three model layers yields slightly better results than integrating from the surface up to the observed volcanic ash cloud top or using a single model layer. Inverse tests also show that including the ash-free region to constrain the model is not

  18. Investigation of Along-Arc Geochemical Variations in the Southern Volcanic Zone: Azufre-Planchon-Peteroa Volcanic Complex, Southern Chile (United States)

    Holbik, S. P.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Tormey, D.


    The Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) is a vast and complex continental arc that has been studied extensively to provide an understanding of arc-magma genesis, the origin and chemical evolution of the continental crust, and geochemical compositions of volcanic products. This study focuses on volcanic rocks from the Azufre-Planchon-Peteroa (APP 35°15'S) volcanic complex, within the Transitional SVZ (34.3-37.0 °S), where crustal thickness increases from approximately 30 km in the south (Central SVZ), to 55 km in the north (Northern SVZ). Planchon is the northernmost volcano in the SVZ to erupt basaltic products, while Peteroa is the currently active cone, erupting tephra of andesitic composition, most recently in September of 2011. New data for the APP are consistent with the hypothesis of Tormey et al. (1995) that the APP experienced variable depths of crystal fractionation, and that crustal assimilation at Planchon is restricted to the lower crustal depths, as reflected by limited variability in 87Sr/86Sr isotopes. New δ18O data (26.5‰) from an outcropping dolomitic limestone country rock in the vicinity of the Azufre volcano also confirms the upper crustal source of anomalously high (7.1 and 7.3‰) oxygen isotopic values for Azufre dacites. A trend of high La/Yb (6.5-9.1) and Yb depletion with increasing La/Yb for Planchon basalts is consistent with the role of garnet as a residual or crystallizing phase at lower crustal depths, however, the La/Yb range is small when compared to published data from nearby TSVZ centers such as Nevado de Longavi (La/Yb = 5.5 to 16.7) and San Pedro Pellado (La/Yb =7.2 to 13.6). Geochemical modeling of the Planchon data shows that both hornblende and garnet must be involved in the magmatic evolution, even though erupted basalts are free of major hydrous phases, in order to account for the more limited range of La/Yb. Interestingly, baseline values of La/Yb for basalt and basaltic andesites from throughout the TSVZ, including

  19. The identification and tracking of volcanic ash using the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) (United States)

    Naeger, A. R.; Christopher, S. A.


    In this paper, we develop an algorithm based on combining spectral, spatial, and temporal thresholds from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) daytime measurements to identify and track different aerosol types, primarily volcanic ash. Contemporary methods typically do not use temporal information to identify ash. We focus not only on the identification and tracking of volcanic ash during the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption period beginning in 14 April and ending 17 May 2010 but also on a pixel-level classification method for separating various classes in the SEVIRI images. Three case studies on 13, 16, and 17 May are analyzed in extensive detail with other satellite data including from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146 aircraft data to verify the aerosol spatial distribution maps generated by the SEVIRI algorithm. Our results indicate that the SEVIRI algorithm is able to track volcanic ash when the solar zenith angle is lower than about 65°. Furthermore, the BAe146 aircraft data show that the SEVIRI algorithm detects nearly all ash regions when AOD > 0.2. However, the algorithm has higher uncertainties when AOD is ash spatial distributions provided by this algorithm can be used as a critical input and validation for atmospheric dispersion models simulated by Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). Identifying volcanic ash is an important first step before quantitative retrievals of ash concentration can be made.

  20. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: a natural laboratory for studying basaltic volcanism: Chapter 1 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Neal, Christina A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    In the beginning of the 20th century, geologist Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., argued that, to fully understand volcanic and associated hazards, the expeditionary mode of studying eruptions only after they occurred was inadequate. Instead, he fervently advocated the use of permanent observatories to record and measure volcanic phenomena—at and below the surface—before, during, and after eruptions to obtain the basic scientific information needed to protect people and property from volcanic hazards. With the crucial early help of American volcanologist Frank Alvord Perret and the Hawaiian business community, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established in 1912, and Jaggar’s vision became reality. From its inception, HVO’s mission has centered on several goals: (1) measuring and documenting the seismic, eruptive, and geodetic processes of active Hawaiian volcanoes (principally Kīlauea and Mauna Loa); (2) geological mapping and dating of deposits to reconstruct volcanic histories, understand island evolution, and determine eruptive frequencies and volcanic hazards; (3) systematically collecting eruptive products, including gases, for laboratory analysis; and (4) widely disseminating observatory-acquired data and analysis, reports, and hazard warnings to the global scientific community, emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public. The long-term focus on these goals by HVO scientists, in collaboration with investigators from many other organizations, continues to fulfill Jaggar’s career-long vision of reducing risks from volcanic and earthquake hazards across the globe.

  1. Huygens Crater: Insights into Noachian Volcanism, Stratigraphy, and Aqueous Processes (United States)

    Ackiss, S. E.; Wray, J. J.; Seelos, K. D.; Niles, P. B.


    Huygens crater is a well preserved peak ring structure on Mars centered at 13.5 deg S, 55.5 deg E in the Noachian highlands between Terras Tyrrhena and Sabaea near the NW rim of Hellas basin. With a diameter of approximately 470 km, it uplifted and exhumed pre-Noachian crustal materials from depths greater than 25 km, penetrating below the thick, ubiquitous layer of Hellas ejecta. In addition, Huygens served as a basin for subsequent aqueous activity, including erosion/deposition by fluvial valley networks and subsurface alteration that is now exposed by smaller impacts. Younger mafic-bearing plains that partially cover the basin floor and surrounding intercrater areas were likely emplaced by later volcanism.

  2. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [and others


    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma).

  3. Quaternary volcanism in the Acambay graben, Mexican Volcanic Belt: Re-evaluation for potential volcanic danger in central Mexico (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Lacan, P.; Roldan-Quintana, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Zuniga, R. R.; Laurence, A.


    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is best known for the major active stratovolcanoes, such as Popocatépetl, Citlaltépetl and Colima. The most common stratovolcanoes in this province are modest-size cones with heights of 800 to 1000 m. Examples are Tequila, Sangangüey, Las Navajas, Culiacán, La Joya, El Zamorano, Temascalcingo and Altamirano; these last two were formed within the Acambay Graben in central MVB. The Acambay graben (20 x 70 km) is 100 km to the NW of Mexico City, with E-W trending seismically active normal faults; in particular the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault related to a mB =7 earthquake in 1912. Within the graben there are many volcanic structures, including calderas, domes, cinder cones and stratovolcanoes; Temascalcingo and Altamirano are the largest, with about 800 and 900 m heights, respectively. Temascalcingo is mostly composed of dacitic lavas and block and ash flow deposits. Includes a 3 x 2.5 km summit caldera and a magmatic sector collapse event with the associated debris avalanche deposit. 14C ages of 37-12 ka correspond to the volcano's latest phases that produced pyroclastic deposits. A major plinian eruption formed the San Mateo Pumice with an age of deposits, and pumice fallouts. Morphologically is better preserved than Temascalcingo, and it should be younger. 14C ages of 4.0-2.5 ka were performed in charcoal within pyroclastic flow deposits that apparently were erupted from Altamirano. An undated 3 m thick pumice fallout on the flanks of Altamirano volcano could be also Holocene. It represents a major explosive event. The relatively young ages found in volcanic deposits within the Acambay graben raise the volcanic danger level in this area, originally thought as an inactive volcanic zone. The two major volcanoes, Temascalcingo and Altamirano, should be considered as dormant volcanoes that could restart activity at any time. We thanks grant DGAPA-UNAM-PAPIIT IN-104615.





    This thesis is a palaeoenviromnental investigation into possible non-climatic effects on the environment from volcanic ash fall and toxic emissions outside the blast zone of a volcanic eruption. These effects are determined from palynological and geochemical changes following tephra fall at a range of sites across the North Island of New Zealand which were located at increasing distances from the main volcanic source, the Taupo Volcanic Zone. These sites collectively covered a wid...

  5. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.


    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  6. Hand-washing practices amongst mothers of under-5 children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. (United States)

    Opara, Peace; Alex-Hart, Balafama; Okari, Tamunoiyowuna


    Hand-washing with soap and water (HWWS) can prevent a significant proportion of childhood diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the two main global causes of child mortality. However, good hand-washing practices are rare, especially in low-income countries, and findings suggest that hand-washing at critical times such as after defaecation or cleaning an infant's perineum are not common practice. The study explored hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 in Port Harcourt. This was a cross-sectional study of self-reported hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 presenting to the paediatric clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Using a simple structured questionnaire, the data collected included biodata, perceptions, and self-reported behaviour concerning hand-washing at critical times. 154 mothers participated in the study. Sixty-four (41.6%) mothers usually washed their hands with soapy water in a container, 30 (19.5%) used soap and running water, and 60 (38.9%) used only water, either running or in a container. After cleaning an infant's perineal area, 60 (40.3%) and 39 (25.3%) used soap and running water and soapy water in a container, respectively, to wash their hands while 48 (31.2%) used plain water. Before feeding infants, 47 (30.5%) washed their hands with soap and running water. HWWS at critical times was significantly associated with mothers' level of education (P Hand-washing practices by mothers in Port Harcourt are poor. Extensive education of the public is required to reduce the risks of childhood infections associated with lack of hand-washing.

  7. Maternal and birth attendant hand washing and neonatal mortality in southern Nepal. (United States)

    Rhee, Victor; Mullany, Luke C; Khatry, Subarna K; Katz, Joanne; LeClerq, Steven C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M


    More than 95% of neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, approximately 50% at home. Few data are available on the impact of hand-washing practices by birth attendants or caretakers on neonatal mortality. To evaluate the relationship between birth attendant and maternal hand-washing practices and neonatal mortality in rural Nepal. Observational prospective cohort study. Sarlahi District in rural southern Nepal. Newborn infants were originally enrolled in a community-based trial assessing the effect of skin and/or umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine on neonatal mortality in southern Nepal. A total of 23,662 newborns were enrolled and observed through 28 days of life. Questionnaires were administered to mothers on days 1 and 14 after delivery to identify care practices and risk factors for mortality and infection. Three hand-washing categories were defined: (1) birth attendant hand washing with soap and water before assisting with delivery, (2) maternal hand washing with soap and water or antiseptic before handling the baby, and (3) combined birth attendant and maternal hand washing. Mortality within the neonatal period. Birth attendant hand washing was related to a statistically significant lower mortality rate among neonates (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.99), as was maternal hand washing (adjusted RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.82). There was a 41% lower mortality rate among neonates exposed to both hand-washing practices (adjusted RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.94). Birth attendant and maternal hand washing with soap and water were associated with significantly lower rates of neonatal mortality. Measures to improve or promote birth attendant and maternal hand washing could improve neonatal survival rates.

