WorldWideScience

Sample records for wartime tobacco promotion

  1. "Everywhere the soldier will be": wartime tobacco promotion in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2009-09-01

    Deployment of young Americans in military engagements places them at increased risk for not only war hazards but also tobacco addiction and disease. Tobacco use diminishes troop health and readiness, and increases medical and training costs. Military tobacco control efforts began in 1986, yet tobacco use remains high. To determine whether and how the tobacco industry targets military personnel in wartime, we analyzed internal industry documents about the Gulf War (1990-1991) and constructed a historical case study. During this conflict, tobacco companies targeted troops with free cigarettes, direct advertising, branded items, ways to communicate with family, and "welcome home" events. Military authorities sometimes restricted this activity, but frequently enabled it; tobacco companies were regarded as benefactors. Considering tobacco use a benefit undermines military health priorities. Stronger policy is needed to reframe tobacco use as incompatible with military ideals.

  2. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  3. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.

  4. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  5. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  6. Monitoring Epidemic of Tobacco Use, Promote Tobacco Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Huan YANG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Tobacco use is a major cause of preventable disease and premature death. The tobacco epidemic is responsible for 5.4 million deaths annually and killed 100 million people worldwide in the last century. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be more than 8 million deaths every year attributable to tobacco use and that more than 80% of these will occur in developing countries. By the end of the 21st century,1 billion people will have died from cigarette smoke[1].

  7. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625

  8. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  9. Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco promoting and restraining factors among adolescents in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, D; Koivusilta, L; Raisamo, S; Rimpelä, A

    2012-08-01

    With a long history of tobacco cultivation, adolescents in Ghana are at relatively high risk of the emerging tobacco epidemic in developing countries. This study explored exposure to tobacco promoting/restraining factors and their associations with smoking and tawa (traditional smokeless tobacco) use among 13-18-year-old Ghanaians. School-based representative data were collected in 2008 (n = 1165). Prevalence rates of tobacco use, smoking and tawa use were 9.1% (11.5% boys and 6.4% girls), 6.6% (8.0% boys and 4.7% girls) and 5.7% (7.3% boys and 3.9% girls), respectively. Four percent of the respondents attended schools without a smoking ban, 66% had been taught about the harmful effects of smoking in the current school year, and 53% had been exposed to tobacco advertising. Fifty-three percent of adolescents who had tried to purchase tobacco products were not refused because of their age. Multivariate analyses found that attendance at a school where smoking was allowed, not having been taught about the harmful effects of smoking, exposure to tobacco advertising and parental smoking were positively associated with tobacco use, and knowledge that smoking is harmful to health and difficult to quit were negatively associated with tobacco use. Both smoking and tawa use were relatively low among Ghanaian adolescents. Exposure to tobacco advertising was high. There is no tobacco legislation in Ghana, but societal norms or cultural values seem to restrict smoking in schools and access to tobacco products. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  11. Thailand Country Report on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Chitanondh, Hathai; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Thailand Country Report on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bans Introduction Countrywide household surveys by the National Statistical Office have been the main source of information support for tobacco control in Thailand. The first, second and third surveys were carried out in 1976, 1981 and 1986 (five year intervals). Thereafter the surveys were carried out every two years. For the past two decades, the total number of smokers has risen, presumably as a result ...

  12. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.

  13. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

  14. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  15. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% (n = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% (n = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% (n = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% (n = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% (n = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent (n = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% (n = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality establishments in

  16. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-08-19

    Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions

  17. Exploring How the Tobacco Industry Presents and Promotes Itself in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Background The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. Objective The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. Methods The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail pric...

  18. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Caitlin R; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London's Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions.

  19. Is Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship Associated with Initiation of Tobacco Use among Current Tobacco Users in Youth in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Mohini; Goel, Sonu; Gupta, Madhu; Sardana, Veera; Singh, B S

    2015-01-01

    The rise in consumption of tobacco products among youth is a public health concern in India. Several studies have shown that advertisements promoting tobacco products influence decisions and behaviour of youth towards smoking. To ascertain which method of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship (TAPS) was more influential for initiating tobacco use in youth in India. The secondary data of youth (15-24 years) from nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 was analyzed. Odds ratio and p-value were used to know the association between TAPS and initiation of use of tobacco products among youth. Logistic regression was used to determine the most significant means of TAPS altering the youth's behaviour towards tobacco products. Out of 13,383 youths, 1,982 (14.7%) used smokeless forms of tobacco and 860 (6.38%) used smoke forms. Logistic regression reveals that promotional activities mainly through cinemas (padvertisements particularly in cinema and promotional activities like distribution of free samples, coupons and sales on the price of tobacco products. Stronger legislative measures should be enforced to curb promotional advertisements in cinemas and distribution of free samples.

  20. Adult awareness of tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship--14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    According to the 2012 Report of the U.S. Surgeon General, exposure to tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) is associated with the initiation and continuation of smoking among young persons. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires countries to prohibit all forms of TAPS; the United States signed the agreement in 2004, but the action has not yet been ratified. Many countries have adopted partial bans covering direct advertising in traditional media channels; however, few countries have adopted comprehensive bans on all types of direct and indirect marketing. To assess progress toward elimination of TAPS and the level of awareness of TAPS among persons aged ≥15 years, CDC used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) collected in 14 countries during 2008-2010. Awareness of any TAPS ranged from 12.4% in Turkey to 70.4% in the Philippines. In the four countries where awareness of TAPs was ≤15%, three of the countries had comprehensive bans covering all nine channels assessed by GATS, and the fourth country banned seven of the nine channels. In 12 countries, more persons were aware of advertising in stores than advertising via any other channel. Reducing exposure to TAPS is important to prevent initiation of tobacco use by youths and young adults and to help smokers quit.

  1. Hazards of new media: youth's exposure to tobacco Ads/promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-04-01

    A gap in knowledge exists about the youth's exposure to protobacco campaigns via new electronic media outlets. In response, we use national data to delineate the associations between tobacco ads/promotions delivered through new media outlets (i.e., social network sites and text messages) and youth attitudes/beliefs about tobacco and intent to use (among youth who had not yet used tobacco). Data were derived from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth enrolled in both public and private schools (N = 15,673). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics and reported exposure to tobacco ads/promotions via social networking sites and text messages. Logistic regression models were also used to investigate associations between exposure tobacco ads/promotions and attitudes toward tobacco. We found that highly susceptible youth (i.e., minorities, very young youth, and youth who have not yet used tobacco) have observed tobacco ads/promotions on social networking sites and text messages. These youth are more likely to have favorable attitudes toward tobacco, including the intention to use tobacco among those who had not yet used tobacco. Our findings underscore the need for policy strategies to more effectively monitor and regulate tobacco advertising via new media outlets.

  2. 76 FR 76096 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products; Extension of... advertising, promotion, and marketing of such products; and the advertising of tobacco products via the... advertising, promotion, and marketing of tobacco products. FDA took this action as part of its...

  3. 75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and... tobacco product advertising and promotion that is designed to appeal to specific racial and ethnic... information about the advertising and promotion of menthol and other cigarettes to youth in general, and...

  4. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D N; Palipudi, K M; Oswal, K; Gupta, P C; Andes, L J; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural). Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users) when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0). Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]). For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2]), with the trend highly significant (P marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use.

  5. [Factors related to awareness on tobacco advertisement and promotion among adults in six cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Jiao, Shu-fang; Li, Xun; Li, Xin-jian; Zhu, Guo-ping; Du, Lin; Zhao, Jian-hua; Jiang, Yuan; Feng, Guo-ze

    2009-04-01

    To know the situation of tobacco advertisement, promotions and related factors in six cities in China. 4815 adults (above 18 years), selected form Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan through probability proportionate sampling and simple random sampling, were investigated through questionnaires. The most commonly reported channels that smokers noticed tobacco advertisements were billboards (35.6%) and television (34.4%). The most commonly reported tobacco promotional activities that were noticed by smokers were free gifts when buying cigarettes (23.1%) and free samples of cigarettes (13.9%). Smokers in Changsha were more likely to report noticing tobacco advertisement on billboards (chi2 = 562.474, P advertisement and promotion. It was universal to see tobacco advertisement and promotions in cities in China but the laws and regulations about tobacco-control were not uniformly executed in different cities. It is necessary to perfect and uniform related laws and regulations.

  6. Tobacco sales and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs from large cities around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrir, Shahida; Wipfli, Heather; Avila-Tang, Erika; Breysse, Patrick N; Samet, Jonathan M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about tobacco promotion activities in low and middle-income countries. Information on tobacco sales, advertisement and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs is needed to develop interventions to reduce smoking initiation and relapse, particularly among youths and young adults. To evaluate cigarette sales and tobacco advertisement and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs using a volunteer survey approach in large cities throughout the world. Between 2007 and 2009, we administered an interview-based survey to 231 bar/cafe/nightclub owners/managers in 24 large cities in Africa, the Americas, Asia and eastern Europe. Cigarette sales and tobacco advertisement and promotions were found in bars/cafes/nightclubs in most cities. Examples of promotions included cigarette giveaways and event sponsorship. Establishments that allowed smoking were more likely to sell cigarettes compared to smoke-free establishments (OR 8.67, 95% CI 3.25 to 23.1). Larger establishments (maximum occupancy ≥ 100 vs promotional items from tobacco companies (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.41 to 7.17). Cigarette sales and tobacco promotions were common in bars, cafes and nightclubs in the majority of cities. Socialising and hospitality venues must be covered by legislation banning tobacco sales and promotions to limit exposure among populations at high risk of tobacco initiation and relapse from quitting.

  7. Cocarcinogenic and tumor-promoting agents in tobacco carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L; Goldschmidt, B M

    1976-06-01

    A series of 21 tobacco smoke components and related compounds werere applied to mouse skin (50 female ICR/Ha Swiss mice/group) three times weekly with a low dose (5 mug/application) of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The test compounds were of five classes: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and long-chain acids and alcohols. The following compounds enhanced remarkably the carcinogenicity of B[a]P: catechol, pyrogallol, decane, undecane, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and fluoranthene. The following compounds inhibited B[a]P carcinogenicity completely: esculin, quercetin, squalene, and oleic acid. Phenol, eugenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, hexadecane, and limonene partially inhibited B[a]P carcinogenicity. Six of the 21 compounds were also tested as tumor promoters im two-stage carcinogenesis. No direct correlation existed between tumor-promoting activity and cocarcinogenic activity. The cocarcinogens pyrogallol and catechol did not show tumor-promoting activity. Decane, tetradecane, anthralin, and phorbol myristate acetate showed both types of activity. Structure-activity relationships and possible modes of action were described.

  8. A Systematic Review on the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Promotion on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. Aim and Methods: We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Results: Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose–response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. Conclusions: The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. PMID:25173775

  9. The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, M K; Aarø, L E; Rimpelä, A H

    1993-01-01

    Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales

  10. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over in India. Method: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural. Results: Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0. Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]. For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend < 0.001 with greater level of exposure (moderate, OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.1, 2.2]; high, OR = 2.05 [95% CI: 0.8, 5.1]. The risk of any current tobacco use rose with increasing level of exposure to any marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2], with the trend highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Exposure to the marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is

  11. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc.), how can minors' exposure to tobacco product advertising... Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and... to the regulation of non-face-to-face sale and distribution of tobacco products and the...

  12. Exploring how the tobacco industry presents and promotes itself in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-21

    The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail prices: group H (brands with high retail prices) and group L (brands with low retail prices). Three comprehensive searches were conducted on Facebook, Wikipedia, and YouTube respectively using the top 70 popular cigarette brands as keywords. We identified tobacco-related content including history and culture, product features, health warnings, home page of cigarette brands, and Web-based tobacco shops. Furthermore, we examined the promotional strategies utilized in social media. According to the data collected from March 3, 2014 to March 10, 2014, 43 of the 70 representative cigarette brands had created 238 Facebook fan pages, 46 cigarette brands were identified in Wikipedia, and there were over 120,000 pro-tobacco videos on YouTube, associated with 61 cigarette brands. The main content presented on the three social media websites differs significantly. Wikipedia focuses on history and culture (67%, 32/48; Ppromotional strategies used, sales promotions exist extensively in social media. Sales promotion is more prevalent on YouTube than on the other two sites (64%, 39/61 vs 35%, 15/43; P=.004). Generally, the sale promotions of higher-cost brands in social media are more prevalent than those of lower-cost brands (55%, 16/29 vs 7%, 1/14; Psocial media allows more pro-tobacco information to be accessed by online users. This dilemma indicates that corresponding regulations should be established to prevent tobacco promotion in social media.

  13. Reported awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China compared to Thailand, Australia and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Thompson, M E; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Sirirassamee, B; Hastings, G; Harris, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: China currently does not have comprehensive laws or regulations on tobacco advertising and promotion, although it ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in October 2005 and promised to ban all tobacco advertising by January 2011. Much effort is needed to monitor the current situation of tobacco advertising and promotion in China. Objective: This study aims to examine levels of awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion among smokers in China as compared to other countries with different levels of restrictions. Methods: One developing country (Thailand) and two developed countries (Australia and the USA) were selected for comparison. All four countries are part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey project. Between 2005 and 2006, parallel ITC surveys were conducted among adult smokers (at least smoked weekly) in China (n = 4763), Thailand (n = 2000), Australia (n = 1767) and the USA (n = 1780). Unprompted and prompted recall of noticing tobacco advertising and promotion were measured. Results: Chinese respondents reported noticing tobacco advertisements in a range of channels and venues, with highest exposure levels on television (34.5%), billboards (33.4%) and in stores (29.2%). A quarter of respondents noticed tobacco sponsorships, and a high level of awareness of promotion was reported. Cross-country comparison reveals that overall reported awareness was significantly higher in China than in Thailand (particularly) and Australia, but lower than in the USA. Conclusions: There is a big gap between China and the better-performing countries such as Thailand and Australia regarding tobacco promotion restrictions. China needs to do more, including enhanced policy and more robust enforcement. PMID:19332425

  14. Reported awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China compared to Thailand, Australia and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Thompson, M E; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Sirirassamee, B; Hastings, G; Harris, F

    2009-06-01

    China currently does not have comprehensive laws or regulations on tobacco advertising and promotion, although it ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in October 2005 and promised to ban all tobacco advertising by January 2011. Much effort is needed to monitor the current situation of tobacco advertising and promotion in China. This study aims to examine levels of awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion among smokers in China as compared to other countries with different levels of restrictions. One developing country (Thailand) and two developed countries (Australia and the USA) were selected for comparison. All four countries are part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey project. Between 2005 and 2006, parallel ITC surveys were conducted among adult smokers (at least smoked weekly) in China (n = 4763), Thailand (n = 2000), Australia (n = 1767) and the USA (n = 1780). Unprompted and prompted recall of noticing tobacco advertising and promotion were measured. Chinese respondents reported noticing tobacco advertisements in a range of channels and venues, with highest exposure levels on television (34.5%), billboards (33.4%) and in stores (29.2%). A quarter of respondents noticed tobacco sponsorships, and a high level of awareness of promotion was reported. Cross-country comparison reveals that overall reported awareness was significantly higher in China than in Thailand (particularly) and Australia, but lower than in the USA. There is a big gap between China and the better-performing countries such as Thailand and Australia regarding tobacco promotion restrictions. China needs to do more, including enhanced policy and more robust enforcement.

  15. Promoting Tobacco-Free School Policies through a Statewide Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Long, Shelley K.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Davis, James; Shah, Vandana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive, enforced tobacco-free school (TFS) policies lead to significant reductions in youth tobacco use. North Carolina is the first state in the United States to develop a statewide mass media campaign to promote the adoption of and compliance with TFS policies. Methods: In order to guide campaign development, researchers…

  16. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  17. A systematic review on the impact of point-of-sale tobacco promotion on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose-response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these countries are low- or middle-income countries. Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing ... have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years. Ad bans ...

  19. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003). Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking "often or very often" at Wave 2. The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  20. Availability, accessibility and promotion of smokeless tobacco in a low-income area of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Nair, Saritha; Bilgi, Sameena; Cromley, Ellen; Kadam, Vaishali; Mello, Sunitha D; Donta, Balaiah

    2013-09-01

    To examine the role of accessibility, product availability, promotions and social norms promotion, factors contributing to the use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products in a typical low-income community of Mumbai community using Geographic Information System (GIS), observational and interview methodologies and to assess implementation of Cigatettes and other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) legislation. In India, the third largest producer of tobacco in the world, smokeless tobacco products are used by men, women and children. New forms of highly addictive packaged smokeless tobacco products such as gutkha are inexpensive and rates of use are higher in low-income urban communities. These products are known to increase rates of oral cancer and to affect reproductive health and fetal development. The study used a mixed methods approach combining ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation and key informant interviews. Accessibility was defined as density, clustering and distance of residents and schools to tobacco outlets. Observation and interview data with shop owners and community residents produced an archive of products, information on shop histories and income and normative statements. Spatial analysis showed high density of outlets with variations across subcommunities. All residents can reach tobacco outlets within 30-100 feet of their homes. Normative statements from 55 respondents indicate acceptance of men's, women's and children's use, and selling smokeless tobacco is reported to be an important form of income generation for some households. Multilevel tobacco control and prevention strategies including tobacco education, community norms change, licensing and surveillance and alternative income generation strategies are needed to reduce accessibility and availability of smokeless tobacco use.

  1. Should the health community promote smokeless tobacco (snus as a harm reduction measure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral E Gartner

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: The tobacco control community is divided on whether or not to inform the public that using oral, smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus is less hazardous to health than smoking tobacco. Proponents of "harm reduction" point to the Swedish experience. Snus seems to be widely used as an alternative to cigarettes in Sweden, say these proponents, contributing to the low overall prevalence of smoking and smoking-related disease. Harm reduction proponents thus argue that the health community should actively inform inveterate cigarette smokers of the benefits of switching to snus. However, critics of harm reduction say that snus has its own risks, that no form of tobacco should ever be promoted, and that Sweden's experience is likely to be specific to that culture and not transferable to other settings. Critics also remain deeply suspicious that the tobacco industry will use snus marketing as a "gateway" to promote cigarettes. In the interests of promoting debate, the authors (who are collaborators on a research project on the future of tobacco control have agreed to outline the strongest arguments for and against promoting Swedish snus as a form of harm reduction.

  2. Global tobacco prevention and control in relation to a cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention framework: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Allison J; Labarthe, Darwin R; Huffman, Mark D; Hitsman, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We emphasize the challenges to comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies faced by LMICs, and highlight the special role of cardiovascular health professionals in achieving CVH promotion and CVD prevention endpoints through tobacco control. Tobacco prevention and control strategies have a strong scientific basis, yet a distinct gap remains between this evidence and implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly in LMICs. Health professionals can contribute to tobacco control efforts, especially through patient-level clinical interventions, when supported by a health care system and government that recognize and support tobacco control as a critical strategy for CVH promotion and CVD prevention. Understanding, supporting, and applying current and evolving policies, programs, and practices in tobacco prevention and control is the province of all health professionals, especially those concerned with CVH promotion and CVD prevention. A new tobacco control roadmap from the World Heart Federation provides a strong impetus to the needed interdisciplinary collaboration.

  3. Promotion of Waterpipe Tobacco Use, Its Variants and Accessories in Young Adult Newspapers: A Content Analysis of Message Portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Majeed, Ban; Duong, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify waterpipe tobacco smoking advertisements and those that promoted a range of products and accessories used to smoke waterpipe tobacco. The content of these advertisements was analyzed to understand the messages portrayed about waterpipe tobacco smoking in young adult (aged 18-30) newspapers. The study…

  4. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  5. Tobacco promotion 'below-the-line': exposure among adolescents and young adults in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna A; Grunseit, Anne C; Rissel, Chris; Kite, James; Cotter, Trish; Dunlop, Sally; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-06-12

    Exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion increases the likelihood of smoking amongst young people. While there is a universal ban on traditional or ‘above-the-line’ advertising in Australia, the types and extent of exposure of young people to ‘below-the-line’ tobacco advertising and promotion is largely unknown. In this study we aim to identify levels of exposure of New South Wales (NSW) adolescents and young adults to tobacco promotion at the point-of-sale (PoS), on the internet, in entertainment media and at venues such as events or festivals and pubs, clubs, nightclubs, or bars; and to identify those most at risk of exposure. A telephone survey of 1000 NSW adolescents and young adults aged 12 to 24 years was conducted. Self-reported exposure to tobacco promotions or advertising in the last month were measured in four areas: (1) promotions or advertising at (a) events or festivals and (b) pubs, clubs, nightclubs or bars, (2) on the internet, (3) people smoking cigarettes in (a) movies, (b) TV shows, (c) video games and (d) on the internet, and (4) displays of cigarette packs for sale at (a) large supermarkets, (b) grocery stores or small supermarkets, (c) convenience stores, and (d) service or petrol stations. Smoking status and susceptibility to smoking was also assessed. A substantial proportion of the young people surveyed reported seeing tobacco promotion sometimes or often in the last month over most of the channels studied.The highest levels of exposure were at the PoS (approx. two-thirds) and to people smoking cigarettes in movies(77%). Lower levels of exposure to tobacco promotions and imagery were reported on the internet (20%); at events or festivals (22.5%); in pubs, clubs, nightclubs or bars (31%); and in video games (23%). However, the odds of exposure through video games increased by 8% for every additional hour spent on the internet per day. This study shows that adolescents and young adults in NSW are exposed to tobacco advertising or

  6. The role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ch'uyasonqo H; Carter, Marina I

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1) the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2) the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico.

  7. Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) exposure, anti-TAPS policies, and students' smoking behavior in Botswana and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lorna McLeod; Hsia, Jason; Malarcher, Ann

    2016-10-01

    We examined the change over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and the concurrent changes in cigarette smoking behavior among students age 13 to 15years in two African countries with different anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies. In South Africa, anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies became more comprehensive over time and were more strictly enforced, whereas the partial anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies adopted in Botswana were weakly enforced. We analyzed two rounds of Global Youth Tobacco Survey data from South Africa (1999, n=2342; 2011, n=3713) and in Botswana (2001, n=1073; 2008, n=1605). We assessed several indicators of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure along with prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking susceptibility for each data round. Logistic regression was used to examine changes over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and smoking behavior in both countries. Between 1999 and 2011, South African students' exposure to tobacco advertising and sponsorship decreased significantly by 16% (p value, advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure did not change significantly between 2001 and 2008. South African students' prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased over time (OR, 0.68) as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 0.75), but declines did not remain significant after adjusting for parents' and friends' smoking. In Botswana, students' prevalence of cigarette smoking increased significantly over time (OR, 1.84), as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 2.71). Enforcement of strong anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies is a vital component of effective tobacco control programs in Africa. Such regulations, if effectively implemented, can reduce tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure among adolescents and may influence cigarette smoking behavior. Copyright

  8. [Exposure to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs among Chinese middle school students: a cross-sectional survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Yang, Jingqi; Zhao, Luhua; Jiang, Yuan; Chen, Xinyue

    2015-04-01

    To exam the exposure status to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs in Chinese middle school students. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select participated grade 7-9 middle school students in 31 provinces (n = 155 117). A self-administrated questionnaire was used in which questions related to behavior on tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoking (SHS), access to tobacco products and prices, tobacco control advocacy, exposure to tobacco advertisement, and promotion as well as attitude and knowledge towards tobacco, etc. Data was weighted and analyzed, using the complex survey module of SAS 9.3 software. In the past 30 days, 48.5% of the students had a chance to see advertisement or promotion programs on tobacco. Tobacco advertisement or promotion were most frequently seen on TV (21.3%) among students, followed by outdoor billboard (20.1%), at the stands for sale (17.5%), and Internet (15.6%). In addition, 4.6% of the students reported having kept the items related to brand logos of tobacco products; 2.0% reported having been offered a free tobacco product by tobacco company representatives; 69.7% reported having seen scenes related to smoking on TV/videos/movie screens. Twenty five point two percent of the student smokers reported buying individual sticks at last purchase. Among those students who had never been exposed to tobacco, the ones who had been exposed to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs reported that they were more likely to feel smoking attractive than those who had not. They also reported that if a cigarette was offered by friends, they might try to smoke within the next 12 months, feeling that smoking would make him/her comfortable, and finally to feel that they might enjoy smoking (P advertisement and promotion programs in China. Students who had been exposed to tobacco advertisement or promotions were more likely to express positive attitude to tobacco use. It is urgent to make amendments to China

  9. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-07-01

    To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. From 1980-1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting.

  11. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michael Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  12. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  13. Paid counter-advertising: proven strategy to combat tobacco use and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the effectiveness of paid counter-advertising in combating tobacco use and promotion, the impact of the Fairness Doctrine, which mandated anticigarette television advertisements in the late 1960s, and reasons why the media today are reluctant to run antismoking advertisements. Although counter-advertisements can work very well, they should be image-based, rather than fact-based. Currently, tobacco companies promote a positive image of cigarette smoking and brand awareness. Most antismoking ads, however, tend to focus on the tobacco itself and its adverse effects on the smoker, rather than combating the images the cigarette ads promote. Urging counter-advertising to focus on the product, rather than to try to produce guilt in smokers, this article provides examples of paid counter-advertising strategies employed by Doctors Ought to Care to illustrate an image-based approach. Overall, the antismoking movement must guard against complacency and measure its success according to tobacco companies' declining revenues, rather than the number of public service advertisements in the media.

  14. Wartime open globe eye injuries.

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    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Zuljan, Igor; Lakos, Venera; Miljak, Snjezana; Markovic, Irena; Ivanisevic, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Open globe injuries are the most serious eye injuries in war as in peace time. The purpose of this study is to analyze wartime open globe eye injuries in 72 patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Clinical Hospital of Split from July 1991 to April 1993, during the intensive war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to evaluate crucial factors responsible for the functional success of the treatment. Wartime open globe eye injuries were retrospectively analyzed in 72 patients (80 eyes) hospitalized at Clinical Hospital of Split, Department of Ophthalmology, between July 1991 and April 1993. The causes and ways of wounding, localization of wounds and presence, nature and localization of the foreign body, as well as admission time, microsurgical management and other factors contributing to poor visual outcome were studied. Standard international classification of ocular traumas (the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology and the International Ocular Trauma Classification) was used for the classified and graded injuries. Open globe eye injuries amounted to 52.65% of all war injuries to the eyes. Bilateral injuries were found in eight patients (11.11%). The most frequent cause of the injures were fragments of explosive devices (more than two-thirds). Most of the patients were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of the injury. Using current microsurgical techniques, the attempt was made to achieve not only anatomical but also functional recovery already in the primary treatment. In 30 eyes (37.50%) final visual acuity amounted to more than 0.1, and in 22 eyes (27.50%) it reached 0.5. There was a statistically significant correlation between admission within the first 12 hours and postoperative improved visual acuity (chi(2) = 4.53; p = 0.033). Statistically significantly better visual acuity was found in patients with lesions limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Primary enucleation or evisceration was performed only exceptionally: one enucleation

  15. Traditional and Innovative Promotional Strategies of Tobacco Cessation Services: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines. This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for quitline services. Methods Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Results Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases quitline (QL) call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Conclusions Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to quitlines, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion. PMID:24515948

  16. Traditional and innovative promotional strategies of tobacco cessation services: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; McCausland, Kristen; Duke, Jennifer; Hansen, Heather; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-08-01

    An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion.

  17. Tobacco advertising/promotions and adolescents' smoking risk in Northern Africa.

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    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Ledford, E Cannon; Andersen, Lori; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2014-05-01

    Comprehensive tobacco advertising/promotion bans are effective against adolescent smoking but many developing countries have implemented only partial bans. This study examines the association between advertising/promotions exposure and adolescent cigarette smoking risk in North Africa, and possible mediation of this association by parent and peer smoking. Adolescent data (n=12 329) from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed (Libya, 2007; Egypt, 2005; Morocco, 2006; Tunisia 2007; and Sudan, 2005). Current smoking (any cigarette use in the past 30 days) and never-smokers' initiation susceptibility (composite of openness to accepting a cigarette from a friend and intention to start smoking in the next year) outcomes were examined. Advertising/promotion exposures included media and in-person contacts. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 5.6% (Egypt) to 15.3% (Tunisia) among boys, and 1.1% (Libya and Egypt) to 2.0% (Morocco and Sudan) among girls. Initiation susceptibility ranged from 14.1% (Sudan) to 25.0% (Tunisia) among boys, and from 13.3% (Sudan) to 15.0% (Libya) among girls. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents reported exposure to at least one type of advertising/promotion. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographics, each type of advertising/promotion was significantly and positively associated with boys' current smoking status; most advertising/promotion exposure types were also positively associated with initiation susceptibility among boys and girls. Peer smoking only partially mediated these associations. Tobacco advertising/promotion exposure was highly prevalent and associated with adolescents' smoking risk in these countries. The comprehensiveness and enforcement of advertising/promotion bans needs to be enhanced.

  18. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  19. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

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    Doku David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%. Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  20. THE ACTIVITY OF ARABIDOSPIS DLL PROMOTER IN TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS

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    Zuzana Polóniová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  1. Role of the Health Promotion Foundation in tobacco control and capacity building among healthcare professionals in Poland

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    Kinga Janik-Koncewicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the first summit of world tobacco control leaders in Central and Eastern Europe, held in 1990 in Kazimierz in Poland, the inadequate engagement of medical professionals in helping people to quit smoking was identified as one of the main problems of the region. The Health Promotion Foundation was established in 1992 to co-ordinate the anti-tobacco movement in Poland and to implement the resolutions of Kazimierz. The Foundation initiated actions to introduce anti-tobacco legislation in Poland passed by the Polish Parliament in 1995. It was one of the first legislative acts in the world to recommend tobacco dependence treatment. The Foundation also took active part in the preparation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and was one of the contributing authors of Article 14. The Foundation has also engaged in competence building among healthcare providers. It has trained thousands of Polish doctors and nurses using a core, nation-wide tool: the Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Tobacco Dependence. Finally, the Foundation engaged in activities to increase cessation drug availability, e.g. by conducting research, disseminating knowledge on, and promoting cytisine. Since the 1990s millions of Poles quit smoking, also thanks to the Foundation’s comprehensive activities. Further work is now focused on developing effective ways to engage greater numbers of medical doctors in the treatment of tobacco dependence and building innovative technologies supporting them and people who want to quit smoking.

  2. Supping with the devil? The role of law in promoting tobacco harm reduction using low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products.

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    Hall, W; Gartner, C

    2009-03-01

    In Sweden, male cigarette smoking has declined as snus, a smokeless tobacco product which is low in carcinogenic nitrosamines, has gained popularity among male tobacco users. Epidemiological modelling based on the Swedish experience indicates that there would be major public health gains if a substantial number of current smokers in other countries could also be persuaded to switch to this product. This form of 'tobacco harm reduction' is very controversial in the public health community for many reasons. These include: objections in principle to the use of less harmful but still addictive nicotine products; uncertainties about the long-term effects of these products on health; doubts about the likely interest in and uptake of these products among existing smokers; concerns that increasing the availability of these products will increase the number of new tobacco users and eventually the number of smokers in the population; and anxiety about how the tobacco industry may use these products to undermine current tobacco control policies. This paper concludes with suggestions for a graduated series of policies that may allow exploration of the public health costs and benefits of encouraging smokers to switch to snus.

