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Sample records for warsaw poland sponsored

  1. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich

    2017-09-01

    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  2. Mammalian and avian embryology at Warsaw University (Poland) from XIX century to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Andrzej K; Maleszewski, Marek; Rogulska, Teresa; Ciemerych, Maria A; Borsuk, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe the history (between the XIX century and World War II) of embryological research conducted at Warsaw University, together with current research activities being carried out at the Department of Embryology. During the partition of Poland, the Imperial (Russian) Warsaw University conducted research on avian embryology (and to a smaller extent, on reptilian embryology). When Poland regained independence in 1918, these studies were continued under the Chair of Comparative Anatomy headed by Professor Jan Tur. A new Department of Embryology created in 1954 was first headed by Professor Stanislaw Bilewicz and since 1964 by Professor Andrzej Tarkowski, who in 2003 was succeeded by Dr. Marek Maleszewski D.Sc. During the last 45 years, embryological research at Warsaw University has concentrated mainly on mammalian development with special emphasis on the regulative capabilities of early embryos and also on experimental chimaeras, nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in oogenesis and early embryogenesis (including regulation of DNA replication and transcription), experimental parthenogenesis and fertilization.

  3. Contrasting academic and tobacco industry estimates of illicit cigarette trade: evidence from Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2014-05-01

    To compare two different methods for estimating the size of the illicit cigarette market with each other and to contrast the estimates obtained by these two methods with the results of an industry-commissioned study. We used two observational methods: collection of data from packs in smokers' personal possession, and collection of data from packs discarded on streets. The data were obtained in Warsaw, Poland in September 2011 and October 2011. We used tests of independence to compare the results based on the two methods, and to contrast those with the estimate from the industry-commissioned discarded pack collection conducted in September 2011. We found that the proportions of cigarette packs classified as not intended for the Polish market estimated by our two methods were not statistically different. These estimates were 14.6% (95% CI 10.8% to 19.4%) using the survey data (N=400) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2% to 18.4%) using the discarded pack data (N=754). The industry estimate (22.9%) was higher by nearly a half compared with our estimates, and this difference is statistically significant. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence of the tobacco industry exaggerating the scope of illicit trade and with the general pattern of the industry manipulating evidence to mislead the debate on tobacco control policy in many countries. Collaboration between governments and the tobacco industry to estimate tobacco tax avoidance and evasion is likely to produce upward-biased estimates of illicit cigarette trade. If governments are presented with industry estimates, they should strictly require a disclosure of all methodological details and data used in generating these estimates, and should seek advice from independent experts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

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    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program.

  5. Warsaw Pact: The Question of Cohesion. Phase II, Volume 2. Poland, German Democratic Republic and Romania,

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    1984-11-01

    Napoleonic * wars), tales of past insurrections, and the music of Chopin . Historical conflicts with Poland’s major neighbours * have been accompanied by...Soviet invasion) would be known in Moscow within 1 90 hours . At any rate, a certain percentage of the professional cadre and riot control and internal...detail in the autobiographical story of a philosophy student, drafted in the 70s, who also discusses negative attitudes towards the draft and the

  6. Geostatistical study of spatial correlations of lead and zinc concentration in urban reservoir. Study case Czerniakowskie Lake, Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The article presents detailed geostatistical analysis of spatial distribution of lead and zinc concentration in water, suspension and bottom sediments of large, urban lake exposed to intensive anthropogenic pressure within a large city. Systematic chemical measurements were performed at eleven cross-sections located along Czerniakowskie Lake, the largest lake in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. During the summer, the lake is used as a public bathing area, therefore, to better evaluate human impacts, field measurements were carried out in high-use seasons. It was found that the spatial distributions of aqueous lead and zinc differ during the summer and autumn. In summer several Pb and Zn hot-spots were observed, while during autumn spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were rather homogenous throughout the entire lake. Large seasonal differences in spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were found in bottom sediments. Autumn concentrations of both heavy metals were ten times higher in comparison with summer values. Clear cross-correlations of Pb and Zn concentrations in water, suspension and bottom sediments suggest that both Pb and Zn came to Czerniakowskie Lake from the same source.

  7. Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland)

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    Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons. Urban recreationists' preference for slightly warm thermal conditions, sunny, windless and cloudless weather, were identified as well as PET values considered to be optimal for sightseeing were defined between 27.3 and 31.7 °C. The results confirmed existence of phenomena called alliesthesia, which manifested in divergent thermal perception of comparable biometeorological conditions in transitional seasons. The results suggest that recreationist thermal sensations differed from other interviewees' responses and were affected not only by physiological processes but they were also conditioned by psychological factors (i.e. attitude, expectations). Significant impact of respondents' place of origin and its climate on creating thermal sensations and preferences was observed. Sex and age influence thermal preferences, whereas state of acclimatization is related with thermal sensations to some point.