  8. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Volcanic Surface Deformation in Dominica From GPS Geodesy: Results From the 2007 NSF- REU Site (United States)

    Murphy, R.; James, S.; Styron, R. H.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Staisch, L.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.


    GPS measurements have been collected on the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles between 2001 and 2007, with five month-long campaigns completed in June of each year supported in part by a NSF REU Site award for the past two years. All GPS data were collected using dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and geodetic-quality antenna, primarily choke rings. Three consecutive 24 hr observation days were normally obtained for each site. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASISII using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Time series were created to determine the velocity of each station. Forward and inverse elastic half-space models with planar (i.e. dike) and Mogi (i.e. point) sources were investigated. Inverse modeling was completed using a downhill simplex method of function minimization. Selected site velocities were used to create appropriate models for specific regions of Dominica, which correspond to known centers of pre-historic volcanic or recent shallow, seismic activity. Because of the current distribution of GPS sites with robust velocity estimates, we limit our models to possible magmatic activity in the northern, proximal to the volcanic centers of Morne Diablotins and Morne aux Diables, and southern, proximal to volcanic centers of Soufriere and Morne Plat Pays, regions of the island. Surface deformation data from the northernmost sites may be fit with the development of a several km-long dike trending approximately northeast- southwest. Activity in the southern volcanic centers is best modeled by an expanding point source at approximately 1 km depth.

  10. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang


    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  11. Deccan volcanism, the KT mass extinction and dinosaurs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 29, 2009 ... Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies indicate three volcanic phases with the phase-1 at 67.5 Ma followed by a 2 m.y. period of quiescence. Phase-2 marks the main Deccan volcanic eruptions in Chron 29r near the end of the Maastrichtian and accounts for ∼80% of the entire 3500 m thick Deccan ...

  12. Implications of volcanic erratics in Quaternary deposits of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Larsen, Ole


    Erratic boulders, petrographically similar to the volcanics exposed around Kap Washington, are found on islands and along the coast much further to the east. Isotopic measurements on two such boulders show that these volcanic rocks are of the same age as the Kap Washington volcanics. The regional...

  13. Widespread Neogene and Quaternary Volcanism on Central Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Duncan, R. A.; Falloon, T.; Quilty, P. G.; Coffin, M. F.


    We report new age determinations and compositions for rocks from 18 dredge hauls collected from eight submarine areas across Central Kerguelen Plateau (CKP). Sea knolls and volcanic fields with multiple small cones were targeted over a 125,000 km2 region that includes Heard and McDonald islands. Large early Miocene (16-22 Ma) sea knolls rise from the western margin of the CKP and are part of a NNW-SSE line of volcanic centers that lie between Îles Kerguelen and Heard and McDonald islands. A second group of large sea knolls is aligned E-W across the center of this region. We see evidence of much younger activity (5 Ma to present) in volcanic fields to the north of, and up to 300 km NE of Heard Island. Compositions include basanite, basalt, and trachybasalt, that are broadly similar to plateau lava flows from nearby Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1138, lower Miocene lavas at Îles Kerguelen, dredged rocks from the early Miocene sea knolls, and Big Ben lavas from Heard Island. Geochemical data indicate decreasing fractions of mantle source melting with time. The western line of sea knolls has been related to hotspot activity now underlying the Heard Island area. In view of the now recognized much larger area of young volcanic activity, we propose that a broad region of CKP became volcanically active in Neogene time due to incubation of plume material at the base of the relatively stationary overlying plateau. The presence of pre-existing crustal faults promotes access for melts from the Heard mantle plume to rise to the surface.

  14. The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning. (United States)

    Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M


    Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of lightning during explosive eruptions.

  15. Amazonian volcanism inside Valles Marineris on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, E.; Wray, J. J.; Michael, G.


    Roč. 473, September (2017), s. 122-130 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars * Valles Marineris * volcanism * scoria cone * hydrothermal activity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.409, year: 2016

  16. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    anorogenic setting for the basic rocks of Kundal area is suggested, which is in conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite. 1. Introduction. The Malani magmatism is characterized by sub- volcanic setting, volcano-plutonic ring structures, anorogenic (A-type), high heat producing magma- tism and controlled by ...

  17. Assessing quality in volcanic ash soils (United States)

    Terry L. Craigg; Steven W. Howes


    Forest managers must understand how changes in soil quality resulting from project implementation affect long-term productivity and watershed health. Volcanic ash soils have unique properties that affect their quality and function; and which may warrant soil quality standards and assessment techniques that are different from other soils. We discuss the concept of soil...

  18. Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Plumes (Invited) (United States)

    Roberts, Tjarda


    Volcanoes release vast amounts of gases and particles in the atmosphere. Volcanic halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, HI) are co-emitted alongside SO2, and observations show rapid formation of BrO and OClO in the plume as it disperses into the troposphere. The development of 1D and Box models (e.g. PlumeChem) that simulate volcanic plume halogen chemistry aims to characterise how volcanic reactive halogens form and quantify their atmospheric impacts. Following recent advances, these models can broadly reproduce the observed downwind BrO/SO2 ratios using "bromine-explosion" chemistry schemes, provided they use a "high-temperature initialisation" to inject radicals (OH, Cl, Br and possibly NOx) which "kick-start" the low-temperature chemistry cycles that convert HBr into reactive bromine (initially as Br2). The modelled rise in BrO/SO2 and subsequent plateau/decline as the plume disperses downwind reflects cycling between reactive bromine, particularly Br-BrO, and BrO-HOBr-BrONO2. BrCl is produced when aerosol becomes HBr-depleted. Recent model simulations suggest this mechanism for reactive chlorine formation can broadly account for OClO/SO2 reported at Mt Etna. Predicted impacts of volcanic reactive halogen chemistry include the formation of HNO3 from NOx and depletion of ozone. This concurs with HNO3 widely reported in volcanic plumes (although the source of NOx remains under question), as well as observations of ozone depletion reported in plumes from several volcanoes (Mt Redoubt, Mt Etna, Eyjafjallajokull). The plume chemistry can transform mercury into more easily deposited and potentially toxic forms, for which observations are limited. Recent incorporation of volcanic halogen chemistry in a 3D regional model of degassing from Ambrym (Vanuatu) also predicts how halogen chemistry causes depletion of OH to lengthen the SO2 lifetime, and highlights the potential for halogen transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere. However, the model parameter-space is vast and

  19. Stability of volcanic conduits during explosive eruptions (United States)

    Aravena, Álvaro; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cioni, Raffaello; Neri, Augusto


    Geological evidences of volcanic conduit widening are common in most pyroclastic deposits (e.g. presence of lithic fragments from different depths), suggesting a continuous modification of the conduit geometry during volcanic eruptions. However, the controlling factors of the mechanisms driving conduit enlargement (e.g. erosion, local collapse) are still partially unclear, as well as the influence of conduit geometry on the eruptive dynamics. Although numerical models have been systematically employed to study volcanic conduits, their mechanical stability and the eruptive dynamics related to non-cylindrical conduits have been poorly addressed. We present here a 1D steady-state model which includes the main processes experimented by ascending magmas (i.e. crystallization, rheological changes, fragmentation, drag forces, outgassing and degassing), and the application of two mechanical stability criteria (Mohr-Coulomb and Mogi-Coulomb), in order to study the collapse conditions of volcanic conduits during a representative explosive rhyolitic eruption. It emerges that mechanical stability of volcanic conduits is mainly controlled by its radial dimension, and a minimum radius for reaching stable conditions can be computed, as a function of water content and inlet overpressure. Additionally, for a set of input parameters thought typical of explosive rhyolitic volcanism, we estimated a minimum magma flux for developing a mechanically stable conduit ( 7 • 107 - 3 • 108 kg/s). Results are consistent with the unsteady character usually observed in sub-Plinian eruptions, opposite to mainly stationary Plinian eruptions, commonly characterized by higher magma discharge rates. We suggest that cylindrical conduits represent a mechanically stable configuration only for large radii. Because the instability conditions are not uniform along the conduit, the widening processes probably lead to conduit geometries with depth-varying width. Consequently, as our model is able to

  20. Methodology for the study of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; Metodologia para el estudio del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Surendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is an structure 20 to 150 kilometers wide an {approx}1000 km long, oriented approximately east-west, from nearby Puerto Vallarta up until Veracruz; it contains a great number ({approx}7000) of volcanic apparatus or volcanic centers (Verma, 1987a, and the cited references in this paper). Fig. 1 represents the location of some of its main volcanic centers. The MVB forms part of the ring of fire that extends all along the circumpacific region (see Fig. 2) named this way because it refers to a very high volcanoes population (many of them active volcanoes), to its seismic activity and to the large geothermal manifestations. [Espanol] El Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (CVM) es una estructura de 20 a 150 kilometros de ancho, {approx}1,000 km de largo, orientada aproximadamente este-oeste desde cerca de Puerto Vallarta hasta Veracruz; contiene gran numero ({approx}7,000) de aparatos o centros volcanicos (Verma, 1987a, y las referencias citadas en este trabajo). La figura 1 presenta la localizacion de algunos de sus principales centros volcanicos. El CVM forma parte del llamado anillo del fuego, que se extiende a todo lo largo de la region circumpacifica (vease la Fig. 2), denominada asi porque se trata de una poblacion muy alta de volcanes (mucho de ellos activos), de la actividad sismica y de grandes manifestaciones geotermicas.

  1. New evidence of the Monchique - Madeira hot spot volcanism at the Coral Patch seamount, Central Eastern Atlantic Sea (United States)

    D'Oriano, F.; Angeletti, L.; Laurenzi, M. A.; Trua, T.; Capotondi, L.; Taviani, M.; Torelli, L.; Zitellini, N.