  3. Population receptivity to tobacco advertising/promotions and exposure to anti-tobacco media: effect of Master Settlement Agreement in California: 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Distefan, Janet M; Pierce, John P

    2004-07-01

    Tobacco marketing contributes to adolescent smoking initiation, and the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), therefore, included relevant restrictions. We analyzed data from large population surveys of Californians, conducted in 1992 (11,905 adults, ages 18 years and older), 1993 (5,531 adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years), and 1996 (6,252 adolescents, 18,616 adults) before the MSA, and in 1999 (6,090 adolescents, 14,729 adults) and 2002 (5,857 adolescents, 20,525 adults) following its implementation. Camel lost favorite-advertisement popularity after 1996, and between 1999 and 2002, there were large increases in the percentages declining to name a favorite advertisement. Ownership of tobacco promotional items declined from its peak in 1996. Furthermore, in 2002, close to 90% of adolescents and young adults reported seeing anti-tobacco messages on television in the past month, significantly higher than 1996. These trends indicate less receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions following the MSA but leave room for additional restrictions to further reduce receptivity.

  4. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising and Promotion among School Children Aged 13-15 in Vietnam - an Overview from GYTS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Huong, Le Thi Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that tobacco advertising and promotion activities may increase tobacco consumption and usage, especially in youth. Despite the regulation on prohibiting advertisement of any tobacco product, tobacco advertisement and promotion activities are still common in Vietnam. This article presents current exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion (TAP) among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and potential influencing factors. Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2014 in Vietnam covering 3,430 school aged children were used. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were carried out with Stata 13 statistical software. Binary logistic regression was applied to explain the exposure to TAP among youth and examine relationships with individual factors. A significance level of ppromotion. Wearing or otherwise using products related to tobacco was the most exposure TAP type reported by students (22.3%). The internet (22.1), points of sales (19.2) and social events (11.5) were three places that students aged 13-15 frequently were exposed to TAP. Binary logistic results showed that gender (female vs male) (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.52 - 0.71), susceptibility to smoking (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.53 - 2.92), closest friends' smoked (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.2 - 1.7) and parents smoking status (OR = 2.83, 95%CI: 1.6 - 5.01) were significantly associated with TAP exposure among school-aged children. The research findings should contribute to effective implementation of measures for preventing and controlling tobacco use among students aged 13-15 in Viet Nam.

  5. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

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    Coan Lorinda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States.

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    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A

    2016-09-28

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

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    Andrea Soong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11 and the US (10. Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  9. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions among young adolescents as a predictor of established smoking in young adulthood.

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    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Messer, Karen; Pierce, John P

    2007-08-01

    We investigated whether receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions during young adolescence predicts young adult smoking 6 years later. Two longitudinal cohorts of adolescents drawn from the 1993 and 1996 versions of the California Tobacco Surveys were followed 3 and 6 years later. At baseline, adolescents were aged 12 to 15 years and were not established smokers. The outcome measure was established smoking at final follow-up. Receptivity to cigarette advertising and promotions was included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis along with demographic and other variables. The rate of established smoking at follow-up was significantly greater among members of the 1993 through 1999 cohort (21.0%) than among members of the 1996 through 2002 cohort (15.6%). However, in both cohorts, having a favorite cigarette advertisement and owning or being willing to use a tobacco promotional item showed nearly identical adjusted odds of future adult smoking (1.46 and 1.84, respectively). Despite the success of tobacco control efforts in reducing youth smoking, tobacco marketing remains a potent influence on whether young adolescents become established smokers in young adulthood (18-21 years of age).

  10. Heterologous expression of IbMYB1a by different promoters exhibits different patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco.

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    An, Chul Han; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Woo, Su Gyoung; Chun, Hyokon; Park, Youn-Il; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Kim, Cha Young

    2015-04-01

    We previously reported that the transient and stable expression of IbMYB1a produced anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, respectively. To further determine the effects of different promoters on the expression of IbMYB1a and anthocyanin production, we generated and characterized stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants expressing IbMYB1a under the control of three different promoters. We compared the differences in anthocyanin accumulation patterns and phenotypic features of the leaves of these transgenic tobacco plants during growth. Expression of IbMYB1a under the control of these three different promoters led to a remarkable variation in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves. The anthocyanin contents of the leaves of the SPO-IbMYB1a-OX (SPO-M) line were higher than those of the SWPA2-IbMYB1a-OX (SPA-M) and 35S-IbMYB1a-OX (35S-M) lines. High levels of anthocyanin pigments negatively affected plant growth in the SPO-M lines, resulting delayed growth and, occasionally, a stunted phenotype. Furthermore, HPLC analysis revealed that transcriptional regulation of IbMYB1a led to the production of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in the tobacco plants. In addition, RT-PCR analysis revealed that IbMYB1a expression induced the up-regulation of several structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including DFR and ANS. Differential expression levels of IbMYB1a under the control of different promoters were highly correlated with the expression levels of the structural genes, thereby affecting anthocyanin production levels. These results indicate that IbMYB1a positively controls the expression of multiple anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and anthocyanin accumulation in heterologous tobacco plants.

  11. Promoting cessation and a tobacco free future: willingness of pharmacy students at the University of Lagos, Nigeria

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    Lawal Babatunde MO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is projected to cause nearly 450 million deaths worldwide during the next 50 years. Health professionals can have a critical role in reducing tobacco use. Therefore, one of the strategies to reduce the number of smoking-related deaths is to encourage the involvement of health professionals in tobacco-use prevention and cessation counseling. As future health care providers, pharmacy students should consider providing assistance to others to overcome tobacco use and be involved in promoting a tobacco free future as part of their professional responsibility. This research was to determine the knowledge of tobacco/smoking policy, willingness to be involved in tobacco cessation, attitude to keeping a tobacco free environment and the smoking habit among pharmacy students at the University of Lagos. Methods Data was collected by the use of self administered questionnaire which was aimed at assessing their smoking habit, determining their knowledge and attitude to smoking policy and willingness to be involved in smoking cessation. The population sample was all the pharmacy students in their professional years (200 to 500 Levels at Idi-Araba Campus of the University of Lagos. Results Out of 327 qualified participants, 297 responded to the questionnaire which was about 91% participation rate but out of these only 291 questionnaires were useful which came to 89%. There seemed to be no statistically significant difference between the smoking habits among the different levels (p > 0.05. Overall, the current smoking prevalence was 5.5% which is lower than the national prevalence rate of 8.9%. Awareness of WHO FCTC global tobacco treaty was low (9.3% among pharmacy students but they agreed that pharmacists and pharmacy students should be involved in quit smoking program (93.1% and they were willing to be involved in helping smokers to quit (85.9%. Majority agreed that smoking should not be permitted in pharmacies (87.9% and at

  12. Tracking WHO MPOWER in South East Asian region: An opportunity to promote global tobacco control

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    Ritu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco use is a major public health challenge worldwide and to counter the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO developed the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC to provide new legal dimensions for international health cooperation. Further WHO introduced the MPOWER package to monitor the tobacco control programs among the countries to accomplish the FCTC objective. Aim: The aim is to quantify the implementation of MPOWER tobacco control policies in South East Asia Region (SEAR from the year 2008 to 2015. Materials and Methods: Information was collected from the WHO report on the Global Tobacco epidemic program SEAR from 2008 to 2015 using MPOWER. This assessment was based on the checklist which was designed previously by Iranian and International tobacco control specialists in their study on tobacco control. Results: Various countries of SEAR were ranked by scores and these scores were obtained from each indicator for each activity. Among SEAR region, Thailand got the highest scores and significant positive change was seen from a score of 8 in 2008 to 32 in 2015 where certain countries like Korea and Timore-Leste showed no significant positive change. Conclusion: Tobacco control policies have reduced the tobacco consumption, but still multisectoral efforts are needed toward effective enforcement of the law to bring about a significant decline in the prevalence of tobacco use.

  13. Exposure to anti- and pro-tobacco advertising, promotions or sponsorships: Turkey, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguder, Toker; Bilir, Nazmi; Özcebe, Hilal; Irmak, Hasan; Tasti, Enver; İlter, Hüseyin; Palipudi, Krishna M; Andes, Linda J; Asma, Samira; Khoury, Rula N; Talley, Brandon

    2016-06-01

    In 2008, Turkey became one of 26 countries with a complete ban on all forms of direct and indirect tobacco marketing. We assessed the level of exposure to anti- and pro-cigarette advertising and to cigarette promotions and sponsorships among various demographic groups in Turkey. We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in November 2008 in Turkey. The data consist of answers to GATS questions by 9030 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults 15 years of age or older. To find differences in exposure to the advertising by sex, age, education level and smoking status, we analyzed responses to GATS questions about cigarette advertisements and anti-cigarette smoking information in various forms and through various advertising channels, during the 30 days before the survey, using bivariate analysis. Overall, 13.3% of respondents aged 15 years or older noticed some type of cigarette marketing during the 30 days before the survey: 7.1% saw advertisements, 5.3% saw promotions and 3.3% saw sports sponsorships. Men were more likely than women to have seen cigarette promotions (7.8% versus 3.0%) and sports sponsorships (5.3% versus 1.4%). Respondents aged 15-24 years were more likely than those aged 25 years or older to have seen cigarette advertisements (10.2% versus 6.2%), promotions (8.7% versus 4.4%) and sponsorships (6.6% versus 2.3%), respectively. Respondents were most likely to have seen cigarette advertisements on television (3.4%) or in shops (2.7%). In addition, 2.8% of respondents reported seeing a clothing item with a brand name or logo, 2.5% reported that they received free samples of cigarettes and 0.3% received gifts along with the purchase of cigarettes. Almost 9 of 10 survey respondents (88.8%) reported having noticed some anti-cigarette information during the 30 days before the survey. Most anti-cigarette information was seen on television (85.5%). The anti-cigarette information was

  14. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  15. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  16. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation.

  17. Cloning of Promoter of Chinese Bean GRP 1.8 Gene and Characterization of Its Function in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to learn the expression pattern of GRP1.8(glycine-rich-protein) gene promoter in transgenic plants and to explore its potential application in plant genetic engineering for vascular-specific expression of interested genes, GRP 1.8 promoter was amplified by PCR from Chinese bean genomic DNA. The intermediate vector was constructed by inserting vascular-specific expression promoter of GRP 1.8 gene in vector pBI 101. The regenerated tobacco plants obtained were analyzed by PCR to select the putative transgenic plants. The histochemical localization of GUS(β-D-glucosidase) activity indicates that as for that of GRP 1.8 promoter we can confer the vascular-specific expression of GUS gene.

  18. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  19. Wartime Construction Project Outcomes as a Function of Contract Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Deegan, Freeman, & Sargand, 2011; cf. Tawazuh Commercial and Construction Co. Ltd. v. United States, 2011), a remote and problematic supply chain ...the firm-fixed-price (FFP) norm. Using a dataset of 25 wartime construction projects managed by the Air Force Civil Engineer Center, the authors...projects in wartime environments. Keywords: firm-fixed-price, cost-plus-fixed-fee, Afghanistan, construction management , contract structure 332 Defense ARJ

  20. Patterns of Wartime Sexual Violence: Perspectives from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Lisa Govasli

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence has been perpetrated as a strategy or practice in a number of conflicts across the globe, but research has found that the prevalence and practice of wartime sexual violence varies greatly between different conflicts, and between different armed actors within the same war (Cohen, Green, & Wood, 2013; Cohen & Nordås, 2014; Wood, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012). The purpose of this project was to map out patterns of wartime sexual violence in the ongoing internal conflict in Colombia, in...

  1. Expression of wheat expansin driven by the RD29 promoter in tobacco confers water-stress tolerance without impacting growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Han, Yangyang; Feng, Yanan; Xing, Shichao; Zhao, Meirong; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-10

    Expansins are the key regulators of cell wall extension during plant growth. Previously, we produced transgenic tobacco plants with increased tolerance to water stress by overexpressing the wheat expansin gene TaEXPB23 driven by the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter. However, the growth and development of 35S::TaEXPB23 transgenic tobacco plants were altered under normal growth conditions, with a faster growth rate at the seedling stage, earlier flowering and maturation, and a shorter plant height compared to WT. In the current study, we determined that cellular characteristics and carbohydrate metabolism were altered in 35S::TaEXPB23 transgenic tobacco plants. We also generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants using the same vector. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants had the same phenotype as the transgenic tobacco plants, which may have resulted from the altered expression of several flowering-related genes. We then produced TaEXPB23 transgenic tobacco plants using the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. The use of this promoter reduced the negative effects of TaEXPB23 on plant growth and development. The RD29A::TaEXPB23 transgenic tobacco plants had greater tolerance to water stress than WT, as determined by examining physiological and biochemical parameters. Therefore, the use of stress-inducible promoters, such as RD29A, may minimize the negative effects of constitutive transgene expression and improve the water-stress tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters with highly specific, tightly regulated and uniquely expressed activity during floral transition, initiation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotech engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters in flower or other tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco AP1-like promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using GUS reporter and tissue-speci...

  3. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union.

  4. Exploring the potential for a mass media campaign to influence support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, K C; Kamyab, K; Farrelly, M C

    2015-02-01

    This study explores whether exposure to advertisements that focus on the negative effects of tobacco industry advertising and promotion at the point of sale (anti-POS advertising) influence: (i) attitude toward POS advertising; (ii) perceived impact of POS advertising on youth smoking; and (iii) support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS among adult non-smokers in New York. Data are from a split-sample, experimental study, using an online media tracking survey with embedded TV, radio and print advertising. Exposure to anti-POS advertising was associated with higher odds of holding a negative attitude toward POS advertising (OR 2.43, P media campaign could be used to influence public attitude toward POS advertising and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS.

  5. Implementation strategies to promote community-engaged efforts to counter tobacco marketing at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison; Grant, Jennifer C; Wangen, Mary; Queen, Tara L

    2017-04-12

    The US tobacco industry spends $8.2 billion annually on marketing at the point of sale (POS), a practice known to increase tobacco use. Evidence-based policy interventions (EBPIs) are available to reduce exposure to POS marketing, and nationwide, states are funding community-based tobacco control partnerships to promote local enactment of these EBPIs. Little is known, however, about what implementation strategies best support community partnerships' success enacting EBPI. Guided by Kingdon's theory of policy change, Counter Tools provides tools, training, and other implementation strategies to support community partnerships' performance of five core policy change processes: document local problem, formulate policy solutions, engage partners, raise awareness of problems and solutions, and persuade decision makers to enact new policy. We assessed Counter Tools' impact at 1 year on (1) partnership coordinators' self-efficacy, (2) partnerships' performance of core policy change processes, (3) community progress toward EBPI enactment, and (4) salient contextual factors. Counter Tools provided implementation strategies to 30 partnerships. Data on self-efficacy were collected using a pre-post survey. Structured interviews assessed performance of core policy change processes. Data also were collected on progress toward EBPI enactment and contextual factors. Analysis included descriptive and bivariate statistics and content analysis. Following 1-year exposure to implementation strategies, coordinators' self-efficacy increased significantly. Partnerships completed the greatest proportion of activities within the "engage partners" and "document local problem" core processes. Communities made only limited progress toward policy enactment. Findings can inform delivery of implementation strategies and tests of their effects on community-level efforts to enact EBPIs.

  6. Strength comparison between cold-inducible promoters of Arabidopsis cor15a and cor15b genes in potato and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Wang, Xiaohuan; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xun; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    The cold-inducible promoter is ideal for regulating ectopic gene expression in plants to cope with the cold stress. The promoters of two cold-regulated genes, cor15a and cor15b, were cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana and their strengths were assayed in potato and tobacco. Although the cis-element composition and cold-inducible property were similar between the two promoters, the cor15b promoter showed significantly higher activity than the cor15a promoter in both potato and tobacco. In order to elucidate the factors determining this discrepancy, cor15a and cor15b promoters were separately truncated from 5'-end to construct short promoters with similar size containing a single C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE). Subsequently, two synthetic promoters were constructed by swapping the flanking sequences of CRT/DRE in the truncated promoters. The promoter strength comparison demonstrated that the flanking sequence could affect the promoter strength. These findings provide a potential regulatory mechanism to control the promoter strength without impact on other properties.

  7. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  8. The relation between media promotions and service volume for a statewide tobacco quitline and a web-based cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillo Barbara A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This observational study assessed the relation between mass media campaigns and service volume for a statewide tobacco cessation quitline and stand-alone web-based cessation program. Methods Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify how weekly calls to a cessation quitline and weekly registrations to a web-based cessation program are related to levels of broadcast media, media campaigns, and media types, controlling for the impact of external and earned media events. Results There was a positive relation between weekly broadcast targeted rating points and the number of weekly calls to a cessation quitline and the number of weekly registrations to a web-based cessation program. Additionally, print secondhand smoke ads and online cessation ads were positively related to weekly quitline calls. Television and radio cessation ads and radio smoke-free law ads were positively related to web program registration levels. There was a positive relation between the number of web registrations and the number of calls to the cessation quitline, with increases in registrations to the web in 1 week corresponding to increases in calls to the quitline in the subsequent week. Web program registration levels were more highly influenced by earned media and other external events than were quitline call volumes. Conclusion Overall, broadcast advertising had a greater impact on registrations for the web program than calls to the quitline. Furthermore, registrations for the web program influenced calls to the quitline. These two findings suggest the evolving roles of web-based cessation programs and Internet-use practices should be considered when creating cessation programs and media campaigns to promote them. Additionally, because different types of media and campaigns were positively associated with calls to the quitline and web registrations, developing mass media campaigns that offer a variety of messages and communicate through

  9. Implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16: tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship and sales to and by minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-04-01

    Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS), and Article 16 calls for prohibition of tobacco sales to and by minors. Although these mandates are based on sound science, many countries have found provision implementation to be rife with challenges. This paper reviews the history of tobacco marketing and minor access restrictions in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, identifying past challenges and successes. We consider current challenges to FCTC implementation, how these barriers can be addressed, and what research is necessary to support such efforts. Specifically, we identify implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16. Although a solid evidence base underpins the FCTC's call for TAPS bans and minor access restrictions, we know substantially less about how best to implement these restrictions. Drawing on the regulatory experiences of high-, middle-, and low-income countries, we discern several implementation and research priorities, which are organized into 4 categories: policy enactment and enforcement, human capital expertise, the effects of FCTC marketing and youth access policies, and knowledge exchange and transfer among signatories. Future research should provide detailed case studies on implementation successes and failures, as well as insights into how knowledge of successful restrictions can be translated into tobacco control policy and practice and shared among different stakeholders. Tobacco marketing surveillance, sales-to-minors compliance checks, enforcement and evaluation of restriction policies, and capacity building and knowledge transfer are likely to prove central to effective implementation.

  10. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  11. The use of social media by state tobacco control programs to promote smoking cessation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Hansen, Heather; Kim, Annice E; Curry, Laurel; Allen, Jane

    2014-07-10

    The promotion of evidence-based cessation services through social media sites may increase their utilization by smokers. Data on social media adoption and use within tobacco control programs (TCPs) have not been reported. This study examines TCP use of and activity levels on social media, the reach of TCP sites, and the level of engagement with the content on sites. A cross-sectional descriptive study of state TCP social media sites and their content was conducted. In 2013, 60% (30/50) of TCPs were using social media. Approximately one-quarter (26%, 13/50) of all TCPs used 3 or more social media sites, 24% (12/50) used 2, and 10% (5/50) used 1 site. Overall, 60% (30/50) had a Facebook page, 36% (18/50) had a Twitter page, and 40% (20/50) had a YouTube channel. The reach of social media was different across each site and varied widely by state. Among TCPs with a Facebook page, 73% (22/30) had less than 100 likes per 100,000 adults in the state, and 13% (4/30) had more than 400 likes per 100,000 adults. Among TCPs with a Twitter page, 61% (11/18) had less than 10 followers per 100,000 adults, and just 1 state had more than 100 followers per 100,000 adults. Seven states (23%, 7/30) updated their social media sites daily. The most frequent social media activities focused on the dissemination of information rather than interaction with site users. Social media resources from a national cessation media campaign were promoted infrequently. The current reach of state TCP social media sites is low and most TCPs are not promoting existing cessation services or capitalizing on social media's interactive potential. TCPs should create an online environment that increases participation and 2-way communication with smokers to promote free cessation services.

  12. The politics of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1998-12-01

    Smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable mortality will increase substantially in the Asia- Pacific region well into the next century, due to population expansion, ageing populations, and the fact that more women are smoking. The economic costs of tobacco, already substantial, will rise. Of particular concern is the penetration of the region by the transnational tobacco companies, which deny the health evidence of the harm from tobacco, use sophisticated promotions, and lobby to oppose tobacco control measures. There is an urgent need for robust tobacco control action to be taken by every country, but many governments have little experience in combatting this new epidemic or in countering the tobacco companies. They are needlessly concerned that tobacco control action will harm their economy, leading to loss of tax revenue and jobs. Arguments to convince governments must be shaped to address economic issues and illustrate that such action is not only good for a nation's health, but also good for its economy.

  13. DGP1, a drought-induced guard cell-specific promoter and its function analysis in tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jun; GONG; Ximing; LIN; Huiqiong; SONG; Quanbo; CHEN; J

    2005-01-01

    The genetic regulation of stomatal movement mainly depends on an efficient control system of gene expression, and guard cell-specific promoter is becoming the best choice. Here we combined the dehydration responsive element (DRE) with guard cell specific element (GCSE) to construct a novel promoter, DGP1. Histochemical assays in transgenic tobacco carryingβ-glucuronidase (gus) gene fused to DGP1 demonstrated that GUS activity was found to be highly inducible by drought treatment and specifically restricted to guard cells. No GUS activity was detected in roots, stems or flowers after treatment. Further quantitative analysis showed that GUS activity in the epidermal strips was apparently induced by dehydration and dramatically increased with the elongation of treatment. The GUS activity after 8 h treatment was 179 times that of those without treatment. Although GUS activity in roots, stems or mesophyll increased after treatment, no great changes were observed. These results suggested that DGP1 could drive target gene expressed in guard cells when plant is subjected to drought stress. And this gets us prepared to control opening and closing of stomata through plant gene engineering.

  14. Doctor's enquiry: an opportunity for promoting smoking cessation-findings from Global Adult Tobacco Surveys in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Banu; Tas, Ayse; Sanver, Tugçe Mehlika; Aslan, Dilek

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients is effective in promoting smoking cessation. Yet, detection rate of smokers is often low and, the proportion of smokers receiving special advice to quit varies. This study aimed to detect how frequently European physicians enquire about their patients' smoking status, and to compare and contrast how (if any) smokers benefit from physicians' enquiry and/or advice about smoking cessation. The study was based on secondary analysis of data from six European countries that conducted Global Adult Tobacco Survey, namely, Greece, Poland, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. Out of Global Adult Tobacco Survey participants who were smoking 12 months preceding the survey and had 'at least one visit to a physician' before the survey, half were asked by their physicians about their smoking status and only 37.7% got a brief advice from their physicians to quit smoking. Remarkably, 25% of current smokers did not get any advice from their physicians to quit even when the smoking status was enquired. The adjusted odds ratio was found as 1.55 (95% confidence interval=1.29-1.87) for the association between physician's enquiry about smoking status of a patient and his/her attempt to quit smoking. Even a simple enquiry of the physician about smoking status of a patient could be effective in smoking cessation, yet, enquiry and advice rates are still far below expected. Regardless of the reason for admission, each contact with a patient should be used as an opportunity to combat smoking-related health risks.

  15. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  16. A Brief Inpatient Intervention Using a Short Video to Promote Reduction of Child Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan Chu; Chime, Chioma; Powell, Jamie; Walker, Karlene; Burczyk-Brown, Jennifer; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) increases the risk for respiratory-related disease and hospitalizations. The hypothesis of this study was that a brief intervention (which included a motivational video) provided to parents and caregivers during their child's hospitalization would be associated with improved knowledge and behavior changes that may reduce the child's TSE. Parents and caregivers of children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses with TSE were recruited between June and December 2012. They completed a questionnaire to determine baseline knowledge regarding the health effects of smoke exposure. The intervention included a motivational video, written smoking cessation materials, and referral to the state quitline. The questionnaire was repeated after the intervention; telephone follow-up at 1 and 3 months included knowledge questions and assessed behavior changes. Paired t tests were used to compare preintervention and postintervention knowledge scores. A total of 167 parents/caregivers were enrolled. The mean preintervention knowledge score was high at 5.4 of 6, which improved for 60 parents/caregivers (36%, P smoked (95% confidence interval: 7-21). Other behavior changes reported included initiating home and vehicle smoking bans, discussing reduction of the child's smoke exposure, and showing the video to others. Improvement in knowledge after this brief intervention was associated with reported initiation of home and vehicle smoking bans (P smoke-exposed children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses had high baseline knowledge of the effects of TSE. A brief intervention that included a motivational video was associated with reported behavior changes in parents/caretakers that decreased second- and third-hand smoke. Improvement of knowledge was associated with institution of home and vehicle smoking bans. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Roles of Salicylic Acid-responsive Cis-acting Elements and W-boxes in Salicylic Acid Induction of VCH3 Promoter in Transgenic Tobaccos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan LI; Wei WEI; Yu LI

    2006-01-01

    A salicylic acid (SA)-inducible VCH3 promoter was recently identified from grapevine (Vitis amurensis) that contains two inverse SA-responsive cis-acting elements and four W-boxes. To further demonstrate the roles of these elements, four fragments with lengths from -1187, -892, -589, -276 to +7 bp were fused with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred to Nicotiana tobacum,together with another four VCH3 promoter fragments with mutation in the two inverse SA-responsive elements. The functions of each promoter fragment were examined by analysis of GUS activity in the transgenic tobacco root treated with SA. Enhanced GUS activity was shown in the roots of transgenic tobaccos with the VCH3 (-1187)-GUS construct containing two SA-responsive cis-acting elements and four W-boxes. However, GUS activity directed by the VCH3 (-892)-GUS construct, containing one SA cisacting element and four W-boxes, was reduced by up to 35% compared with that in tobaccos transformed with the VCH3 (-1187)-GUS construct, indicating that the SA cis-acting element plays an important role in SA induction of the VCH3 promoter. Neither the m2VCH3 (-1187)-GUS nor the m VCH3 (-892)-GUSconstruct, with mutation on the SA-responsive elements, abolished the expression of GUS activity, demonstrating that the W-boxes in the VCH3 promoter are also involved in SA induction. Histochemical analysis of GUS activity directed by each of the eight VCH3 promoter fragments showed that GUS was expressed specifically in vascular tissue. It was concluded that both the SA-responsive cis-acting elements and the Wboxes are important for the SA induction of the VCH3 promoter. This promoter might have a potential use in plant genetic engineering.

  18. Activity of the truncated promoter of pollen-specific G9 gene of cotton and the transgenic recessive nuclei-sterile tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 557 bp fragment from the translation initiation site of the G9 gene expressed in maturing pollens of cotton was isolated from genomic DNA of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. “Zhongkang 17”, and two expression vectors for plant transformation were constructed via fusing this fragment with β-glucuronidase gene (Gus) and cytotoxin gene Barnase. The promoter activity of this fragment was demonstrated via transient expression of Gus gene in cotton and by the integrated expression of Barnase gene in tobacco. This promoter can initiate the expression of exogenous gene specifically and efficiently in plant pollen. The transgenic tobacco plant containing G9-Barnase fusion gene showed the characteristics of recessive nuclei-sterility.

  19. Wartime sexual violence: women’s human rights and questions of masculinity

    OpenAIRE

    Alison, Miranda H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines wartime sexual violence, one of the most recurring wartime human rights abuses. It asserts that our theorisations need further development, particularly in regard to the way that masculinities and the intersections with constructions of ethnicity feature in wartime sexual violence. The article also argues that although women and girls are the predominant victims of sexual violence and men and boys the predominant agents, we must also be able to account for the presence o...

  20. The Use of Social Media by State Tobacco Control Programs to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Heather; Kim, Annice E; Curry, Laurel; Allen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The promotion of evidence-based cessation services through social media sites may increase their utilization by smokers. Data on social media adoption and use within tobacco control programs (TCPs) have not been reported. Objective This study examines TCP use of and activity levels on social media, the reach of TCP sites, and the level of engagement with the content on sites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study of state TCP social media sites and their content was conducted. Results In 2013, 60% (30/50) of TCPs were using social media. Approximately one-quarter (26%, 13/50) of all TCPs used 3 or more social media sites, 24% (12/50) used 2, and 10% (5/50) used 1 site. Overall, 60% (30/50) had a Facebook page, 36% (18/50) had a Twitter page, and 40% (20/50) had a YouTube channel. The reach of social media was different across each site and varied widely by state. Among TCPs with a Facebook page, 73% (22/30) had less than 100 likes per 100,000 adults in the state, and 13% (4/30) had more than 400 likes per 100,000 adults. Among TCPs with a Twitter page, 61% (11/18) had less than 10 followers per 100,000 adults, and just 1 state had more than 100 followers per 100,000 adults. Seven states (23%, 7/30) updated their social media sites daily. The most frequent social media activities focused on the dissemination of information rather than interaction with site users. Social media resources from a national cessation media campaign were promoted infrequently. Conclusions The current reach of state TCP social media sites is low and most TCPs are not promoting existing cessation services or capitalizing on social media’s interactive potential. TCPs should create an online environment that increases participation and 2-way communication with smokers to promote free cessation services. PMID:25014311

  1. A dissident voice in New Zealand wartime sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooder, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Sex education in wartime New Zealand focused primarily on adults and was concerned with community stability in aberrant times. In 1943 Dr. Clara Lee's bold move to ask a group of New Zealand women candidly about their sexual experiences caused her dismissal as lecturer in sex hygiene to military women. This encounter provides an important counter discourse to the dominantly held contemporary sex education framework of marital love and premarital chastity.