  8. Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons. Urban recreationists' preference for slightly warm thermal conditions, sunny, windless and cloudless weather, were identified as well as PET values considered to be optimal for sightseeing were defined between 27.3 and 31.7 °C. The results confirmed existence of phenomena called alliesthesia, which manifested in divergent thermal perception of comparable biometeorological conditions in transitional seasons. The results suggest that recreationist thermal sensations differed from other interviewees' responses and were affected not only by physiological processes but they were also conditioned by psychological factors (i.e. attitude, expectations). Significant impact of respondents' place of origin and its climate on creating thermal sensations and preferences was observed. Sex and age influence thermal preferences, whereas state of acclimatization is related with thermal sensations to some point.

  9. Land conversion for suburban housing: A study of urbanization around Warsaw and Olsztyn, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Adam; Krukowski, Krzysztof

    2004-08-01

    In Poland of the 1990s, urban demand for housing land around city agglomerations increased rapidly. The decreasing profitability of agricultural production also caused farmers to become interested in the sale of agricultural land for nonagricultural purposes, and new land legislation granted them the right to sell their land. Polish counties simultaneously received self-governing status, which allowed them to define the priorities for local development. Counties received additional responsibility for land management and quickly demonstrated strong support for land conversion, which was perceived as a factor of local development. This paper argues that decentralization and the extension of private control over land have led to a loss of rural landscapes in Poland because farmers, county governments, and rural society in general gained from the conversion of agricultural to housing land. Rapid urbanization has significantly reduced the availability of open space around cities and threatened valuable landscapes, for it has occurred in the absence of environmental safeguards. This paper reports findings from research in two counties, located in regions with diverse economic growth rates. Decentralization is particularly problematic if tax regulations and intergovernmental fiscal relations reward local authorities for urbanization but not environmental protection.

  10. Prevalence of ESBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Warsaw, Poland, detected by various phenotypic and genotypic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudy, Agnieszka E; Róg, Patrycja; Smolińska-Król, Katarzyna; Ćmiel, Milena; Słoczyńska, Alicja; Patzer, Jan; Dzierżanowska, Danuta; Wolinowska, Renata; Starościak, Bohdan; Tyski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of ESBL enzymes among P. aeruginosa strains compared to the Enterobacteraiceae family is limited. The phenotypic tests recommended by EUCAST for the detection of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are not always suited for P. aeruginosa strains. This is mainly due to the presence of other families of ESBLs in P. aeruginosa isolates more often than in Enterobacteriaceae, production of natural AmpC cephalosporinase and its overexpression, and co-production of metallo-β-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of ESBLs in P. aeruginosa isolated from patients from hospitals in Warsaw, to evaluate the ESBL production of these isolates using currently available phenotypic tests, their modifications, multiplex PCR and molecular typing of ESBL-positive isolates by PFGE. Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected in 2000-2014 from four Warsaw hospitals. Based on the data obtained in this study, we suggest using three DDST methods with inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam and imipenem, to detect ESBL-producing P. aeruginosa strains. Depending on the appearance of the plates, we suggest a reduction in the distance between discs with antibiotics to 15 mm and the addition of boronic acid at 0.4 mg per disc. The analysed isolates carried genes encoding ESBL from the families VEB (69 isolates with VEB-9), GES (6 with GES-1, 1 GES-5, 5 GES-13 and 2 with GES-15), OXA-2 (12 with OXA-15, 1 OXA-141, 1 OXA-210, 1 OXA-543 and 1 with OXA-544) and OXA-10 (5 isolates with OXA-74 and one with OXA-142). The most important result of this study was the discovery of three new genes, blaGES-15, blaOXA-141 and blaOXA-142; their nucleotide sequences have been submitted to the NCBI GenBank. It is also very important to note that this is the first report on the epidemiological problem of VEB-9-producing bacterial strains, not only in Poland but also worldwide.

  11. Prevalence of ESBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Warsaw, Poland, detected by various phenotypic and genotypic methods.

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    Agnieszka E Laudy

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the prevalence of ESBL enzymes among P. aeruginosa strains compared to the Enterobacteraiceae family is limited. The phenotypic tests recommended by EUCAST for the detection of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are not always suited for P. aeruginosa strains. This is mainly due to the presence of other families of ESBLs in P. aeruginosa isolates more often than in Enterobacteriaceae, production of natural AmpC cephalosporinase and its overexpression, and co-production of metallo-β-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of ESBLs in P. aeruginosa isolated from patients from hospitals in Warsaw, to evaluate the ESBL production of these isolates using currently available phenotypic tests, their modifications, multiplex PCR and molecular typing of ESBL-positive isolates by PFGE. Clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected in 2000-2014 from four Warsaw hospitals. Based on the data obtained in this study, we suggest using three DDST methods with inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam and imipenem, to detect ESBL-producing P. aeruginosa strains. Depending on the appearance of the plates, we suggest a reduction in the distance between discs with antibiotics to 15 mm and the addition of boronic acid at 0.4 mg per disc. The analysed isolates carried genes encoding ESBL from the families VEB (69 isolates with VEB-9, GES (6 with GES-1, 1 GES-5, 5 GES-13 and 2 with GES-15, OXA-2 (12 with OXA-15, 1 OXA-141, 1 OXA-210, 1 OXA-543 and 1 with OXA-544 and OXA-10 (5 isolates with OXA-74 and one with OXA-142. The most important result of this study was the discovery of three new genes, blaGES-15, blaOXA-141 and blaOXA-142; their nucleotide sequences have been submitted to the NCBI GenBank. It is also very important to note that this is the first report on the epidemiological problem of VEB-9-producing bacterial strains, not only in Poland but also worldwide.