    Detailed swath bathymetry, high resolution seismic profiles and bottom sampling, collected during the SWIM 2005 and SWIM 2005 cruises, provide new data to constrain the emplacement mechanism of the Monchique-Madeira hotspot in the Central - Eastern Atlantic Sea. During last decades, although this volcanic province has been the object of several investigations, the location of hotspot track and the alignments of the volcanic centers, such as Ormonde, Ampere and Coral Patch seamounts, are still matter of debate. Several alkaline volcanic centers are recognized at Coral Patch and volcanic rocks obtained from the top of the seamount provides a radiometric (40Ar-39Ar) age of 31.4±1.98 Ma. Our data suggest that volcanism was emplaced on the top of a preexistent seamount and was strongly affected by the regional tectonic compressive regime, active on this sector of the Africa Eurasia plate boundary since Oligocene. The compression formed lithospheric scale structures acting as a reserved lane for the upwelling of mantle material during the transit of the hotspot. Lithified pelagic carbonates, infilling fissures in lava blocks and hosting planktic foraminifers, permit to date at the Chattian (24-28 Ma) the first documentation of Coral Patch acting as an offshore terrigenous-starved deep seamount. This situation protracts to recent times as shown by the occurrence of veneers of foraminifer-pteropod oozes and deep-sea mollusc-coral hash and pelagic limestones as the sole sediment types recovered from Coral Patch.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Kristianingrum


      This research aims to prepare an adsorbent from Kelud volcanic ash for better Cu(II adsorption efficiency than Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck. Adsorbent synthesis was done by dissolving 6 grams of volcanic ash activated 700oC 4 hours and washed with HCl 0.1 M into 200 ml of 3M sodium hydroxide with stirring and heating of 100 °C for 1 hour. The filtrate sodium silicate was then neutralized using sulfuric acid. The mixture was allowed to stand for 24 hours then filtered and washed with aquaDM, then dried and crushed. The procedure is repeated for nitric acid, acetic acid and formic acid with a contact time of 24 hours. The products were then characterized using FTIR and XRD, subsequently determined acidity, moisture content, and tested for its adsorption of the ion Cu (II with AAS. The results showed that the type of acid that produced highest rendemen is AK-H2SO4-3M ie 36.93%, acidity of the adsorbent silica gel synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck ie adsorbent AK-CH3COOH-3M and the water content of the silica gel adsorbent synthesized similar to Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck ie adsorbent AK-H2SO4-2 M. The character of the functional groups of silica gel synthesized all have similarities with Kiesel gel 60G E'Merck as a comparison. Qualitative analysis by XRD for all modified adsorbent showed a dominant peak of SiO2 except adsorbent AK-H2SO4 amorphous and chemical bonds with FTIR indicates that it has formed a bond of Si-O-Si and Si-OH. The optimum adsorption efficiency of the metal ions Cu(II obtained from AK-H2SO4-5M adsorbent that is equal to 93.2617% and the optimum adsorption capacity of the Cu(II metal ions was obtained from the adsorbent AK-CH3COOH-3M is equal to 2.4919 mg/ g.   Keywords: adsorbents, silica gel, adsorption, kelud volcanic ash

  3. International Database of Volcanic Ash Impacts (United States)

    Wallace, K.; Cameron, C.; Wilson, T. M.; Jenkins, S.; Brown, S.; Leonard, G.; Deligne, N.; Stewart, C.


    Volcanic ash creates extensive impacts to people and property, yet we lack a global ash impacts catalog to organize, distribute, and archive this important information. Critical impact information is often stored in ephemeral news articles or other isolated resources, which cannot be queried or located easily. A global ash impacts database would improve 1) warning messages, 2) public and lifeline emergency preparation, and 3) eruption response and recovery. Ashfall can have varying consequences, such as disabling critical lifeline infrastructure (e.g. electrical generation and transmission, water supplies, telecommunications, aircraft and airports) or merely creating limited and expensive inconvenience to local communities. Impacts to the aviation sector can be a far-reaching global issue. The international volcanic ash impacts community formed a committee to develop a database to catalog the impacts of volcanic ash. We identify three user populations for this database: 1) research teams, who would use the database to assist in systematic collection, recording, and storage of ash impact data, and to prioritize impact assessment trips and lab experiments 2) volcanic risk assessment scientists who rely on impact data for assessments (especially vulnerability/fragility assessments); a complete dataset would have utility for global, regional, national and local scale risk assessments, and 3) citizen science volcanic hazard reporting. Publication of an international ash impacts database will encourage standardization and development of best practices for collecting and reporting impact information. Data entered will be highly categorized, searchable, and open source. Systematic cataloging of impact data will allow users to query the data and extract valuable information to aid in the development of improved emergency preparedness, response and recovery measures.

  4. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive


    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  5. Fostering Hand Washing before Lunch by Students Attending a Special Needs Young Adult Program (United States)

    Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan


    A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which…

  6. Washing Machines--Components & Operations; Appliance Repair 2: #9025.03. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic washing machines, this course outline offers instruction on the principles of washing and their relation to the automatic washer, the functions and operations of washer components, identification of various component malfunctions, washer installation, and the…

  7. Study of Nonhomogeneous Equations with Variable Coefficients Describing Washing Machines Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Alekhin


    Full Text Available Earlier in a slightly intertwined system of differential equations describing the dynamics of the random vibrations of the drum type washing machine suspended unit was fixed. This article studies the general case of nonhomogeneous equations with variable coefficients describing washing machines vibration.

  8. Laundry in a washing machine as a mediator of secondary and tertiary DNA transfer. (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Lev; Amiel, Merav; Reshef, Ayeleth; Gafny, Ron; Barash, Mark


    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of secondary and tertiary DNA transfer during laundry. The modes of transfer tested were mixed and separate laundry of worn and unworn garments in household and public washing machines. In addition, the possibility of a background DNA carry-over from a washing machine's drum was investigated. In the mixed (worn and unworn garments washed together) laundry experiment, 22% of samples from new unworn socks with no traceable DNA prior to experiment produced DNA profiles post-laundry. In the tertiary DNA transfer experiment performed in a public washing machine (unworn garments only), no detectable DNA profiles were observed. Samples collected from the internal drum of 25 washing and drying machines did not produce detectable STR profiles. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of forensic DNA casework analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟA real-life scenario of secondary DNA transfer between worn and unworn garments during machine washing has been evaluated. Experiments demonstrated this scenario is possible (22% of samples) and may in fact result in high quality DNA profiles. On the contrary, testing washing machine's interior for deposition of biological material between separate washing cycles to serve as a mediator of tertiary DNA transfer resulted in no DNA profiles.

  9. Investigation of water washes suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces. (United States)

    Yoder, Sally Flowers; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N


    Water washing with a handheld hose was performed on beef surfaces to ascertain the most effective combination of methods needed to remove potentially harmful microorganisms. For these experiments, beef brisket surfaces were experimentally inoculated with a fecal slurry containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni. In a pilot study, surfaces were washed with cold water (15 degrees C) at various water pressures, spray distances, application times, and drip times, and remaining bacterial populations were determined following the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and naturally occurring hygiene indicators (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli). The most efficacious combinations of these washing conditions were applied subsequently to artificially contaminated beef brisket surfaces in conjunction with hot (77 degrees C), warm (54 degrees C), and additional cold (15 degrees C) water washes. In the cold water washing pilot study, combinations of physical washing conditions significantly reduced all bacterial populations (P water washing; E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 3.8 and 4.1 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Overall, higher water temperature, longer application times, and shorter spray distances more effectively removed pathogens from inoculated beef surfaces. These findings will be used to formulate water washing recommendations for very small meat processing establishments.

  10. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  11. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water (United States)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  12. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing. (United States)

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok


    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application.

  13. Hand-washing behaviour and nurses' knowledge after a training programme. (United States)

    Erkan, Tulay; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Tokuc, Burcu


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurses' hand-washing behaviour and knowledge before and after a training programme. This prospective study involved 200 nurses who participated in hand-washing training at a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form and pre- and post-test surveys that had been developed by the researchers. During the study, the nurses received 40 min of training on hand washing and a handbook prepared by the researchers. The hand-washing behaviour and knowledge of the nurses were assessed before training and 1 month after the training. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, a t-test and a Mc Nemar chi-squared test were used. Following the training, there was a significant increase in the frequency of hand washing by the nurses (t = -2.202, P = 0.029), together with an increase in the time allowed for hand washing (P = 0.024, P hand-washing practices (t = -16.081, P hand washing should be implemented to improve the behaviour and knowledge of nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Evaluating the Utility of Commercial Videotapes for Teaching Hand Washing to Children with Autism (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nancy E.; Schwartz, Ilene S.; Davis, Carol A.


    We evaluated the effects of using a commercially available video model to teach three preschoolers with autism to wash their hands. While one child learned 80% of the hand washing steps, 2 of the 3 children did not learn from the commercial model. All were subsequently exposed to a customized video model, which resulted in at least some…

  15. Glow gel hand washing in the waiting room: a novel approach to improving hand hygiene education. (United States)

    Fishbein, Anna B; Tellez, Itza; Lin, Henry; Sullivan, Christine; Groll, Mary E


    To characterize handwashing behaviors of children and assess the efficacy of a waiting room-based hand hygiene intervention at improving handwashing ability. Prospective randomized pilot study. Emergency department waiting room at a freestanding urban pediatric hospital. Children (8-18 years) and their parent. Participants were randomized to glow gel hand washing without hand hygiene education or glow gel hand washing with hand hygiene education. After participants washed with glow gel, "dirty areas" were illuminated using a black light, and hands were scored. A questionnaire about handwashing behavior was administered. All subjects returned 2-4 weeks after intervention to repeat glow gel hand washing and the questionnaire. Sixty pediatric patients and 57 parents were recruited, with 77% of patients returning for follow up. Patients were 50% male, 58% Latino, 28% African American, and 8% Caucasian. At the initial visit, 91% of children reported hand washing after using the bathroom and 78% reported hand washing before dinner. On the basis of objective scoring, all children improved handwashing ability when compared with the initial visit (P = .02) and were more likely to use warm water at follow up (P = .01). Parents did not significantly improve in handwashing ability (P = .73). Glow gel hand washing is an effective method to improve children's handwashing ability. This short-term intervention was effective even in the absence of specific hand hygiene education. This intervention could serve as a valuable public health measure to teach hand washing in healthcare settings.

  16. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona


    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  17. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205...; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means a toilet, washing, or shower space that is accessible only from one single or double occupancy sleeping...

  18. Evaluation of novel pre-slaughter cattle wash formulations for meat and byproduct safety and quality (United States)

    To ensure safety and quality of meat and leather innovative new carcass washing formulations need to be developed and tested. This study investigated six novel spray wash solutions for their effectiveness on reducing microbial concentrations from fresh hide while concurrently examining their effects...

  19. An Examination of "Wash-Out" and Workplace Conditions of Beginning Physical Education Teachers (United States)

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma; Colem, Margaret M.


    The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the extent of wash-out in two beginning physical education teachers; and (2) determine the workplace conditions these novice teachers experienced that may have influenced the extent of wash-out for them. The interactive factors influencing workplace conditions for physical education teachers…

  20. Effects of the particle size on the adhesive strength of washed cottonseed meal with white oak (United States)

    Water wash of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environment-friendly than the protein isolation which involves alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effect of the pa...