  2. Aircraft Maintenance Wartime Command and Control: The Might to Fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Administration from the University of Northern Colorado in 1980. She completed Squadron Officer School in residence in 1981 and is a member of the ACSC...aavantaqes or centraizea ana aecentraiizea decision maKing in wartime tactica! ar:rarz maintenance. Three principies help in this aiscussion: tne decisions...weapons technicians, very few augmentees are neeaea to go to war. The advantages gained from this oecentrai ization rit .ne principie of cohesiveness

  3. Implementation and Research Priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16: Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship and Sales to and by Minors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS), and Article 16 calls for prohibition of tobacco sales to and by minors. Although these mandates are based on sound science, many countries have found provision implementation to be rife with challenges. Objective: This paper reviews the history of tobacco marketing and minor access restrictions in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, identifying past challenges and successes. We consider current challenges to FCTC implementation, how these barriers can be addressed, and what research is necessary to support such efforts. Specifically, we identify implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16. Discussion: Although a solid evidence base underpins the FCTC’s call for TAPS bans and minor access restrictions, we know substantially less about how best to implement these restrictions. Drawing on the regulatory experiences of high-, middle-, and low-income countries, we discern several implementation and research priorities, which are organized into 4 categories: policy enactment and enforcement, human capital expertise, the effects of FCTC marketing and youth access policies, and knowledge exchange and transfer among signatories. Future research should provide detailed case studies on implementation successes and failures, as well as insights into how knowledge of successful restrictions can be translated into tobacco control policy and practice and shared among different stakeholders. Conclusion: Tobacco marketing surveillance, sales-to-minors compliance checks, enforcement and evaluation of restriction policies, and capacity building and knowledge transfer are likely to prove central to effective implementation. PMID:23291641

  4. [Management of tobacco smoking in the prison service units - The effects of the health promotion program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elżbieta

    In 2014 the health promotion program aimed at managing personnel smoking was implemented in the Polish prison service (PS) in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM). It combined education of managers, encouraging them to implement good practices, with employees' education. This paper describes the process of implementation and its effects in 159 units of PS, against the data on the management of smoking in medium and large companies in Poland gathered in 2010. Situations concerning smoking management in PS units before and after a half-year program implementation were compared. Data were gathered using self-diagnosis questionnaires (initial and final assessments) collectively filled in by representatives of management and employees. Due to the program implementation there was an increase in the percentage of PS units with known number of smoking employees (19% vs. 61%), consultions on formal smoking regulations with personnel (14% vs. 57%), minimal antismoking medical interventions (46% vs. 59%), and assessments of effects of antismoking activities (14% vs. 55%). There was also increase in the number of PS units with personnel totally obeying smoking regulations (28% vs. 41%) and decrease in those where such rules are not completely met (9% vs. 7%). In 3/4 PS units there was an increase in employees' interest in quitting smoking and in 40% of them employees smoke less at work. Almost every second unit has set up a health promotion team. In many aspects the program has brought along satisfying effects and allowed for depicting areas of improvement. Its scheme and tools can be used, after adaptation, in interventions concerning other health problems in workplaces. Med Pr 2016;67(5):605-621.

  5. The Canadian cigar and tobacco journal in the forties: a remembrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a period snapshot of the life and times of Canadian smoking culture, filtered through "The Canadian Cigar and Tobacco Journal" (the industry's trade paper) from 1943-1949. "The Journal" provided a vivid portrait of neighbourhood tobacconists, travelling salesman, wholesalers and factory workers, homemakers and entrepreneurs. I discuss the role of Jews in the industry, as manufacturers and retailers. "The Journal" evokes the dangers of the retail trade, such as armed robberies, as well as the dangers of wartime. There is also the parallel danger of tobacco smoking, which, although not explicitly defined as risky behaviour by physicians, nonetheless is apparent to consumers. World War II is a dominant feature of "The Journal," and the celebration of wartime tobacco consumption is epitomized by Winston Churchill and other heroic smokers. Women's increased economic participation during the war years, and postwar demobilization, is reflected in "The Journal." Finally I discuss the growing targeting of children as potential consumers of tobacco.

  6. Characterization of the Tomato Prosystemin Promoter: Organ-specific Expression, Hormone Specificity and Methyl Jasmonate Responsiveness by Deletion Analysis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants(F)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamlet Avilés-Arnaut; John Paul Délano-Frier

    2012-01-01

    Tomato systemin is a bioactive peptide that regulates the systemic activation of wound-responsive genes.It is released from its 200 amino acid precursor called prosystemin.Initial tissue-localization and hormone-induced expression assays indicated that the tomato prosystemin gene (SIPS) accumulates mainly in floral tissues and in response to exogenous abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)treatments,respectively.Later,the promoter regions of the PS gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.cv.Castlemart),pepper (Capsicum annuum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) were isolated and an in silico analysis of the SIPS promoter revealed an over-representation of stress- and MeJA-responsive motifs.A subsequent 5' deletion analysis of the SIPS promoter fused to theβ-glucuronidase reporter (GUS) gene showed that the -221 to +40 bp proximal SIPS promoter region was sufficient to direct the stigma,vascular bundle-specific and MeJA-responsive expression of GUS in transgenic tobacco plants.Important vascular-tissue-specific,light- and MeJA-responsive cis-elements were also present in this region.These findings provide relevant information regarding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the SIPS promoter operating in transgenic tobacco plants.They also suggest that its tissue-specificity and inducible nature could have wide applicability in plant biotechnology.

  7. Emerging Importance of Helicases in Plant Stress Tolerance: Characterization of Oryza sativa Repair Helicase XPB2 Promoter and Its Functional Validation in Tobacco under Multiple Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikwar, Shailendra; Srivastava, Vineet K; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. Helicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as prospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in nucleic acid metabolism including DNA repair. The repair helicase, XPB is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress conditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of Oryza sativa XPB2 (OsXPB2). The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of OsXPB2 promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. The present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration, or cold) and hormone (Auxin, ABA, or MeJA) induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA, or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present findings suggest that OsXPB2 promoter is a multi-stress inducible promoter and has potential applications in sustainable crop production under abiotic stresses by regulating desirable pattern of gene expression.

  8. A Randomized Trial Evaluating Two Approaches for Promoting Pharmacy-Based Referrals to the Tobacco Quitline: Methods and Baseline Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J.; Corelli, Robin L.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Magnusson, L. Brooke; Fenlon, Christine M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; de Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, community pharmacies have not integrated tobacco cessation activities into routine practice, instead unbundling them as unique services. This approach might have limited success and viability. Objective The objective of this report is to describe the methods and baseline findings for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to their state’s tobacco quitline. Methods Participating community pharmacies in Connecticut (n=32) and Washington (n=32) were randomized to receive either (a) on-site education with an academic detailer, describing methods for implementing brief interventions with patients and providing referrals to the tobacco quitline, or (b) quitline materials delivered by mail. Both interventions advocated for pharmacy personnel to ask about tobacco use, advise patients who smoke to quit, and refer patients to the tobacco quitline for additional assistance with quitting. Study outcome measures include the number of quitline registrants who are referred by pharmacies (before and during the intervention period), the number of quitline materials distributed to patients, and self-reported behavior of cessation counseling and quitline referrals, assessed using written surveys completed by pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Pharmacists (n=124) and pharmacy technicians (n=127), representing 64 participating pharmacies with equal numbers of retail chain and independently-owned pharmacies, participated in the study. Most pharmacists (67%) and half of pharmacy technicians (50%) indicated that they were “not at all” familiar with the tobacco quitline. During the baseline (pre-intervention) monitoring period, the quitline registered 120 patients (18 in CT and 102 in WA) who reported that they heard about the quitline from a pharmacy. Conclusion Novel tobacco intervention approaches are needed to capitalize on the community pharmacy’s frequent

  9. Isolation of the promoter of a cotton β-galactosidase gene (GhGal1) and its expression in transgenic tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Aimin; LIU; Jinyuan

    2006-01-01

    β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) constitute a widespread family of glycosyl hydrolases in plants and are thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. A cDNA of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) β-galactosidase gene, designated GhGal1, has previously been identified and its transcripts are highly abundant at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. To examine the temporal and spatial control of GhGal1 expression, a transcriptional fusion of the GhGal1 promoter region (1770 bp) with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was introduced into tobacco plants by the Agrobacterium infection method. The resulting transgenic plants showed higher GUS activity of fruit in the transgenic plants than that in the negative and positive controls. Histochemical localization of GUS activity demonstrated that the expression of the GUS gene could be found in the meristem zones of roots, cotyledons, vascular tissues, fruit and trichomes in transgenic tobacco plants. Additionally, sequence analysis of the regulatory region also revealed several conserved motifs among which some were shared with previously reported fruit/seed-specific elements and the others were related with trichome expression. These results indicated the temporal and spatial expression characterization of the GhGal1 promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and provided an important insight into the roles of GhGal1 in cotton fiber development.

  10. A rat pancreatic ribonuclease fused to a late cotton pollen promoter severely reduces pollen viability in tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Bernd-Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an animal RNase fused to the late cotton pollen-specific promoter G9 in a plant system were investigated. Expression of the chimeric genes G9-uidA and G9-RNase in tobacco plants showed that the 1.2-kb promoter fragment of the G9 gene was sufficient to maintain tissue and temporal specificity in a heterologous system. GUS (beta-glucuronidase expression was detected only in pollen from anther stage 6 through anthesis, with maximal GUS activity in pollen from stage 10 anthers. Investigating the effects of the rat RNase on pollen viability at stage 10, we found that pollen viability was reduced from 79 to 8% and from 89 to 40%, in pollen germination and fluoresceine diacetate assays, respectively, in one G9-RNase transgenic line, suggesting a lethal effect of the RNase gene. This indicates that the rat RNase produces deleterious effects in this plant system and may be useful for engineering male sterility.Foram investigados os efeitos da expressão de uma ribonuclease de origem animal em um sistema vegetal, ligando-se esta ao promotor do gene pólen-específico G9 de algodão. Examinou-se a expressão dos genes quiméricos G9-uidA e G9-RNase em plantas de tabaco e determinou-se que o fragmento de 1.2 kb do promotor do gene G9 foi suficiente para manter a especificidade temporal e espacial da expressão, em sistema heterólogo. A expressão do gene GUS foi detectada somente em pólen, do estágio 6 do desenvolvimento da antera até a antese, com atividade máxima em pólen de anteras no estágio 10. Estudos neste estágio com linhagens transgênicas contendo G9-RNase mostraram que um clone transgênico apresentava reduções na viabilidade do pólen de 79 para 8% e de 89 para 40% nos testes de germinação e coloração com diacetato de fluoresceína, respectivamente, sugerindo letalidade na expressão do gene de RNase. Estes resultados indicam que a RNase animal apresenta um efeito deletério em planta e oferece possibilidade de uso

  11. Health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester‐George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Methods Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health‐care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage‐point increases relative to comparison conditions in 6–12‐month continuous abstinence rates. This was combined with analysis and evidence from ‘real world’ studies to form a judgement on the probable effectiveness of each intervention in different settings. The affordability of each intervention was assessed for exemplar countries in each World Bank income category (low, lower middle, upper middle, high). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, an intervention was judged as affordable for a given income category if the estimated extra cost of saving a life‐year was less than or equal to the per‐capita gross domestic product for that category of country. Results Brief advice from a health‐care worker given opportunistically to smokers attending health‐care services can promote smoking cessation, and is affordable for countries in all World Bank income categories (i.e. globally). Proactive telephone support, automated text messaging programmes and printed self‐help materials can assist smokers wanting help with a quit attempt and are affordable globally. Multi‐session, face‐to‐face behavioural support can increase quit success for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco and is affordable in middle‐ and high‐income countries. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline, varenicline and cytisine can all aid quitting smoking when given with at least some behavioural support; of these, cytisine and nortriptyline are affordable globally. Conclusions Brief

  12. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters drive highly specific, tightly regulated and unique expression patterns during floral transition, initiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjin; Yan, Guohua; Wen, Zhifeng; An, Young-Qiang; Singer, Stacy D; Liu, Zongrang

    2014-02-01

    The genetic engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters that drive expression in floral tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco APETALA1-like (AP1-like) promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using the GUS reporter system, along with tissue-specific ablation analyses. Our results demonstrated that the two promoters are active in floral inflorescences but not in vegetative apical meristems or other vegetative tissues, as reflected by strong GUS staining and DT-A-mediated ablation of apical shoot tips during reproductive but not vegetative growth. We also showed that the NtAP1Lb1 promoter was more active than NtAP1La in inflorescences, as the former yielded higher frequencies and greater phenotypic evidence of tissue ablation compared to the latter. We further revealed that both promoters were uniformly expressed in the meristems of stage 1 and 2 floral buds, but were differentially expressed in floral organs later during development. While NtAP1La was found to be active in stage 4-5 carpels, later becoming confined to ovary tissue from stage 9 onwards, NtAP1Lb1 activity was apparent in all floral organs from stages 3 to 7, becoming completely absent in all floral organs from stage 11 onward. Therefore, it seems that the two tobacco promoters have acquired similar but distinct inflorescence-, floral meristem- and floral organ-specific and development-dependent regulatory features without any leaky activity in vegetative tissues. These features are novel and have rarely been observed in other flower-specific promoters characterized to date. The potential application of these promoters for engineering sterility, increasing biomass production and modifying flower architecture, as well as their putative use in flower-specific transgene excision, will be discussed.

  13. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  14. Strength and weakness of the totalitarianism in Wartime Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Suprun, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Unlike all other countries of the Barents Area, Russia found itself in a very specific situation. At the beginning of the war it entered into the alliance with the Axis, while from 1941 it continued the war in the Anti-Hitler coalition. But the main distinctive feature of the wartime Russia was the transformation of its policy. Not a single state in the world history had reached such a degree of centralization as the Soviet Union did during the Second World War. Along with an extremely high d...

  15. 75 FR 80037 - Tobacco Report: Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Shethir Riva, Chief, Research and Promotion, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service... Promotion, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, 1400 Independence Ave., SW... Shethir Riva, Chief, Research and Promotion, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, Agricultural Marketing...

  16. Tobacco smoke activates human papillomavirus 16 p97 promoter and cooperates with high-risk E6/E7 for oxidative DNA damage in lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Nelson; Carrillo, Diego; Muñoz, Juan P; Chnaiderman, Jonás; Urzúa, Ulises; León, Oscar; Tornesello, Maria L; Corvalán, Alejandro H; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Aguayo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR) in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma), H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma), SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma) cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial) or NL-20 (alveolar) lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage.

  17. Tobacco Smoke Activates Human Papillomavirus 16 p97 Promoter and Cooperates with High-Risk E6/E7 for Oxidative DNA Damage in Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan P.; Chnaiderman, Jonás; Urzúa, Ulises; León, Oscar; Tornesello, Maria L.; Corvalán, Alejandro H.; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Aguayo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR) in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma), H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma), SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma) cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial) or NL-20 (alveolar) lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage. PMID:25830243

  18. The mungbean yellow mosaic begomovirus transcriptional activator protein transactivates the viral promoter-driven transgene and causes toxicity in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Sunitha, Sukumaran; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Pooggin, Mikhail M; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2007-12-01

    The Begomovirus transcriptional activator protein (TrAP/AC2/C2) is a multifunctional protein which activates the viral late gene promoters, suppresses gene silencing, and determines pathogenicity. To study TrAP-mediated transactivation of a stably integrated gene, we generated transgenic tobacco plants with a Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) AV1 late gene promoter-driven reporter gene and supertransformed them with the MYMV TrAP gene driven by a strong 35S promoter. We obtained a single supertransformed plant with an intact 35S-TrAP gene that activated the reporter gene 2.5-fold. However, 10 of the 11 supertransformed plants did not have the TrAP region of the T-DNA, suggesting the likely toxicity of TrAP in plants. Upon transformation of wild-type tobacco plants with the TrAP gene, six of the seven transgenic plants obtained had truncated T-DNAs which lacked TrAP. One plant, which had the intact TrAP gene, did not express TrAP. The apparent toxic effect of the TrAP transgene was abolished by mutations in its nuclear-localization signal or zinc-finger domain and by deletion of its activation domain. Therefore, all three domains of TrAP, which are required for transactivation and suppression of gene silencing, also are needed for its toxic effect.

  19. Tobacco smoke activates human papillomavirus 16 p97 promoter and cooperates with high-risk E6/E7 for oxidative DNA damage in lung cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Peña

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma, H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma, SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial or NL-20 (alveolar lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage.

  20. Functional analysis of the stress-inducible soybean calmodulin isoform-4 (GmCaM-4) promoter in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Man Lyang; Kang, Yun Hwan; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Cheong, Mi Sun; Choi, Wonkyun; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je; Kim, Min Chul; Chung, Woo Sik; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2009-04-30

    The transcription of soybean (Glycine max) calmodulin isoform-4 (GmCaM-4) is dramatically induced within 0.5 h of exposure to pathogen or NaCl. Core cis-acting elements that regulate the expression of the GmCaM-4 gene in response to pathogen and salt stress were previously identified, between -1,207 and -1,128 bp, and between -858 and -728 bp, in the GmCaM-4 promoter. Here, we characterized the properties of the DNA-binding complexes that form at the two core cis-acting elements of the GmCaM-4 promoter in pathogen-treated nuclear extracts. We generated GUS reporter constructs harboring various deletions of approximately 1.3-kb GmCaM-4 promoter, and analyzed GUS expression in tobacco plants transformed with these constructs. The GUS expression analysis suggested that the two previously identified core regions are involved in inducing GmCaM-4 expression in the heterologous system. Finally, a transient expression assay of Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that the GmCaM-4 promoter produced greater levels of GUS activity than did the CaMV35S promoter after pathogen or NaCl treatments, suggesting that the GmCaM-4 promoter may be useful in the production of conditional gene expression systems.

  1. Promoting Flowering, Lateral Shoot Outgrowth, Leaf Development, and Flower Abscission in Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-Like Gene GhFT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggested that sufficient level of foreign FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  2. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  3. Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Sumayo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA, 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA, as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens.

  4. Formative Evaluation of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Varenicline Adherence Among Tobacco-Dependent Persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Paul; Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Pham, Hieu; Wong, Selena; Sherman, Scott E; Shelley, Donna; Furberg, Robert D; Wolfe, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies describe processes in the development of mobile health interventions. This study reports data from a formative evaluation of a text messaging intervention being developed to increase adherence to smoking cessation medication (varenicline) among tobacco-dependent persons with HIV/AIDS. Four focus groups were conducted (N = 29) using a mixed-methods approach to assess: (a) beliefs and preferences regarding the use of varenicline, (b) preferences for receiving tobacco-related texts, and (c) the acceptability of draft text messages. Themes that emerged from the focus groups were that (a) participants were cautious and wanted to discuss varenicline carefully with health care providers, (b) participants preferred simple messages that were positive and encouraging, (c) messages should emphasize tobacco cessation and not varenicline adherence, and (d) texts would serve as a reminder about goals and foster support and connectedness with the health care team. Overall, 47 out of the 100 messages received a grade of C or less (rated on a 5-point grade scale: A, B, C, D, or F), the majority of which focused on medication adherence. All participants reported that they were likely to read the messages. The majority (64%) indicated that they preferred receiving 2 or more messages per day. Gathering systematic participant feedback provides critical input in intervention planning.

  5. Specificity of expression of the GUS reporter gene (uidA) driven by the tobacco ASA2 promoter in soybean plants and tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yoshimi; Zhong, Wei Qun; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Widholm, Jack M

    2007-07-01

    Twelve independent lines were transformed by particle bombardment of soybean embryogenic suspension cultures with the tobacco anthranilate synthase (ASA2) promoter driving the uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene. ASA2 appears to be expressed in a tissue culture specific manner in tobacco (Song H-S, Brotherton JE, Gonzales RA, Widholm JM. Tissue culture specific expression of a naturally occurring tobacco feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase. Plant Physiol 1998;117:533-43). The transgenic lines also contained the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene and were selected using hygromycin. All the selected cultures or the embryos that were induced from these cultures expressed GUS measured histochemically. However, no histochemical GUS expression could be found in leaves, stems, roots, pods and root nodules of the plants formed from the embryos and their progeny. Pollen from some of the plants and immature and mature seeds and embryogenic cultures initiated from immature cotyledons did show GUS activity. Quantitative 4-methylumbelliferyl-glucuronide (MUG) assays of the GUS activity in various tissues showed that all with observable histochemical GUS activity contained easily measurable activities and leaves and stems that showed no observable histochemical GUS staining did contain very low but measurable MUG activity above that of the untransformed control but orders of magnitude lower than the constitutive 35S-uidA controls used. Low but clearly above background levels of boiling sensitive GUS activity could be observed in the untransformed control immature seeds and embryogenic cultures using the MUG assay. Thus in soybean the ASA2 promoter drives readily observable GUS expression in tissue cultures, pollen and seeds, with only extremely low levels seen in vegetative tissues of the plants. The ASA2 driven expression seen in mature seed was, however, much lower than that seen with the constitutive 35S promoter; less than 2% in seed coats and less than

  6. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  7. Wartime vascular injuries in the pediatric population of Iraq and Afghanistan: 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Vascular trauma in infants and children. J Trauma 1979;19(7):532–6. [14] Cox C, Black C, Duke J, et al. Operative treatment of truncal vascular...Accepted 4 October 2013 Key words: Vascular injury Trauma Children Pediatric Wartime Reconstruction Background: Contemporary war-related studies focus...vascular trauma at US military hospitals in wartime Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods: Review of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) (2002

  8. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  9. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P intervention group (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  10. Evaluation of a Family-Centered Prevention Intervention for Military Children and Families Facing Wartime Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, William R.; Woodward, Kirsten; Glover, Dorie; Leskin, Gregory A.; Bursch, Brenda; Pynoos, Robert; Beardslee, William

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the Families OverComing Under Stress program, which provides resiliency training designed to enhance family psychological health in US military families affected by combat- and deployment-related stress. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of Families OverComing Under Stress program evaluation data that was collected between July 2008 and February 2010 at 11 military installations in the United States and Japan. We present data at baseline for 488 unique families (742 parents and 873 children) and pre–post outcomes for 331 families. Results. Family members reported high levels of satisfaction with the program and positive impact on parent–child indicators. Psychological distress levels were elevated for service members, civilian parents, and children at program entry compared with community norms. Change scores showed significant improvements across all measures for service member and civilian parents and their children (P < .001). Conclusions. Evaluation data provided preliminary support for a strength-based, trauma-informed military family prevention program to promote resiliency and mitigate the impact of wartime deployment stress. PMID:22033756

  11. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  12. Analytical studies on tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1991-01-01

    Chemical-analytical studies have led to the identification of approximately 3000 compounds in tobacco and 4000 in tobacco smoke. These include carcinogens in processed tobacco as well as tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens, and organ-specific carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The latter group includes N-nitrosamines, in particular those that derive from nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, the TSNA. In vitro nitrosation of nicotine yields NNN, NNA, and NNK. Nitrosation of other tobacco alkaloids leads to the formation of NAT, and NAB. Our analytical studies using GC-TEA have led to the identification of seven TSNA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In addition to NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK, we also identified NNAL, iso-NNAL, and, most recently, iso-NNAC. Their levels range from 0.01 to 92 ppm in tobacco and from 6 to 530 ng/cigarette in tobacco smoke. The high levels observed in snuff are primarily due to fermentation and aging. Technological methods exist today to reduce the levels of TSNA in both tobacco and cigarette smoke.

  13. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  14. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica stimulates the expression of nitrate reductase and the starch-degrading enzyme glucan-water dikinase in tobacco and Arabidopsis roots through a homeodomain transcription factor that binds to a conserved motif in their promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherameti, Irena; Shahollari, Bationa; Venus, Yvonne; Altschmied, Lothar; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2005-07-15

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of the Sebacinaceae family, promotes growth of Arabidopsis and tobacco seedlings and stimulates nitrogen accumulation and the expression of the genes for nitrate reductase and the starch-degrading enzyme glucan-water dikinase (SEX1) in roots. Neither growth promotion nor stimulation of the two enzymes requires heterotrimeric G proteins. P. indica also stimulates the expression of the uidA gene under the control of the Arabidopsis nitrate reductase (Nia2) promoter in transgenic tobacco seedlings. At least two regions (-470/-439 and -103/-89) are important for Nia2 promoter activity in tobacco roots. One of the regions contains an element, ATGATAGATAAT, that binds to a homeodomain transcription factor in vitro. The message for this transcription factor is up-regulated by P. indica. The transcription factor also binds to a CTGATAGATCT segment in the SEX1 promoter in vitro. We propose that the growth-promoting effect initiated by P. indica is accompanied by a co-regulated stimulation of enzymes involved in nitrate and starch metabolisms.

  15. Wartime Writings, or the Imaginary Lover of Marguerite Duras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Ladimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication in 2006 of Marguerite Duras’s Cahiers de la guerre , ‘Wartime Writings,’ written between 1943 and 1949, made accessible to the reader the first known versions of the family drama that was to become the material of much of her fiction. As this work now takes its place as chronologically first in the intertext of Duras’s autofictional writings, it sheds considerable light on our understanding of the transformations in these texts that occurred over her lifetime. Whereas L’Amant had been presented and accepted as the disclosure of a real occurrence and the origin of the other works, it presents several significant aspects of Duras’s life at the time, as well as the lover himself, in a way that is not verifiably real. The “Cahiers” help establish the difference between the verifiably real and that which seems most true about herself to the author in later life when she fictionalizes her own coming of age. The first “Cahier” holds the key to understanding the exigencies that led to the invention of the character of the Chinese lover, as it reminds us that there is no moment before legend and story-telling, and that individual memory is always constructed imaginatively.

  16. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2004-05-01

    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  17. Tobacco companies' use of developing countries' economic reliance on tobacco to lobby against global tobacco control: the case of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Mamudu, Hadii M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-10-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC.

  18. Flowering in tobacco needs gibberellins but is not promoted by the levels of active GA1 and GA4 in the apical shoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; García-Martínez, José L; Moritz, Thomas; López-Díaz, Isabel

    2007-04-01

    Flowering of Nicotiana tabacum cv Xhanti depends on gibberellins because gibberellin-deficient plants, due to overexpression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene (35S:NoGA2ox3) or to treatment with the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, flowered later than wild type. These plants also showed inhibition of the expression of molecular markers related to floral transition (NtMADS-4 and NtMADS-11). To investigate further the role of gibberellin in flowering, we quantified its content in tobacco plants during development. We found a progressive reduction in the levels of GA1 and GA4 in the apical shoot during vegetative growth, reaching very low levels at floral transition and beyond. This excludes these two gibberellins as flowering-promoting factors in the apex. The evolution of active gibberellin content in apical shoots agrees with the expression patterns of gibberellin metabolism genes: two encoding gibberellin 20-oxidases (NtGA20ox1 = Ntc12, NtGA20ox2 = Ntc16), one encoding a gibberellin 3-oxidase (NtGA3ox1 = Nty) and one encoding a gibberellin 2-oxidase (NtGA2ox1), suggesting that active gibberellins are locally synthesized. In young apical leaves, GA1 and GA4 content and the expression of gibberellin metabolism genes were rather constant. Our results support that floral transition in tobacco, in contrast to that in Arabidopsis, is not regulated by the levels of GA1 and GA4 in apical shoots, although reaching a threshold in gibberellin levels may be necessary to allow meristem competence for flowering.

  19. 中国初中学生烟草广告和促销暴露现况调查%Exposure to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs among Chinese middle school students: a cross-sectional survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳; 杨净淇; Zhao Luhua; 姜垣; 陈心悦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To exam the exposure status to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs in Chinese middle school students.Methods Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select participated grade 7-9 middle school students in 31 provinces (n=155 117).A self-administrated questionnaire was used in which questions related to behavior on tobacco use,exposure to second-hand smoking (SHS),access to tobacco products and prices,tobacco control advocacy,exposure to tobacco advertisement,and promotion as well as attitude and knowledge towards tobacco,etc.Data was weighted and analyzed,using the complex survey module of SAS 9.3 software.Results In the past 30 days,48.5% of the students had a chance to see advertisement or promotion programs on tobacco.Tobacco advertisement or promotion were most frequently seen on TV (21.3 %) among students,followed by outdoor billboard (20.1%),at the stands for sale (17.5%),and Internet (15.6%).In addition,4.6% of the students reported having kept the items related to brand logos of tobacco products; 2.0% reported having been offered a free tobacco product by tobacco company representatives; 69.7% reported having seen scenes related to smoking on TV/videos/movie screens.Twenty five point two percent of the student smokers reported buying individual sticks at last purchase.Among those students who had never been exposed to tobacco,the ones who had been exposed to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs reported that they were more likely to feel smoking attractive than those who had not.They also reported that if a cigarette was offered by friends,they might try to smoke within the next 12 months,feeling that smoking would make him/her comfortable,and finally to feel that they might enjoy smoking (P<0.000 1).Conclusion Adolescents had been heavily exposed to tobacco advertisement and promotion programs in China.Students who had been exposed to tobacco advertisement or promotions were more likely to express

  20. Thoughts and Exploration on Transformation and Upgrading of Tobacco Production Promoted by Lean Management%精益管理促进烟叶生产转型升级的思考与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠新; 秦铁伟; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    烟叶产区要在烟叶质量水平提升、烟叶风格相对稳定、烟叶生产效益相对增加的前提下,依据实际,围绕技术精、作业流程精、效果好开展研究,狠抓精益管理宣传培训、优化烟叶生产技术、人员及资源的配制,强化科技研究及机械研发,引导合作社切实突出服务功能,促进产区长远发展。%Tobacco-producing field should carry out research oriented by fined tech-nology, fluent work procedure and satisfied effect, reinforce lean management pro-motion, optimize al ocation of tobacco production technologies, employees and re-sources, and improve science and technology research and development in a premise of improving tobacco quality, stable tobacco texture, and increasing tobacco production profit, in order to highlight service function of cooperatives and advance sustainable development.

  1. Planning Staff and Space Capacity Requirements during Wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, Elisa B; Spencer, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Determining staff and space requirements for military medical centers can be challenging. Changing patient populations change the caseload requirements. Deployment and assignment rotations change the experience and education of clinicians and support staff, thereby changing the caseload capacity of a facility. During wartime, planning becomes increasingly more complex. What will the patient mix and caseload volume be by location? What type of clinicians will be available and when? How many beds are needed at each facility to meet caseload demand and match clinician supply? As soon as these factors are known, operations are likely to change and planning factors quickly become inaccurate. Soon, more beds or staff are needed in certain locations to meet caseload demand while other locations retain underutilized staff, waiting for additional caseload fluctuations. This type of complexity challenges the best commanders. As in so many other industries, supply and demand principles apply to military health, but very little is stable about military health capacity planning. Planning analysts build complex statistical forecasting models to predict caseload based on historical patterns. These capacity planning techniques work best in stable repeatable processes where caseload and staffing resources remain constant over a long period of time. Variability must be simplified to predict complex operations. This is counterintuitive to the majority of capacity planners who believe more data drives better answers. When the best predictor of future needs is not historical patterns, traditional capacity planning does not work. Rather, simplified estimation techniques coupled with frequent calibration adjustments to account for environmental changes will create the most accurate and most useful capacity planning and management system. The method presented in this article outlines the capacity planning approach used to actively manage hospital staff and space during Operations Iraqi

  2. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  3. Health, wartime stress, and unit cohesion: evidence from Union Army veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dora L; Kahn, Matthew E

    2010-02-01

    We find that Union Army veterans of the American Civil War who faced greater wartime stress (as measured by higher battlefield mortality rates) experienced higher mortality rates at older ages, but that men who were from more cohesive companies were statistically significantly less likely to be affected by wartime stress. Our results hold for overall mortality, mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke, and new diagnoses of arteriosclerosis. Our findings represent one of the first long-run health follow-ups of the interaction between stress and social networks in a human population in which both stress and social networks are arguably exogenous.