  12. Temporal variations in optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol derived from daytime Raman lidar observations over Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2017-11-01

    In July 2013, favorable weather conditions caused a severe events of advection of biomass burning particles of Canadian forest fires to Europe. The smoke layers were widely observed, especially in Western Europe. An unusual atmospheric aerosol composition was measured at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, Central Poland, during a short event that occurred between 11 and 21 UTC on 10th July 2013. Additionally to the smoke layer, mineral dust was detected in a separate layer. The long-range dust transport pathway followed an uncommon way; originating in Western Sahara, passing above middle Atlantic, and circulating over British Islands, prior to its arrival to Poland. An effective radius of 560 nm was obtained for Saharan dust over Warsaw. This relatively small effective radius is likely due to the long time of the transport. The aerosol-polarization-Raman PollyXT-UW lidar was used for a successful daytime Raman retrieval of the aerosol optical properties at selected times during this short event. The aerosol vertical structure during the inflow over Warsaw in terms of optical properties and depolarization was analyzed, indicating clear distinction of the layers. The microphysical properties were inverted from the lidar derived optical data for selected ranges as representing the smoke and the mineral dust. For smoke, the effective radius was in the range of 0.29-0.36 μm and the complex refractive index 1.36 + 0.008i, on average. For dust, the values of 0.33-0.56 μm and 1.56 + 0.004i were obtained. An evolution of the aerosol composition over Warsaw during the day was analyzed.

  13. Indoor air pollution from solid fuels and peripheral blood DNA methylation: findings from a population study in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng-Hua; Zhou, Jiachen; Rialdi, Alexander P; Martinez, Regina; Dabek, Joanna; Scelo, Ghislaine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chen, Jia; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    DNA methylation is a potential mechanism linking indoor air pollution to adverse health effects. Fetal and early-life environmental exposures have been associated with altered DNA methylation and play a critical role in progress of diseases in adulthood. We investigated whether exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels at different lifetime periods was associated with global DNA methylation and methylation at the IFG2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR) in a population-based sample of non-smoking women from Warsaw, Poland. Global methylation and IFG2/H19 ICR methylation were assessed in peripheral blood DNA from 42 non-smoking women with Luminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) and quantitative pyrosequencing, respectively. Linear regression models were applied to estimate associations between indoor air pollution and DNA methylation in the blood. Compared to women without exposure, the levels of LUMA methylation for women who had ever exposed to both coal and wood were reduced 6.70% (95% CI: -13.36, -0.04). Using both coal and wood before age 20 was associated with 6.95% decreased LUMA methylation (95% CI: -13.79, -0.11). Further, the negative correlations were more significant with exposure to solid fuels for cooking before age 20. There were no clear associations between indoor solid fuels exposure before age 20 and through the lifetime and IFG2/H19 ICR methylation. Our study of non-smoking women supports the hypothesis that exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels, even early-life exposure, has the capacity to modify DNA methylation that can be detected in peripheral blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The flora of the highest building in Poland (the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw

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    Halina Galera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the Palace of Culture and Science, which is the highest office building in Poland, was analysed. The exterior horizontal surfaces of the building (roofs, terraces, stairs could be regarded as polyhemerobic habitats. A total of 111 species of vascular plants (native species - 65% and 6 species of bryophytes were recorded from an area of 16 500 m2. It was found that the flora was relatively rich in species, of which some occurred in considerable quantities (over 1000 individuals of such species as: Eragrostis minor, Sagina procumbens, Chaenarrhinum minus were encountered. Moreover anemochorous species dominated (85% in the flora of the Palace. Thermophilous species and species indifferent to temperature were also strongly represented. The relatively high incidence of hygrophilous species was noteworthy. With regard to life forms an increased proportion of therophytes and phanerophytes (40% and 22%, respectively was observed. No significant differences were found between the flora of roofs situated on different floors of the building. However, slight differences between - the flora of north-facing and south-facing horizontal roof surfaces were marked.

  15. Pre-Linnaean herbaria viva of Helwing in the collections of the National Library of Poland and the University of Warsaw

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    Krzysztof Spalik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Georg Andreas Helwing (1666–1748 was the author of two important early accounts on the flora of former East Prussia: “Flora qusimodogenita” and “Supplementum florae prussicae”. Along with his son-in-law Matthias Ernst Boretius, he prepared several herbaria viva. Four of these herbaria survived until WWII; however, their whereabouts since WWII have been generally unknown. In this paper, two of these herbaria are described: one preserved in the collections of the National Library of Poland and another in the herbarium of the Faculty of Biology of the University of Warsaw. Both were formerly in the possession of the Königsberg city library. These herbaria document not only Helwing’s studies on the native flora of Prussia but also his experiments with acclimation of exotic species in his garden in Stullichen (Stulichy, Poland. They are also an important source of vernacular Polish and German names of plants.