  1. Are cannabinoids detected in hair after washing with Cannabio shampoo? (United States)

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Jamey, C; Ludes, B


    Today, cannabis plants are used in shampoo preparations, in foodstuffs (e.g., oils, noodles, crackers, etc.), and in beverages (e.g., tea). These products often contain cannabidiol (CBD, 4079 ng/mL) and cannabinol (CBN, 380 ng/mL). In order to verify if normal hygiene practices with Cannabio shampoo can result in positive tests for cannabinoids in hair, three subjects washed their hair with this shampoo once daily for two weeks. After this period, hair specimens were collected. In the three hair specimens, THC, CBD, and CBN were never detected within their limits of detection, 0.05, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. We concluded that the use of Cannabio shampoo during normal hygiene practices cannot be considered as a source of potential contamination of hair. In a second experiment, drug-free hair specimens (200 mg) were incubated in 10 mL water/Cannabio shampoo (20:1, v/v) for 30 min, 2 h, and 5 h. After incubation, hair strands were washed with water and separated into two portions. One portion was extracted directly; the second was decontaminated with methylene chloride and then extracted. After an incubation period of 30 min, the analysis of hair by GC-MS did not reveal the presence of THC, CBD, and CBN in hair, regardless of whether the hair was decontaminated. After an incubation period of 2 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.11 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.10 ng/mg with decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). After an incubation period of 5 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.25 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.14 ng/mg after decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). In all cases, THC was never detected. Extensive but unrealistic use of Cannabio shampoo can cause drug-free hair to test positive for CBD and CBN but not for the primary psychoactive drug THC.

  2. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.


    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha DEMİRHAN


    Full Text Available It is very important that the dimensional changes of the fabrics of the textile materials such as fabrics remain in limits after washing. Especially at the export markets the dimensional stability is the most important factor of quality. Therefore; some standarts regarding the dimensional changes which can occur during washing for the knitted and woven fabrics had been agreed in the world and also in our country. When mentioning about "the dimensional changes after washing" we usually think of the length shrinkages or shortening which the fabric is mostly stretched on the length dırectıon. This explaines us where the most problems come from. In this study the dimensional changes of the various fabrics which occurs during line-dry and tumble dry process after washing has been examined and evaluated. Beside this, the shrinkages of the garments made from this fabrics after washing and ironing has been searched.

  4. Hand washing among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: attitudes and practices. (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abusara, Lara W; Odeh, Yazan M; Sbeih, Sbeih A; Massoud, May A


    Regular and proper hand washing is a low-cost and effective intervention to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The authors' study aimed to assess the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics associated with attitudes and practices of hand washing before eating in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It also assessed parents' participation in the personal hygiene of their children. Results revealed that almost all participants believed that it is always necessary to wash one's hands before eating. Females had higher rates than males for washing hands before eating as well as for helping with child hygiene. Not surprisingly, a positive relationship existed between educational level and attitudes and practice of washing hands before eating. The authors recommend that governments, ministries, and different nongovernmental organizations have an active role in developing and implementing programs in order to improve the health of their communities. Such programs should be conducted in all localities and at all levels including homes, schools, and public domains.

  5. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.


    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.


    The Eyjafjallajokull volcanic eruption in Iceland in April 2010 disrupted transportation in Europe which ultimately affected travel plans for many on a global basis. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) is responsible for providing guidance to the aviation industry of the transport of volcanic ash clouds. There are nine such centers located globally, and the London branch (headed by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, or UKMet) was responsible for modeling the Iceland volcano. The guidance provided by the VAAC created some controversy due to the burdensome travel restrictions and uncertainty involved in the prediction of ash transport. The Iceland volcanic eruption provides a useful exercise of the European ENSEMBLE program, coordinated by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy. ENSEMBLE, a decision support system for emergency response, uses transport model results from a variety of countries in an effort to better understand the uncertainty involved with a given accident scenario. Model results in the form of airborne concentration and surface deposition are required from each member of the ensemble in a prescribed format that may then be uploaded to a website for manipulation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is the lone regular United States participant throughout the 10-year existence of ENSEMBLE. For the Iceland volcano, four separate source term estimates have been provided to ENSEMBLE participants. This paper focuses only on one of those source terms. The SRNL results in relation to other modeling agency results along with useful information obtained using an ensemble of transport results will be discussed.

  7. Using Spatial Density to Characterize Volcanic Fields on Mars (United States)

    Richardson, J. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Connor, C. B.; Connor, L. J.


    We introduce a new tool to planetary geology for quantifying the spatial arrangement of vent fields and volcanic provinces using non parametric kernel density estimation. Unlike parametricmethods where spatial density, and thus the spatial arrangement of volcanic vents, is simplified to fit a standard statistical distribution, non parametric methods offer more objective and data driven techniques to characterize volcanic vent fields. This method is applied to Syria Planum volcanic vent catalog data as well as catalog data for a vent field south of Pavonis Mons. The spatial densities are compared to terrestrial volcanic fields.

  8. Patient Attitudes and Participation in Hand Co-Washing in an Outpatient Clinic Before and After a Prompt. (United States)

    Doyle, Gregory A; Xiang, Jun; Zaman, Hina; Neiman-Hart, Holli; Maroon, Michael; Arghami, Elham; Durani, Hina; Salana, Hari; Komakula, Venugopal; King, Dana E


    Despite recent national emphasis, outpatient hand washing can be less than optimal. We tested a new approach involving both patient and physician hand washing. The study consisted of 384 questionnaires, 184 from phase 1 and 200 from phase 2. Patients stated doctors washed their hands 96.6% before examining them pre-intervention and 99.5% of the time post-intervention. Patients endorsed the importance of hand washing 98.7% of the time. "Co-washing" may offer a process to increase the practice of hand washing and decrease infection risk. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce


    The interaction of volcanic ash with jet turbines during via ingestion of ash into engines operating at supra-volcanic temperatures is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for jet aircraft. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The fusibility of volcanic ash is believed to impact strongly its deposition in the hotter parts of jet engines. Despite this, explicit investigation of ash sintering using standardized techniques is in its infancy. Volcanic ash may vary widely in its physical state and chemical composition between and even within explosive volcanic eruptions. Thus a comparative study of the fusibility of ash which involves a standard recognized techniques would be highly desirable. In this work, nine samples of fine ash, deposited from co-pyroclastic offrom nine different volcanoes which cover a broad range of chemical composition, were investigated. Eight of them were collected from 2001-2009 eruptions. Because of the currently elevated level of eruptive activity and its potential hazards to aircraft safety and the remaining one sample was collected from a 12,121 ± 114 yr B.P. eruption. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by defining four characteristic temperatures (shrinkage temperature, deformation temperature, hemispherical temperature, and flow temperature) by means of heating microscope instrument and different thermal analysis methods. Here, we find that there are similar sticking ability and flow behavior of

  10. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao


    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H 3 PO 4 , NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H 3 PO 4 , 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H 3 PO 4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H 3 PO 4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ali Ataee


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male′s hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001. The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient′s manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  12. A pilot survey on hand washing among some communities of West Bengal. (United States)

    Ray, S K; Dobe, M; Maji, S; Chakrabarty, D; Sinha Roy, A K; Basu, S S


    A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between April to May 2006 by interview method and observation technique with the objective to know the knowledge regarding hand washing in the community and it was done in the slum and nonslum urban areas and also one rural area. The result shows that in urban slum area 98% washed their hands with soap after defecation; Only 36%, 16% and 2% washed their hands with soap before meal, before serving food and before cooking respectively. However, it was observed that 69% used soap and water for hand washing after cleaning the child's faeces. In rural area 71% used soap and water after defecation while 26% used mud or ash. Only 13%, 1%, 1% and 5% used soap and water before meal, before serving food, before cooking and after cleaning the child's faeces. 82.35% of respondents in non slum area and 89% of respondents in rural area considered that diarrhoea and dysentery could be prevented by hand washing while they did not give importance to hand washing in prevention of diarrhoea over other methods like cleanliness, boiling and purification of water. ARI was much higher (25.72%) in rural area followed by slum area (13.77%) and non-slum area (3.87%). Out of 30 observations among 302 interview made on hand-washing only first step i.e. palm washing (transient rubbing the palm with soap) was followed by all the participants observed. Time taken for such hand-washing was only around five seconds (ideal 15-30 seconds) in urban slum and rural areas while in non slum area it varied between 7-10 seconds on an average. No one followed any other steps of hand-washing, recommended by IFH.

  13. Comparing the performance of indicators of hand-washing practices in rural Indian households. (United States)

    Biran, A; Rabie, T; Schmidt, W; Juvekar, S; Hirve, S; Curtis, V


    To compare the results obtained from 26 proxy indicators of domestic hand-washing practices with those obtained from direct, 'structured' observation of hand-washing in a sample of 387 households and to assess the potential of these indicators for use in the evaluation of hygiene promotion campaigns. Fieldwork in rural India between February 2005 and April 2006. Household-level data on hand-washing practices and the availability of soap and water were collected by structured observation, questionnaire survey, pocket voting, hand-wash demonstration and environmental check. Between them these techniques produced 27 binary indicators of hand-washing practices, each of which was used to classify households as 'hand-washing' or 'non-hand-washing. To assess the extent to which household classification based on each of 26 proxy indicators concurred with classification based on observation, we used the kappa statistic. The prevalence of households defined as 'hand-washing' according to each indicator was compared statistically with the prevalence according to structured observations by testing for a significant difference between two proportions. Agreement between all the proxy indicators and the observation data was poor and all but two of the indicators produced estimates of hand-washing prevalence that were significantly different from that resulting from observation. Although some interventions may be able to use proxy indicators as a guide to the magnitude and direction of their impact, these indicators do not provide an accurate guide to the actual practice or prevalence of hand-washing. Structured observation remains the best indicator of those tested.

  14. Bacteriological Aspects of Hand Washing: A Key for Health Promotion and Infections Control. (United States)

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Ataee, Mohammad Hosein; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Salesi, Mahmud


    The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  15. The in vitro quality of washed, prestorage leucocyte-depleted red blood cell concentrates. (United States)

    Weisbach, V; Riego, W; Strasser, E; Zingsem, J; Ringwald, J; Zimmermann, R; Eckstein, R


    No data are currently available on the quality of washed prestorage leucocyte-depleted red blood cell concentrates (RCCs). Five groups of RCCs stored in additive solution (SAG-M) were washed. The groups differed in the age of RCCs (2-5 days or 11-15 days), the temperature during the washing procedure and a 6-h storage period (4 degrees C or room temperature) and the washing solution (saline, SAG-M or 5% albumin). We measured ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), haemolysis, blood cell count, Na(+), K(+), pH, pO(2), pCO(2) and lactate, before and after the washing procedure and hourly during the 6-h postwash storage period. The erythrocyte ATP content increased by 2-13%, relative to the baseline value, during the washing procedure. The 2,3-DPG level decreased by 15-35% in 2-6-day-old RCCs and by 30-40% in 11-15-day-old RCCs (relative to baseline values) during the washing procedure. In RCCs that were washed and stored at room temperature, and in 2-week-old RCCs, a further decrease in 2,3-DPG of up to 40%, relative to the baseline value, was observed during the 6-h postwash time-period. Washing of RCCs stored in SAG-M results in a considerable, significant loss of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, especially in older RCCs. This loss increases in during a 6-h storage period postwash, even at 4 degrees C. This loss of erythrocyte quality might well outweigh the benefits of washed SAG-M RCCs during massive transfusion in neonates.