  4. The impossibility of bearing witness: wartime rape and the promise of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    Testimonies of wartime sexual violence contribute to the recognition of rape as a serious human rights violation. Although acknowledgement and justice are imperative to ending silence and impunity, this article critiques some commonly held therapeutic assumptions about disclosure through examining the way so-called "unspeakable" events are communicated through legal discourse. In this article, the author explores the inherent limitations of language for bearing witness to wartime rape, specifically focusing on international war crimes tribunals. The author argues that trials contribute to the impossibility of bearing witness through both the appropriation of trauma and the failure of law to accommodate traumatic experiences.

  5. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  6. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  7. Estrategia de vigilancia para el control del tabaco en México: publicidad, promoción y patrocinio, empaque y etiquetado Monitoring estrategy for control of tobacco in Mexico: advertising, promotion and sponsorship, packaging and labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosibel Rodríguez-Bolaños

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias de publicidad, mercadeo, y venta productos del tabaco en 12 ciudades de México. Material y métodos. Los puntos de venta de tabaco, a 500mts alrededor de escuelas participantes de la Encuesta de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (2005-2006, fueron identificados usando formatos observacionales y un Sistema de Información Geográfica en línea. Resultados. En promedio se encontraron 8 establecimientos y 5 puestos de calle alrededor de las 257 escuelas visitadas. 44.4% de los establecimientos tenía publicidad en interior, 8.3% poseían productos a la altura de los ojos de los niños y 6.5% tenía alguna promoción. El 33.6% tenía letrero de prohibición de venta a menores, en tanto que 44.4% de los establecimientos y 58.8% puestos de calle vendían cigarros sueltos. Conclusiones. Los productos de tabaco son ampliamente publicitados y comercializados alrededor de las escuelas. Existe un alto incumplimiento de las leyes referentes a la venta a menores y por menores. Es urgente implementar un sistema que permita una vigilancia continua de las estrategias de la industria y para el control del tabaco.Objective. To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Material and Methods. Tobacco products points of sale (POS were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006 schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS. Results. In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Conclusions. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control

  8. 75 FR 41498 - Draft Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability; Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... does provide for lower civil money penalties for violations of access, advertising, and promotion... distribution of a tobacco product, including restrictions on the access to, and the advertising and promotion... to cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products, as well as restrictions on advertising and promotion...

  9. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  10. Transformation and analysis of tobacco plant var Petit havana with T-urf13 gene under anther-specific TA29 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, V; Kuriakose, Boney; Sridhar, Vaniyambadi V; Thomas, George

    2011-09-01

    T-urf13, a well-documented cms-associated gene from maize, has been shown to render methomyl sensitivity to heterologous systems like rice, yeast and bacteria when expressed constitutively. Since these transgenic plants were fertile, it was hypothesized that T-urf13 gene if expressed in anthers may result in male sterility that could be used for hybrid seed production. Hence, this work was aimed at analysing whether T-urf13 gene when expressed in anthers can result in male sterile plants or requires methomyl treatment to cause male sterility (controllable). This is the first report of transformation of tobacco with T-urf13 gene under anther-specific promoter (TA29) with or without mitochondrial targeting sequence. Most of the transgenic plants obtained were fertile; this was surprising as many male sterile plants were expected as T-urf13 gene is a cms associated gene. Our results suggest that it may not be possible to obtain male sterility by expressing URF13 in the anther by itself or by methomyl application.

  11. Meeting the online educational needs of international health promoters: an evaluation of a comprehensive, multilingual global training program in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Mark; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    An evaluation of a global online training program in tobacco control offered in multiple languages was conducted to identify ways in which the varied online educational needs of its international participants could be more effectively met. An online survey was administered to a sample of training participants to solicit feedback regarding course content and delivery. In addition, participants' training site usage patterns were examined. Findings showed high levels of satisfaction with training content and delivery, as well as of knowledge acquisition and utilization. Respondents indicated that it was important that course content be current and relevant to their practice. Although findings are consistent with best practices for online continuing education, in practice it is challenging to keep material updated, incorporate examples and case studies from the participants' countries, and integrate adequate opportunities for interactivity when a course has geographically and linguistically diverse participants. Low-cost, technologically appropriate solutions should be developed to maximize the effectiveness of similar continuing education programs for health promoters worldwide. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  13. Identification of genetic variants in the TNF promoter associated with COPD secondary to tobacco smoking and its severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Sansores, Raúl H; Hernández-Zenteno, Rafael de Jesús; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilber; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Camarena, Angel; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease that arises in response to noxious particles or gases. Associations of genetic polymorphisms in TNF have been reported in Asians and Caucasians, but not in Mestizo populations. A case-control study was conducted in two stages: in the first stage, patients with COPD (COPD group, n=165) and smokers without disease (SNC group, n=165) were included and the TNF promoter sequence was determined using direct sequencing. In the second stage, the identified polymorphisms were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in COPD (n=260) and SNC (n=506). In the first stage, 11 different sets of "contig" alignments were determined, of which contig 10 was found to be associated with susceptibility (P=5.0E-04, OR [odds ratio] =3.64) and contig 1 with Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) greater grade (P=1.0E-02, OR =3.82). The single nucleotide polymorphisms found in this region were individually identified; the GA genotypes of rs1800629 (P=0.038, OR =2.07), rs56036015 (P=0.0082, OR =3.18), and rs361525 (P=1.0E-02, OR =4.220) were higher in the COPD group vs the SNC group; after second-stage validation, rs1800629 (P=6.00E-03, OR =2.26) and rs56036015 (P=1.10E-03, OR =2.54) are maintained. There are genetic variants in the TNF promoter associated with increased risk of COPD secondary to smoking and with a higher GOLD grade in the Mexican Mestizo population.

  14. Management of tobacco smoking in the prison service units – The effects of the health promotion program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Puchalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2014 the health promotion program aimed at managing personnel smoking was implemented in the Polish prison service (PS in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM. It combined education of managers, encouraging them to implement good practices, with employees’ education. This paper describes the process of implementation and its effects in 159 units of PS, against the data on the management of smoking in medium and large companies in Poland gathered in 2010. Material and Methods: Situations concerning smoking management in PS units before and after a half-year program implementation were compared. Data were gathered using self-diagnosis questionnaires (initial and final assessments collectively filled in by representatives of management and employees. Results: Due to the program implementation there was an increase in the percentage of PS units with known number of smoking employees (19% vs. 61%, consultions on formal smoking regulations with personnel (14% vs. 57%, minimal antismoking medical interventions (46% vs. 59%, and assessments of effects of antismoking activities (14% vs. 55%. There was also increase in the number of PS units with personnel totally obeying smoking regulations (28% vs. 41% and decrease in those where such rules are not completely met (9% vs. 7%. In 3/4 PS units there was an increase in employees’ interest in quitting smoking and in 40% of them employees smoke less at work. Almost every second unit has set up a health promotion team. Conclusions: In many aspects the program has brought along satisfying effects and allowed for depicting areas of improvement. Its scheme and tools can be used, after adaptation, in interventions concerning other health problems in workplaces. Med Pr 2016;67(5:605–621

  15. Free Expression and Wartime: Lessons from the Past, Hopes for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that the Persian Gulf War raised issues of censorship, news manipulation by government sources, unwillingness to tolerate dissent at home, and the conviction that only political conservatives combine to limit First Amendment rights during wartime. Examines prior wars and argues that understanding the background of controversies can help…

  16. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  17. Writing under wartime conditions : North and South Korean writers during the Korean war (1950-1953)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Jerôme Willem Andries de

    2015-01-01

    Writing under Wartime Conditions is a study into North and South Korean literature written during the Korean War. It depicts the views and activities of the authors on war and traces the historical and social circumstances under which the writers had to write their literature. The North and South Ko

  18. Minority Language Development and Literacy among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Refugees, and Wartime Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Joan Bomberger

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how minority language development and literacy activities were facilitated in a wartime context for Southern Sudanese language groups, particularly through the use of workshops. It also presents the voices of the language speakers themselves as they reflect on this process. A background discussion considers the importance of…

  19. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  20. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  1. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Identification of genetic variants in the TNF promoter associated with COPD secondary to tobacco smoking and its severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reséndiz-Hernández JM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Juan Manuel Reséndiz-Hernández,1,2 Raúl H Sansores,3 Rafael de Jesús Hernández-Zenteno,3 Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón,4 Laura Colín-Barenque,5 Mónica Velázquez-Uncal,3 Angel Camarena,1 Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,3 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia1 1Laboratory HLA, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Graduate Program in Biological Sciences, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Research Department in smoking and COPD, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico; 5Department of Neuroscience, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Tlalnepantla de Baz, Mexico State, Mexico Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an inflammatory disease that arises in response to noxious particles or gases. Associations of genetic polymorphisms in TNF have been reported in Asians and Caucasians, but not in Mestizo populations. A case-control study was conducted in two stages: in the first stage, patients with COPD (COPD group, n=165 and smokers without disease (SNC group, n=165 were included and the TNF promoter sequence was determined using direct sequencing. In the second stage, the identified polymorphisms were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in COPD (n=260 and SNC (n=506. In the first stage, 11 different sets of “contig” alignments were determined, of which contig 10 was found to be associated with susceptibility (P=5.0E-04, OR [odds ratio] =3.64 and contig 1 with Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD greater grade (P=1.0E-02, OR =3.82. The single nucleotide polymorphisms found in this region were individually identified; the GA genotypes of rs1800629 (P=0.038, OR =2.07, rs56036015 (P=0.0082, OR =3.18, and rs361525 (P=1.0E-02, OR =4.220 were

  3. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toothpick-sized sticks. Some of these also contain sweeteners or flavoring and look a lot like candy. ... Still, tobacco companies often market these products as alternatives to smoking in places where smoking isn’t ...

  4. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  5. 以总成本领先战略提升甘肃烟草物流管理水平%With the overall cost leadership strategy to promote tobacco logistics management level in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润娴

    2012-01-01

      Logistics is the third profit source of enterprise, Gansu tobacco actively implement and promote"the strategy of overall cost leadership", build"irreplaceable"tobacco logistics, has become the important step to promote core competition ability, advance"cigarette quality". The overall cost leadership strategy as the guidance, to strengthen the fine management of tobacco logistics cost, is the important way to improve the management level of the logistics.%  物流是企业第三利润源,甘肃烟草积极实施和深入推进“总成本领先战略”,打造“具有不可替代性”的烟草物流,已成为提升核心竞争力、全面推进“卷烟上水平”的重要手段。以总成本领先战略为先导,加强烟草物流成本的精细管理化,是提高物流管理水平的重要途径。

  6. La industria tabaquera y la promoción del tabaquismo entre los menores y jóvenes: una revisión internacional The tobacco industry and smoking promotion among minors and youths: an international review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soto Mas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Recopilar documentación científica que evidencia el interés histórico de las compañías tabaqueras por los menores y jóvenes. Métodos: Revisión electrónica de la literatura en bases de datos científicas y búsqueda electrónica de informes técnicos y artículos científicos posteriores a 1999. Resultados: Se recopilaron y resumieron 13 informes y 30 artículos de revistas y publicaciones científicas de todo el mundo. La mayoría de los informes y artículos estaban centrados en las tácticas propagandísticas y de mercado. Conclusiones: La información recopilada evidencia los esfuerzos de las grandes tabaqueras para estimular el uso de tabaco entre los menores y jóvenes en todo el mundo e interferir con las políticas de regulación y control que positivamente repercuten en la iniciación al tabaquismo.Objectives: To compile scientific documentation of the historic interest of the tobacco industry in minors and youths. Methods: We performed a literature review of electronic scientific databases and an electronic search of technical reports and scientific articles published after 1999. Results: Thirteen technical reports and 30 articles in international scientific journals and other publications were retrieved and summarized. Most reports and articles focused on advertisements and marketing. Conclusions: This study compiled evidence of the interest of the tobacco industry in promoting tobacco use among minors and youths globally, as well as in interfering with tobacco control policies that prevent tobacco smoking initiation among youths.

  7. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  8. GUS gene expression driven by a citrus promoter in transgenic tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange Expressão do gene GUS controlado por promotor de citros em plantas transgênicas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene promoter (CsPP. Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and 'Valência' sweet orange explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the binary vector CsPP-GUS/2201. After plant transformation and regeneration, histochemical analyses using GUS staining revealed that CsPP promoter preferentially, but not exclusively, conferred gene expression in xylem tissues of tobacco. Weaker GUS staining was also detected throughout the petiole region in tobacco and citrus CsPP transgenic plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a transformação de plantas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com o gene GUS controlado pelo promotor do gene da fenilalanina amônia-liase (PAL de citros (CsPP. Foi realizada transformação genética por meio do co-cultivo de explantes de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com Agrobacterium tumefaciens que continha o vetor binário CsPP-GUS/2201. Após a transformação e a regeneração, a detecção da atividade de GUS por ensaios histoquímicos revelou que o promotor CsPP, preferencialmente, mas não exclusivamente, confere expressão gênica em tecidos do xilema de tabaco. Expressão mais baixa de GUS também foi detectada na região de tecido de pecíolo, em plantas transgênicas (CsPP de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'.

  9. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.

  10. Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Walley, Susan C; Groner, Judith A; Nelson, Kevin E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco dependence starts in childhood. Tobacco exposure of children is common and causes illness and premature death in children and adults, with adverse effects starting in the womb. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians should screen for use of tobacco and other nicotine delivery devices and provide anticipatory guidance to prevent smoking initiation and reduce tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians need to be aware of the different nicotine delivery systems marketed and available.Parents and caregivers are important sources of children's tobacco smoke exposure. Because tobacco dependence is a severe addiction, to protect children's health, caregiver tobacco dependence treatment should be offered or referral for treatment should be provided (such as referral to the national smoker's quitline at 1-800-QUIT-NOW). If the source of tobacco exposure cannot be eliminated, counseling about reducing exposure to children should be provided.Health care delivery systems should facilitate the effective prevention, identification, and treatment of tobacco dependence in children and adolescents, their parents, and other caregivers. Health care facilities should protect children from tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco promotion. Tobacco dependence prevention and treatment should be part of medical education, with knowledge assessed as part of board certification examinations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. TB & Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis, and over 8 millions people were developing each year. On the other hand tobacco is responsible for 3 millions death in the world. For Indonesia, our country has the third biggest TB cases in the world. Whereas Indonesia is ranked as having the fourth largest number of smokers in the world. A relationship between smoking and TB has been suspected for a long time, even though the epidemiological evidence has not been convincing so far, as well as the pathophysiology and the biomolecullar changes. At present time there are more and more epidemiological data to suggest relationship between TB and tobacco. Further research should be done to get more indepth relationship as well as avoiding the confounder factor. To be able to perform TB control as well as tobacco control successfully there should be emphasize on synergistic public health approaches. Tuberculosis –which Indonesia got 3rd rank in the world- as well as smoking problem –which Indonesia got 4th rank in the world- are two important public health problem for the country. If there are relationship between tobacco and tuberculosis, health problem faced by Indonesian even become bigger. Knowledge about tuberculosis as well as tobacco among Indonesian population is very essential to improve the public health situation. Tuberculosis control programme as well as smoking control programme are essential tools for the well being of Indonesian people. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 48-52 Keywords: tobacco, tuberculosis, epidemiological data

  12. Japanese American wartime experience, Tamotsu Shibutani and methodological innovation, 1942-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    A case study of how wartime internment reverberated in the life and work of Japanese American intellectuals, this essay discusses the career and interests of Tamotsu Shibutani, a sociologist who began his training as part of Dorothy Swaine Thomas' Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). Though recent scholarship has noted some of the ethical problems that attended the use of Japanese American participant observers during the war, this essay concentrates instead on how interned intellectuals responded to their double role of both researcher (and intellectual) and object of study. I argue that in the case of Shibutani, his circumstances and identity shaped his scholarship, both as an academic endeavor and a political project. By tracking Shibutani's postwar scholarly activities, I show that his wartime experiences--as an internee, military officer, and participant-observer--reverberated in his sociological publications long after the war's end.

  13. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  14. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Wartime Military Burns: Application of the Berlin Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome in wartime military burns: Application of the Berlin criteria Slava M. Belenkiy, MD, Allison R. Buel, DO, Jeremy...Andriy I. Batchinsky, MD, Leopoldo C. Cancio, MD, and Kevin K. Chung, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS...EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III. KEY WORDS: Mechanical ventilation; adult respiratory distress syndrome ; the Berlin definition; combat

  15. Embodiment of terror: gendered violence in peacetime and wartime in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olujic, M B

    1998-03-01

    Gendered violence is not a special type of torture used only in war. Its roots are well established in peacetime. This article discusses parallels between the patterns of everyday domination and aggression during times of peace and war. Further, it discusses how metaphors and acts of rape in peacetime are transformed into symbols and acts of rape for wartime purposes. During peacetime the individual body, especially its essence--sexuality and reproduction--becomes the symbol of everyday domination and aggression. Wartime transforms individual bodies into social bodies as seen, for example, in genocidal rapes or ethnic cleansing, which are thought to purify the bloodlines. Then, institutions--that is, medical, religious, and government establishments--further reinforce the wartime process by manipulating the individual/social body into the body politic by controlling and defining "human life" and using political rapes to entice military action by the West. The final transformation (at the war's conclusion) is the reformation of the social body back into the individual body, making the individual body once again the focus of dominance and aggression as the acceptable social "order."

  16. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  17. Autorreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos Tobacco advertising and promotions: changes in reported exposure in a cohort of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura Pérez-Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar en población fumadora el nivel de exposición a la mercadotecnia de la industria tabacalera (IT, a través de diferentes métodos de promocionar sus productos, antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco (LGCT en 2008. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte en fumadores adultos (n=941 pre-LGCT y n=1 051 post-LGCT de cuatro ciudades mexicanas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados mediante modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada (GEE. RESULTADOS: Se incrementó el autorreporte de recepción de muestras gratis de cigarros (3.7 a 8.1%, ropa o artículos con marcas o logos (3.6 a 6.4%, haber visto información sobre eventos especiales (1.9 a 4.7%, y publicidad en bares y discotecas para mayores de edad (21.4 a 28%. Se observaron decrementos de publicidad en exteriores (54.7 a 47.2%. CONCLUSIÓN: Es necesaria una política integral con prohibiciones totales de la publicidad y promoción de los productos de tabaco que integre mayor vigilancia y sanciones para lograr la disminución y prevención del consumo de tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To determine in a population-based sample of smokers the level exposure to tobacco industry marketing through different channels before and after their restriction through the General Tobacco Control Law of 2008. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers from four Mexican cities who were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. GEE models were estimated for each indicator of advertising and promotion exposure. RESULTS: Increases were found in report of receiving free samples of tobacco (3.7-8.1%, branded clothing (3.6-6.4%, noticing tobacco industry sponsored events (1.9-4.7% and noticing ads in bars (21.4-28%. Noticing outdoor advertising decreased over this time (54.7 a 47.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm tobacco industry shifting of marketing efforts when advertising and promotion bans are not comprehensive. There is a need to monitor

  18. Tobacco or health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The vector of the tobacco epidemic: tobacco industry practices in low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-03-01

    To understand transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs) practices in low and middle-income countries which serve to block tobacco-control policies and promote tobacco use. Systematic review of published research on tobacco industry activities to promote tobacco use and oppose tobacco-control policies in low and middle-income countries. TTCs' strategies used in low and middle-income countries followed four main themes-economic activity; marketing/promotion; political activity; and deceptive/manipulative activity. Economic activity, including foreign investment and smuggling, was used to enter new markets. Political activities included lobbying, offering voluntary self-regulatory codes, and mounting corporate social responsibility campaigns. Deceptive activities included manipulation of science and use of third-party allies to oppose smoke-free policies, delay other tobacco-control policies, and maintain support of policymakers and the public for a pro-tobacco industry policy environment. TTCs used tactics for marketing, advertising, and promoting their brands that were tailored to specific market environments. These activities included direct and indirect tactis, targeting particular populations, and introducing new tobacco products designed to limit marketing restrictions and taxes, maintain the social acceptability of tobacco use, and counter tobacco-control efforts. TTCs have used similar strategies in high-income countries as these being described in low and middle-income countries. As required by FCTC Article 5.3, to counter tobacco industry pressures and to implement effective tobacco-control policies, governments and health professionals in low and middle-income countries should fully understand TTCs practices and counter them.

  20. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  1. Effect of smokeless tobacco product marketing and use on population harm from tobacco use policy perspective for tobacco-risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2007-12-01

    This article presents policy perspectives on the marketing of smokeless tobacco products to reduce population harm from tobacco use. Despite consensus that smokeless tobacco products as sold in the United States are less dangerous than cigarettes, there is no consensus on how to proceed. Diverse factions have different policy concerns. While the tobacco industry is exempted from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversight, the pharmaceutical industry whose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medicines compete with smokeless tobacco as noncombustible nicotine-delivery systems are regulated by the FDA. Some public health experts support smokeless tobacco use to reduce population harm from tobacco; other public health experts oppose promoting smokeless tobacco for harm reduction. Adult consumers can freely purchase currently-marketed smokeless tobacco products and even more-deadly cigarettes. Concerns with and advantages of smokeless tobacco products are discussed. In that noncombustible medicinal nicotine-delivery systems have been proven to be effective smoking-cessation aids, smokeless tobacco, as another source of psychoactive doses of nicotine, could be used similarly, in a dose-response fashion as a smoking-cessation aid (consistent with FDA principles for evaluating generic versions of drugs). Price measures should be used on tobacco products to make costs to consumers proportional to product health risks (which would make smokeless tobacco much cheaper than cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco should be encouraged as an option for smoking cessation in adult smokers, particularly for those who have failed to stop smoking using NRT or other methods.

  2. The case for OFSMOKE: how tobacco price regulation is needed to promote the health of markets, government revenue and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Branston, J Robert; Sweanor, David

    2010-10-01

    Mainstream economic theory outlines four main causes of market failure and it is already well established that two of these (information failure and externalities) exist in a tobacco market. A third cause of market failure, market power, is also a serious problem in many tobacco markets. Market power--combined with unintended and often overlooked consequences of tobacco tax policies, notably that gradual increases in specific taxes may allow the industry to disguise significant price increases--has, at least in high income countries, given cigarette manufacturers considerable pricing power and profits. This paper examines ways this market failure could be addressed and proposes as a solution a system of price cap regulation wherein a cap is placed on the pre-tax cigarette manufacturers' price but not on the retail price that consumers face. Well established in the utilities industry, price cap regulation would set a maximum price that cigarette companies can charge for their product based on an assessment of the genuine costs each firm faces in its operations and an assumption about the efficiency savings it would be expected to make. Such a system would achieve three main benefits. First, it would address the problem of market failure and excess profits while simultaneously allowing current tobacco control policies, including tax and price increases, to expand--thus tax increases would remain a central tenet of tobacco control policies and retail prices could continue to increase. Second, it would increase government revenue by transferring the excess profits from the industry to the government purse. Third, it would bring numerous public health benefits. In addition to addressing market power, while simultaneously allowing tobacco control policies to expand, it could offer a means of preventing down-trading to cheaper products and controlling unwanted industry practices such as cigarette smuggling, price fixing and marketing to the young. The paper outlines in

  3. The VviMYB80 Gene is Abnormally Expressed in Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' and its Expression in Tobacco Driven by the 35S Promoter Causes Male Sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huan; Yu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Yaguang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Meng; Ji, Chenfei; Liu, Qian; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-03-01

    Anther development is a very precise and complicated process. In Arabidopsis, the AtMYB80 transcription factor regulates genes involved in pollen development and controls the timing of tapetal programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA for VviMYB80 expressed in flower buds of male-sterile Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong', a late-maturing cultivar derived from self-progeny of cv. 'Wink'. VviMYB80 belongs to the MYB80 subfamily and clusters with AtMYB35/TDF1 in a distinct clade. We found that in flower buds, expression of the VviMYB80 gene in cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' sharply increased at the tetrad stage, resulting in a higher and earlier transcript level than that found in cv. 'Wink'. Expression of the VviMYB80 gene, driven by the 35S promoter, caused pleiotropic effects on the stamens, including smaller and shriveled anthers, delayed dehiscence, fewer seeds, shorter anther filaments, distorted pollen shape and a lack of cytoplasm, with the tapetum exhibiting hypertrophy in transformed tobacco. These results suggest that VviMYB80 may play an important role in stamen development and that expression of VviMYB80 driven by the 35S promoter in tobacco induces male sterility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  5. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke.

  6. 物联网的发展及其对烟草物流配送的推动作用初探%Study on Development of Internet of Things and Its Promoting Function to Tobacco Logistics Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚娟

    2014-01-01

    Since the concept of“internet of things"was proposed in1999, after ten years development, the technology of“internet of things”has been enormously promoted and developed. The powerful information exchange and sharing function of“internet of things”is gradually changing the traditional mode of production and life, which makes people's production and life more convenient and comfortable. Based on the powerful data exchange and sharing ability, the huge promotion of the“internet of things”for logistics industry is gradually looming large, especially for the special commodity logistics (tobacco logistics). In this paper, the huge role of the“internet of things”in promoting tobacco logistics has been explored, which provides a theoretical basis for using the“internet of things”to promote the development of tobacco logistics industry, and offers a concrete and feasible way in applying the“internet of things”to improve the existing storage and transportation conditions.%自1999年“物联网”的概念被提出以来,经过十几年的发展,物联网这一新兴技术在国内得到了巨大的发展和推广,它强大的信息交换与共享功能正在逐步改变着传统的生活和生产模式,使得人们的生产和生活变得更加便捷、舒适。基于物联网的强大数据交换与共享能力,其对物流业的发展的巨大的推动作用日益凸显,尤其是对特殊商品物流(烟草物流)的推动作用表现地更为突出。本文就物联网对于烟草物流的巨大推动作用进行探究,对于利用物联网推动烟草物流行业的发展提供了理论依据,为烟草物流应用物联网改善现有的仓储和运输条件提供了具体可行的途径。

  7. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T

    2002-09-01

    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  8. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  9. Tobacco packaging design for preventing tobacco uptake

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill, Ann; Bauld, Linda; Birken, Mary; Hammond, David; Moodie, Crawford; Stead, Martine; Hitchman, Sara; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of standardised tobacco packaging in preventing initiation into, or regular use of, tobacco.

  10. Effect of Pythium oligandrum broth on growth promotion and black shank control of flue-cured tobacco%寡雄腐霉发酵液对烤烟的促生及防黑胫病效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞莲; 耿明明; 李艳; 段玉琪; 杜如万; 吴叶宽; 黄建国

    2016-01-01

    Breda de Haan. Comparing to the blank control (without POB), the biomass of tobacco seedlings grown in pots increased by 58.91% after POB application. Similarly, chlorophyll contents in the leaves, root vigor and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake were increased by POB, and the effect of POB treatment was better than that of P. oligandrum spores. POB also promoted the activities of enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase in tobacco leaves, furthermore induced tobacco plants'biochemical reactions for disease resistance. The effects were beneficial to eliminating reactive oxygen and H2O2 and alleviating the damage caused by diseases. The incidence of tobacco plants decreased by 42.95%-65.77% via POB treatment before or after pathogen inoculation, and the relative control efficacy reached 46.99%-57.32%. The content of malondialdehyde in tobacco leaves was also significantly reduced by POB application, and the damage of pathogen to cell membrane was relieved. In field experiments, botrytis control-efficacy of POB reached 47.91% and tobacco leaf yield was increased by 44.47% and output value by 36.33%. The mice tested showed that there was no significant weight difference between mice fed with pure water (the control) and gastric lavage with high doses of POB, no abnormality in appearance and behavior was observed in tested mice, and their heart, liver, kidney, lung and other organs had no pathologic changes. In summary, the preliminary results demonstrated the potential of POB as an animal safe bio-control agent. In the tests shown, POB controls botrytis efficiently, promotes the growth of flue-cured tobacco and increases the yield and output value of tobacco leaves.

  11. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A

    2000-01-01

    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  12. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  13. Faith and Superstitions in the Frontline and in the Rear in Wartime (1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny F. Krinko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the faith and superstitions of the Soviet citizens in the frontline and in the rear during the Great Patriotic War. The study of the religion history in the USSR in 1941-1945 was significantly influenced by ideology. This theme has been thoroughly studied in recent years, but the attention is mainly attached to its institutional aspects and the role of religion in lives of Soviet citizens is still little-studied. Nevertheless, by the start of war, considerable part of the population maintained its religious beliefs, despite the anti-religious policy of the Soviet authorities. The war increased the faith of Soviet citizens in the frontline, in the rear and within the occupied territory. It was mainly caused by the extreme wartime situation. Different superstitions and omens gained a wide circulation. Despite the fact that they had different content, both rites and prayers, acknowledged by the church and the omens and superstitions, rejected by the church have become the necessary ways of people psychological adaptation to wartime severities and hardships. The conclusions, which were made with the help of different sources, such as official documents, statistical data, both published and collected in the course of work under the theme of participants and eyewitnesses’ recollections, help us to imagine the collective consciousness of the Soviet society during the Great Patriotic War.

  14. Transient expression in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells and pollen grains: A fast, efficient and reliable system for functional promoter analysis of plant genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratić Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is mediated by DNA sequences directly upstream from the coding sequences, recruited transcription factors and RNA polymerase in a spatially-defined manner. Understanding promoter strength and regulation would enhance our understanding of gene expression. The goal of this study was to develop a fast, efficient and reliable method for testing basal promoter activity and identifying core sequences within its pollen specific elements. In this paper we examined the functionality of buckwheat metallothionein promoter by a histochemical GUS assay in two transient expression systems: BY2 cells and pollen grains. Strong promoter activity was observed in both systems.

  15. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  16. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  17. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  18. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act...

  19. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  20. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ..., including youth access, advertising, and promotion restrictions issued under the Federal Food, Drug, and..., including restrictions on the access to, and the advertising and promotion of, the tobacco product, if the... restrictions on advertising and promotion of such products, to curb the appeal of these products to...

  1. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged.