  16. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

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    Dmuchowski, Wojciech, E-mail: dmuchowski@ob.neostrada.p [Botanical Garden-Center for Conservation of Biological Diversity, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2 Prawdziwka St., 02-973 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa (Poland); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  17. Genetic Identification of Communist Crimes' Victims (1944-1956) Based on the Analysis of One of Many Mass Graves Discovered on the Powazki Military Cemetery in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Diepenbroek, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz; Bykowska-Witowska, Milena; Zielińska, Grażyna; Dembińska, Teresa; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    As the result of the communist terror in Poland, during years 1944-1956 more than 50,000 people died. Their bodies were buried secretly, and most places are still unknown. The research presents the results of identification of people buried in one of many mass graves, which were found at the cemetery Powązki Military in Warsaw, Poland. Exhumation revealed the remains of eight people, among which seven were identified genetically. Well-preserved molars were used for the study. Reference material was collected from the closest living relatives. In one case, an exhumation of victim's parents had to be performed. DNA from swabs was extracted with a PrepFiler® BTA Forensic DNA Extraction Kit and organic method. Autosomal, Y-STR amplification, and mtDNA sequencing were performed. The biostatistical calculations resulted in LR values from 1608 to 928 × 1018 . So far, remains of more than 50 victims were identified. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. THE STRATEGY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION IN POLAND ON THE WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Padlowska

    2014-01-01

    The education is the main factor increasing human capital It has undoubtedly changed over time and exactly these changes have affected the development of the higher education and its strategies. Both public and private universities orient their activities to improve the quality of the education. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the strategy for the development of the higher education in Poland. The article presents several external conditions of the functioning of the Polish universiti...

  19. Effects of urban agglomeration on surface-UV doses: a comparison of Brewer measurements in Warsaw and Belsk, Poland, for the period 2013-2015

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    Czerwińska, Agnieszka E.; Krzyścin, Janusz W.; Jarosławski, Janusz; Posyniak, Michał

    2016-11-01

    Specific aerosols and cloud properties over large urban regions seem to generate an island, similar to the well-known urban heat island, leading to lower ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensity compared to the surrounding less polluted areas, thus creating a shield against excessive human exposure to UV radiation. The present study focuses on differences between erythemal and UVA (324 nm) doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers in Warsaw (52.3° N, 21.0° E) and Belsk (51.8° N, 20.8° E). The latter is a rural region located about 60 km south-west of the city. Ratios between erythemal and UVA partly daily doses, obtained during all-sky and cloudless-sky conditions for the period May 2013-December 2015, were analysed to infer a specific cloud and aerosol forcing on the surface UV doses over Warsaw. Radiative model simulations were carried out to find sources of the observed differences between the sites. It was found that Warsaw urban agglomeration induced 8 and 6 % attenuation of the erythemal and UVA doses respectively. This is mostly due to the lower sun elevation in Warsaw during the near-noon measurements and the larger optical depth of the city aerosols and increased cloudiness. It could be hypothesised that the expected stronger absorption of the solar UV radiation by urban aerosols is compensated for here by a higher surface reflectivity over the city.

  20. Effects of urban agglomeration on surface-UV doses: a comparison of Brewer measurements in Warsaw and Belsk, Poland, for the period 2013–2015

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    A. E. Czerwińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific aerosols and cloud properties over large urban regions seem to generate an island, similar to the well-known urban heat island, leading to lower ultraviolet (UV radiation intensity compared to the surrounding less polluted areas, thus creating a shield against excessive human exposure to UV radiation. The present study focuses on differences between erythemal and UVA (324 nm doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers in Warsaw (52.3° N, 21.0° E and Belsk (51.8° N, 20.8° E. The latter is a rural region located about 60 km south-west of the city. Ratios between erythemal and UVA partly daily doses, obtained during all-sky and cloudless-sky conditions for the period May 2013–December 2015, were analysed to infer a specific cloud and aerosol forcing on the surface UV doses over Warsaw. Radiative model simulations were carried out to find sources of the observed differences between the sites. It was found that Warsaw urban agglomeration induced 8 and 6 % attenuation of the erythemal and UVA doses respectively. This is mostly due to the lower sun elevation in Warsaw during the near-noon measurements and the larger optical depth of the city aerosols and increased cloudiness. It could be hypothesised that the expected stronger absorption of the solar UV radiation by urban aerosols is compensated for here by a higher surface reflectivity over the city.

  1. Channel morphology changes and their relationship to valley bottom geology and human interventions; a case study from the Vistula Valley in Warsaw, Poland

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    Falkowski, Tomasz; Ostrowski, Piotr; Siwicki, Piotr; Brach, Michał

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of the geological setting of channel zone in the morphological variability of a river reach situated between engineered and seminatural channel sections. Investigations were carried out in the Vistula River channel in Warsaw. The study included the drilling of 60 geological boreholes in the river channel and the registering of sedimentary structures of modern river-channel sediments. The morphology of the channel was defined based on a series of bathymetric measurements of different river levels. To identify the reasons for the variation in the channel-bed morphology, numerical modelling of river flow was performed. Calculations were made using the FLUENT CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model. The stabilization of bottom erosion along the engineered reach of the river was found to be associated with a shallow depth to the top of the basement of modern alluvial sediments, composed of erosion-resistant glacial deposits. The suballuvial basement in this part of the river channel also serves as a local base level in relation to the river reach upstream.