  16. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing]. (United States)

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz


    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  17. Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen


    We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1).

  18. Style-based classification of Chinese ink and wash paintings (United States)

    Sheng, Jiachuan; Jiang, Jianmin


    Following the fact that a large collection of ink and wash paintings (IWP) is being digitized and made available on the Internet, their automated content description, analysis, and management are attracting attention across research communities. While existing research in relevant areas is primarily focused on image processing approaches, a style-based algorithm is proposed to classify IWPs automatically by their authors. As IWPs do not have colors or even tones, the proposed algorithm applies edge detection to locate the local region and detect painting strokes to enable histogram-based feature extraction and capture of important cues to reflect the styles of different artists. Such features are then applied to drive a number of neural networks in parallel to complete the classification, and an information entropy balanced fusion is proposed to make an integrated decision for the multiple neural network classification results in which the entropy is used as a pointer to combine the global and local features. Evaluations via experiments support that the proposed algorithm achieves good performances, providing excellent potential for computerized analysis and management of IWPs.

  19. Reverse osmosis for wash water recovery in space vehicles. (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Saltonstall, C. W., Jr.


    Tests were carried out on both synthetic and real wash water derived from clothes laundry to determine the utility of reverse osmosis in recovering the water for recycle use. A blend membrane made from cellulose di- and triacetates, and a cross-linked cellulose acetate/methacrylate were evaluated. Both were found acceptable. A number of detergents were evaluated, including a cationic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, potassium palmitate, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The tests were all made at a temperature of 165 F to minimize microbial growth. Long-term (15 to 30 day) runs were made at 600 and 400 psi on laundry water which was pretreated either by alum addition and sand filtration or by filtration only through 0.5 micron filters. A 30-day run was made using a 2-in. diameter by 22-in. long spiral module at 400 psig with filtering as the pretreatment. The membrane fouling by colloidal matter was found to be controllable. The unit produced initially 55 gal/day and 27 gal/day after 30 days.

  20. Prognostic value of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic malignancies: a controversial issue. (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Behniafard, Nasim; Zabihi, Somayeh; Hosseinizadeh, Elhamsadat


    To evaluate the prognostic impact of peritoneal washing cytology in patients with endometrial and ovarian cancers. We retrospectively identified 86 individuals with ovarian carcinomas, ovarian borderline tumors and endometrial adenocarcinomas. The patients had been treated at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital and Ramazanzadeh Radiotherapy Center, Yazd, Iran between 2004 and 2012. Survival differences were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression method. A pcytology group was better than the patients with positive cytology although this difference failed to reach statistical significance (p=0.30). At 0 to 50 months the overall survival was better in patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma and negative cytology than the patients with positive cytology but then it decreased (p=0.85). At 15 to 60 months patients with FIGO 2009 stage IA-II endometrial andocarcinoma and negative peritoneal cytology had a superior survival rate compared to 1988 IIIA and positive cytology only, although this difference failed to reach statistical significance(p=0.94). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model showed that stage and peritoneal cytology were predictors of death. Our results show good correlation of peritoneal cytology with prognosis in patients with ovarian carcinoma. In endometrial carcinoma it had prognostic importance. Additional research is warranted.

  1. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review]. (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun


    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson,

  2. Effect of intensive hand washing education on hand washing behaviors in thai households with an influenza-positive child in urban Thailand. (United States)

    Kaewchana, Suchada; Simmerman, Mark; Somrongthong, Ratana; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Chotipitayasunondh, Tawee


    This study assessed the effect of intensive education on self-reported frequency of hand washing (FHW), measured quality of hand washing (QHW), and measured scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) after 7 days and 90 days home-based intensive education of participants (aged >7 years) in households with a influenza-positive child. The authors provided intensive hand washing education using interactive participation including individual training, self-monitoring diary, provision of soap, and so on. There were significant improvements on FHW and QHW on day 7, control group (n(1) = 135) reported 3.9 hand washing episodes/day, whereas the intervention group (n(2) = 140) reported 5.7 episodes/day; control group (n(1) = 164) obtained a 3.2 measured quality score, whereas the intervention group (n(2) = 166) obtained a score of 6.4. Pre-education and 90 days post-education, FHW significantly improved by 2 episodes/day and QHW increased by 3 scores/episode. Knowledge of influenza and hand washing following coughing/sneezing showed significant improvement, but attitude modification toward severity of influenza requires a more intensified and longer intervention.

  3. Sustaining Volcanism of the Klyuchevskoy Group (United States)

    Nikulin, A.; Levin, V. L.; Carr, M. J.; Herzberg, C. T.; West, M. E.


    A primary control on the geographic position of volcanic arcs is the depth of fluid release from the subducting plate beneath the arc. Volcanoes of the Klyuchevskoy Group in Eastern Russia comprise the most active volcanic arc system in the world with the depth of the subducting Pacific plate beneath the arc estimated at 180-200km, greatly in excess of the global average. We attribute this deviation to a presence of a secondary melt generation source beneath this arc and present geophysical, geochemical and petrological evidence in support of this hypothesis. We present seismological constraints based on receiver function migration on the upper mantle structure beneath the Klyuchevskoy Group. We identify a sharply bounded low-velocity seismic feature at ~110 km depth separated from the subducting Pacific Plate. Analysis of open-access geochemical databases yields a previously unnoted bi-modal distribution of Zr/Nb concentrations in the Klyuchevskoy Group lavas. If the Zr/Nb ratio has some sensitivity for the depth to the slab, as it appears to in Central America, the observed bi-modal distribution of Zr/Nb values within lavas of the Klyuchevskoy Group may be associated with two sources, a deep source and a shallower source with higher Zr/Nb. Results of petrological modeling of melting conditions inferred from unfractionated basalt indicate melting pressures consistent with a source at a depth shallower than the estimated depth to the subducting plate. Inferred pressures of initial melting indicate a depth of about 70 to 90 km depth, roughly consistent with the position of the low -velocity seismic anomaly. We hypothesize that this upper mantle structure may serve as a second source of melts driving volcanism of the Klyuchevskoy Group. Presence of such source may explain both the extraordinary productivity of this volcanic arc and its unusual location.

  4. Volcanic disasters and incidents: A new database (United States)

    Witham, C. S.


    A new database on human mortality and morbidity, and civil evacuations arising from volcanic activity is presented. The aim is to quantify the human impacts of volcanic phenomena during the 20th Century. Data include numbers of deaths, injuries, evacuees and people made homeless, and the nature of the associated volcanic phenomena. The database has been compiled from a wide range of sources, and discrepancies between these are indicated where they arise. The quality of the data varies according to the source and the impacts reported. Data for homelessness are particularly poor and effects from ashfall and injuries appear to be under-reported. Of the 491 events included in the database, ˜53% resulted in deaths, although the total death toll of 91,724 is dominated by the disasters at Mt Pelée and Nevado del Ruiz. Pyroclastic density currents account for the largest proportion of deaths, and lahars for the most injuries incurred. The Philippines, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia, as a region, were the worst affected, and middle-income countries experienced greater human impacts than low or high-income countries. Compilation of the database has highlighted a number of problems with the completeness and accuracy of the existing CRED EM-DAT disaster database that includes volcanic events. This database is used by a range of organisations involved with risk management. The new database is intended as a resource for future analysis and will be made available via the Internet. It is hoped that it will be maintained and expanded.

  5. The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.


    The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships

  6. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E


    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic...

  7. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.


    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  8. Transfer of fibres on the hands of living subjects and their persistence during hand washing. (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Han, Aleum; Kim, Sojung; Son, Dasom; Min, Heewon


    Textile fibres were transferred to the hands of ten living subjects and their persistence was determined after hand washing. Average number of fibres transferred was 300 ± 133 (female 288 ± 92, male 311 ± 163) per 100 cm(2) hand area in the 100 experiments. However the number of fibres transferred was not gender dependent but individual dependent. The hand texture of subjects was compared with the number of fibres transferred but the relationship was not observed. The number of fibres transferred varied significantly for the 10 repeated experiments performed under the same conditions for the same subject. The subjects were then asked to wash their hands with water. One test group washed their hands with standing water, and the other with running tap water. Afterwards, the number of fibres remaining on the test subjects' hands were investigated. Migration of the fibres on the surface of the observed hands did occur but total loss of transferred fibre after hand washing did not occur. The average number of fibres remaining per 100 cm(2) hand area was 14 ± 10 (range=3-72) for hand washing with standing water, and 10 ± 12 (range=0-79) for washing with running tap water. The results of this study show the possibility of finding fibres on the hands of a person involved in a criminal case even after hand washing before fibre collection. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The mediating roles of disgust sensitivity and danger expectancy in relation to hand washing behaviour. (United States)

    Thorpe, Susan J; Barnett, Julie; Friend, Katy; Nottingham, Kate


    Recent interest in the role of vulnerability factors in obsessional washing has suggested that disgust sensitivity, danger expectancy and health anxiety may be of interest. This study explores the differential impact of these factors on both behavioural and cognitive measures of washing behaviour and is based on a replication of the Jones and Menzies (1997) experiment, during which participants immersed their hands in a noxious compound while rating themselves on a range of measures: the time they subsequently took to wash their hands was measured and danger expectancies were found to be the best predictor of this. The present study added measures of disgust sensitivity and health anxiety to this experimental methodology while removing factors they found to be of little import to compulsive washing. Thirty non-clinical participants took part. Results confirmed that disgust sensitivity was related to the behavioural measure of washing time, but that this relationship was almost entirely mediated by the danger expectancy concerning judgements of severity of consequent disease. However, a different pattern emerged when the outcome measure was questionnaire based: danger expectancy was not at all related to this. Disgust sensitivity mediated the relationship between health anxiety and scores on a questionnaire measure of washing compulsions. Interestingly, these scores were not related to the behavioural measure of washing time. The implications of these relationships to the further development of subtypes of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are discussed.

  10. Influence of pollutant build-up on variability in wash-off from urban road surfaces. (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    Variability in the pollutant wash-off process is a concept which needs to be understood in-depth in order to better assess the outcomes of stormwater quality models, and thereby strengthen stormwater pollution mitigation strategies. Current knowledge about the wash-off process does not extend to a clear understanding of the influence of the initially available pollutant build-up on the variability of the pollutant wash-off load and composition. Consequently, pollutant wash-off process variability is poorly characterised in stormwater quality models, which can result in inaccurate stormwater quality predictions. Mathematical simulation of particulate wash-off from three urban road surfaces confirmed that the wash-off load of particle size fractions 150 μm after a storm event vary with the build-up of the respective particle size fractions available at the beginning of the storm event. Furthermore, pollutant load and composition associated with the initially available build-up of build-up of pollutants associated with > 150 μm particles on wash-off process variability is significant only for relatively shorter duration storm events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between Washing Residue on the Feet and Tinea Pedis in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimie Takehara


    Full Text Available Tinea pedis (TP may lead to the development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients; thus, its prevention in diabetic patients is important. TP occurs after dermatophytes on the skin scales of TP patients attach to the feet. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the scales and dermatophytes, and this can be performed using various methods, including foot washing. This study aimed to objectively examine the association between the presence of TP and foot-washing habits. We included 33 diabetic patients, and, of these, 17 had TP. The presence of washing residue on the feet was determined by applying a fluorescent cream to the participants’ feet, and images of the feet were captured under ultraviolet light before and after foot washing. Our results showed that diabetic patients with TP had higher levels of washing residue on their feet than those without TP. The importance of washing feet to prevent TP needs to be emphasized through educational programs for diabetic patients. Furthermore, the development of an effective foot-washing technique is essential.