  2. Comparison study on effects of overexpressing citrate synthase driven by light-inducible promoter and constitutive promoter on Al tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants%光诱导和组成型启动子控制柠檬酸合酶基因过量表达对转基因烟草耐铝性影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇峰; 胡清泉; 赵玥; 易琼; 李昆志; 玉永雄; 陈丽梅

    2011-01-01

    分别用光诱导型启动子(PrbcS)和组成型启动子(CaMV 35S)驱动柠檬酸合酶基因(cs)在转基因烟草中过量表达,比较转基因烟草中柠檬酸的含量和分泌量及其铝耐受性的变化.结果表明:诱导型转基因株系的CS酶活性是野生型的2.3~2.4倍,组成型转基因株系的酶活性是野生型的1.6~2倍;在30 μmol·L-1铝胁迫下,诱导型转基因植株的根相对伸长量是野生型的2.8~2.9倍,组成型的根相对伸长量是野生型的2~2.3倍;在无铝或300 μmo1·L-1铝胁迫下,转基因烟草叶片和根中柠檬酸含量均高于野生型,其中诱导型转基因植株叶片中柠檬酸含量高于组成型转基因植株,转基因烟草柠檬酸的分泌量分别是野生型的1.8~2.0倍和3.0~3.3倍;在有铝胁迫的珍珠岩基质上培养时,转基因烟草的生长情况好于野生型.这些结果证明,与CaMV 35S相比,采用PrbcS启动子控制cs基因的过量表达可更有效地增加转基因烟草中CS的酶活性及叶片中柠檬酸的合成量,同时也能更有效地提高转基因烟草柠檬酸的分泌量,从而增强其对铝毒害的抵御能力.%Overexpression of citrate synthase (cs) cDNA of tobacco was driven by the light-inducible promoter of rubisco small subunit (PrbcS) and the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S (35S) in transgenic tobacco plants, respectively. The changes in citrate contents and exudations as well as Al tolerances in transgenic PrbcS and 35S tobacco plants were compared. The results showed that CS enzyme activities were increased 2.3-2.4 folds and 1.6-2 folds in transgenic PrbcS and 35S tobacco plants as compared with wild tobacco (WT) plants, respectively. When exposed to 30 μmol·L-1 Al, relative root elongation rates of transgenic PrbcS and 35S tobacco plants were also increased 2.8-2.9 folds and 2-2. 3 folds as compared with WT, respectively. Citrate contents in the transgenic tobacco leaves were significantly increased compared with the WT

  3. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  4. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  5. [Tobacco industry strategies: marketing cigarettes to young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damphousse, François

    2005-01-01

    "Tobacco industry strategies: marketing cigarettes to young people" describres how tobacco manufacturers through their internal documents and litigation have been forced to admit or found to deliberately target young people in their marketing strategies to recruit new smokers, despite having denied it publicly for years. Given that most smokers start and get hooked on tobacco in their ealy years and that the link between advertising, promotion and tobacco initiation is well documented, countries should adopt a complete ban on advertising and promotion. The FCTC is the best avenue for a global ban.

  6. US tobacco export to Third World: Third World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J

    1992-01-01

    Global tobacco-related mortality will rise from the current 2.5 million to over 10 million annually by 2050. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries, where legislative controls and other measures that succeed in limiting the use of tobacco in industrialized countries do not exist or are at best inadequate. Of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns that include specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. The transnational tobacco companies advertise and market in ways long banned in the United States, for example, selling cigarettes without health warnings, advertising on television, and selling cigarettes with higher tar content than the same cigarettes sold in the United States. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries, where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low. The transnational tobacco companies interfere with the national public health laws of developing countries via political and commercial pressures to open markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This has led to an increase in market share by foreign cigarettes, but evidence also points to market expansion, especially among young people. The entry of the transnationals leads to a collapse of national tobacco monopolies or to their changing from unsophisticated government departments that may still cooperate with health initiatives on tobacco to copying the aggressive marketing and promotional behavior of the transnationals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards the health effects of tobacco and measures of tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was conducted in December 2013 in one of the government school of Palpa district, one of the rural areas of the Western region. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 17 version. Microsoft Excel 2007 is also used for the data processing. Results: There is substantial support for the government taking measure towards tobacco control (96%. Furthermore, strong supports are there regarding ban of smoking in public places and public transport (95% followed by increasing price of tobacco products (87%, banning sales of tobacco to and by minors (82% and ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (73%. Conclusion: The study focuses the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control and Regulation Act 2011, Nepal and health education should be provided to the adolescents with the facts and skills that will enable them to protect themselves from the harmful effects of tobacco related exposure.

  8. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation--a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Migliorini, Luigi

    2013-01-23

    The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia's economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia's approval of a "National Tobacco Control Concept" and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia's tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts.

  9. The Complexity of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti TA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco and tobacco smoke are both complex mixtures. We previously reported 8430 unique chemical components identified in these complex mixtures but two years later our updated number was 8889. Addition of unlisted isomers raised these numbers to 8622 and 9081, respectively. Our previous number of 4994 identified tobacco components is now 5229; our previous number of 5315 identified tobacco smoke components is now 5685. An operational definition of a complex mixture is as follows: A complex mixture is a characterizable substance containing many chemical components (perhaps thousands in inexact proportions.

  10. Blood, Soy Milk, and Vitality: The Wartime Origins of Blood Banking in China, 1943-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the multiple meanings of blood transfusion and banking in modern China through the history of the first Chinese blood bank, established by the Overseas Chinese in 1943 to solicit blood for the war effort. Through investigating the attitudes of Chinese soldiers and civilians toward the blood bank, this article argues for the multiplicity of motivations underpinning society's attitudes toward blood banking and donation. Cultural notions of blood were an important but not the sole factor in their consideration. Ideas of nationalism and altruism played a role too. What eventually turned out to be most effective for most donors was the promise of eggs and soy milk for blood. Its economic value in the context of wartime scarcity was enough for many to abandon opposition to blood banking. By drawing attention to socioeconomic concerns in biomedical practices, this article provides an alternative examination of blood banking in modern societies.

  11. U.S. responses to Japanese wartime inhuman experimentation after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2014-04-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and in securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.

  12. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  13. Women and tobacco: moving from policy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V; Kaufman, N; Nichter, M; Samet, J; Yoon, S Y

    2000-01-01

    A gender perspective contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiological trends, social marketing strategies, economic policies, and international actions relating to women and the tobacco epidemic. Evidence is provided in this article for the negative impact of tobacco use by women and of passive smoking on the health of women and children. Use of tobacco by women is increasing and this is related to the tobacco industry's aggressive advertising, sponsorship and promotion strategies. Policy directions are proposed in this article. At all levels, a multi-pronged strategy--including changes in legislation and fiscal policies, improvements in gender-sensitive health services, and cessation programmes--should be considered. Much more gender-specific research on tobacco use is needed, particularly in developing countries. Women's empowerment and leadership should be at the centre of all tobacco control efforts and are essential for the success of national programmes and the recently introduced Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  14. The human rights responsibilities of multinational tobacco companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, M E

    2005-08-01

    This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed.

  15. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers’ Helpline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program’s experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers’ Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign’s digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media. PMID:28239304

  16. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers' Helpline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program's experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers' Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign's digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media.

  17. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  18. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Brock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  19. Growing up in Wartime England—A Selection from "The Rachel Chronicles: A Kind of Memoir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Furst

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The following contribution is an excerpt from the unpublished memoirs of Austrian Jewish émigrée, Lilian Renée Furst (1931–2009, a pioneer in the field of comparative literature. This journal issue grew out of an April 2011 conference in her memory, held at the National Humanities Center, on “Jewish emigres and the Shaping of Postwar Culture.” The nexus between her innovative intellectual contributions and her experience as a Jewish émigré reflects one of the conference's central concerns: How, why, and in what fashion did the émigrés' dislocations shape innovative intellectual paths and cosmopolitan visions of Europe and European culture. Born in Austria and educated in England, Furst pursued an intellectual career in the United States, hoping it would allow her to break out of narrow national boundaries. The excerpt of her memoir here illuminates how her life's work as a pioneer in the field of comparative literary studies grew out of her experience with language as a German-speaking refugee in wartime England. Her memoir written in the third person about “Rachel” also reflects her dual identity as Jew and European. Part I by Dr. Anabel Aliaga-Buchenau, the literary executor of the memoir and a former graduate student of Furst, places “The Rachel Chronicles: A Kind of Memoir” in relation to Furst's other autobiographical writing. Part II includes Furst's own introduction to “The Rachel Chronicles,” followed by her chapter on “Growing up in wartime England.” (The whole of her unpublished memoir is available to researchers in the "Personal Papers of Lilian R. Furst," Girton College Archives, Cambridge University (http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0271%2FGCPP%20Furst. Part III is a bibliography of Furst's writings.

  20. How is rape a weapon of war?: feminist international relations, modes of critical explanation and the study of wartime sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Rape is a weapon of war. This now common claim reveals wartime sexual violence as a social act marked by gendered power. But this consensus also obscures important, and frequently unacknowledged, differences in ways of understanding and explaining it. This article opens these differences to analysis. It interprets feminist accounts of wartime sexual violence in terms of modes of critical explanation and differentiates three modes – of instrumentality, unreason and mythology – which implicitly...

  1. Effect of Workplace Counseling Interventions Launched by Workplace Health Promotion and Tobacco Control Centers in Taiwan: An Evaluation Based on the Ottawa Charter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Hua; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chang, Fong-Ching; Chang, Yu-Tsz; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Workplace health promotion (WHP) is important to prevent work-related diseases, reduce workplace hazards, and improve personal health of the workers. Health promotion projects were launched through the centers of WHP funded by the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion since 2003. Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of WHP programs intervention from 2003 to 2007. The intervention group consisted of 838 business entities which had ever undergone counseling of the three centers in northern, central, and southern Taiwan from 2003 to 2007. The control group was composed of 1000 business entities randomly selected from the business directories of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan. The questionnaire survey included general company profiles and the assessment of workplace health according to the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. We have received 447 (53.3%) questionnaires from the intervention group and 97 questionnaires from the control group. The intervention group was more effective in using the external resources and medical consultation, and they had better follow-up rates of the abnormal results of annual health examinations. Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a significantly decreased smoking rate in 246 companies (61.2%) and a reduced second-hand smoke exposure in 323 companies (78.6%) (phealth and to create a healthy work environment.

  2. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. Menu ... tobacco URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002032.htm Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features ...

  3. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don’t sell tobacco to kids. Frequent restaurants and other places that are tobacco-free. Be ... reduces the oxygen available for muscles used in sports. Smokers suffer from shortness of breath almost 3 ...

  4. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  5. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with emails, text messages, RSS Feeds, content syndication, social media and more to learn about the latest federal tobacco regulations. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon ...

  6. Tobacco control law implementation in a middle-income country: Transnational tobacco control network overcoming tobacco industry opposition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales. A transnational network including international health groups and funders helped strengthen domestic capacity to implement the law by; promoting public awareness of Ley [Law] 1335; training local health department staff on enforcement; facilitating health agencies' sharing of educational strategies; and providing legal defence assistance. This network included vigilant efforts by local health groups, which continuously monitored and alerted the media to noncompliance, engaged government officials and policy-makers on implementation, and raised public awareness. Support from international health NGOs and funders and continuous engagement by local health groups enhanced implementation capacities to counter continued tobacco industry interference and ensure effective tobacco control implementation.

  7. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHEN, J.; SARABIA, V.; ASHLEY, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.

 PMID:11740029

  8. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J E; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M J

    2001-12-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.

  9. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  10. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC-recommended levels. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices Make tobacco cessation treatments more available to people ... what cancer screening tests are needed and are best for them. Make sure their ... their practice. Everyone can Quit using tobacco or never start. ...

  11. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  12. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  13. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J

    1995-01-01

    estimate their sensitivity and specificity, comparisons of the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicators of dependence with DSM-based criteria are needed. Public health action continues to be warranted to reduce the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco use (195). A paradigm for such action has been recommended and involves preventing the onset of use, treating tobacco dependence, protecting non-smokers from exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking messages while limiting the effect of tobacco advertising and promotion on young people, increasing the real (inflation-adjusted) price of tobacco products, and regulating tobacco products (186).

  14. Retailers' knowledge of tobacco harm reduction following the introduction of a new brand of smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Karyn K; Rosenberg, Zale; Tenorio, Francis; Phillips, Carl V

    2010-07-29

    Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicotine, for cigarettes. The introduction of a Swedish-style ST product, du Maurier snus (dMS) (Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited), which was marketed as a THR product, provided a unique opportunity to assess retailers' knowledge. This study examined retailers' knowledge of THR and compliance with recommendations regarding tobacco sales to young adults. Male researchers, who may have looked younger than 18 years old, visited 60 stores in Edmonton that sold dMS. The researchers asked the retailers questions about dMS and its health risks relative to those from other tobacco products. They also attempted to purchase dMS to ascertain whether retailers would ask for identification to verify that they were at least 18 years old. Overall, the retailers were only moderately knowledgeable about THR and the differences between dMS and other tobacco products. About half of the retailers correctly indicated that snus is safer than cigarettes; half of whom knew it is safer because it is smoke-free. Fifty percent incorrectly believed that snus causes oral cancer. Less than fifty percent indicated that dMS differs from chewing tobacco because it is in pouches and is used without spitting or chewing (making it more promising for THR). Most (90%) of the retailers asked the researchers for identification when selling dMS. Tobacco retailers are potentially important sources of information about THR, particularly since there are restrictions on the promotion of all tobacco products (regardless of the actual health risks) in Canada. This study found that many retailers in Edmonton do not know the relative health risks of different tobacco products and are therefore unable to pass on accurate information to smokers.

  15. When war is better than peace: The post-conflict realities of children born of wartime rape in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denov, Myriam; Lakor, Atim Angela

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the realities and perspectives of a sample of 60 children born of wartime rape within the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), and currently living in northern Uganda. These children were born to mothers who were abducted by the LRA, held captive for extended periods of time, repeatedly raped and impregnated. The paper explores the multiple challenges that these children face in the post-war period including, rejection, stigma, violence, socio-economic marginalization, and issues of identity and belonging. Participants underscored the profound violence and deprivation that they experienced while in LRA captivity. However, because of post-war marginalization, participants individually and collectively articulated that wartime was better than peacetime. Multiple systems of support are needed to ensure the rights and protection of these children and importantly, to address and reverse young people's perceptions that "war is better than peace".

  16. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature.

  17. Exposure to tobacco coupons among U.S. middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessman, Greta K; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Xu, Xin; Chang, Cindy M

    2014-08-01

    Tobacco marketing contributes to increased tobacco use susceptibility and sustained use. There are limited data on youth exposure to tobacco coupons, a type of pro-tobacco promotion. To explore channels through which youth report exposure to coupons and characteristics associated with this exposure. This may help inform efforts aimed at decreasing youth exposure to advertising and promotion. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed in 2013 to estimate the self-reported prevalence of U.S. middle and high school student exposure to coupons through various channels. Associations among exposure to coupons and demographics, tobacco use, living with a tobacco user, and receptivity to tobacco marketing were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Approximately 13% of students reported exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days through mail, digital communications, or tobacco packages. Prevalence was greatest among current tobacco users (34.0%) and those receptive to tobacco marketing (23.4%) compared to non-tobacco users (9.3%) and those not receptive to tobacco marketing (8.2%), respectively. Coupon exposure varied by sex, grade, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, current tobacco use (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=3.0, 3.9); living with a tobacco user (AOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.9, 2.4); and receptivity to tobacco marketing (AOR=2.3, 95% CI=2.0, 2.7) were independently associated with coupon exposure. Findings from this study indicate that despite restrictions on marketing to youth, youth are still being exposed to tobacco promotions such as coupons. Efforts to limit youth exposure may be valuable in reducing curiosity, susceptibility, and initiation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; John, Rijo M; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 90% of adults start smoking during adolescence, with limited studies conducted in low-and-middle-income countries where over 80% of global tobacco users reside. The study aims to estimate prevalence and identify predictors associated with adolescents' tobacco use in Madagascar. We utilized tobacco-related information of 1184 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years, representing a total of 296,111 youth from the 2008 Madagascar Global Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of tobacco use. Gender-wise multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify key predictors. Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females) of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females) currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS) and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females' tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents' tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The perception of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces affects hypothetical voting decisions differently in wartime and peacetime scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. Here we extend these findings by examining the contributions of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces to perceived votability. We first use real faces to show that attractiveness and trustworthiness are positively and independently related to perceptions of good leadership (rating study). We then show that computer graphic manipulations of attractiveness and trustworthiness influence choice of leader (experiments 1 and 2). Finally, we show that changing context from wartime to peacetime can affect which face receives the most votes. Attractive faces were relatively more valued for wartime and trustworthy faces relatively more valued for peacetime (experiments 1 and 2). This pattern suggests that attractiveness, which may indicate health and fitness, is perceived to be a useful attribute in wartime leaders, whereas trustworthiness, which may indicate prosocial traits, is perceived to be more important during peacetime. Our studies highlight the possible role of facial appearance in voting behaviour and the role of attributions of attractiveness and trust. We also show that there may be no general characteristics of faces that make them perceived as the best choice of leader; leaders may be chosen because of characteristics that are perceived as the best for leaders to possess in particular situations.

  20. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  1. Protecting children and families from tobacco and tobacco-related NCDs in the Western Pacific: good practice examples from Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, A M; Mercado, S P; Klein, J D; Kaundan, M S/O K; Koong, H N; Garcia, E

    2017-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are generally considered diseases of adulthood, but NCD risk factors like tobacco use often are taken up during childhood and adolescence, and second-hand smoke exposure affects child survival and development. At a regional meeting of the Asia Pacific Child and Family Health Alliance for Tobacco Control, members reviewed existing good practices of child-focused tobacco control approaches using health promotion strategies. These interventions were implemented nationally in Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. Three good practice national examples were identified that focused on creating supportive tobacco-free environments and upgrading cessation skills among paediatricians. These country examples highlight strategic areas to protect children and families from the harms of tobacco, as part of NCD prevention and control. Training paediatricians in brief cessation advice has enabled them to address tobacco-using parents. Fully enforcing smoke-free public areas has led to an increase in smoke-free homes. The Tobacco Free Generation is a tobacco control 'endgame' strategy that taps into a social movement to deglamorize tobacco use and empower youth born in and after year 2000 to reject tobacco and nicotine addiction. Tobacco control is pivotal in the fight against NCDs; health promotion strategies to protect children and youth from tobacco have a critical role to play in NCD prevention and control. Frontline health workers, including primary care paediatricians, need to step up and actively advocate for full implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, including tobacco tax increases and smoke-free areas, while monitoring patients and their parents for tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, preventing adolescent smoking uptake, and offering cessation support. A life-course approach incorporating child-focused efforts to prevent initiation of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure with measures promoting

  2. Expression of a chemically synthesized gene for human epidermal growth factor under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, K; Saito, Y; Higo, H

    1993-09-01

    Nicotiana tabacum was transformed with a chemically synthesized gene encoding the human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) under control of the CaMV-35S promoter. The hEGF gene sequence was present at one to several copies in the primary transformant plants (R0), and a transcript with the expected length was produced. Slot blot analysis of total RNAs of the progeny (R1) seedlings, originating from self-pollination of the R0 plants, showed that the level of mRNA expression was generally, but not always, heritable. The highest hEGF peptide content per unit of total soluble protein in young (upper) R1 leaves so far examined by an immunological method was about 0.001%. These results suggest that either the hEGF peptide was less stable than the average leaf protein, or the hEGF mRNAs were not efficiently translated.

  3. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  4. Exposure to Internet-Based Tobacco Advertising and Branding: Results From Population Surveys of Australian Youth 2010-2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunlop, Sally; Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians...

  5. Tobacco control in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Judith; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-05-04

    For the purpose of this article, Asia refers to WHO's combined South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions and thus includes Australia and New Zealand. Asia has the highest number of tobacco users and is the prime target of transnational tobacco companies. The future of global tobacco control rests in this region and the challenges are clear. China, India, and Indonesia are key markets and Asia is a frontrunner in tobacco control measures, such as plain packaging of cigarettes. Some countries in Asia have a long history of tobacco control activities beginning in the 1970s, and WHO's Western Pacific Region is still the only region where all countries have ratified WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed the history, research, epidemiology, tobacco control action, obstacles, and potential responses and solutions to the tobacco epidemic in this region. Levels of development, systems of government, and population size are very different between countries, with population size ranging from 1500 to 1·3 billion, but similarities exist in aspects of the tobacco epidemic, harms caused, obstacles faced, and tobacco control actions needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expressive freedom and tobacco advertising: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Christopher P

    2002-03-01

    In 1989, Canada enacted the Tobacco Products Control Act (TPCA), which prohibited tobacco advertising, required health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restricted promotional activities. Canada's tobacco companies challenged the TPCA's constitutionality, arguing that it infringed on freedom of expression. Although it seemed likely that the Canadian Supreme Court would uphold the legislation, in 1995 the court declared the impugned provisions to be unconstitutional. The decision is testimony to the constraining force of liberalism on tobacco regulation, but it is also evidence of the power of political will. While the Canadian government could have used the decision to justify withdrawing from further confrontations with powerful commercial interests, it chose instead to enact new tobacco control legislation in 1997.

  7. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  8. Tobacco endgames: what they are and are not, issues for tobacco control strategic planning and a possible US scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco 'endgame' discourse has emerged in recognition of the nature of the global public health emergency created by tobacco use and tobacco promotion. This discourse is a promising development, but translating it into action requires developing some consensus, at least by countries or regions. It also requires negotiating some of the recurring tensions within the tobacco control movement, contributing to risks for the movement as visionaries clash with pragmatists. This paper outlines one combination of approaches that might hold promise for the US situation. Every significant achievement in tobacco control was preceded by many influential people saying it couldn't be done, wouldn't work, or would create new problems. The risks of not envisioning an endpoint for the tobacco epidemic are far greater than the risks of attempting any endgame solutions and failing.

  9. Out of the shadows? The inclusion of men and boys in conceptualisations of wartime sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touquet, Heleen; Gorris, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Researchers increasingly acknowledge that men and boys are frequent victims of sexual violence in conflict alongside women and girls, who remain the group that is disproportionately affected. This increasing awareness has contributed to significant efforts to include men and boys in conceptualisations of conflict-related sexual violence in policy as well as in international criminal law. This article analyses the changes that have occurred in these two fields in recent years. We argue that while a major shift towards including male victims in international policy on wartime sexual violence took place in 2013-2014, this development has yet to be consolidated in salient policy guidelines and handbooks. While men and boys' potential victimisation is frequently recognised, most policy documents do not treat the topic of male victimisation in depth. International criminal law on the other hand has pioneered gender-neutral and inclusive definitions. However, the interpretation and application of the gender-inclusive approach is often left to the discretion of judges and the prosecution who at times fail to take the experience of males fully into account, signalling the continuing influence of gender stereotypes and deeply held cultural myths. A renewed effort to fully integrate male victims into conceptualisations of conflict-related sexual violence in both policy and law is therefore advised.

  10. Wartime women giving birth: narratives of pregnancy and childbirth, Britain c. 1939-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Women in Second World War Britain benefitted from measures to improve maternal and child health. Infant and maternal mortality rates continued to fall, new drugs became available, and efforts were made to improve the health of mothers and babies through the provision of subsidised milk and other foodstuffs. However, in return, women were also expected to contribute to the war effort through motherhood, and this reflected wider cultural ideas in the North Atlantic world in the first half of the twentieth century which equated maternity with military service. The aim of this article is to examine the interplay between narratives of birth and narratives of war in the accounts of maternity from women of the wartime generation. It will explore how the military-maternity analogy sheds light on women's experiences of pregnancy and childbirth in Britain during the Second World War, whilst also considering maternity within women's wider role as 'domestic soldiers', contributing to the war effort through their traditional work as housewives and mothers. In doing so, the article reveals the complexity of women's narratives. It demonstrates that they do not simply conform to the 'medical vs. social' binary, but reflect the wider cultural context in which women gave birth. Women incorporated the dominant discourses of the period, namely those around war, into their accounts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  12. Tobacco marketing in California and implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Ellen C; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco marketing influences tobacco use initiation, maintenance of use, and it undermines comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Policies to ban the impact of tobacco marketing are most likely to be more effective if they are comprehensive, as partial bans shift marketing to non-banned forms of media. A comprehensive approach to reducing tobacco marketing includes documentation through monitoring, media and policy interventions and aggressive enforcement of existing laws. Methods This paper summarises California tobacco industry monitoring of events and retail outlets, and findings about exposure to and beliefs about tobacco industry marketing among youths and adults conducted during the period 2000 through 2008. Results There was no overall change in the average number of cigarette materials per store, and an increase in the percentage of stores with advertisements promoting price discounts for cigarettes. Stores with cigarette advertisements near candy displays declined from 12.5% (95% CI 9.8% to 15.2%) to 1% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.9%) of stores, and advertisements at or below the eye-level of children declined from 78.6% (95% CI 75.2% to 82.0%) to 31% (95% CI 27.1% to 34.9%) of stores. Overall, the number of public events with tobacco sponsorship declined from 77.3% to 48.1%. This trend was consistent with a significant decline noted among high school students and adults who reported seeing tobacco advertisements at events or attending a tobacco company-sponsored event. Conclusions Tobacco industry monitoring, media, policy and enforcement interventions may have contributed to observed changes in tobacco marketing and to declines in reported exposure to tobacco marketing. PMID:20382646

  13. Tobacco marketing in California and implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeseler, April; Feighery, Ellen C; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco marketing influences tobacco use initiation, maintenance of use, and it undermines comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Policies to ban the impact of tobacco marketing are most likely to be more effective if they are comprehensive, as partial bans shift marketing to non-banned forms of media. A comprehensive approach to reducing tobacco marketing includes documentation through monitoring, media and policy interventions and aggressive enforcement of existing laws. This paper summarises California tobacco industry monitoring of events and retail outlets, and findings about exposure to and beliefs about tobacco industry marketing among youths and adults conducted during the period 2000 through 2008. There was no overall change in the average number of cigarette materials per store, and an increase in the percentage of stores with advertisements promoting price discounts for cigarettes. Stores with cigarette advertisements near candy displays declined from 12.5% (95% CI 9.8% to 15.2%) to 1% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.9%) of stores, and advertisements at or below the eye-level of children declined from 78.6% (95% CI 75.2% to 82.0%) to 31% (95% CI 27.1% to 34.9%) of stores. Overall, the number of public events with tobacco sponsorship declined from 77.3% to 48.1%. This trend was consistent with a significant decline noted among high school students and adults who reported seeing tobacco advertisements at events or attending a tobacco company-sponsored event. Tobacco industry monitoring, media, policy and enforcement interventions may have contributed to observed changes in tobacco marketing and to declines in reported exposure to tobacco marketing.

  14. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range of risks, including nicotine addiction, from smokeless tobacco products may vary extensively because of differing levels of nicotine, carcinogens, and other toxins in different products” ( 6 ). Should ...

  15. Tobacco Diversity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.

  16. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  17. Tobacco product prices before and after a statewide tobacco tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, the State of Minnesota Legislature passed a tobacco tax increase that increased the combined cigarette excise and sales tax by US$1.75 (from US$1.60 to US$3.35) and increased the tax on non-cigarette tobacco products from 70% to 95% of the wholesale price. The current study explores the change in tobacco prices in retail locations and whether the tax increase was fully passed to consumers. An observational study of tobacco retail prices was performed in a sample of 61 convenience stores in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Six rounds of data were collected between May 2013 and January 2014. In each round, purchases were made at the same stores for the same four tobacco products (Camel Blue cigarettes, Marlboro Gold cigarettes, Grizzly Wintergreen moist smokeless tobacco and Copenhagen Wintergreen moist smokeless tobacco). For all studied tobacco products, prices in Minnesota increased significantly after the tax increase (Round 1-Round 6). After controlling for price changes in neighbouring states, the average price difference in Minnesota for the two cigarette brands increased by US$1.89 and US$1.81, which are both more than the US$1.75 tax increase. For moist smokeless, the average price difference increased by US$0.90 and US$0.94. Significant price changes were not observed in the comparison states. After the introduction of the minimum moist smokeless tax, a significantly higher proportion of Minnesota stores offered price promotions on smokeless tobacco. A large tobacco tax resulted in an average retail cigarette price exceeding the tax, suggesting the industry over-shifted the cigarette tax increase to consumers in Minnesota. The findings support the known public health benefit of tobacco tax increases while highlighting the need for additional information about how, or if, tobacco companies use price promotions to blunt the impact of tax increases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  18. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit

  19. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2004-12-01

    To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities.

  20. Tobacco and tobacco branding in films most popular in the UK from 1989 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged Brand appearances were nearly twice as likely to occur in films originating wholly or in part from the UK (UK films). Specific brands, particularly Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film.

  1. 'Zhonghua' tobacco advertisement in Shanghai: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Ge, Xin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla J; Kegler, Michelle C

    2014-09-01

    To document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China across a broad spectrum of channels. Media monitoring and direct observations were conducted to assess tobacco advertisements for Zhonghua cigarettes in Shanghai, China, through the following channels: newspapers, TV, internet, outdoor advertisements and point-of-sale advertisements. Consistent with the national ban, no direct tobacco advertisements were found in newspapers or on TV. However, statements about counterfeit 'Zhonghua' cigarettes indirectly promoted Zhonghua tobacco through newspapers. Although no tobacco advertisements were found in Shanghai mainstream websites or in channels of national mainstream sites, a great amount of information was communicated about Zhonghua cigarettes via websites, using patriotic themes and associations with Chinese culture. Large outdoor tobacco advertisements of 'Loving my China' were found in downtown Shanghai. Zhonghua tobacco advertisements were present in almost all of the points-of-sale observed (95%). Zhonghua cigarettes are promoted directly and indirectly through a variety of channels. This study suggests there is an urgent need to establish comprehensive bans that prohibit all types of tobacco advertisements in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8 Lower socioeconomic status, including lower income or education Lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use Lack of support or involvement from parents Accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco products Low levels of academic achievement Low self-image or ...

  3. Understanding the Tobacco Control Act: efforts by the US Food and Drug Administration to make tobacco-related morbidity and mortality part of the USA's past, not its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husten, Corinne G; Deyton, Lawrence R

    2013-05-04

    The USA has a rich history of public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Comprehensive tobacco-prevention programmes, when robustly implemented, reduce the prevalence of youth and adult smoking, decrease cigarette consumption, accelerate declines in tobacco-related deaths, and diminish health-care costs from tobacco-related diseases. Effective public health interventions include raising the price of tobacco products, smoke-free policies, counter-marketing campaigns, advertising restrictions, augmenting access to treatment for tobacco use through insurance coverage and telephone help lines, and comprehensive approaches to prevent children and adolescents from accessing tobacco products. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has six major areas of regulatory authority: regulation of tobacco products; regulation of the advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products; regulation of the distribution and sales of tobacco products; enforcement of the provisions of the Tobacco Control Act and tobacco regulations; regulatory science to support FDA authorities and activities; and public education about the harms of tobacco products and to support FDA regulatory actions. With passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in June, 2009, important new regulatory approaches were added to the tobacco prevention and control arsenal.

  4. Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Lun Ellis Hon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful.