  2. A comparative study of environmental awareness among students pursuing Bachelor’s studies in selected academic fields at the University of Warsaw, Poland

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    Kalinowska Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been conducted to compare the level of environmental awareness among the University of Warsaw Bachelor students of selected fields of study, which are: economics, geography and environmental protection. Diagnostic survey method was used to collect data from 180 students. The research interviewees included 60 economics students (equivalent to 33.3% of all respondents, 56 geography students (31.1% of respondents and 64 environmental science students (35.6% of respondents. The gender division was as follows: 119 females (66.1% of all respondents and 61 males (33.9% took part in the research. The survey consisted of two parts. The main part - “The study of environmental awareness” - referred to the dependent variable. Respondents were asked to provide answers to 21 questions. Twenty of them were closed-ended questions, while one was open-ended. The second part was demographics, which referred to independent variable – selected socio-demographic characteristics of respondents. The data were subjected to descriptive and chi-square analyses. Statistical analysis software STATA for Windows was used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. The study showed that the field of study significantly affects the answers declared by students in 6 of 21 questions (number: 6, 8, 11, 12, 16 and 20. Gender significantly affects the answers declared by students in 2 questions (number: 2 and 10. It can therefore be assumed that field of study had much stronger influence on student’s level of environmental awareness than their gender.

  3. Poland

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    Kus, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The concept of media accountability is a relatively new issue in Poland, both for Polish media researchers and journalists (media professionals), as well as for media users. Traditional institutions and instruments of media accountability are not very well developed (see Głowacki & Urbaniak, 2010). In this context, possible development of media accountability innovations online creates significant opportunities for fulfilling existing gaps in this area. A desk study and interviews conducted w...

  4. Air quality modeling for Warsaw agglomeration

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    Holnicki Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the air quality in the urban area of Warsaw, Poland. Calculations are carried out using the emissions and meteorological data from the year 2012. The modeling tool is the regional CALMET/CALPUFF system, which is used to link the emission sources with the distributions of the annual mean concentrations. Several types of polluting species that characterize the urban atmospheric environment, like PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, Pb, B(aP, are included in the analysis. The goal of the analysis is to identify the most polluted districts and polluting compounds there, to check where the concentration limits of particular pollutants are exceeded. Then, emission sources (or emission categories which are mainly responsible for violation of air quality standards and increase the adverse health effects, are identified. The modeling results show how the major emission sources – the energy sector, industry, traffic and the municipal sector – relate to the concentrations calculated in receptor points, including the contribution of the transboundary inflow. The results allow to identify districts where the concentration limits are exceeded and action plans are needed. A quantitative source apportionment shows the emission sources which are mainly responsible for the violation of air quality standards. It is shown that the road transport and the municipal sector are the emission classes which substantially affect air quality in Warsaw. Also transboundary inflow contributes highly to concentrations of some pollutants. The results presented can be of use in analyzing emission reduction policies for the city, as a part of an integrated modeling system.

  5. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Joel Wegmeister and Modern Hasidic Politics in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Guesnet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates how the emergence of the first modern Jewish metropolis in Warsaw in the second half of the 19th century challenged traditional visions of community cohesion. It argues that the acceleration of political and societal change within the Jewish community allowed observant elites to achieve political and cultural hegemony in Warsaw, and thus offers a sui generis pathway of Jewish metropolitan modernization. This claim is substantiated by following the communal and political involvement of a leading Hasidic civil leader, Joel Wegmeister (1837-1919, co-founder of the first outlets of the Agudat Israel in the Kingdom of Poland before World War One

  6. Impact of urban environmental pollution on growth, leaf damage, and chemical constituents of Warsaw urban trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldemar Chmielewski; Wojciech Dmuchowski; Stanislaw Suplat

    1998-01-01

    In the last 10 years, 3.5 percent of the tree population died annually in PolandÕs largest and most polluted cities, which is a problem of economic importance. Dieback of streetside trees in Warsaw is a long term process. It is an effect of biological reactions of trees to unfavorable conditions in the urban environment, particularly air and soil pollution and water...

  7. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  8. Monitoring of municipal waste generated in the city of Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Emilia; den Boer, Jan; Jaroszynska, Jadwiga; Szpadt, Ryszard

    2012-08-01

    Waste management in the new EU member states is currently undergoing rapid development in order to comply with the European legislation. In Poland there is a lack of capacity of waste treatment installations for residual waste which amounts to 5.5 million tonnes year(-1). Detailed data on waste generation is needed to design new installations and ensure their efficient operation. This paper presents the results of the monitoring of municipal waste generation in Warsaw, being one of the largest agglomerations in the region. Detailed quantitative and qualitative results for both household and institutional waste are provided, as well as the technological properties of the household waste. The amount of municipal waste generated per capita amounted to 390 kg year(-1). The main fractions contributing to the mixed household waste were: biodegradable kitchen waste, packaging plastics, non-packaging paper and cardboard, packaging glass and packaging paper and cardboard. The coarse fraction (> 100 mm) constituted 40% of total household waste, of which the majority were recyclables. The lower heating value of residual waste was sufficient to allow mass incineration. Data on historical developments of household waste quantities and composition since the year 2000 along with their estimates until the year 2020 are provided and discussed. Current problems of municipal waste management in Warsaw along with the proposed future solutions are briefly outlined.