  12. Changes within the stabilizing layer of ZnO nanoparticles upon washing. (United States)

    Schindler, Torben; Schmutzler, Tilo; Schmiele, Martin; Lin, Wei; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang; Appavou, Marie-Sousia; Kriele, Armin; Gilles, Ralph; Unruh, Tobias


    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are highly relevant for various industrial applications, however, after synthesis of the NPs residual chemicals need to be removed from the colloidal raw product by washing, as they may influence the performance of the final device. In the present study we focus on the effect of washing by antisolvent flocculation with subsequent redispersion of the NPs on the stabilizing acetate shell. Purification of the ZnO nanoparticles is reported to be optimal with respect to zeta potential that has a maximum after one washing cycle. In this work, we will shed light on this observation using small angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS, SANS) by demonstrating that after the first washing cycle the content of acetate in the ligand shell around the ZnO NPs increases. In detail, it was observed that the diffuse acetate shell shrinks to the size of a monolayer upon washing but the acetate content of this monolayer is higher than within the diffuse shell of the particles of the native dispersion. A second washing cycle reduces the acetate concentration within the stabilizing shell and the stability of the dispersion drops accordingly. After another (third) washing cycle strong agglomeration was observed for all investigated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Frigieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main objective of this work was to study the technical viability of using the cellulose bleaching effluent, at several stages of the process, seeking fresh water reduction in pulp washing, and evaluating its effect on pulp quality. Eucalyptus spp. industrial cellulosic pulp with oxygen was used in this experiment. The same bleaching sequence D(E+PDP was performed ten times, under the same conditions (temperature, consistency and time. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different washing factors: 9, 6, 3, 0 m3 of distilled water/ton of pulp, trying to reach brightness of 92 ± 0,5% ISO. The ten sequences sought to achieve the stability of the effluent organic load, measured by the chemical oxygen demand (COD. Then, the COD results were compared to the brightness ones from the bleached pulp. The evaluated results from the ten sequences and four different washings showed an increasing in COD due to the organic load accumulation, resulting from the reuse of effluent from previous sequences. This COD increasing provided the lower brightness results during the cycles, besides the water reduction, evidencing the necessity of washing between bleaching stages. In this study, the obtained result for the pulp washing up to 3m3/t was tolerable and even recommended. On the other hand, the pulp without any washing (0m3/t, due to the lack of enough brightness, it is commercially unviable.

  14. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón


    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  15. UNAVCO Conference explores advances in volcanic geodesy (United States)

    Stein, Seth; Hamburger, Michael; Meertens, Charles; Dixon, Timothy; Owen, Susan

    Volcanic eruptions are among Earth's most spectacular surface phenomena. However, attempts to understand their basic physics face the challenge that the key processes occur at great depth and are difficult to observe. Thus volcanologists have been interested for years in using ground deformation measurements to study active volcanoes and predict their behavior during extended volcanic crises, such as the dramatic six weeks in 1980 between the initial and major eruptions of Mt. Saint Helens.The advent of new technologies in recent years—in particular the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (INSAR)—has shown potential for significant advances in volcano studies. Progress in this direction was explored at a conference organized by the University Navstar Consortium (UNAVCO) on September 15-17, 1999, with financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The meeting aimed to assess the status of various geodetic technologies and their potential to address crucial scientific and social needs in volcanic science and monitoring, as well as to develop recommendations on ways to spur further progress in these areas.

  16. Amazonian volcanism inside Valles Marineris on Mars (United States)

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, Ernst; Wray, James J.; Michael, Gregory


    The giant trough system of Valles Marineris is one of the most spectacular landforms on Mars, yet its origin is still unclear. Although often referred to as a rift, it also shows some characteristics that are indicative of collapse processes. For decades, one of the major open questions was whether volcanism was active inside the Valles Marineris. Here we present evidence for a volcanic field on the floor of the deepest trough of Valles Marineris, Coprates Chasma. More than 130 individual edifices resemble scoria and tuff cones, and are associated with units that are interpreted as lava flows. Crater counts indicate that the volcanic field was emplaced sometime between ∼0.4 Ga and ∼0.2 Ga. The spatial distribution of the cones displays a control by trough-parallel subsurface structures, suggesting magma ascent in feeder dikes along trough-bounding normal faults. Spectral data reveal an opaline-silica-rich unit associated with at least one of the cones, indicative of hydrothermal processes. Our results point to magma-water interaction, an environment of astrobiological interest, perhaps associated with late-stage activity in the evolution of Valles Marineris, and suggest that the floor of Coprates Chasma is promising target for the in situ exploration of Mars.

  17. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah


    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  18. Venus volcanism: Initial analysis from Magellan data (United States)

    Head, J.W.; Campbell, D.B.; Elachi, C.; Guest, J.E.; Mckenzie, D.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Schaber, G.G.; Schubert, G.


    Magellan images confirm that volcanism is widespread and has been fundamentally important in the formation and evolution of the crust of Venus. High-resolution imaging data reveal evidence for intrusion (dike formation and cryptodomes) and extrusion (a wide range of lava flows). Also observed are thousands of small shield volcanoes, larger edifices up to several hundred kilometers in diameter, massive outpourings of lavas, and local pyroclastic deposits. Although most features are consistent with basaltic compositions, a number of large pancake-like domes are morphologically similar to rhyolite-dacite domes on Earth. Flows and sinuous channels with lengths of many hundreds of kilometers suggest that extremely high effusion rates or very fluid magmas (perhaps komatiites) may be present. Volcanism is evident in various tectonic settings (coronae, linear extensional and compressional zones, mountain belts, upland rises, highland plateaus, and tesserae). Volcanic resurfacing rates appear to be low (less than 2 km3/yr) but the significance of dike formation and intrusions, and the mode of crustal formation and loss remain to be established.

  19. Probability of large explosive volcanic eruptions in the Cascades (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Clynne, M. A.


    Estimating the probability of large explosive eruptions in the Cascades is problematic because they occur relatively infrequently. Although some volcanic centers have been more likely to have large eruptions than others, the calculation of the probability of large eruptions for individual volcanic centers is inappropriate. A center that has had a large eruption in the past will not necessarily have a large eruption in the future, and the occurrence for individual volcanic centers is too infrequent to have much confidence in a probability estimate. The sources of some large eruptions are ambiguous (e.g. Shevlin Park Tuff, Oregon) or unknown (Dibekulewe ash), but because the effects of large eruptions are quite widespread, the precise location of the source is less important in terms of hazards. Thus, we focus on the calculation of probability of large eruptions for the Cascade arc as a whole. To estimate the probability, we have chosen a time period for documenting eruptions of 1.15 Ma (the age of the eruption of Kulshan caldera) as a balance between the likelihood of there being good information but with a long enough time period to get a reasonable number of occurrences. We have compiled data from the literature on eruptions larger than 5 km3 in erupted volume to exclude the relatively frequent eruptions ~1-2 km3. The largest eruptions are clearly or likely to have been associated with caldera formation. For erupted volumes greater than 5 km3, 19 events have occurred in the last 1.15 Ma. A plot of event number versus age shows a high rate of occurrence since 13.5 ka and a much lower rate before then. Most of the events since 13.5 ka are 5-10 km3. Events 10 km3 and larger have occurred at a reasonably constant rate since 630 ka. The difference between the two data sets is probably the poor preservation of deposits for events between 5 and 10 km3 that occurred prior to the ending of the glaciation at about 15 ka. Before 630 ka, the only eruption > 10 km3 is Kulshan

  20. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region in Japan using multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical interpolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinyong [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Balasingham, P [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); McKenna, Sean Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H.S.W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate values for each variable at 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system that represents the Sengan region. These values formed complete geologic variable vectors at each of the 23,949 one km cell centers.

  1. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics. (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio


    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lunar farside volcanism in and around the South Pole-Aitken basin (United States)

    Pasckert, Jan Hendrik; Hiesinger, Harald; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.


    We identified and mapped 129 mare basalt deposits in and around the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, and determined absolute model ages (AMAs) for 101 of these units by performing crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements. The derived AMAs range from 2.2 Ga to 3.7 Ga, with the youngest deposits within Antoniadi crater and the oldest deposits at Jules Verne crater. Our investigations indicate a major peak in volcanic activity between 3.6 Ga and 3.2 Ga, which is a similar time range as the major volcanic activity on the nearside, and the rest of the farside. However, a second peak in volcanic activity (2.2-2.5 Ga), as observed for the nearside and parts of the farside, is not observed for the mare deposits within the SPA basin. Combining all AMAs derived for farside mare basalts reveals that volcanic activity was more abundant and lasted longer on the nearside than on the farside. We propose that the stripping of insulating crust by the large SPA-forming impact event, in combination with lower amounts of heat producing elements like Th, might be responsible for the reduced volcanic activity in the SPA basin. In addition, we estimated the thicknesses and volumes of the investigated mare deposits. With thicknesses between ∼31 m and ∼273 m and volumes of ∼1 km³ to ∼2630 km³, the mare basalt deposits in and around the SPA basin show a wide range of dimensions, similar to other mare basalts of the near- and farsides. A trend between the AMAs and the estimated volumes was not observed, but the mare deposits within the large northern craters (e.g., Apollo, Ingenii, or Leibnitz) seem to be generally larger and more voluminous than the mare basalt deposits at the center of the SPA basin.

  3. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala. (United States)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.


    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  4. Anomalous Geologic Setting of the Spencer-High Point Volcanic Field, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho (United States)

    Iwahashi, G. S.; Hughes, S. S.