  5. Understanding Philip Morris's pursuit of US government regulation of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, P; Malone, R

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate Philip Morris's support of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products and analyse its relationship to the company's image enhancement strategies. Data sources: Internal Philip Morris documents released as part of the Master Settlement Agreement. Methods: Searches of the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) beginning with such terms as "FDA" and "regulatory strategy" and expanding to include relevant new terms. Results: Philip Morris's support for government regulation of tobacco is part of a broader effort to address its negative public image, which has a damaging impact on the company's stock price, political influence, and employee morale. Through regulation, the company seeks to enhance its legitimacy, redefine itself as socially responsible, and alter the litigation environment. Whereas health advocates frame tobacco use as a public health policy issue, Philip Morris's regulatory efforts focus on framing tobacco use as an individual choice by informed adults to use a risky product. This framing allows Philip Morris to portray itself as a reasonable and responsible manufacturer and marketer of risky products. Conclusions: Philip Morris's ability to improve its image through support of FDA regulation may undermine tobacco control efforts aimed at delegitimising the tobacco industry. It may also create the impression that Philip Morris's products are being made safer and ultimately protect the company from litigation. While strong regulation of tobacco products and promotion remain critical public health goals, previous experiences with tobacco regulation show that caution may be warranted. PMID:15923470

  6. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  7. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  8. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKay

    Full Text Available Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited.To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India.Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative.Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12 and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14. They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8, tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16 indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11 were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17.Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved

  9. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  10. Public policy implications of tobacco industry smuggling through Native American reservations into Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Max H; Givel, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    From 1980 to 1994, the Canadian government enacted major tax increases on tobacco products. These actions initiated significant tobacco smuggling from the United States into Canada through a few U.S. Native American reservations to undercut the price of Canadian tobacco products. The tobacco industry blamed rampant smuggling on excessive taxation; however, research shows that the tobacco industry had actually promoted smuggling schemes to both increase profits and provide an argument for tobacco taxation reduction. Although the smuggling has resulted in numerous U.S. and Canadian criminal convictions of tobacco industry officials and partners, significant smuggling continues throughout the world. For the few Native Americans involved, the smuggling was lucrative and they were able to avoid criminal prosecution through tribal sovereignty. Industry-supported tobacco smuggling has had a profoundly negative effect on Canadian public health that must be brought to light to prevent future similar occurrences.

  11. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  12. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  13. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted.

  14. Making the Pack the Hero, Tobacco Industry Response to Marketing Restrictions in the UK: Findings from a Long-Term Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Hastings, Gerard B.

    2011-01-01

    The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA), introduced between 2003 and 2005 in the UK, prohibits all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Packaging, however, is not covered in the Act. Two strands of a long-term audit (trade press review and panel of smokers) are examined to monitor change in tobacco packaging from January 2002…

  15. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  16. Noncigarette forms of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis

    2008-12-01

    There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.

  17. Tobacco advertising in South Africa with specific reference to magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; Paterson, G

    1994-12-01

    A ban on tobacco advertising forms an integral component of tobacco control strategies, and needs to be considered in South Africa as a matter of urgency. To obtain baseline data on tobacco advertising expenditure in the South African media, and to compare brands used to target different groups in magazines. Advertising expenditure (totals and tobacco-related) for 1991 and 1993 was obtained from Adindex. Ten magazines, each with circulations of over 100,000, directed at four different target groups, were selected. For 3 months in 1993, total and tobacco advertising expenditure, brand placement and magazine demographics were determined. Tobacco-related expenditure constituted 4.8% of the R3 billion spent on advertising in 1993. Print (including magazines) and radio together accounted for 72% of all tobacco advertising, while cinema and outdoor advertising were most dependent on the tobacco industry for revenue. Annualised advertising spending for the 10 magazines reached an estimated R230 million, of which tobacco 'adspend' accounted for 6.4%. The highest percentage of tobacco adspend (20.3%) was for a men's 'soft-porn' magazine. For 26 of 30 issues studied, tobacco adverts were on the back cover. Brand targeting was evident in black, women's, and family magazines. There was not a single feature article on the adverse effects of smoking on health in any of the magazines during the 3-month period. Only 2 magazines had single sentences in their health columns mentioning that smoking was bad for health. In a third magazine, one opinion piece devoted a full page to criticising the anti-tobacco lobby! Tobacco advertising, through radio and outdoor advertising, reaches children and illiterate communities in peri-urban and rural areas. Tobacco advertising in magazines targets specific consumers, such as blacks and women. For most magazines, tobacco adspend constitutes less than 10% of the total. A total ban on tobacco advertising in the media in general and certainly in

  18. The World of Insect Metaphors in Zofia Nałkowska’s Dzienniki czasu wojny [Diaries of Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Krupiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is an analysis of entomological motifs in the Nałkowska’s wartime diary. The surprising frequency of these motifs gives an opportunity for a more general discussion: the key context for an explanation of insect metaphors seems to be the tendency, common for modernist authors, to place the concept of humanity in a widely un­derstood philosophy of nature. The rule would also apply for the war, or more generally, for mechanisms of human violence, which Nałkowska subjects in her diary to a peculiar darwinistic representation. Understanding the war as a “naturalistic fact” (Hanna Kirchner’s description results in a gradual blurring of the differences between the violence of nature and the violence of history. The author of the article has identified a similar procedure in Czesław Miłosz’s work, which constitutes a specific counterpoint for Nałkowska’s wartime diary.

  19. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  20. Tobacco companies' use of retailer incentives after a ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; Purves, Richard I; Moodie, Crawford; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-31

    Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, annual qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 small retailers in four Scottish communities. This article focuses on data collected in June to July 2015 and June to July 2016 after a ban on the open display of tobacco was fully implemented in Scotland. Retailers described being offered and benefiting from a range of financial and other incentives, typically offered via tobacco company representatives ('reps'). Most of the retailers received tobacco manufacturer support for converting their storage unit to be compliant with the new regulations, and several participated in manufacturer 'loyalty' or 'reward' schemes. Incentives were additionally offered for maintaining stock levels and availability, positioning brands in specified spaces in the public-facing storage units (even though products were covered up), increasing sales, trialling new products and participating in specific promotions, such as verbally recommending specific brands to customers. Even in a market where the open display of tobacco is prohibited, tobacco companies continue to incentivise retailers to sell and promote their brands and have developed new promotional strategies. For countries that have implemented tobacco display bans, or are considering doing so, one option to combat these practices would be to ban promotional communications between manufacturers and retailers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  2. Tobacco and cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...

  3. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  4. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  5. The ERS role on Tobacco Control Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gratziou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Respiratory Society is an international medical organisation that brings together physicians, healthcare professionals, scientists and other experts working in respiratory medicine. Its aim is to alleviate suffering from respiratory diseases and promote lung health globally through science, education and advocacy. ERS has since its founding in 1990 demonstrated strong commitment to tobacco control. Through scientific assemblies, education courses, various alliances and collaboration (Framework Convention Alliance, European Chronic Disease Alliance, World Health Organisation etc. As well as a Tobacco Control Committee (TCC dedicated to advocacy, ERS constantly strives to promote strong and evidence-based policies to reduce the burden of tobacco related diseases. One of the main outcome of the TCC is the creation of Smokehaz, a website aimed at providing policy-makers with scientific information on the Health hazards associated with smoking. Recently, ERS created the Latin-America Working Group which aims at strengthening tobacco control activities in Spain, Portugal and Latin-American countries.

  6. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  7. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  8. Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Suzaynn F; Blount, Benjamin C; Jacob, Peyton; Saliba, Najat A; Bernert, John T; El Hellani, Ahmad; Jatlow, Peter; Pappas, R Steven; Wang, Lanqing; Foulds, Jonathan; Ghosh, Arunava; Hecht, Stephen S; Gomez, John C; Martin, Jessica R; Mesaros, Clementina; Srivastava, Sanjay; St Helen, Gideon; Tarran, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K; Blair, Ian A; Kimmel, Heather L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Benowitz, Neal L; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-09-01

    Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their use for measuring exposure to these new products. Here, we review current methods for measuring exposure to new and emerging tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes, little cigars, water pipes, and cigarillos. Rigorously validated biomarkers specific to these new products have not yet been identified. Here, we discuss the strengths and limitations of current approaches, including whether they provide reliable exposure estimates for new and emerging products. We provide specific guidance for choosing practical and economical biomarkers for different study designs and experimental conditions. Our goal is to help both new and experienced investigators measure exposure to tobacco products accurately and avoid common experimental errors. With the identification of the capacity gaps in biomarker research on new and emerging tobacco products, we hope to provide researchers, policymakers, and funding agencies with a clear action plan for conducting and promoting research on the patterns of use and health effects of these products.

  9. 战时弹药供应链系统结构设计%Research on Ammunition Supply Chain System Structure Design in Wartime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 高军; 刘晓蕾

    2014-01-01

    通过对战时弹药供应的概念和特征的分析,提出了战时弹药供应链系统结构的设计原则和流程,建立了战时弹药供应链系统结构设计模型。以战时弹药供应过程为基础,运用关键绩效指标法构建了战时弹药供应链的运行效能评价指标。然后,结合战时弹药供应的实际情况,对每个指标进行了描述,并给出了具体的算法。%To analyze the concept and characteristic of the ammunition supply chain in wartime, the system structure design principle and process of ammunition supply chain are proposed,the ammunition supply chain system structure design model is established. The paper builds an evaluation index of ammunition supply chain in wartime by KPI,based on the ammunition supply process in wartime. Combined with the actual situation of ammunition supply in wartime,the paper describes each evaluation index and shows the detailed algorithm.

  10. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  11. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death in the developed world, and is rapidly becoming an important cause of death in the developing world. Nicotine is a powerfully addictive substance, and the tobacco industry spends billions annually promoting it in the United States. It is therefore important for clinicians to understand why people smoke, to address smoking in patients of all ages, and to lobby for health-preserving tobacco control policies at the community level. Children take up smoking in response to social influences: smoking by friends, parents, and family, and through exposure to smoking in media. Parents who smoke not only model the behavior, but also often make the product available by leaving cigarettes around the house. Media influences include the dollar 10 billion spent per year on tobacco marketing, but more importantly, the modeling of the behavior on screen by movie and television stars. Once children start smoking, many rapidly lose autonomy over the behavior. Youth can get hooked after smoking just a few cigarettes. The most effective community efforts for reducing tobacco use are: raising the price of tobacco; halting the sale of tobacco to minors; enforcing strict school tobacco policies; and making public places smoke free through local ordinances. Working with individuals, clinicians should support cessation in all smokers, including parents of children and adolescents. They should screen children for smoking risk factors beginning at age 10. They should teach parents to maintain smoke-free households, to set nonsmoking expectations early on, and to monitor adolescents for signs of smoking. Parents should limit exposure to adult media (e.g., R-rated movies) and use family television time to discuss the effect of seeing screen depictions of smoking on adolescent behavior. Adolescents who smoke should be assessed for signs of nicotine dependence and counseled about quitting. Clinicians are effective community voices; they

  12. [Effect of silicon on translocation and morphology distribution of lead in soil-tobacco system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi-Hua; Zheng, Zi-Cheng; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Taking tobacco as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of silicon on translocation of lead (Pb) form soil to tobacco in order to explore effective measures for reducing Pb concentration in tobacco leaf. The results showed that silicon application promoted the transformation of exchangeable Pb into Fe-Mn oxide-bound Pb in non-rhizospheric soil, and into Fe-Mn oxide-bound Pb and residual Pb in rhizospheric soil, which decreased the availability and mobility of Pb in the soil. Silicon application significantly reduced the Pb uptake of tobacco, with the content of Pb being decreased by 6.5% to 44.0% in tobacco, and 3.1% to 60.4% in leaf. Silicon application promoted the transformation of ethanol-extractable, H2O-extractable Pb and NaCl-extractable Pb into HCl-extractable Pb and residual Pb in root, stem and leaf of tobacco, which reduced the toxicity and mobility of Pb in tobacco. Silicon restricted the transportation of Pb from soil to tobacco leaf by reducing the mobility index of Pb from soil to root and the mobility index of Pb from root to stem in soil-tobacco system. Meanwhile, the mobility index of Pb from stem to leaf in soil-tobacco system showed a rising-and-falling trend with the increase of Pb application. Silicon inhibited the Pb migration from soil to tobacco leaf by reducing availability of Pb, mitigating toxicity of Pb to tobacco, and changing the distribution of Pb forms in tobacco, consequently reducing Pb concentration of tobacco leaf. These results demonstrated silicon application could be effective in reducing translocation of Pb from soil to tobacco.

  13. Every document and picture tells a story: using internal corporate document reviews, semiotics, and content analysis to assess tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S J; Dewhirst, T; Ling, P M

    2006-06-01

    In this article we present communication theory as a conceptual framework for conducting documents research on tobacco advertising strategies, and we discuss two methods for analysing advertisements: semiotics and content analysis. We provide concrete examples of how we have used tobacco industry documents archives and tobacco advertisement collections iteratively in our research to yield a synergistic analysis of these two complementary data sources. Tobacco promotion researchers should consider adopting these theoretical and methodological approaches.

  14. Linking India global health professions student survey data to the world health organization framework convention on tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha; Singh, G.; Gupta, P. C.; M Pednekar; C W Warrn; S Asma; Lee, J.

    2010-01-01

    The 2003 India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke. India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world′s first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impact of tobacco. The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) w...

  15. Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Robert; Cheney, Marshall K; Azad, M Raihan

    2009-05-01

    With increasing regulation of tobacco industry marketing practices, point-of-sale advertising has become an important channel for promoting tobacco products. One hundred and ten convenience stores in Oklahoma County were surveyed for tobacco-related advertising. There were significantly more point-of-sale tobacco advertisements in low-income and minority neighborhoods than in better educated, higher-income, predominantly White neighborhoods. Storeowners or managers were also interviewed to determine who has decision-making power regarding store signage and placement, and to elicit perceptions of industry tactics. Contracts with tobacco companies leave storeowners with little or no control over promotion of tobacco products within their store, and many are unaware of the implications of the tobacco industry point-of-sale practices. Local ordinances that regulated outdoor signage reduced outdoor tobacco advertisements, as well as tobacco signage and promotions within the store. Policy change, rather than education targeting storeowners, is recommended as the most effective strategy for reducing point-of-sale tobacco advertising.

  16. How Tobacco Companies are Perceived Within the United Kingdom: An Online Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Sinclair, Lesley; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Power, Emily; Bauld, Linda

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how consumers perceive tobacco companies in the United Kingdom. An online cross-sectional survey with those aged 16 years and over (N = 2253) explored perceptions of, and attitudes towards, tobacco companies. This included awareness of tobacco companies, views on tobacco companies' practices (targeting the most vulnerable, encouraging smoking to replace those who quit or die, making cigarettes more addictive) and values (honesty, ethics, interest in harm reduction), perceptions of regulation of tobacco companies (whether tobacco companies have the same marketing rights as other companies, should be allowed to promote cigarettes, be required to sell cigarettes in plain packs, and pay for associated health costs), and locus of responsibility for health problems caused by tobacco use. Prompted awareness of tobacco companies was high (68%). Almost a third of the sample had a negative perception of tobacco companies' practices, for example, they thought they made cigarettes more addictive. In terms of tobacco companies' values, less than a fifth considered tobacco companies honest, ethical, and interested in reducing the harm caused by cigarettes. Indeed, tobacco company executives were rated lower than the seven other professions asked about, except car salesman, in terms of ethics and honesty. More than half the sample supported greater regulation, for example, requiring tobacco companies to pay for health costs due to tobacco use. Most attributed responsibility for smoking-related health problems to smokers (88%) and tobacco companies (55%). The findings suggest that consumers are not fully informed about tobacco company practices. Few studies outside of North America have explored perceptions of tobacco companies' practices, values and regulation and responsibility for smoking-related illness. Adults surveyed within the United Kingdom considered tobacco companies dishonest, unethical and untrustworthy, but only a third of the sample thought

  17. Allergenicity assay of allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae in transgenic tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mingjuan; SHEN Ye; HU Yuanlei; CAO Lei; NI Ting; ZHANG Hongyu; LIN Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    Derf2 gene for one of mite allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae has been cloned and expressed under regulation of 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco. The transcriptional analysis showed that this mite complete gene structure in genomic sequence could be spliced at prediction site. Allergenicity assay with immunological sera indicated that the extracts from the transgenic tobacco gave obvious positive IgE binding reaction with specific serum pool. This work would be of potential use in allergenicity assessment of genetically modified food.

  18. Structure and Change of Costs for Flue-cured Tobacco Production:A Case Study of Liuyang Tobacco Growing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiafeng; CHEN; Kun; CHEN; Jianyong; LI; Liangjiao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of consulting related information and data,costs for flue-cured tobacco production were surveyed and analyzed with Liuyang tobacco growing areas as an example.Results showed that there is rise and fall in fertilizer cost for flue-cured tobacco production;change in pesticide and agricultural plastic film is little;other costs for flue-cured tobacco production rise rapidly in recent years.Besides,there is certain reduction in labor units per mu for flue-cured tobacco production;labor price has an annual growth rate of 15%-25%.The proportion of labor cost to total cost for flue-cured tobacco production is increasing,thus rise of labor cost is the major factor promoting rise of costs for flue-cured tobacco production.Through adjustment of purchasing price and various subsidies,the change of per mu yield is a decisive factor influencing benefits of flue-cured tobacco production.

  19. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted tobacco production and midrib parts which used for expanded stem manufacturing and added into cigarette for nicotine decreasing. Little tobacco scraps is not used for recycling and thus utilized. In the laboratory of technologies for tobacco products manufacturing possibility for utilizing little tobacco scraps for manufacturing new tobacco products: hookah blends and non-smoking products has been studied. Fractional composition of little tobacco scraps from cigarette industry has been defined. Samples of hookah blends and non-smoking products have been manufactured. New tobacco products manufactured from burley leaves were used as comparison. Tasting of these products has been done, utilizing methods developed in the laboratory. As the result, it has been found that samples made of wastes have better tasting score because of rich taste and tobacco aroma. Utilizing wastes instead of expensive leaf tobacco greatly decreases final cost of the product. As the result possibility and expediency of utilizing cigarette’s manufacturing wastes for hookah blends and non-smoking products manufacturing has been proved.

  20. Cancer and Tobacco Use PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-10

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. There is a long list of cancers linked to tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of cancer and cancer deaths. Learn more here.  Created: 11/10/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/10/2016.

  1. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Brazil: balance of the National Tobacco Control Policy in the last decade and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Tânia Maria; Pinho, Mariana Coutinho Marques de; Perez, Cristina de Abreu; Teixeira, Ana Paula Leal; Mendes, Felipe Lacerda; Vargas, Rosa Rulff; Carvalho, Alexandre Octávio Ribeiro de; Rangel, Erica Cavalcanti; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2017-09-21

    Since 2005, Brazil has been a Party of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, an international treaty whose measures are the foundation of the National Tobacco-Control Policy (NTCP), of Brazil. The results evidence a significant decrease in the prevalence of smokers and in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. These results, however, could have been even better if there wasn't the interference of the tobacco supply chain (TSC), controlled by transnational corporations, which has become more intense over the last 10 years. These companies made Brazil not only a repository for tobacco, but also for economic and political power capable of threatening NTCP achievements. This Essay recounts the development of NTCP and the tobacco supply chain modus operandi to hamper it, and discusses how the strengthening of policies to promote alternative crops for tobacco could shield NTCP from such interference.

  3. Alcohol and tobacco consumption among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Devine, Sue; Leggat, Peter A; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    Police occupy an important position within the community as both enforcers of the law and as role models for appropriate behavior. Despite this interesting juxtaposition, research has shown that they may consume alcohol and tobacco at rates higher than the general population. A significant causal factor is occupational stress, and the fact that police are regularly exposed to stressors beyond the range of normal human experiences. Given this ongoing and unavoidable relationship, the recognition and control of stress is paramount within law enforcement. Because police stressors are usually multi-faceted, health promotion interventions should focus on stress-reduction at both the institutional and individual level. Examples of health promotion strategies may include reducing overtime, carefully organizing shift rosters, streamlining administrative processes and allowing rest breaks for those on the night-shift. Interventions which focus on the individual are also important, because excess alcohol and tobacco consumption levels often relate to individual stress-coping mechanisms. Programs to help recognize and prevent excess alcohol and tobacco consumption may be worthwhile, as too, counseling, interpersonal support and critical incident debriefing. Promoting non-drinking and non-smoking stress-reduction activities where police can socialize and de-brief with their colleagues may be beneficial. Encouraging social events at sports clubs and gymnasiums has also been suggested. In order to achieve these goals however, governments will need to place a greater emphasis on the occupational health of police officers and the law enforcement agencies in which they work.

  4. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  5. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  6. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...

  7. Early decompressive craniectomy for severe penetrating and closed head injury during wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy S; Mossop, Corey M; Dirks, Michael S; Stephens, Frederick L; Mulligan, Lisa; Ecker, Robert; Neal, Christopher J; Kumar, Anand; Tigno, Teodoro; Armonda, Rocco A

    2010-05-01

    Decompressive craniectomy has defined this era of damage-control wartime neurosurgery. Injuries that in previous conflicts were treated in an expectant manner are now aggressively decompressed at the far-forward Combat Support Hospital and transferred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) and National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) in Bethesda for definitive care. The purpose of this paper is to examine the baseline characteristics of those injured warriors who received decompressive craniectomies. The importance of this procedure will be emphasized and guidance provided to current and future neurosurgeons deployed in theater. The authors retrospectively searched a database for all soldiers injured in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom between April 2003 and October 2008 at WRAMC and NNMC. Criteria for inclusion in this study included either a closed or penetrating head injury suffered during combat operations in either Iraq or Afghanistan with subsequent neurosurgical evaluation at NNMC or WRAMC. Exclusion criteria included all cases in which primary demographic data could not be verified. Primary outcome data included the type and mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and injury severity score (ISS) at admission, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at discharge, 6 months, and 1-2 years. Four hundred eight patients presented with head injury during the study period. In this population, a total of 188 decompressive craniectomies were performed (154 for penetrating head injury, 22 for closed head injury, and 12 for unknown injury mechanism). Patients who underwent decompressive craniectomies in the combat theater had significantly lower initial GCS scores (7.7 +/- 4.2 vs 10.8 +/- 4.0, p < 0.05) and higher ISSs (32.5 +/- 9.4 vs 26.8 +/- 11.8, p < 0.05) than those who did not. When comparing the GOS scores at hospital discharge, 6 months, and 1-2 years after discharge, those receiving decompressive craniectomies had significantly lower

  8. Engineering triterpene metabolism in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuiqin; Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Eric Nybo, S; Husodo, Satrio; Williams, Robert; Chappell, Joe

    2012-09-01

    Terpenes comprise a distinct class of natural products that serve a diverse range of physiological functions, provide for interactions between plants and their environment and represent a resource for many kinds of practical applications. To better appreciate the importance of terpenes to overall growth and development, and to create a production capacity for specific terpenes of industrial interest, we have pioneered the development of strategies for diverting carbon flow from the native terpene biosynthetic pathways operating in the cytosol and plastid compartments of tobacco for the generation of specific classes of terpenes. In the current work, we demonstrate how difficult it is to divert the 5-carbon intermediates DMAPP and IPP from the mevalonate pathway operating in the cytoplasm for triterpene biosynthesis, yet diversion of the same intermediates from the methylerythritol phosphate pathway operating in the plastid compartment leads to the accumulation of very high levels of the triterpene squalene. This was assessed by the co-expression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase and yeast squalene synthase genes targeting metabolism in the cytoplasm or chloroplast. We also evaluated the possibility of directing this metabolism to the secretory trichomes of tobacco by comparing the effects of trichome-specific gene promoters to strong, constitutive viral promoters. Surprisingly, when transgene expression was directed to trichomes, high-level squalene accumulation was observed, but overall plant growth and physiology were reduced up to 80 % of the non-transgenic controls. Our results support the notion that the biosynthesis of a desired terpene can be dramatically improved by directing that metabolism to a non-native cellular compartment, thus avoiding regulatory mechanisms that might attenuate carbon flux within an engineered pathway.

  9. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...

  10. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  11. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, E M; Barnoya, J; Pérez-Stable, E J; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope.

  12. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  13. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  14. Complex factors in the etiology of Gulf War illness: wartime exposures and risk factors in veteran subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Lea; Sastre, Antonio; Gerkovich, Mary M; Cook, Mary R

    2012-01-01

    At least one-fourth of U.S. veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by the chronic symptomatic illness known as Gulf War illness (GWI). Clear determination of the causes of GWI has been hindered by many factors, including limitations in how epidemiologic studies have assessed the impact of the complex deployment environment on veterans' health. We sought to address GWI etiologic questions by evaluating the association of symptomatic illness with characteristics of veterans' deployment. We compared veteran-reported wartime experiences in a population-based sample of 304 Gulf War veterans: 144 cases who met preestablished criteria for GWI and 160 controls. Veteran subgroups and confounding among deployment variables were considered in the analyses. Deployment experiences and the prevalence of GWI differed significantly by veterans' location in theater. Among personnel who were in Iraq or Kuwait, where all battles took place, GWI was most strongly associated with using pyridostigmine bromide pills [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 7.4] and being within 1 mile of an exploding SCUD missile (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.1). For veterans who remained in support areas, GWI was significantly associated only with personal pesticide use, with increased prevalence (OR = 12.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 61.5) in the relatively small subgroup that wore pesticide-treated uniforms, nearly all of whom also used skin pesticides. Combat service was not significantly associated with GWI. Findings support a role for a limited number of wartime exposures in the etiology of GWI, which differed in importance with the deployment milieu in which veterans served.

  15. Tobacco Workers in 1916

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,

  16. Exposure to Internet-Based Tobacco Advertising and Branding: Results From Population Surveys of Australian Youth 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, Sally; Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians. Little is currently known about the exposure of young people to these new media promotions. Objective To measure exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among Australian youth, identify common formats of branding encountered, and examine the asso...

  17. Price and consumption of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...

  18. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik

    2008-01-01

    Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....

  19. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following rates...

  20. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  1. Tobacco and oral health--the role of the world health organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider this platform for their future work for tobacco prevention since in several countries they play an important role in communication with patients and communities. The WHO Oral Health Programme gives priority to tobacco control in many ways through the development of national and community programmes which incorporates oral health and tobacco issues, tobacco prevention through schools, tobacco risk assessment in countries, and design of modern surveillance systems on risk factors and oral health. Systematic evaluation of coordinated efforts should be carried out at country and inter-country levels.

  2. A decade of work on organized labor and tobacco control: reflections on research and coalition building in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Delaurier, Gregory; Kelder, Graham; McLellan, Deborah; Sorensen, Glorian; Balbach, Edith D; Levenstein, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Labor unions can and should make strong allies in tobacco control efforts. Through much of the 1980s and 1990s, however, the organized labor and tobacco control communities rarely formed coalitions to achieve mutual gains. Recently, labor unions and tobacco control organizations have begun to work together on smoking cessation programs, smoke-free worksite policies, and increased insurance coverage for cessation treatments. This paper explores the historic and present-day intersections among organized labor and tobacco control advocates. We summarize research in this area and report on our recent programmatic efforts to promote collaboration between the labor and tobacco control communities. We discuss lessons learned with the aims of promoting deeper understanding among tobacco control and labor advocates of how each views tobacco control issues, and most importantly, stimulating further collaboration toward mutual gains in protecting workers' health.

  3. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in China: An arduous and long-term task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Bai, Chun-Xue; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Chen

    2015-09-01

    China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. Consequently, the burden of tobacco-related diseases in China is enormous. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) may lead to a significant reduction in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality both in China and globally. In this review, the authors summarize the epidemic of tobacco use and the progress made in implementing the WHO FCTC, including the promotion of legislation for smoke-free public places; smoking-cessation assistance; labeling of tobacco packaging; enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; increased taxes on tobacco products; increased tobacco prices; improvements in public awareness of the dangers of smoking; and identifying the barriers to implementing effective tobacco-control measures in China. Since the WHO FCTC officially took effect in China on January 9, 2006, China has taken some important steps, especially in promoting legislation for smoke-free public places. Because tobacco permeates the fabric of society, business, commerce, and politics in China, commitments and actions from the government are crucial, and implementing the WHO FCTC in China will be an arduous and long-term task.

  4. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Under the radar--how the tobacco industry targets youth in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Todd A; Martin, Jane E

    2002-12-01

    Tobacco consumption has been declining in Australia since the 1970s when controls on advertising were first introduced. Since this time, legislation has been progressively introduced, severely restricting tobacco advertising and promotion in the mainstream media. This has resulted in limited opportunities for the tobacco industry to reach new smokers, particularly young people. This paper outlines marketing strategies used by tobacco companies and their advertising agencies to reach this group; it examines how the industry exploits loopholes in current legislation and identifies new promotional opportunities. Increasingly, the industry has targeted young people through film, dance parties, nightclubs, fashion shows, e-mail and the internet. The industry is also capitalizing on promoting pack design elements and enhancing them through event promotion. Unless restrictions on tobacco marketing and promotion are comprehensive they undermine the effectiveness of those already in place and will continue to be exploited by the tobacco industry. The recent announcement by the Federal government to reassess the current legislative restrictions in light of these new marketing trends is welcome. The removal of all incentives to promote tobacco products, including imagery associated with the pack and its design, is essential in removing one of the key factors influencing the uptake and prevalence of smoking in youth.

  6. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  7. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  8. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf—plants native to Asia—that may be tied with colorful string at one or both ends. Bidis can be flavored—such as chocolate, cherry, or mango—or unflavored. Flavored bidis, however, ...

  9. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  10. 75 FR 13225 - Regulations Restricting the Sale and Distribution of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco To Protect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...\\ President's Cancer Panel, ``Promoting Healthy Lifestyles,'' p. 64, U.S. Department of Health and Human...-734, 2000. \\10\\ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ``Tobacco Use, Access, and Exposure... for Disease Control and Prevention'' and is ``miniscule'' compared to the amount tobacco...

  11. The marketing strategy of tobacco corporations with regard to the principles of marketing 3.0

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Seyfullaeva; O. S. Padalkina

    2013-01-01

    Article refers to problems of tobacco production marketing in connection with new requirements and the restrictions imposed by the modern world community. The author offered the basic principles of Marketing 3.0 to promote tobacco production of the companies in the market.

  12. The marketing strategy of tobacco corporations with regard to the principles of marketing 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Seyfullaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to problems of tobacco production marketing in connection with new requirements and the restrictions imposed by the modern world community. The author offered the basic principles of Marketing 3.0 to promote tobacco production of the companies in the market.

  13. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  14. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  15. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  16. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel; Fang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry’s involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand. Methods and Findings A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry’s interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals. Conclusions The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC’s commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees. PMID:26252397

  17. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    Full Text Available The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry's involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand.A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry's interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals.The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC's commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees.

  18. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  19. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  20. The tobacco industry, researchers, and ethical access to UK Biobank: using the public interest and public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin James; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-10-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry-funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking.

  1. Tobacco Use Among Students Aged 13-15 Years in South Korea: The 2013 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Jihye; Kashiwabara, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8%) reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5%) than in girls (2.6%). Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. PMID:28173685

  2. Research Progress on the Development and Application of New Natural Tobacco Humectants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing MA; Xinge LIU; Zhiqiang XU; Yingbo XU; Huai WANG; Risheng YAO

    2016-01-01

    The research progress on the development and application of new natural tobacco humectants was reviewed in the paper. Plants, animals and microbes contain special moisturizing substances, showing distinctive advantages and outstanding ef-fects in respect of the tobacco moisture content maintaining and cigarette suction comfort promoting. The development necessity, major types, functional mechanism and influence on cigarette quality of new natural tobacco humectants development were com-pared and elaborated. Additional y, the prospect of new natural tobacco humectants development and application was forecasted.