  9. CAS course on Advanced Accelerator Physics in Warsaw

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) recently organised a course on Advanced Accelerator Physics. The course was held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.    The course followed an established format with lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 34 lectures, supplemented by private study, tutorials and seminars. The practical courses provided ‘hands-on’ experience of three topics: ‘Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics’, ‘RF Measurement Techniques’ and ‘Optics Design and Corrections’. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed their chosen topic throughout the duration of the school. Sixty-six students representing 18 nationalities attended this course, with most participants coming from European counties, but also from South Korea, Taiwan and Russia. Feedback from th...

  10. Measurements of radioactivity in Warsaw, Poland, during the year 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepke, R.; Gorberg, Z.; Deszczak, T.; Dabrowska, K.; Klimaszewska, E.

    1960-03-01

    The report deals with regular surveys that have been carried out on air, fall-out, rain-, ground-, tap-, river-, and waste-water in the Institute of Nuclear Research. In addition, strontium-90 in a number of samples of fall-out and milk has been determined. The results, 1027, are given in tables and plotted against time. 10 references, 3 figures, 20 tables.

  11. The Warsaw soundscape - structure and specifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Warsaw soundscape has been examined according to the principles of acoustic ecology. The soundscape is the acoustic environment tested primarily by qualitative research. Warsaw residents were asked in a survey about their sound impressions and requirements for the Warsaw soundscape. The aim of this research was to learn both the conditions of acoustic environment and the needs of space users in accordance with the space category. The present and expected sound structures of five different categories of space were examined (residential areas, streets, city centre, tourist areas and green areas. Information on both the specific Warsaw sounds and the ideas for new sounds (which could be introduced into the city was collected.

  12. 'Other posts in 'other places : Poland through a postcolonial lens?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, A.; Valentine, G.

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense ?postcolonial?. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to ?old Europe?, and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this ?other? place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing s...

  13. NATO’s Warsaw Summit: In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    have caused strain between those allies more concerned about security threats from NATO’s south and those that continue to prioritize deterring and...Montenegrin government has yet to adequately address long-standing concerns about the judiciary and corruption . They also note that a majority of...Chief Urges Montenegro to Tackle Corruption ,” Balkan Insight, February 9, 2016. NATO’s Warsaw Summit: In Brief Congressional Research Service 8 and

  14. Was the drought of 2015 on the River Vistula in Warsaw the lowest ever observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Hubert; Magnuszewski, Artur; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The River Vistula has a hydrological regime controlled by rainfall and snowmelt. The flood of 22 V 2010 r. had the highest discharge ever measured in Warsaw (Q=5898 m3/s). After this flood extreme low flows occurred in 12 IX 2012 (Q=172 m3/s) and in 28 VIII 2015 (157 m3/s). The low flow of 2015 set the lowest stage record (H=42 cm). The conditions during the low flow were favourable for archaeologists working on the River Vistula channel and banks. A group of archaeologists from the University of Warsaw discovered in the middle of the channel at 517 km a treasury of 17 century marbles and other finds. In 1656 Poland was in the state of war with Sweden. Marble sculptures were stolen and evacuated by the Swedish army from Warsaw to Gdansk harbor down the River Vistula. The barge transporting marbles sunk, leaving the treasure in the channel of the River Vistula. Since that time until now, the water levels in the river were too high to discover the treasures. The question is whether the drought of 2015 was the lowest in history and to what extent the lowest ever observed stage is related to the process of channel erosion in a regulated reach of the river. The specific conditions at the archaeological site have been studied using both long term hydrological data and hydrodynamic the 2D model CCHE2D, to the estimate erosion rate and velocities. The results show that the bottom erosion is quite strong and has caused lowering of the river bottom by 205 cm since 1919 (first rating curve published). The River Vistula reach in Warsaw forms a narrowing, called a "corset" which is controlled by the geological structures (river over flood terraces and glacial sills). Additionally the channel has been regulated by hydrotechnical structures and dredging work. The sequence of the 2010 year flood that increased the erosion rate in the reach and two deep low flows in 2012 and 2015 were favourable for archaeologists working in Warsaw on the River Vistula. The hydraulic conditions

  15. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND SPONSORS Acknowledgements and sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    6th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry www.IC3DDose.org Edited by Mark Oldham Assisted by Joseph R. Newton Academic Sponsors: American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) South Eastern Chapter of the AAPM (SEAAPM) The Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program The Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Scientific Organizing Committee: Sven Back (Sweden), Clive Baldock (Australia), Cheng-Shie Wuu (USA), Yves De Deene (Belgium), Simon Doran (UK), Geoffrey Ibbott (USA), Andrew Jirasek (Canada - President), Kevin Jordan (Canada), Martin Lepage (Canada), Thomas Maris (Greece), Mark Oldham (USA - Chair), Evangelos Pappas (Greece), John Schreiner (Canada) Local Organizing Committee: Mark Oldham, Carolyn Crank, Joseph Newton, Andrew Thomas, Matthew DeLorenzo, Fang-Fang Yin, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Conference photograph Conference photograph. Sponsor's logos Sponsor's logos