    The Spencer-High Point (SHP) volcanic field comprises an ~1700 sq km mafic volcanic rift zone located near Yellowstone in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). SHP lava flows are both similar to and distinct from typical olivine tholeiite lavas of the ESRP. SHP has unique physical volcanic features characterized by numerous cinder cones and short lava flows; whereas, spatter ramparts, fissures and longer flows dominate in other ESRP regions. Topography and aerial photos indicate that vents are generally aligned northwest- southeast, which is sub-parallel to adjacent Basin and Range faults in much of the ESRP. Yet individual vents and other structural elements in SHP where Basin and Range, ESRP and thrust-faulted mountain belts all intersect, are elongated in a more east-west direction. Distinct structural control is manifested in an overall southward slope over the entire volcanic field. Short lava flows tend to flow north or south off of a central topographically higher zone of overlapping lava flows and smaller vents. Several smaller vents appear to be parasitic cones adjacent to larger eruptive centers. Contrary to these relations, preliminary geochemical data by Leeman (1982) and Kuntz et al. (1992) suggest SHP lavas are typical ESRP olivine tholeiite basalts, which notably have coarsely diktytaxitic texture. The central and eastern sections of the SHP field contain lavas with large (3-8cm), clear, euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts but without diktytaxitic texture. Lava flows in the central and eastern sections of SHP volcanic field are pahoehoe. These also contain crustal xenoliths implying a prolonged crustal history. Geochemical whole rock and microprobe analyses are currently being processed for petrogenetic history.

  5. A 150-ka-long record for the volcano-tectonic deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin


    The Anatolian Block represents one of the most outstanding examples of intra-plate deformation related to continental collision. Deformation related to the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent toward north gives rise to widespread and intense arc volcanism in the Central Anatolia. All the usual studies on dating the volcano-tectonic deformation of the region are performed entirely on volcanic events of the geological record resulted in eruptions. However, without volcanic eruption, magma migration and related fluid pressurization also generate crustal deformation. In the current study has been funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with the project no. 115Y497, we focused on fracture systems and their carbonate veins around the Ihlara Valley (Cappadocia) surrounded by well-known volcanic centers with latest activities of the southern Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. We dated 37 samples using the Uranium-series technique and analyzed their isotope systematics from fissure veins, which are thought to be controlled by the young volcanism in the region. Our detailed fracture analyses in the field show that there is a regional dilatation as a result of a NW-SE striking extension which is consistent with the results of recent GPS studies. The Uranium-series results indicate that fracture development and associated carbonate vein deposition occurred in the last 150 ka. Carbon and oxygen isotope systematics have almost remained unchanged in the studied time interval. Although veins in the region were precipitated from fluids primarily of meteoric origin, fluids originating from water-rock interaction also contribute for the deposition of carbonate veins. The age distribution indicates that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 different period at about 4.7, 34, 44, 52, 83, 91, 149 ka BP. Four of these periods (4.7, 34, 91, 149 ka BP) correspond to the volcanic activities suggested in the previous studies. The three crustal

  6. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts (United States)

    Mather, T. A.


    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  7. Investigation on Washing Effects for Nano-Bubble/Surfactant Mixtures in an Alternating Flow


    牛田, 晃臣; 長谷川, 富市; 天木, 桂子; 中島, 俊之; 高橋, 尚幸; 鳴海, 敬倫; Ushida, Akiomi; Hasegawa, Tomiichi; AMAKI, Keiko; Nakajima, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Narumi, Takatsune


    Laundry wastewater is known to contribute to water pollution, and the need to reduce the amount of detergents used is recognized. Extensive research has focused on the washing effects of micro-bubbles and nano-bubbles, and mechanical work has been found to account for 50% of the washing effect. In the present research, a water/nano-bubble mixture and several types of surfactants were investigated in an alternating flow system. The nano-bubble water achieved a washing rate of about 5% greater ...

  8. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care]. (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling


    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  9. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them? (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin


    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Video Surveillance Audit of Hand-washing Practices in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Shah, Rutvi; Patel, Dipen V; Shah, Kushal; Phatak, Ajay; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar


    To audit hand-washing practices by video-surveillance. Six main steps (step 2 to step 7) of World Health Organizations hand hygiene technique with soap and water were used for evaluation. Handwashing was categorized as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. Of 1081 recordings, 403 (37.3%) were excellent, 521 (48.2%) were acceptable and 157 (14.5%) were unacceptable handwash. Unacceptable handwashing was more prevalent in the night in comparison to daytime (17.5% vs 12.5%). Thirteen people washed their face after washing their hands. Innovative interventions are required to improve handwashing during night shifts.

  11. Influence of instructional posters on cleanness of the hands after hand washing


    松島, 拓; 赤坂, 球亜; 安藤, 瞳; 井上, みわ; 三又, 由紀; 千田, 好子


    The objective of this study was to compare the cleanness of the hands after following two different posters. The subjects were 82 nursing students. They were divided into 2 groups of 41 each. For instructions one group was given a poster showing the procedures of hand washing, and the other group was given a poster showing areas to be washed carefully. After a fluorescent dye was sprayed on the fingers and the wrists, the testees washed their hands with antimicrobial soap under running water....

  12. Detection of bovine leukosis virus in bronchoalveolar lung washings and nasal secretions. (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Bushnell, S


    Cattle and sheep persistently infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV) were studied for the presence of the virus in bronchoalveolar lung washings and nasal secretions. The virus was demonstrated in the cellular fraction of the lung washings in six out of nine cattle and in one out of six sheep. In no instance was bovine leukosis isolated from the cell-free bronchoalveolar lung washings. The virus was isolated from the nasal secretion of only one of six naturally infected milking cows despite frequent sampling; the virus-infected nasal secretion was from a sick 10-year-old cow. Bovine leukosis virus was not isolated from cellular fractions of nasal secretions.

  13. Analysis of concentration patterns in volcanic rocks: Insights into dynamics of highly explosive volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Perugini, D.; Petrelli, M.; Poli, G.


    In this contribution we present new data resulting from the analysis of concentration patterns of mixed juvenile fragments ejected by a highly explosive volcanic eruption that occurred on Salina Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy) and our aim is to identify the fluid-dynamic regime characterizing the magma mixing process. Concentration patterns are studied by calculating the power spectrum of concentration variability along transects crossing the magma mixing structures. Results indicate that the slope of power spectrum has an average value of about -5/3, according to Kolmogorov law of turbulence, and suggest that the magma mixing process, in the studied conditions, can be approximated by considering the passive scalar mixing hypothesis in homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow. These results represent a first step towards a better understanding of magma mixing processes associated to highly explosive volcanic eruptions and this first step is taken by studying concentration patterns in volcanic rocks by coupling petrological and non-linear dynamics methods.

  14. Short-lived and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism? (United States)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.


    South Pacific intraplate volcanoes have been active since the Early Cretaceous. Their HIMU-EMI-EMII mantle sources can be traced back into the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) using plate tectonic reconstructions, implying that these distinctive components are enduring features within the Earth's mantle for, at least, the last 120 Myr. These correlations are eminent on the scale of the WPSP and the South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly (SOPITA), but the evolution of single hot spots emerges notably more complicated. Hot spots in the WPSP and SOPITA mantle regions typically display intermittent volcanic activity, longevities shorter than 40 Myr, superposition of hot spot volcanism, and motion relative to other hot spots. In this review, we use 40Ar/39Ar seamount ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures to map out Cretaceous volcanism in the WPSP and to characterize its evolution with respect to the currently active hot spots in the SOPITA region. Our plate tectonic reconstructions indicate cessation of volcanism during the Cretaceous for the Typhoon and Japanese hot spots; whereas the currently active Samoan, Society, Pitcairn and Marquesas hot spots lack long-lived counterparts in the WPSP. These hot spots may have become active during the last 20 Myr only. The other WPSP seamount trails can be only "indirectly" reconciled with hot spots in the SOPITA region. Complex age distributions in the Magellan, Anewetak, Ralik and Ratak seamount trails would necessitate the superposition of multiple volcanic trails generated by the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hot spots during the Cretaceous; whereas HIMU-type seamounts in the Southern Wake seamount trail would require 350-500 km of hot spot motion over the last 100 Myr following its origination along the Mangaia-Rurutu "hotline" in the Cook-Austral Islands. These observations, however, violate all assumptions of the classical Wilson-Morgan hot spot hypothesis, indicating that long-lived, deep and fixed mantle

  15. Multiple expressions of plume-ridge interaction in the Galápagos: Volcanic lineaments and ridge jumps (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, E.; Soule, S.; Harpp, K.; Fornari, D.; McKee, C.; Tivey, M.; Geist, D.; Kurz, M. D.; Sinton, C.; Mello, C.


    Anomalous volcanism and tectonics between near-ridge mantle plumes and mid-ocean ridges provide important insights into the mechanics of plume-lithosphere interaction. We present new observations and analysis of multibeam, side scan sonar, sub-bottom chirp, and total magnetic field data collected during the R/V Melville FLAMINGO cruise (MV1007; May-June, 2010) to the Northern Galápagos Volcanic Province (NGVP), the region between the Galápagos Archipelago and the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) on the Nazca Plate, and to the region east of the Galápagos Transform Fault (GTF) on the Cocos Plate. The NGVP exhibits pervasive off-axis volcanism related to the nearby Galápagos hot spot, which has dominated the tectonic evolution of the region. Observations indicate that ˜94% of the excess volcanism in our survey area occurs on the Nazca Plate in three volcanic lineaments. Identified faults in the NGVP are consistent with normal ridge spreading except for those within a ˜60 km wide swath of transform-oblique faults centered on the GTF. These transform-oblique faults are sub-parallel to the elongation direction of larger lineament volcanoes, suggesting that lineament formation is influenced by the lithospheric stress field. We evaluate current models for lineament formation using existing and new observations as well as numerical models of mantle upwelling and melting. The data support a model where the lithospheric stress field controls the location of volcanism along the lineaments while several processes likely supply melt to these eruptions. Synthetic magnetic models and an inversion for crustal magnetization are used to determine the tectonic history of the study area. Results are consistent with creation of the GTF by two southward ridge jumps, part of a series of jumps that have maintained a plume-ridge separation distance of 145 km to 215 km since ˜5 Ma.

  16. Preliminary Results of Paleomagnetic Study on the Miocene - Quaternary Volcanic Rocks from the North of Lake Van, Turkey (United States)

    Kayın, Sercan; İşseven, Turgay


    Collision between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates initiated in Serravallian age (12-13 Ma). This collision caused a large plateau formation about 2 km elevation. Result of the collision, Eastern Anatolian Region still continious to evolve as a young mountain belt. East-West trending folds, thrust faults and strike-slip fault systems were developed due to the compressional tectonic regime in the region. After the formation of the plateau, volcanism took place occupying large areas. The thickness of this volcanic series reaches to 1 km. In order to determine tectonic evolution (rotational and latitudinal movements) of the North of the Lake Van, oriented paleomagnetic samples were collected from the volcanic rocks whose ages has already been determined from radiometric methods and ages range from Miocene to Quaternary times. The origin of the collected palaeomagnetic samples from different volcanic series were came from volcanic centers in this region such as the followings: Aladaǧ, Tendurek, Etrusk, Girekol Mounths and Pliocene plate basalts. Our preliminary results indicate that most of the clockwise and anticlockwise rotations and deformation occured during the Miocene- Pliocene times. However, in Pleistosene time there weren't any considerable rotations and deformations. The main reason of the deformations were related with the collision between the Arabian plate and the Eurasian plate and accomodated by regional faults and westards escape of Anatolia. Our results are in good agreement with previously done palaeomagnetic studies, seismological and GPS data in the region.