  3. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  4. How is rape a weapon of war?: feminist international relations, modes of critical explanation and the study of wartime sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Rape is a weapon of war. Establishing this now common claim has been an achievement of feminist scholarship and activism and reveals wartime sexual violence as a social act marked by gendered power. But the consensus that rape is a weapon of war obscures important, and frequently unacknowledged, differences in ways of understanding and explaining it. This article opens these differences to analysis. Drawing on recent debates regarding the philosophy of social science in IR and social theory, ...

  5. Neutral Caregivers or Military Support? The British Red Cross, the Friends’ Ambulance Unit, and the Problems of Voluntary Medical Aid in Wartime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    During the First World War the British Red Cross Society (BRCS) served as the coordinating body for voluntary medical aid giving in Britain. Among the many units which came within its purview was the Friends’ Ambulance Unit (FAU), formed by a group of young men whose desire to serve their nation in wartime conflicted with their pacifist principles. Both the BRCS and the FAU were wracked by ideological conflicts in the years which preceded and throughout the war. These struggles over voluntarist identity highlight the contested meanings of service and conscience in wartime. Through a critical examination of the language of official histories and biographies, this article will argue that the war formed a key moment in the relationship between the British state and voluntary medical aid, with the state’s increasing role in the work of such organizations raising questions about the voluntarist principles to which aid organizations laid claim. The struggles that both organizations and individuals within them faced in reconciling the competing pressures that this new relationship created form a legacy of the war which continues to have important implications for the place of medical voluntarism in wartime today. PMID:26213442

  6. Neutral Caregivers or Military Support? The British Red Cross, the Friends' Ambulance Unit, and the Problems of Voluntary Medical Aid in Wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    During the First World War the British Red Cross Society (BRCS) served as the coordinating body for voluntary medical aid giving in Britain. Among the many units which came within its purview was the Friends' Ambulance Unit (FAU), formed by a group of young men whose desire to serve their nation in wartime conflicted with their pacifist principles. Both the BRCS and the FAU were wracked by ideological conflicts in the years which preceded and throughout the war. These struggles over voluntarist identity highlight the contested meanings of service and conscience in wartime. Through a critical examination of the language of official histories and biographies, this article will argue that the war formed a key moment in the relationship between the British state and voluntary medical aid, with the state's increasing role in the work of such organizations raising questions about the voluntarist principles to which aid organizations laid claim. The struggles that both organizations and individuals within them faced in reconciling the competing pressures that this new relationship created form a legacy of the war which continues to have important implications for the place of medical voluntarism in wartime today.

  7. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen (CA), respiratory toxicant (RT), cardiovascular toxicant (CT... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  8. The role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies El papel de la abogacía en medios de comunicación para la promoción de políticas del control del tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch'uyasonqo H Lane

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1 the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2 the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico.Este artículo presenta el papel que desempeña la abogacía en los medios de comunicación, mediante información basada en evidencia para la promoción de mejores políticas del control del tabaco. La evidencia es la fuerza impulsora de las campañas destinadas a promover una política de control de tabaco. Una campaña efectiva se basa en evidencia que demuestra por qué la política debe ser implementada, e indica los beneficios posibles. Abogar en los medios es el proceso de difusión de la información a través de medios de comunicación donde el objetivo es llevar a cabo una acción, por ejemplo un cambio de política, o alterar la visión del público sobre un tema. El manuscrito se concentra en: 1 la importancia de, y los métodos para, la recopilación y comunicación de datos e información para que sea clara y útil para los legisladores, medios de comunicación y el público; y 2 el papel de los medios y medios pagados comerciales en impulsar acciones para el control del tabaco. El manuscrito se enfoca en el

  9. Tobacco and oral health--the role of the world health organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider......In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic...... of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed...

  10. Health Beliefs About Tobacco With Betel Nut Use Among Adults in Yap, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareg, Aileen Rosogmar Castaritas; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Santos, Hildemar Dos

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is high among Pacific Islanders in general and little tobacco research has been done in Yap, Micronesia. This study aimed to explore perceptions of tobacco use coupled with chewing of betel (areca) nut among adults in Yap using self-administered questionnaires based on the health belief model. A Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree or very unlikely to very likely) was used to measure susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy among individuals aged 18 and older. Older adults felt quitting tobacco or betel nut use would be significantly more difficult because of social reasons and withdrawal problems. Most participants felt susceptible to tobacco-related diseases. These findings possibly indicate a receptive attitude toward any future tobacco use prevention and intervention program. Older Yapese population would need to be especially targeted. Health promotion programs should target smoking behaviors and risk reduction.

  11. Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jiaping [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Yang, Suping; Seng, Seyha, E-mail: sseng@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem worldwide. Tobacco-related cancers cause millions of deaths annually. Although several tobacco agents play a role in the development of tumors, the potent effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are unique. Metabolically activated NNK and NNN induce deleterious mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppression genes by forming DNA adducts, which could be considered as tumor initiation. Meanwhile, the binding of NNK and NNN to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor promotes tumor growth by enhancing and deregulating cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion, thereby creating a microenvironment for tumor growth. These two unique aspects of NNK and NNN synergistically induce cancers in tobacco-exposed individuals. This review will discuss various types of tobacco products and tobacco-related cancers, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which nitrosamines, such as NNK and NNN, induce cancer.

  12. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E; Ribisl, K; Clark, P; Haladjian, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: About 81% of cigarette manufacturers' marketing expenditures in the USA is spent to promote cigarette sales in stores. Relatively little is known about how these expenditures help the manufacturers achieve their marketing goals in stores. A better understanding of how tobacco companies influence the retail environment would help researchers and tobacco control activists to monitor industry presence in stores. Objective: To describe the types of tobacco company incentive programmes offered to retailers, how these programmes impact the store environments, and possible visual indicators of retailer participation in incentive programmes. Study design: In-depth qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 29 tobacco retailers were conducted in 2001. Setting: USA. Main outcome measures: The types and requirements of retailer incentive programmes provided by tobacco companies, and how participation in a programme alters their stores. Results: The retailers provided insights into how tobacco companies convey promotional allowances and special offers to them and how these incentives shape the retail environment. Retailers noted that tobacco companies exert substantial control over their stores by requiring placement of products in the most visible locations, and of specific amounts and types of advertising in prime locations in the store. Retailers also described how tobacco companies reduce prices by offering them volume based discounts, "buy two, get one free" specials, and "buying down" the price of existing product. Conclusions: Tobacco companies are concentrating their marketing dollars at the point-of-sale to the extent that the store is their primary communication channel with customers. As a result, all shoppers regardless of age or smoking status are exposed to pro-smoking messages. Given the financial resources spent by tobacco companies in stores, this venue warrants closer scrutiny by researchers and tobacco control advocates. PMID:12773729

  13. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising Remains Prominent in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S.; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In India, a 2003 law (“COPTA”) banned tobacco advertising with the exception of “point of sale” and “on-pack” advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. Methods A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Results Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants’ responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. Conclusions PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful. PMID:28217721

  14. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendall Philip

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  16. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2006-04-01

    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  17. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally.

  18. Mass media exposure to tobacco messages among secondary school children in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Shiraz Surani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore differences in exposure to media messages (pro- and antitobacco messages, marketing and promotions between students consuming tobacco, areca nut, nonconsumers, and those intending to quit and to examine differences between municipal and private school students. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by secondary school students (N = 534 from municipal and private schools in Mumbai. Overall, the number of students who reported ever use of tobacco was quite low (5.1%. There was no significant difference in exposure to media messages between users of tobacco, areca nut, and nonusers. There were significantly higher numbers of ever users of tobacco in private compared to municipal schools. There was a significant association between exposure to marketing and promotions and intention to quit, but not with the other exposure variables. Media exposure may be related to intention to quit but not to quitting behavior.

  19. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  20. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2017-06-07

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Current tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, with nearly 443,000 deaths occurring annually because of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. Moreover, nearly 90% of adult smokers begin smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2011, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school and high school students was 7.1% and 23.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of current cigarette use was 4.3%, and 15.8%, respectively. During 2000-2011, among middle school students, a linear downward trend was observed in the prevalence of current tobacco use (14.9% to 7.1%), current combustible tobacco use (14.0% to 6.3%), and current cigarette use (10.7% to 4.3%). For high school students, a linear downward trend also was observed in these measures (current tobacco use [34.4% to 23.2%], current combustible tobacco use [33.1% to 21.0%], and current cigarette use [27.9% to 15.8%]). Interventions that are proven to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths include media campaigns, limiting advertisements and other promotions, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the availability of tobacco products for purchase by youths. These interventions should continue to be implemented as part of national comprehensive tobacco control programs and should be coordinated with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations restricting the sale, distribution, and marketing of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to youths.

  2. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  4. 关于提升烟叶规模化种植水平的思考--以放马岭模式为例%Think about Level Promotion of Scale Planting for Tobacco:Taking Fangmaling Mode of Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苜华; 陈秀斋

    2013-01-01

    Land circulation is an important means to enhance the level of scale planting.The Common tobacco field land circulation mode and its disadvantage was introduced.The advantage and development direction of Fangmaling land circulation mode was analyzed,and reference meaning was indicated to guide land circulation.%开展土地流转是提升规模化种植水平的重要手段,介绍常见烟田的土地流转模式及其弊端,分析放马岭模式的优点和发展方向,指出其借鉴意义,以指导烟田的土地流转。

  5. Tobacco regulatory science: research to inform regulatory action at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David L; Backinger, Cathy L; van Bemmel, Dana M; Neveleff, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promotes the development of regulatory science to ensure that a strong evidence base informs all of its regulatory activities related to the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products as well as public education about tobacco product constituents and effects. Toward that end, the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) provides funding for research studies with scientific aims that fall within its defined regulatory authority. However, given their traditional biomedical focus on basic and applied research, some researchers may not understand the principles of regulatory science or the types of studies CTP funds. The purpose of this paper is (1) to clarify the definition of regulatory science as a distinct scientific discipline, (2) to explore the role of tobacco regulatory science in order to help researchers understand the parameters and types of research that can be funded by CTP, and (3) to describe the types of research efforts that will inform the FDA's public health framework for tobacco product regulation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. The association between tobacco use and perceptions of tobacco price strategies within primary care patients in rural Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    2016-04-01

    The above findings imply that the reduction in tobacco use in rural Greece, is complex and a population’s sensitivity should be enhanced through primary care initiatives that are adjusted between health promotion and counseling in conditions of socioeconomic distress.

  7. A literature review of the military uses of silver-nylon dressings with emphasis on wartime operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Pozza, Morano; Margaret-Brandt, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Medical support of military operations involves treatment of massive soft tissue wounds, thermal burns, open fractures, blast injuries and traumatic amputations under conditions that are often austere and far from supply lines. Military hospitals, as recently deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, are designed and equipped for stabilization and rapid transfer of injured patients back to their home nation. These austere facilities are often tasked with the emergency or long-term treatment of local populations when injured or burned, further stressing the medical resupply system. Pathogens encountered in contemporary wartime practice are increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Ionic silver is bactericidal against a broad spectrum of bacteria, yeasts and fungi, has been utilized as a topical antiseptic for over 100 years, and has no known clinically-relevant resistance. Silver-nylon dressings, initially stocked in US military hospitals as a burn dressing, are now finding utility as a universal dressing for all types of combat wounds. Compared to conventional burn dressings, they are easier to transport and store, easier to use, and do not need to be changed as frequently, allowing for conservation of nursing resources. In this literature review, the recent military uses of silver-nylon dressings are examined. The stockpiling and use of silver-nylon as a universal military burn and wound dressing is advocated.

  8. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  9. WHO Technical Manual on Tobacco Tax Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This technical manual aims to help governments maximize the benefits that they can receive from higher tobacco taxes by identifying a set of best practices for tobacco taxation. This is one of several available or forthcoming products that focus on tobacco taxation, including: the forthcoming monograph on the economics of tobacco and tobacco control being jointly produced by WHO and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI); the handbook on the effectiveness of tobacco tax and price policies for...

  10. Book Review: The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is highly recommended as an indispensable reference source for tobacco and smoke chemists as well as other scientists involved in the study of tobacco and its products. The compilation of proper chemical names, common names, Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No., and structures is alone worth the purchase price.

  11. Tobacco Products Directive - new opportunities for EU tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Eva Ampelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU was adopted in 2014 and needs to be transposed by Member States by 20 May 2016. It sets out ambitious tobacco control measures in the areas of ingredients, packaging & labelling, electronic cigarettes and tracking & tracing. The new Directive focuses on preventing young people from taking up smoking.

  12. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  13. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  14. 75 FR 60759 - Enforcement Action Plan for Promotion and Advertising Restrictions; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). Advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products have been ``especially directed to attract young... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Enforcement Action Plan for Promotion and Advertising... Plan for Promotion and Advertising Restrictions'' (Enforcement Action Plan), which describes FDA's...

  15. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  16. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your... TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco...

  17. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  18. "Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to "accommodate" smokers as an alternative to smoke-free policies developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid-1990s in Latin America. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT "social reports", news reports and tobacco control legislation. Since the mid-1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke-free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke-free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second-hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

  19. “Accommodating” smoke‐free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke‐free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid‐1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid‐1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke‐free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke‐free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second‐hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

  20. The effectiveness of tobacco sales ban to minors: the case of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, A H; Rainio, S U

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of the 1977 and 1995 tobacco sales bans on tobacco acquisition of minors. Biennial nationwide postal surveys (adolescent health and lifestyle survey, AHLS) in 1977-2003; annual classroom surveys (school health promotion survey, SHPS) in 1996-2003. Entire Finland-12, 14, 16, and 18 year olds (AHLS, n = 80 282); eighth and ninth graders (14-16 year olds) (SHPS, n = 226 681). Purchase of tobacco from commercial sources during the past month, purchase from different commercial (shop, kiosk, other outlet) and social sources, ease of buying tobacco, overall acquisition of tobacco products, daily smoking, tobacco experimenting. Decrease in tobacco purchase from commercial sources was small and short term after 1977 but large and permanent after 1995: purchase rate among 14 year old smokers diminished from 90% to 67% in 2003, 16 year olds from 94% to 62%. Purchases in shops decreased most (14 year olds: from 39% to 14%; 16 year olds: from 76% to 27%); purchases in kiosks less. An increase was observed in obtaining tobacco from other outlets and friends (social sources). Only 2-3% of 14-16 year old smokers used commercial sources exclusively when obtaining tobacco. Daily smoking began to decrease after 2001, following an earlier decrease in those experimenting. No changes were observed among age groups not targeted by the ban. Legislation appears to have permanently changed tobacco sales practices and decreased purchases from commercial sources. Social sources need to be taken into account when controlling access to tobacco. Sales bans should be accompanied by other health promotion measures.

  1. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  2. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  3. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  4. Comparison of Profitableness between Tobacco and Some Products in Scope of Alternative Product Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sivuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is fairly contributed Turkish economy through mainly export and tax revenues. It has been applied restriction policies of tobacco planting areas with “Tobacco Law” which was passed an act in 2002. Therefore, it has been given promotions to producers who produce loss of production instead of tobacco with Alternative Product Project which has been applied since 2002. It has been saw not enough to be adopted by producers in 11 provinces in 2002-2007. The big number of the producers which used project support by abandoning tobacco production have tended cereal cultivation. In fact, this information is clearly indicator at indecision for producers to product which is chosen instead of tobacco. The project will continue with 3 years by chancing supporting amount and limiting its scope with 9 provinces from 2008. It has been intended with this work to direct to producers which are seeking alternative products instead of tobacco. Therefore, profitableness levels of wheat, aspir and canola which will be alternative for tobacco has been analyzed. It has been used Absolute Profit and Relative Profit at the analyze phase. It has been found that the best alternative for tobacco is canola as a result of the study.

  5. [Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.

  6. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  7. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-02-01

    To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels-having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

  8. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  9. 烟草商业企业推进区域物流运作的模式及路径研究%Research on Tobacco Commercial Enterprises to Promote Regional Logistics Operation Mode and Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕业; 徐子明; 杨明; 黎卜豪

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the current “monopoly franchise,the vertical management” system as a precondition to discuss the significance of the municipal company for the next main business model,business enterprise by the administrative territorial logistics to inter-regional distribution of change,as well as tobacco commercial enterprises the principle of building a regional distribution center followed,can learn from the model and future prospects.%文中以现行“专卖专营、垂直管理”体制为前提,探讨了在市级公司为经营主体的模式下,商业企业由行政属地物流向跨区域物流配送转变的重要意义,以及烟草商业企业建设区域物流配送中心所遵循的原则、可借鉴的模式及未来的展望。

  10. Why Packaging Is Commercially Vital for Tobacco Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Gleeson, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    This study analyses what British American Tobacco (BAT) and its 4 publicly listed Asian subsidiary companies have told their shareholders about the commercial value of tobacco packaging. The discourse on packaging in BAT annual reports was analyzed, revealing themes of modernization, rejuvenation, internationalism, heritage, innovation, value for money, and competitive edge. Packaging was credited with providing existing brands with a competitive edge and enabling the successful "launch" of new ones. Since advertising, sponsorship, and free samples were prohibited in many countries, packaging has become more important for advertising. New brands and brand variants have proliferated. BAT companies have allocated considerable resources to regularly altering packaging for marketing purposes. Clearly, restrictions on packaging will substantially detract from the promotion of the company's brands. The findings provide further evidence from industry sources of the vital function of packaging and further justify plain packaging as an essential part of any comprehensive tobacco control policy.

  11. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  12. 陆军战时军械装备保障需求分析研究%Research and Analysis of Army Wartime Ordnance Equipment Support Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于兴强

    2016-01-01

    Equipment support in wartime demand analysis more relies on the basic principles and experience, a process description optional the gender is big, however, with the rise of the computer simulation technology and the wide application of new methods, and new methods emerge in endlessly, which makes equipment safeguard demand analysis pay more attention to the process description, but the simulation technology research army ordnance equipment support in wartime needs analysis is still not formed systemic results, the conclusion from the simulation technology is lack of combined with practical experience. Through the analysis of the previous related research summary, based on the combination of empirical data and simulation data, this paper puts forward the new army ordnance equipment support in wartime needs analysis research direction.%战时装备保障需求分析多是依靠基本原则和经验,过程描述随意性大,然而,随着计算机仿真技术的兴起和广泛应用,新方法、新手段层出不穷,使得装备保障需求分析更加注重过程描述,但是仿真技术研究陆军战时军械装备保障需求分析仍没有形成系统性的成果,仿真技术的研究结论缺乏与实践经验相结合。本文通过对前期相关研究的分析总结,依据经验数据与仿真数据相结合的思想,提出新的陆军战时军械装备保障需求分析研究方向。

  13. Street Theater and Subject Formation in Wartime China: Toward a New Form of Public Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on archival research, this article presents a succinct history of the street theater movement in China through the 1930s. It examines how complex discourses and competing visions, as well as historical events and practices—in particular the War of Resistance against Japan—both shaped and propelled the movement. The author focuses on theoretical and practical issues that promoters and practitioners of street theater dealt with and reflected on in three succeeding stages. Observing that the street theater movement hastened the formation of a modern national imagination, the author argues that the movement presented a paradigmatic development as it foregrounded the imperative to engage rural China as well as the need for participants to acquire new subject positions.

  14. Tobacco socialization and anti-tobacco ad effectiveness among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalbous, Slim; Bouslama, Heifa

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent smoking onset among children, it is essential to know the process of smoking socialization and its various dimensions before being able to design any effective anti-tobacco advertisements. This research aims to conceptualize this process and to test the effectiveness of certain styles of anti-tobacco advertising addressed to children. The results show that both attitudinal and behavioral smoking socialization influence anti-tobacco advertisements effectiveness and that the least offensive and humoristic are most effective in Tunisia.

  15. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-10-01

    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  16. Motor racing, tobacco company sponsorship, barcodes and alibi marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Sponsorship of Formula One (F1) motor racing, which has been used as an indirect medium of tobacco advertising for several decades, was prohibited by the 2005 European Union Tobacco Advertising Directive. Most F1 tobacco sponsorship of motor racing in the EU has since ceased, with the exception of the Scuderia Ferrari team, which continues to be funded by Philip Morris. In 2007, the Marlboro logo on Ferrari cars and other race regalia was replaced by an evolving ‘barcode’ design, which Ferrari later claimed was part of the livery of the car, and not a Marlboro advertisement. Objective To determine whether the ‘barcode’ graphics used by Ferrari represent ‘alibi’ Marlboro advertising. Methods Academic and grey literature, and online tobacco industry document archives, were searched using terms relevant to tobacco marketing and motorsport. Results Tobacco sponsorship of F1 motor racing began in 1968, and Philip Morris has sponsored F1 teams since 1972. Phillip Morris first used a ‘barcode’ design, comprising red vertical parallel lines below the word Marlboro on the British Racing Motors F1 car in 1972. Vertical or horizontal ‘barcode’ designs have been used in this way, latterly without the word Marlboro, ever since. The modern ‘barcode’ logos occupied the same position on cars and drivers' clothing as conventional Marlboro logos in the past. The shared use of red colour by Marlboro and Ferrari is also recognised by Philip Morris as a means of promoting brand association between Marlboro and Ferrari. Conclusion The Ferrari ‘barcode’ designs are alibi Marlboro logos and hence constitute advertising prohibited by the 2005 EU Tobacco Advertising Directive. PMID:21821820

  17. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  19. Tobacco and health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  20. Preventing tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remafedi, Gary; Carol, Helen

    2005-04-01

    A paucity of information regarding tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths impedes prevention programs. The aim of the present study was to conduct formative qualitative research regarding subpopulations at risk for tobacco use, protective factors, patterns of use, and approaches to prevention. This report focuses on participants' recommendations for the development of preventive intervention. Purposive sampling and maximum variation sampling were used to select 30 LGBT youths and 30 interactors for face-to-face interviews. NUD*IST6 text software was used for the indexing and thematic analysis of qualitative data, based on a grounded theory approach. All participants offered suggestions for tobacco prevention pertaining to the optimal process of prevention and cessation programs, specific strategies to promote tobacco prevention and cessation, and general strategies to foster nonsmoking. Several key themes regarding prevention emerged: LGBT youth should be involved in the design and implementation of interventions; prevention programs should support positive identity formation as well as nonsmoking; the general approach to prevention should be entertaining, supportive, and interactive; and the public might not distinguish primary prevention from cessation activities. All but one young smoker had attempted to quit at least once; but only one individual had succeeded. By way of implications, prevention programs should involve young people in enjoyable and engaging activities, address the psychosocial and cultural underpinnings of tobacco use, support healthy psychosocial development, and consider offering pharmacological smoking cessation aids.

  1. The national and international regulatory environment in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2015-07-09

    Despite their lethality, cigarettes are subject to little regulation that directly restricts their contents or their legality. This may change in the near future with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the world's first global health treaty, now in force, as well as developments in a few individual countries. Cigarettes are subject to a substantial number of country-specific regulations regarding their conditions of sale: their price (mostly through taxation), the places where they can be consumed (clean indoor air laws), who can smoke them (prohibitions on their use by or sales to minors), how they can be advertised or promoted (if at all), and how they must be packaged (minimum pack sizes, warning labels, plain packaging). Such policies constitute the core of successful tobacco control. The FCTC has been ratified by 180 countries representing 90% of the world's population. The FCTC requires compliance with numerous provisions relating to the kinds of regulations noted above. The treaty also mandates explicit attention to direct product regulation. Several countries have such authority, at least in limited forms. In the US, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the legal authority to regulate tobacco products, including their contents. The possibility exists that, in the foreseeable future, a country will mandate product standards that will substantially reduce the appeal of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products, which are by far the leading sources of the death and disease associated with tobacco.

  2. Ethyl gallate displays elicitor activities in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Richard, Claire

    2017-09-29

    Alkyl gallates showed elicitor activities on tobacco in both whole plants and cell suspensions. Methyl gallate (MG), ethyl gallate (EG) and propyl gallate (PG) infiltration into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions and topical production of autofluorescent compounds revealed under UV light. When sprayed on tobacco plants at 5 mM, EG promoted upregulation of defence-related genes such as the antimicrobial PR1, -1,3-glucanase PR2, chitinase PR3 and osmotin PR5 target genes. Tobacco BY-2 cells challenged with EG underwent cell death in 48 h, significantly reduced in the presence of the protease inhibitor aprotinin. The three alkyl gallates all caused alkalinisation of the BY-2 extracellular medium, whereas gallic acid did not trigger any pH variation. Using EGTA or LaCl3, we showed that Ca2+ mobilisation occurred in BY-2 cells elicited with EG. Overall, our findings are the first evidence of alkyl gallate elicitor properties with early perception events on plasma membrane, potential hypersensitive reactions and PR-related downstream defence responses in tobacco.

  3. Tobacco use habits of naval personnel during Desert Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgas, L B; Meyer, D M; Cohen, M E

    1996-03-01

    This study examined availability and usage of tobacco products, and their potential impact on the oral health of naval personnel deployed to Desert Storm. Of 4,200 surveys mailed to a randomly selected sample, 45.6% were returned (N = 1,915). The respondents included 55.9% who reported a present or former smoking habit, 34.1% who identified themselves as current smokers (SM), and 23.8% who were smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Tobacco products were easily and inexpensively accessible through ship stores, exchange, or military support organizations (USO). While in the Persian Gulf, 7.0% started SM and 9.3% started ST, resulting in an overall 4.7 and 6.1% increase in SM and ST, respectively. Of those who were already tobacco users, 29.2% reported more SM use and 19.0% used ST more often. Stress (35.1%) and boredom (21.4%) were the most frequently cited reasons to start or increase use. Although 30.5% of respondents reported military personnel have encouraged them to quit, 77.2% reported that anti-smoking efforts have been unsuccessful in influencing them to quit. Since the tobacco usage rate is higher in the military than in the civilian sector, greater emphasis on preventive efforts in warranted to promote health and wellness.

  4. [Tobacco prevention in the workplace. Achievements and requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke-Alexandris, M

    2010-02-01

    Tobacco prevention in the workplace is a major area of action within the tobacco control measures, since a decisive impetus for social change can derive from the working environment. In 2002, the protection of non-smokers in the workplace became mandatory in Germany. Since then, the enforcement of the new law has been supported by a variety of organizations. However, recent surveys show that almost 20% of non-smoking employees are still exposed to tobacco smoke. Therefore, it is necessary to take stock regarding the enforcement of the law. For one million people who currently work in catering, the right for non-smokers' protection is limited as the law for non-smokers' protection at work includes an exception for bars and restaurants. Tobacco prevention in the workplace will not be complete until this exception does not apply anymore. Also, a general smoking ban in bars and restaurants would become constitutional through relevant laws. Whether the Bundesländer will agree on this ban is doubtful at the moment. The promotion of smoking cessation as a second decisive part in tobacco prevention in the workplace has not reached the desired importance in company measures. To increase the significance of smoking cessation in companies, further impetus is necessary.

  5. Identification of Tobacco Topping Responsive Proteins in Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang eGuo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco plant has many responses to topping, such as the increase in ability of nicotine synthesis and secondary growth of roots. Some topping responsive miRNAs and genes had been identified in our previous work, but it is not enough to elaborate mechanism of tobacco response to topping. Here, topping responsive proteins were screened from tobacco roots with two-dimensional electrophoresis. Of these proteins, calretulin (CRT and Auxin-responsive protein IAA9 were related to the secondary growth of roots, LRR disease resistance, heat shock protein 70 and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase 1(FPPS)were involved in wounding stress response, and F-box protein played an important role in promoting the ability of nicotine synthesis after topping. In addition, there were five tobacco bHLH proteins (NtbHLH, NtMYC1a, NtMYC1b, NtMYC2a and NtMYC2b related to nicotine synthesis. It was suggested that NtMYC2 might be the main positive transcription factor and NtbHLH protein is a negative regulator in the JA-mediating activation of nicotine synthesis after topping. Tobacco topping activates some comprehensive biology processes involving IAA and JA signaling pathway, and the identification of these proteins will be helpful to understand the process of topping response.

  6. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  8. OsACA6, a P-type IIB Ca²⁺ ATPase promotes salinity and drought stress tolerance in tobacco by ROS scavenging and enhancing the expression of stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Kazi M K; Banu, M Sufara Akhter; Garg, Bharti; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-12-01

    Calcium (Ca²⁺) regulates several signalling pathways involved in growth, development and stress tolerance. Cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis is achieved by the combined action of channels, pumps and antiporters, but direct evidence for a role of Ca²⁺ATPase pumps in stress tolerance is lacking. Here we report the characterization of a Ca²⁺ ATPase gene (OsACA6) from Oryza sativa, and elucidate its functions in stress tolerance. OsACA6 transcript levels are enhanced in response to salt, drought, abscisic acid and heat. In vivo localization identified plasma membranes as an integration site for the OsACA6-GFP fusion protein. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we demonstrate that over-expression of OsACA6 is triggered during salinity and drought stresses. The enhanced tolerance to these stresses was confirmed by changes in several physiological indices, including water loss rate, photosynthetic efficiency, cell membrane stability, germination, survival rate, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and increased proline accumulation. Furthermore, over-expressing lines also showed higher leaf chlorophyll and reduced accumulation of H₂O₂ and Na⁺ ions compared to the wild-type. Reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in transgenic lines. The increased proline accumulation and ROS scavenging enzyme activities in transgenic plants over-expressing OsACA6 efficiently modulate the ROS machinery and proline biosynthesis through an integrative mechanism. Transcriptional profiling of these plants revealed altered expression of genes encoding many transcription factors, stress- and disease-related proteins, as well as signalling components. These results suggest that Ca²⁺ ATPases have diverse roles as regulators of many stress signalling pathways, leading to plant growth, development and stress tolerance.

  9. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.

  10. Health Effects of Waterpipe Tobacco Use: Getting the Public Health Message Just Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed; Jawad, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Many public health messages benchmark the harms of waterpipe tobacco against those of cigarettes, usually using numerical magnitudes of risk. This approach, although well intentioned, could be perceived as alarmist, damaging scientific credibility, and giving an unintended impression that one tobacco product is less harmful than the other. This commentary makes clear the harm waterpipe tobacco smoking poses to public health by describing its mechanism of use, consumption uptake, toxicologic profile, and documented health outcomes, as well as challenge existing thinking that toxicologic assessments are the most appropriate way to frame waterpipe tobacco health promotion messages. How can we describe the health effects of waterpipe tobacco without undermining its toxicity nor falling into the temptation of alarmist messaging? Several recommendations are provided.

  11. Needham at the crossroads: history, politics and international science in wartime China (1942-1946).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougey, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War. By rediscovering Needham's peregrinations, this paper re-examines the origins of his fascination for China. First, it contests the widely held idea that this Chinese episode is quite separate and different from Needham's first half-life as a leftist scientist. Second, it demonstrates how the political and philosophical commitments he inherited from the social relations of science movement, and his biochemical research, shaped his interest in China's past. Finally, this paper recounts these forgotten years to reveal their implications for his later pursuits as historian of science and as director of the natural-science division of UNESCO. It highlights how, while in China, Needham co-constituted the philosophical tenets of his scientific programme at UNESCO and the conceptual foundations of his SCC.