  16. Alcohol and Cigarette Use Among Warsaw Adolescents: Factors Associated With Risk and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Agnieszka; Eisman, Andria; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-08-23

    Youth in Poland are at notable risk for substance use. Guided by resiliency theory, we examine if developmental risk and promotive factors are associated with substance abuse risk. We examined the association between adolescent cigarette and alcohol use and related risk and promotive factors including maternal support, neighbors' informal social control, friends' acceptance of substance use, and alcohol and cigarette use by nonparental adults. Data were collected from a random sample of 13- to 14-year-old students attending Warsaw middle schools (N = 3029). We used hierarchical regression models and examined compensatory and protective models of resilience, controlling for sociodemograhic factors. Our results indicated that friends' acceptance of substance use and perceived drug use among nonparental adults was associated with increased risk cigarette and alcohol use among youth. We found that maternal support moderated the relationship between friends' acceptance of substance use and cigarette use (protective model of resilience). Thus, mother support buffered the negative effects of friends' acceptance of substance use on youths' cigarette use. Neighbor's informal social control and maternal support were associated with reduced risk of alcohol use (compensatory model of resilience). Collectively, results of the study support compensatory and protective models of resilience in a large representative sample of Warsaw adolescents.

  17. Electron beam technologies in Poland state of the art and possibilities of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S. [Institute of Vacuum Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The recent state of high energy electron beam /EB/ used for metals melting and welding in Poland has been presented. Some typical construction of EB furnaces and EB welding machines designed and constructed in Institute of Vacuum Technology in Warsaw are shown. The examples of their application has also been described.

  18. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  19. The politics of toleration: Dissenters in Poland (1587-1648)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Katherine Alina

    2005-01-01

    This thesis shows how religion and politics interacted inextricably in early modern society, by a study of the szlachta (nobility) in Great Poland under the first Waza kings, Zygmunt III (1587-1632) and Wladyslaw IV (1632-48). Both affirmed the 1573 Warsaw Confederation, ensuring all Christians freedom of confession as equal dissidentes de religione. In a Europe where wars were fought over religion, Polish toleration was exceptional, with implications for understanding the early modem church ...

  20. Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Niwiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.

  1. Orthodox Education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox educational system has been meeting important tasks, which is raising a general mental level of clergy and faithful. Its foundation was driven by needs of the Orthodox Church. Educating a young generation in the spirit of the Orthodoxy happened to be the main task of the enlightened class. Brotherhood, monastery and parish school were to be part of this program. The Orthodox education shaped religious life, helped preserve the religious and national identity of the believers. An evidence of that is the fact, that only those localities preserved “the Greek faith “, in which next to the monasteries were schools. Higher education, and especially Mohyla Academy, shaped by the then elite, played a vital role in the history of Orthodox Church in the Republic and neighboring countries. A similar role had to play in the interwar period College of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw and in post-war Orthodox Section of the Christian Academy of Theology Presented here outline of history of Orthodox education in Poland indicates to the, appreciated by clergy and hierarchy, need of development of theological schools. Theological schools played and still play important role in shaping the attitudes of clergy and faithful. Schools provide necessary pastoral resources, shape Orthodox cultural and scientific environment. Theological education has remained an essential element for the proper functioning of Orthodox Church in the Polish Republic.

  2. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  3. Specificity of gated neighbourhoods in the Bielany district (Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Górczyńska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomenon of gated and guarded neighbourhoods in the Bielany district (Warsaw after the demise of the socialist regime in 1989 in Poland. The number of secured housing estates grows respectively among newly built neighbourhoods and older housing stock, the latter often being fenced and therefore also detached from the surrounding. Large offerings of gated estates (from luxurious apartments to rather standard blocks of flats have made living in guarded neighbourhoods a standard in Bielany. In spite of the diversity of the organisational structures and security modes of gated neighbourhoods, they rarely offer additional functions to their inhabitants. Thus, the security functions seem to be the most basic feature of gated estates in Bielany. However, at the same time, a sense of insecurity triggers the motivation for living within gated estates but does not fully explain this phenomenon. Further research is planned in order to assess supply driven forces and the impact of increased offerings of gated estates on the housing choices of inhabitants in Warsaw.Cet article s’interroge sur le phénomène des communautés fermées et protégées dans le quartier de Bielany (Varsovie à partir de la chute du régime socialiste en 1989 en Pologne. Le nombre de communautés fermées s’accroît aussi bien dans les nouveaux que dans les anciens parcs de logements par la mise en place de clôtures. L’importante offre de logements accordée à ces communautés (du logement de luxe au logement standard a eu pour conséquence de promouvoir les cités protégées comme standard de vie à Bielany. Bien que les communautés fermées se distiguent les unes des autres par leurs structures d’organisation spatiale et leurs modes de sécurités, elles offrent rarement des fonctions supplémentaires à leurs habitants. Ainsi, la sécurité semble être la caractéristique de base de ces communautés. Néanmoins, même si le sentiment