  17. Diffuse and bi-directional reflectance spectrometry to study European volcanic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salzano


    Full Text Available Diffuse and bi-directional reflectance spectroscopy were applied in this research in order to characterize chemical and mineralogical properties in volcanic soils. The study was conducted on 77 volcanic soil profiles from several European countries. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with parameterization using the second derivative of the Kubelka-Munk function and colour calculation. From derivative curves, one band of interest was characterized and identified around 450 nm. Using correlation analysis, significant relationships were observed between amplitude of this band and Fed (r = 0.6. In addition, the data showed that soil organic matter content, Ald and Fep were moderately correlated with reflectance values centered at 546, 579 and 2048 nm.

  18. Volcanic ash plume identification using polarization lidar: Augustine eruption, Alaska (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Webley, Peter W.; Dean, K.; Cobb, Patrick


    During mid January to early February 2006, a series of explosive eruptions occurred at the Augustine volcanic island off the southern coast of Alaska. By early February a plume of volcanic ash was transported northward into the interior of Alaska. Satellite imagery and Puff volcanic ash transport model predictions confirm that the aerosol plume passed over a polarization lidar (0.694 mm wavelength) site at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. For the first time, lidar linear depolarization ratios of 0.10 – 0.15 were measured in a fresh tropospheric volcanic plume, demonstrating that the nonspherical glass and mineral particles typical of volcanic eruptions generate strong laser depolarization. Thus, polarization lidars can identify the volcanic ash plumes that pose a threat to jet air traffic from the ground, aircraft, or potentially from Earth orbit.

  19. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  20. Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year in the United States, an estimated 40,000 children are born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, causing an estimated 400 deaths and leaving approximately 8000 children with permanent disabilities such as hearing or vision loss, or mental retardation. More children are affected by serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood maladies, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. Discussion Congenital CMV is a prime target for prevention not only because of its substantial disease burden but also because the biology and epidemiology of CMV suggest that there are ways to reduce viral transmission. Because exposure to the saliva or urine of young children is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women, it is likely that good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing, can reduce the risk of CMV acquisition. Experts agree that such measures are likely to be efficacious (i.e., they will work if consistently followed and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians counsel pregnant women about preventing CMV acquisition through careful attention to hygiene. However, because of concerns about effectiveness (i.e., Will women consistently follow hygienic practices as the result of interventions?, the medical and public health communities appear reluctant to embrace primary CMV prevention via improved hygienic practices, and educational interventions are rare. Current data on the effectiveness of such measures in preventing CMV infection are promising, but limited. There is strong evidence, however, that educational interventions can prevent other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, suggesting that effective interventions can also be found for CMV. Until a CMV vaccine becomes available, effective educational interventions are needed to inform women about congenital CMV prevention. Summary Perhaps no single

  1. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism (United States)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.


    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  2. Las Vegas wash water quality and implications to fish and wildlife (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent investigations have documented degraded water quality conditions in Las Vegas Wash and Las Vegas Bay of Lake Mead, Clark County, Nevada (Bureau of Reclamation...

  3. Automatic top loader washing machine related injury. A report of four cases with serious injury. (United States)

    Kwan, M K; Saw, A; Sara Ahmad, T


    We are reporting four cases of serious washing machine related injury that presented within a period of 5 months. All patients were young children with the mean age of 9 year-old and three had their dominant hand injured. The washing machines involved were the automatic top loader type and all injuries occurred during the spinning phase. Serious automatic washing machine injury is not uncommon in Malaysia. We feel that there is a need to improve the safety features especially during the spinning phase. The operating instructions and safety precautions on the washing machine should be displayed in different languages that can be understood well. Parents should also aware of the potential risks of this seemingly benign household appliance.

  4. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  5. Self-reported hand washing behaviors and foodborne illness: a propensity score matching approach. (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Verrill, Linda; Zhang, Yuanting


    Hand washing is a simple and effective but easily overlooked way to reduce cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens. In this study, we used the propensity score matching methodology to account for potential selection bias to explore our hypothesis that always washing hands before food preparation tasks is associated with a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness. Propensity score matching can simulate random assignment to a condition so that pretreatment observable differences between a treatment group and a control group are homogenous on all the covariates except the treatment variable. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2010 Food Safety Survey, we estimated the effect of self-reported hand washing behavior on the probability of self-reported foodborne illness. Our results indicate that reported washing of hands with soap always before food preparation leads to a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness.

  6. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling (United States)

    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pat...

  7. Multi-Scale Bridge Wash Out Simulation During Tsunami by Using a Particle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyagawa Yoshiya


    Full Text Available In 2011, the huge tsunami caused by the great east Japan earthquake devastated many infrastructures in pacific coast of north eastern Japan. Particularly, collapse of bridges caused a traffic disorder and these collapse behaviors led to delay of recovery after the disaster. In this study, the bridge wash away accident is selected as a target issue, and it is represented by a numerical simulation. For this purpose, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH Method, which is one of the pure mesh free methods, is utilized for the rigid body motion simulation. In this study, rigid body motion is introduced for the fluid-rigid interaction behavior during bridge wash away simulation. In the numerical analysis, the upper bridge structure is washed away by receiving an impact fluid force. The wash away simulation of two types of the bridge girder showed good agreement with the real accident on the great east Japan earthquake tsunami.

  8. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao


    .... Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases...

  9. Healthy school environment: effectiveness of hand washing instruction in an elementary school setting. (United States)

    Celik, Laurel A; Pancoe, Diane L


    Hand washing remains the single most important action for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although easy and inexpensive, promoting hand hygiene in an elementary school can be a challenge. This study was a collaborativeproject between the co-investigators (a registered nurse at an urban elementary school and a senior high school student working on a senior International Baccalaureate research project), the 5th-grade science teacher, and a physician from the local children's hospital. The study purposes were to (a) determine the effectiveness of a 30-minute hand washing educational intervention at decreasing organisms on the hands of 5th-grade students and (b) introduce the 5th-grade students to the scientific method. Forty-one percent of the 5th-grade students used an effective hand washing technique after receiving instruction on proper hand washing.

  10. Washing away your (good or bad) luck: physical cleansing affects risk-taking behavior. (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Zwick, Rami; Schwarz, Norbert


    Many superstitious practices entail the belief that good or bad luck can be "washed away." Consistent with this belief, participants who recalled (Experiment 1) or experienced (Experiment 2) an episode of bad luck were more willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands, whereas participants who recalled or experienced an episode of good luck were less willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands. Thus, the psychological effects of physical cleansings extend beyond the domain of moral judgment and are independent of people's motivation: incidental washing not only removes undesirable traces of the past (such as bad luck) but also desirable ones (such as good luck), which people would rather preserve.

  11. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen


    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  12. Transform Tectonics and Non-Volcanic Oceanic Islands


    Palmiotto, Camilla


    Oceanic islands can be divided, according to their origin, in volcanic and tectonic. Volcanic islands are due to excess volcanism. Tectonic islands are mainly formed due to vertical tectonic motions of blocks of oceanic lithosphere along transverse ridges flanking transform faults at slow and ultraslow mid-ocean ridges. Vertical tectonic motions are due to a reorganization of the geometry of the transform plate boundary, with the transition from a transcurrent tectonics to a transtensive and/...

  13. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle


    J. F. Tjiputra; O. H. Otterå


    Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller but more frequent eruptions, such as Pinatubo, would hav...

  14. Volatile Transport by Volcanic Plumes on Earth, Venus and Mars (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Baloga, Steve; Stofan, Ellen R.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions can produce sustained, buoyant columns of ash and gas in the atmosphere (Fig. 1). Large flood basalt eruptions may also include significant explosive phases that generate eruption columns. Such eruptions can transport volcanic volatiles to great heights in the atmosphere. Volcanic eruption columns can also redistribute chemical species within the atmosphere by entraining ambient atmosphere at low altitudes and releasing those species at much higher altitudes.

  15. Los volcanes del Sistema Volcánico Transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Yarza de la Torre


    Full Text Available Si hizo la selección de textos referentes a algunos de los volcanes que integran el Sistema Volcánico Transversal. Publicado en: Yarza de De la Torre, E. (1992, "Los volcanes del Sistema Volcánico Transversal", Volcanes de México, 4a ed. corregida y aumentada, Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, México, pp. 82-83, 89-136.

  16. Los volcanes del Sistema Volcánico Transversal


    Esperanza Yarza de la Torre


    Si hizo la selección de textos referentes a algunos de los volcanes que integran el Sistema Volcánico Transversal. Publicado en: Yarza de De la Torre, E. (1992), "Los volcanes del Sistema Volcánico Transversal", Volcanes de México, 4a ed. corregida y aumentada, Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, México, pp. 82-83, 89-136.

  17. Water usage characteristics of car wash facilities in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province


    Karabacak, Volkan; Topbaş, Murat; Karakullukçu, Serdar; Demirtaş, Yusuf; Çankaya, Sertaç; Çan, Gamze; Beyhun, N. Ercüment


    Introduction. Water management is ontop of the agenda for all countries Aimof the study. The aim of this study was to determine the water usage in thecar wash facilities of Ortahisar district of Trabzon province, such as thefeatures of the water used in drinking and car washing, the disposal ofwastewater and case of water interruption situation in the facilities. Material and methods. This descriptivestudy was conducted in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province. The studypopulation of the res...

  18. Corrosion Control of Central Vehicle Wash Facility Pump Components Using Alternative Alloy Coatings (United States)


    Vehicle Wash Facility (CVWF) provides a rapid, economical method for washing tracked and wheeled tactical vehicles. The standard CVWF consists of a...of the prewash ERDC/CERL TR-16-10 6 pumps. The pump shaft is visible and the motor has been placed at the nearer left corner of the slab ...timers were installed in the pump control panel so that the hours of operation can be tracked by DPW personnel for purposes of scheduling in- spection

  19. Planning a layout design for the washing line of Parker Hannifin Oy


    Lartey, Daniel


    The aim of this thesis was to design a new layout and select the best conveyor system to enhance material flow to the complex industrial washing machines at the washing line. The purpose was also to prepare an Approval for Execution (AFE) plan to enable the commissioning organization to review the current and future benefits and payback time before the project is implemented. The thesis was commissioned by Parker Hannifin Oy in Urjala. In spring 2011 Parker Hannifin Oy decided to streamli...

  20. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities


    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A


    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...