  12. Point-of-sale tobacco marketing in rural and urban Ohio: Could the new landscape of Tobacco products widen inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-12-01

    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities.

  13. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  14. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government's sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations.

  15. Tobacco use among middle and high school students --- United States, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    Tobacco use continues to be the single leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. More than 80% of established adult smokers begin smoking before age 18 years. To monitor trends in tobacco use among middle and high school students, CDC analyzed 2000-2009 data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS), a school-based survey that collects information on tobacco use and related behaviors and attitudes from middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. This analysis indicated that in 2009, 8.2% of middle school students and 23.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product; 5.2% of middle school students and 17.2% of high school students reported current use of cigarettes. Overall prevalence did not decrease from 2006 to 2009 for use of any tobacco product among either group. During 2000-2009, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school students declined (15.1% to 8.2%), as did current cigarette use (11.0% to 5.2%) and cigarette smoking experimentation (29.8% to 15.0%). Similar trends were observed for high school students (current tobacco use: 34.5% to 23.9%; current cigarette use: 28.0% to 17.2%; cigarette smoking experimentation: 39.4% to 30.1%). Overall, no change in susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking was observed for either group. To further decrease tobacco use and susceptibility to use among youths, restrictions on advertising, promotion, and availability of tobacco products to youths should be combined with full implementation of evidence-based, communitywide, comprehensive tobacco control policies.

  16. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  17. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  18. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  19. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if people start smoking again. Can a person overdose on nicotine? Nicotine is poisonous and, though uncommon, ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E- ...

  20. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  1. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala ... to like/follow us on: Facebook Twitter Close Fact Sheet Finder View all Toll of Tobacco in ...

  2. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  3. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these products. Smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and nicotine gel strips are not safe substitutes for cigarettes. Why ... during pregnancy? Medicines sold over the counter, including herbal supplements and vitamins, can cause problems during pregnancy. ...

  4. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  5. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...

  6. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  7. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice.

  8. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999

  9. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, J V; Bialous, S A; Glantz, S A

    2002-06-01

    To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly.

  10. Tobacco advertising and coverage of smoking and health in women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, F

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the extent of tobacco advertising and the coverage of smoking and health in all Irish produced women's magazines for 1989-93. There were 805 pieces in 402 magazines of which 684 (85%) were tobacco advertisements, 48 (5.7%) were new briefs; 27 (3.4%) were advice columns; 16 (2%) were feature articles; 15 (1.9%) were health promotion advertisements dealing with smoking and pregnancy; 10 (1.2%) were letters and 5 (0.61%) were editorials. Topics covered by the 106 articles on smoking were: smoking cessation-43 (40.6%); general health issues 35 (33%); smoking in pregnancy-4 (3.8%) and passive smoking 17 (16%). Of the 106 articles, 4 were negative about measures to control smoking. Four cigarette brands accounted for 70% of the advertisements. No tobacco advertisement carried the warning that "Smoking when pregnant harms your baby" or "Smoking kills". The 385002 cm2 of space devoted to tobacco advertising and negative messages about the dangers of tobacco and health represents 1.95% of total magazine space and is 14.5 times greater than the 26575 cm2 of positive messages about the dangers of smoking. That these magazines advertise tobacco without adequately covering the harmful effects of tobacco would suggest a degree of hypocrisy in their stated concern for women's health and lends further strength to the principle of a total ban on all tobacco advertising.

  11. Price promotions and marketing within points of sale around high schools in Greece during the 2012 economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis Girvalaki

    2015-12-01

    Price promotions were noted within the majority of POS close to schools. Aggressive promotional activities may hinder efforts to de-normalize tobacco use, especially during financial crisis when price promotions may pose as more attractive to potential consumers.

  12. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  13. Eyes on the prize: transnational tobacco companies in China 1976-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, B; Chapman, S

    2000-09-01

    Internal tobacco industry documents relevant to China as published on www.tobaccoarchives.com located between 31 May and 1 August 1999 were searched. Documents describing the ambitions and conduct of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in China between 1976 and 1997 were located and reviewed in three sections: part A-early identification of market potential and attempts to enter the market, and improve trade and technology; part B-marketing and promotion efforts; part C-efforts to pre-empt legislation, control the smoking and health debate, and undermine the anti-tobacco lobby.

  14. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  15. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S; Sommer, Toby J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high

  16. Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care: Results of the 2002 Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol McPhillips-Tangum

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the United States, tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. The health and cost consequences of tobacco dependence have made treatment and prevention of tobacco use a key priority among multiple stakeholders, including health plans, insurers, providers, employers, and policymakers. In 2002, the third survey of tobacco control practices and policies in health plans was conducted by America’s Health Insurance Plans’ technical assistance office as part of the Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care (ATMC program. Methods The ATMC survey was conducted in the spring of 2002 via mail, e-mail, and fax. A 19-item survey instrument was developed and pilot-tested. Of the 19 items, 12 were the same as in previous years, four were modified to collect more detailed data on areas of key interest, and three were added to gain information about strategies to promote smoking cessation. The sample for the survey was drawn from the 687 plans listed in the national directory of member and nonmember health plans in America's Health Insurance Plans. Results Of the 246 plans in the sample, 152 plans (62% representing more than 43.5 million health maintenance organization members completed the survey. Results show that health plans are using evidence-based programs and clinical guidelines to address tobacco use. Compared to ATMC survey data collected in 1997 and 2000, the 2002 ATMC survey results indicate that more health plans are providing full coverage for first-line pharmacotherapies and telephone counseling for smoking cessation. Plans have also shown improvement in their ability to identify at least some members who smoke. Similarly, a greater percentage of plans are employing strategies to address smoking cessation during the postpartum period to prevent smoking relapse and during pediatric visits to reduce or eliminate children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion The results of the 2002 ATMC survey

  17. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  18. Exposure to Internet-Based Tobacco Advertising and Branding: Results From Population Surveys of Australian Youth 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna

    2016-06-23

    Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians. Little is currently known about the exposure of young people to these new media promotions. To measure exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among Australian youth, identify common formats of branding encountered, and examine the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility. The Tobacco Promotion Impact Study is a repeat cross-sectional telephone survey of young people (12-24 years) in 2 Australian states, conducted yearly from 2010 to 2013 (total n=8820). The survey included questions about past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and tobacco company branding. Changes in levels of exposure, characteristics of exposed youth, and the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility were explored. Past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among young people increased over the years of the survey (advertising: 21% in 2010 to 29% in 2013; branding: 20% in 2010 to 26% in 2013). The participants who were younger, female, from lower socioeconomic status, and never-smokers were more likely to report exposure. Facebook was the most commonly cited platform for encountering tobacco branding in 2013 (22% of all branding). Compared with young people interviewed in 2013, participants in 2010 were significantly less likely to report exposure to tobacco branding on social media (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.33, Pbranding (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57, P=.002) or branding alone (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.77, P=.007) were significant predictors of smoking susceptibility. Ensuring tobacco advertising bans are inclusive of Internet-based media is essential. Given the global nature of Internet-based content, cooperation among signatory nations to the World Health Organization

  19. Obtaining High Pest-resistant Tobacco Plants Carrying B.t. insecticidal Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To increase the expression level of CryIA(c) gene in transgenic plants, a plant expression vector pBinMoBc carrying the CryIA(c) gene under control of chimeric OM promoter and Ω factor was constructed. As a control, pBinoBc carrying the CryIA(c) gene with the CaMV 35S promoter was also constructed. The vectors were transferred into tobacco plants respectively via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. ELISA assay showed that the expression level of the CryIA(c) gene in pBinMoBc transgenic tobacco plants was 2.44-times that in pBinoBc transgenic tobacco plants, and it could be up to 0.255% of total soluble proteins. Bioassay showed that pBinMoBc transgenic tobacco plants had more notable insecticidal effect than pBinoBc transgenic tobacco plants. The above results showed that the chimeric OM promoter was a stronger promoter than CaMV 35S promoter that was widely used in plant genetic engineering, and this is very useful in pest-resistant plant genetic engineering.

  20. A framework to prevent and control tobacco among adolescents and children: introducing the IMPACT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Neha

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children.

  1. The importance of continued engagement during the implementation phase of tobacco control policies in a middle-income country: the case of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the process of implementing and enforcing smoke-free environments, tobacco advertising, tobacco taxes and health warning labels from Costa Rica's 2012 tobacco control law. Review of tobacco control legislation, newspaper articles and interviewing key informants. Despite overcoming decades of tobacco industry dominance to win enactment of a strong tobacco control law in March 2012 consistent with WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the tobacco industry and their allies lobbied executive branch authorities for exemptions in smoke-free environments to create public confusion, and continued to report in the media that increasing cigarette taxes led to a rise in illicit trade. In response, tobacco control advocates, with technical support from international health groups, helped strengthen tobacco advertising regulations by prohibiting advertising at the point-of-sale (POS) and banning corporate social responsibility campaigns. The Health Ministry used increased tobacco taxes earmarked for tobacco control to help effectively promote and enforce the law, resulting in high compliance for smoke-free environments, advertising restrictions and health warning label (HWL) regulations. Despite this success, government trade concerns allowed, as of December 2015, POS tobacco advertising, and delayed the release of HWL regulations for 15 months. The implementation phase continues to be a site of intensive tobacco industry political activity in low and middle-income countries. International support and earmarked tobacco taxes provide important technical and financial assistance to implement tobacco control policies, but more legal expertise is needed to overcome government trade concerns and avoid unnecessary delays in implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Tobacco regulations and policies in the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Konstantinovich Demin

    2017-05-01

    Differences between tobacco regulations and policies in the EAEU, EU and other supranational organizations should be further researched in order to promote exchange of best practices in WHO FCTC comprehensive compliance. Implementation of WHO FCTC Article 5.3. and involvement of civil society are among priorities. The practical prospects for the supranational EAEU to become a party to the WHO FCTC should be considered in detail.

  3. Assessing Tobacco Treatment Practices and Beliefs Among Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    Michael Celestin, Jr, MA, from the Louisiana Tobacco Control Initiative and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, discusses his study conducted among health care staff to determine what they believe are the best ways to help patients quit smoking.  Created: 5/22/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  4. Success Counteracting Tobacco Company Interference in Thailand: An Example of FCTC Implementation for Low- and Middle-income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Hamann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs interfere regularly in policymaking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control provides mechanisms and guidance for dealing with TTC interference, but many countries still face ‘how to’ challenges of implementation. For more than two decades, Thailand’s public health community has been developing a system for identifying and counteracting strategies TTCs use to derail, delay and undermine tobacco control policymaking. Consequently, Thailand has already implemented most of the FCTC guidelines for counteracting TTC interference. In this study, our aims are to describe strategies TTCs have used in Thailand to interfere in policymaking, and to examine how the public health community in Thailand has counteracted TTC interference. We analyzed information reported by three groups with a stake in tobacco control policies: Thai tobacco control advocates, TTCs, and international tobacco control experts. To identify TTC viewpoints and strategies, we also extracted information from internal tobacco industry documents. We synthesized these data and identified six core strategies TTCs use to interfere in tobacco control policymaking: (1 doing business with ‘two faces’, (2 seeking to influence people in high places, (3 ‘buying’ advocates in grassroots organizations, (4 putting up a deceptive front, (5 intimidation, and (6 undermining controls on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. We present three case examples showing where TTCs have employed multiple interference strategies simultaneously, and showing how Thai tobacco control advocates have successfully counteracted those strategies by: (1 conducting vigilant surveillance, (2 excluding tobacco companies from policymaking, (3 restricting tobacco company sales, (4 sustaining pressure, and (5 dedicating resources to the effective enforcement of regulations. Policy implications from this study are

  5. Success counteracting tobacco company interference in Thailand: an example of FCTC implementation for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenca, Naowarut; Mock, Jeremiah; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Preechawong, Sunida; Kojetin, Nicholas; Hamann, Stephen L

    2012-04-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) interfere regularly in policymaking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control provides mechanisms and guidance for dealing with TTC interference, but many countries still face 'how to' challenges of implementation. For more than two decades, Thailand's public health community has been developing a system for identifying and counteracting strategies TTCs use to derail, delay and undermine tobacco control policymaking. Consequently, Thailand has already implemented most of the FCTC guidelines for counteracting TTC interference. In this study, our aims are to describe strategies TTCs have used in Thailand to interfere in policymaking, and to examine how the public health community in Thailand has counteracted TTC interference. We analyzed information reported by three groups with a stake in tobacco control policies: Thai tobacco control advocates, TTCs, and international tobacco control experts. To identify TTC viewpoints and strategies, we also extracted information from internal tobacco industry documents. We synthesized these data and identified six core strategies TTCs use to interfere in tobacco control policymaking: (1) doing business with 'two faces', (2) seeking to influence people in high places, (3) 'buying' advocates in grassroots organizations, (4) putting up a deceptive front, (5) intimidation, and (6) undermining controls on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. We present three case examples showing where TTCs have employed multiple interference strategies simultaneously, and showing how Thai tobacco control advocates have successfully counteracted those strategies by: (1) conducting vigilant surveillance, (2) excluding tobacco companies from policymaking, (3) restricting tobacco company sales, (4) sustaining pressure, and (5) dedicating resources to the effective enforcement of regulations. Policy implications from this study are that tobacco control

  6. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamann Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. Method We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. Findings In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1 discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2 development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3 delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1 adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2 attracting foreign funding agencies to support small

  7. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. Results There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. Conclusions In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state. PMID:28589021

  8. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm(2) was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state.

  9. Signed, sealed and delivered: "big tobacco" in Hollywood, 1927-1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, K L; Polansky, J R; Jackler, R K; Glantz, S A

    2008-10-01

    Smoking in movies is associated with adolescent and young adult smoking initiation. Public health efforts to eliminate smoking from films accessible to youth have been countered by defenders of the status quo, who associate tobacco imagery in "classic" movies with artistry and nostalgia. The present work explores the mutually beneficial commercial collaborations between the tobacco companies and major motion picture studios from the late 1920s through the 1940s. Cigarette endorsement contracts with Hollywood stars and movie studios were obtained from internal tobacco industry documents at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and the Jackler advertising collection at Stanford. Cigarette advertising campaigns that included Hollywood endorsements appeared from 1927 to 1951, with major activity in 1931-2 and 1937-8 for American Tobacco Company's Lucky Strike, and in the late 1940s for Liggett & Myers' Chesterfield. Endorsement contracts and communication between American Tobacco and movie stars and studios explicitly reveal the cross-promotional value of the campaigns. American Tobacco paid movie stars who endorsed Lucky Strike cigarettes US$218,750 in 1937-8 (equivalent to US$3.2 million in 2008) for their testimonials. Hollywood endorsements in cigarette advertising afforded motion picture studios nationwide publicity supported by the tobacco industry's multimillion US dollar advertising budgets. Cross-promotion was the incentive that led to a synergistic relationship between the US tobacco and motion picture industries, whose artefacts, including "classic" films with smoking and glamorous publicity images with cigarettes, continue to perpetuate public tolerance of onscreen smoking. Market-based disincentives within the film industry may be a solution to decouple the historical association between Hollywood films and cigarettes.

  10. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Or¬ganization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of to¬bacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are ei¬ther directly engaged in tobacco industry oper-ations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that chal¬lenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy.Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian gov¬ernment’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advo¬cacy campaign (May to October 2010 to chal¬lenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy.Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsor¬ship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies in¬cluding en¬gaging all concerned government agencies from the be¬ginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes.Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strate¬gies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an impor¬tant advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for im¬provements in national tobacco control regulations.

  11. Transient expression assays in tobacco protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bossche, Robin; Demedts, Brecht; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Goossens, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The sequence information generated through genome and transcriptome analysis from plant tissues has reached unprecedented sizes. Sequence homology-based annotations may provide hints for the possible function and roles of particular plant genes, but the functional annotation remains nonexistent or incomplete for many of them. To discover gene functions, transient expression assays are a valuable tool because they can be done more rapidly and at a higher scale than generating stably transformed tissues. Here, we describe a transient expression assay in protoplasts derived from suspension cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the study of the transactivation capacities of transcription factors. To enhance throughput and reproducibility, this method can be automated, allowing medium-throughput screening of interactions between large compendia of potential transcription factors and gene promoters.

  12. [Tobacco smoking treatment strategy in COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Paula; Mendes, Berta

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation is one of the most important ways of improving the prognosis of COPD patients. Based on currently available evidence professional health workers should take a proactive and continuous role with smokers, motivating them to stop smoking and providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. The treatment should include pharmacotherapy in addition to behavioural support and should be part of management of the patient's chronic respiratory condition, as the COPD National Prevention and Treatment Programme recommends. Respiratory physicians and other professional health workers should receive training to ensure they have the necessary knowledge, attitude and skills to undertake these initiatives or to refer the smokers to a suitable qualified specialist. In the near future specialised smoking units should provide specific support, promote training, improve research and awareness and establish tobacco control measures in hospitals and primary health care centres.

  13. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  14. Socioeconomic implications of tobacco use in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M; Mamudu, Hadii M; Liber, Alex C

    2012-10-01

    Country-level evidence from Africa on the prevalence of tobacco use and the role played by both demographic and socioeconomic factors, as influences on the use of tobacco products, is sparse. This paper analyzes the determinants of tobacco use in Ghana and explores the association between tobacco use and poverty in the country. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of households (n = 12,323), were used to generate descriptive statistics and characterize tobacco use in the country. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between tobacco use and age, place of residence, region, education status, wealth, marital status, alcohol use, and whether the person has children. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for tobacco users and nonusers on the likelihood of their purchase of selected commodities indicative of living standards. Tobacco use was significantly higher among those living in poverty stricken regions, those with less education, lower levels of wealth, parents, and alcohol users. Tobacco use was significantly higher among men (7%) than women (0.4%), and it increased to a peak age of 41.4 years before it declined. Using tobacco was also associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing health insurance. Tobacco use is inextricably related to poverty in Ghana. Policies should be formulated to target populations and regions with higher tobacco prevalence to combat both poverty and tobacco use simultaneously.

  15. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A G

    1980-09-01

    Snuff dipping and tobacco chewing are rapidly gaining popularity in the United States. They are being heavily promoted through mass media advertising. Advertising spots on radio, television, and in the printed media use well-known sports personalities and entertainers to act as spokesmen for smokeless tobacco. Despite the esthetic drawbacks of these social acceptance. This is being accomplished, at least in part, through a skillful manipulation of the public by the tobacco industry. Use of smokeless tobacco is rapidly increasing, especially among young male athletes and students in high school and college. Advertising implies that smokeless tobacco habits are innocuous and safe. They are not. Smokeless tobacco products have shown that potential for causing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and eophagus. A review of the medical and dental literature has shown 646 cases of cancer associated directly with smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco can produce significant effects on the soft and hard tissues of the mouth, including bad breath, discolored teeth and restorations, excessive wear (abrasion) of the incisal and occlusal surfaces of the teeth, decreased ability to taste and small, gingival recession, advanced periodontal destruction of the soft and hard tissues, erythema of the soft tissues, leukoplakia, and cancer. Health professionals are urged to advise their patients concerning the hazards of using smokeless tobacco and to take a strong public stance in opposition to the current advertising campaigns aimed at youth. The professions should demand that smokeless tobacco products print health warning labels on the packages and in advertising copy. Finally, patients should be taught how to recognize signs of breakdown of the soft and hard tissues.

  16. Contentious corporate social responsibility practices by British American tobacco in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsly Awang Ollong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, tobacco companies have intensified market expansion strategies in several African countries. They have used music to target youths and children. They organised fashion shows to entice women into smoking. They offered kids free cigarettes on the streets and for a very long time undermined efforts by governments to put in place effective tobacco legislation. They actively participated in the smuggling of tobacco products into the continent. Worse still, tobacco companies persuaded some African governments to promote tobacco cultivation as a major source of foreign earnings. And in recent years, the tobacco industry has resorted to using Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR to massage its image and cover its tracks. British American Tobacco (BAT, which is the focus of this paper, had a virtual monopoly in parts of Africa, both in terms of tobacco manufacturing and sales of cigarettes. In eleven African countries BAT had more than a 90% share of the cigarette market. This paper examines some of the health, social and economic impacts of BAT’s activities in Africa from 1985 to 2010 using Cameroon as a case study. The paper concludes that though the full effects of rising tobacco consumption (namely a steep rise in smoking-induced illness and premature death was at the dawn of the 21st century, Africa was already in the grip of a major tobacco epidemic. There is no doubt therefore that, BAT’s heavy footprint on the African continent wreaked havoc on the economy, health and welfare of the people, thus partially contributing to the non-realisation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs that were designed to help the world’s poorest people.

  17. An overview of the tobacco problem in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S

    2012-01-01

    This is a review paper comprehensively encompassing the different aspects of tobacco control with particular reference to the Indian scenario. The information on prevalent tobacco habits in India, health hazards and environmental hazards due to tobacco use, passive smoking and its impact, economics of tobacco, legislation to control tobacco in India, the tobacco cessation services and the way ahead for effective tobacco control are discussed. Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death, k...

  18. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (pcigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, restricting tobacco advertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance

  19. Cloning of bacteria-inducible plant promoters and their activation in transgenic tobacco%受细菌诱导的植物启动子的克隆及其在转基因烟草中的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建令; 董宏平; 包志龙; 董汉松; 王金生

    2003-01-01

    从烟草中克隆了受病原物诱导的植物启动子(pathogen-inducible plant promoters,PPPs)PPP1、PPP2、PPP3,其长度分别为1 308,1 170,220 bp,序列分析表明它们均含有受细菌诱导的反应元件(Bac).资料检索表明,PPP3可能是从植物分离的、受细菌诱导的最短的启动子.构建了包括每个PPP启动子和报道基因uidA(编码β-葡萄糖醛酸酶,GUS)的转化单元,用它们以及包括来自椰菜花叶病毒35S启动子和uidA单元,在相同条件下分别转化烟草,获得了分别含PPP和35S启动子的4类转基因烟草品系;分子检测表明,转化单元在转基因烟草染色体上能稳定整合.根据对转基因烟草GUS组织化学测定,3个启动子都可以受青枯菌的诱导.

  20. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  1. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  2. Study on Poverty Alleviation and Tobacco Control in Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Perucic, Anne-Marie; Rahman, Khalilur

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at tobacco consumption among low-income groups and assesses the level of tobacco-related expenditure among households using tobacco and the opportunity cost of their tobacco expenditure. A survey among tobacco users from low-income groups was conducted to collect data for the analysis. The survey found that households consuming tobacco were spending many times more on toba...

  3. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  6. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  8. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  9. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce

  10. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  11. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  12. Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)

  13. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  14. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  15. Development of a model of the tobacco industry's interference with tobacco control programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Trochim, W; Stillman, F; Clark, P; Schmitt, C.(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To construct a conceptual model of tobacco industry tactics to undermine tobacco control programmes for the purposes of: (1) developing measures to evaluate industry tactics, (2) improving tobacco control planning, and (3) supplementing current or future frameworks used to classify and analyse tobacco industry documents.

  16. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  17. [Neuropsychological rehabilitation in wartime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2013-11-16

    Introduccion. El descenso de la mortalidad por daño cerebral durante la Primera Guerra Mundial ocasionara un elevado numero de veteranos con secuelas neurologicas o neuropsicologicas. Esta situacion, desconocida hasta entonces, requerira el desarrollo de nuevos abordajes terapeuticos que les ayuden a alcanzar unas cotas de autonomia aceptables. Desarrollo. Este articulo revisa la relacion existente entre la rehabilitacion neuropsicologica y la guerra y describe las aportaciones hechas por diferentes profesionales de este ambito en los dos grandes conflictos belicos del siglo XX. La Primera Guerra Mundial marcara el inicio de la rehabilitacion neuropsicologica tal y como la conocemos actualmente; en ese periodo destacaran las contribuciones realizadas por Goldstein y Poppelreuter en Alemania o Franz en Estados Unidos. La Segunda Guerra Mundial supondra la consolidacion de esta disciplina sanitaria; los principales referentes seran Zangwill en Inglaterra y Luria en la Union Sovietica. Tambien se incluye un conflicto armado de menor repercusion geopolitica, la Guerra del Yom Kippur, que ejemplifica como los enfrentamientos belicos pueden estimular el desarrollo de programas de intervencion neuropsicologica. Conclusion. Los actuales programas de rehabilitacion neuropsicologica estan estrechamente vinculados a las intervenciones empleadas en tiempos de guerra por Goldstein, Zangwill o Luria. Los medios utilizados son distintos, pero los objetivos siguen siendo los mismos: ayudar a las personas con daño cerebral a ser capaces de adaptarse a su nueva vida.

  18. Transformational Leadership in Wartime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    the airfield at Magwe. We circled, waiting for a signal from the ground, but no lamp flickered, so we landed and taxied up the runway…Darkness was...hemorrhoids, prostate problems, recurring bouts of ‘Delhi belly’ and malaria, Slim set himself a schedule meant to preserve his physical and mental

  19. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.

  20. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  1. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  2. The tobacco gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rovetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 it was closed and dismantled the spectacular Duke Gar­dens near Princeton University. They were created by the famous heiress Doris Duke, in honor of her father, James Buchanan Duke. This last gentleman caused 100-million deaths during the 20th century. The gardens mentioned demonstrated, perhaps trivially, what was stated by philosopher Walter Benjamin: There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism”. “Buck” Duke was the inventor of the modern cigarette. By the end of the 20th century, this astute manufacturer entered the instantly ready-to-smoke tobacco market (without having to roll in small pieces of paper or cut off the cigarette tips with the automated production of cigarettes. Without a cigarette maker like Carmen from opera by Bizet who rolled a maximum of 200 cigarettes per day, the machine he perfected with a mechanic named Bonsack produced 120,000 “cigarettes” during the same time. Thereby, rea­ching a oversupply that had to be sold – creating a demand for it. The solution was cigarette marketing and advertising. These were placed in restaurants, bars, and cigar stores; thus, making them an important part of the worker’s period of rest and dining. Although, in principle, they were associated to women of free morals (“Smo­king is a great sensual pleasure. While smoking, I a wait for the man I love …” sang Sarita Montiel in the 1950s in a stroke of clever advertising these were transformed into symbols of women’s libe­ration. Toward the late 1920s, young women were seen marching and brandishing their freedom torches, the cigarettes. During the two world wars, cigarettes were distributed to hundreds of thou­sands of soldiers as part of their daily nutritional ration. During the immediate post-war, packs of Camel and Lucky Strike were the most used Exchange currency in Europe. With all these publi­city maneuvers, Mr. Duke and his partners have caused, as we al

  3. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  4. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  6. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."

  7. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  9. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  10. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  11. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  12. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia J.

    2001-01-01

    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  13. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  14. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  15. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  16. Expression of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit in transgenic tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-li; ZHANG Zheng; LI Wen-sheng; ZHENG Jing; KONG Ling-hong; WANG Yi-li; SI Lü-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To construct plant transformation vector containing Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) gene and generate LT-B transgenic tobacco plants. Methods: The LT-B coding sequence was amplified from pMMB68 by PCR, subcloned into middle vector pUCmT and binary vector pBI121 to obtain plant expression vector pBI-LTB, in which LT-B expression was controlled under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The tobacco plants (Nicotiana tobacum L. Cuttivar Xanthi) were transformed by co-cultivating leaf discs method via Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the plant expression vector. The regenerated transgenic tobacco plants were selected by kanamycin and confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, Western blot and ELISA. Results: LT-B gene integrated in the tobacco genomic DNA and were expressed in 9 strains of transgenic tobacco plants. The yield was varied from 3.36-10.56 ng/mg total soluble tobacco leaf protein. Conclusion: The plant binary expression vector pBILTB was constructed successfully, and transgenic LT-B tobacco plants was generated, and confirmed by Southern blot. The protein LT-B expressed by engineered plants was identified by Western blot analysis and had the expected molecular weight of LT-B pentamer protein. This result is an important step close to developing an edible vaccine and supplying a mucasal immunoajuvant, which will contribute to the prevention of mucosa-route evading pathogen.

  17. Designing a tobacco counter-marketing campaign for African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Doris M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this qualitative study were to: a identify common marketing themes and tactics used by the tobacco industry to entice African Americans (AA's and youth to initiate and maintain smoking behavior, especially smoking mentholated brands of cigarettes, and b determine AA youths' knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about smoking and the tobacco industry. Together, these activities could aid in the development of effective tobacco counter-marketing campaigns for AA youth. Using publicly available tobacco industry documents, computerized searches using standardized keywords were run and results were cataloged and analyzed thematically. Subsequently, 5 focus groups were conducted with n = 28 AA middle school-aged youth. Results suggest that the tobacco industry consistently recruited new AA smokers through a variety of means, including social and behavioral marketing studies and targeted media and promotional campaigns in predominantly AA, urban, and low income areas. AA youth interviewed in this study were largely unaware of these tactics, and reacted negatively against the industry upon learning of them. Youth tended to externalize control over tobacco, especially within the AA community. In designing a counter-marketing campaign for this population, partnering knowledge of tobacco industry practices with youth needs and community resources will likely increase their effectiveness.

  18. Designing a tobacco counter-marketing campaign for African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doris M; Wine, Lauren A; Zack, Sharon; Zimmer, Eric; Wang, Judy H; Weitzel-O'Neill, Patricia A; Claflin, Vickie; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2008-08-26

    The objectives of this qualitative study were to: a) identify common marketing themes and tactics used by the tobacco industry to entice African Americans (AA's) and youth to initiate and maintain smoking behavior, especially smoking mentholated brands of cigarettes, and b) determine AA youths' knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about smoking and the tobacco industry. Together, these activities could aid in the development of effective tobacco counter-marketing campaigns for AA youth. Using publicly available tobacco industry documents, computerized searches using standardized keywords were run and results were cataloged and analyzed thematically. Subsequently, 5 focus groups were conducted with n = 28 AA middle school-aged youth. Results suggest that the tobacco industry consistently recruited new AA smokers through a variety of means, including social and behavioral marketing studies and targeted media and promotional campaigns in predominantly AA, urban, and low income areas. AA youth interviewed in this study were largely unaware of these tactics, and reacted negatively against the industry upon learning of them. Youth tended to externalize control over tobacco, especially within the AA community. In designing a counter-marketing campaign for this population, partnering knowledge of tobacco industry practices with youth needs and community resources will likely increase their effectiveness.

  19. A Helpline Telephone Service for Tobacco Related Issues: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Enrica; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Solimini, Renata; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    Antismoking helplines have become an integral part of tobacco control efforts in many countries, including Italy. The demonstrated efficacy and the convenience of telephone based counselling have led to the fast adoption of antismoking helplines. However, information on how these helplines operate in actual practice is not often readily available. This paper provides an overview of the Italian Antismoking Helpline, an increasingly popular telephone service for tobacco problems operating in Italy since 2000. As many states, regions and nations are contemplating various telephone programs as part of large scale anti-tobacco campaigns, this paper briefly discusses the reasons the helpline is well suited to lead the cessation component of a comprehensive tobacco control program, how it operates and how it can be used in conjunction with other tobacco control activities. The Italian Antismoking Helpline provides Italians with free services that include counselling, cessat