  4. 27 November 2014 - Warsaw University of Technology (PL) Vice-Rector for Research R. Bacewicz visitng the ALICE control room and undergorund experimental area with WUT students, accompanied by A. Charkiewicz and A. Siemko; joint signature ceremony with HNINP Director-General M. Jezabek

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    CERN-PHOTO-201411-245-95: from left to right: Professor D.Sc.Ph.D. Rajmund Bacewicz, Vice-Rector for Research, Warsaw University of Technology, CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Prof. Marek Jeżabek, Director-General, Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Republic of Poland

  5. Airport Catchment Area- Example Warsaw Modlin Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachut, Jakub

    2017-10-01

    The form and functions of airports change over time, just like the form and function of cities. Historically, airports are understood as places of aircraft landing, control towers operation and location of other facilities used for communication and transport. This traditional model is giving way to the concept of so-called Airport Cities, based on the assumption that, in addition to its infrastructure and air services, also non-air services are performed, constituting a source of income. At the same time, their reach and impact on the economy of the areas around the airport are expanding. Idea City Airport appeared in the United States in the late twentieth century. The author is J. D. Kasarda, he believes that it is around these big air ports that airport cities develop. In the world, there are currently 45 areas which can be classified in this category, out of which 12 are located in Europe. Main air traffic hubs in Europe are not only the most important passenger traffic junctions, but also largest centres dispatching goods (cargo). It can be said that, among the 30 largest airports, 24 are the largest in terms of both passenger and freight traffic. These airports cover up to 89.9% of the total freight transport of all European airports. At the same time, they serve 56.9% of all passengers in Europe. Based on the concept of Airport City was developed document THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL POLYCENTRIC DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR THE WARSAW MODLIN AIRPORT CATCHMENT AREA. The plan developed takes into account the findings of the Mazovian voivodeship spatial development plan, specifying the details of its provisions where possible. The development is the first step for the implementation of the concept of the Modlin Airport City. The accomplishment of this ambitious vision will only be possible with hard work of a number of entities, as well as taking into account the former Modlin Fortress, currently under revitalisation, in concepts and plans.

  6. First record in Poland of the Ligurian leafhopper, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey 1891 (Cicadomorpha, Cicadellidae – an important pest of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubiarz Magdalena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ligurian leafhopper (Eupteryx decemnotata Rey 1891 has been recorded for the first time in Poland, in a commercial greenhouse in Warsaw. Individuals were collected from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Intense feeding of this species caused serious damage in the cultivation of rosemary. For this reason, the range extension of this species must be monitored.

  7. Lyme disease in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia genus transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes genus. Infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi occur throughout Poland and therefore, according also to ECDC description, the whole country should be considered as an endemic area. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et al., Warsaw 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). The number of cases of Lyme disease in recent years is steadily increasing. In total, 13.870 cases of Lyme disease registered in Poland in 2014, i.e. 8% more cases than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 36.0 per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie voivodeship – 106.8 per 100,000. In 2014, 2.236 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2014, the growth rate of incidence decreased significantly. 8% more cases were registered compared with the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations.

  8. Impact of urban pollution emitted in Warsaw on aerosol properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, O.; Markowicz, K. M.; Pietruczuk, A.; Zielinski, T.; Jaroslawski, J.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the analyses of the long-term observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter effect is about 0.02 (at 500 nm) based on the sun photometers' comparisons and 0.03 (at 550 nm) based on the MODIS results. Relatively small impact of Warsaw emissions on the AOT (about 10-15%) is consistent with the PM10 data. The mean PM10 differences, estimated during the same time as sun photometer measurements, for Warsaw Ursynow (a residential area) and Belsk was only 5.7 μg m-3 (13%), and for Warsaw Targowek (a mixed shopping and residential area) and Belsk was about 9.8 μg m-3 (20%). For the station located in the central Warsaw, near to the street with the heavy traffic, the difference in the long-term mean of the PM10 was significantly larger and reached 22.1 μg m-3 (36%). Finally, an extreme smoke event observed on 4 April 2009, when favorable weather conditions led to the differences in the AOT between Warsaw and Belsk in a range of 0.11-0.2 (at 500 nm) has been described.

  9. 7 CFR 654.11 - Sponsor(s)' responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...&M on land administered by that agency. If project measures benefit both Federal and non-Federal land... § 654.11 Sponsor(s)' responsibility. (a) On non-Federal land, sponsor(s) are responsible for financing and performing without cost to the Federal Government, needed operation and maintenance (O&M) of...

  10. International Round Table “Tatar Materials in Polish Archives” (Warsaw, 31st March – 1st April, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Gibatdinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article present a short report on the International round table “Tatar materials in Polish archives” organized in Warsaw on March 31 – April 1, 2016. Round table was a result of international scientific cooperation between Marjani Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences, University of Warsaw, Institute for Caucasian-, Tatar- and Turkestan Studies (ICATAT. It was a part of the long-term research project “Tatar Materials in Foreign Archives” carried out by the Marjani Institute of History in the framework of State Program of the Republic of Tatarstan “Preserving of Tatar Ethnical Identity (for years 2014–2016.” The following papers was presented on the round table: “On results of recent researches of Tatar materials in Polish archives” by Prof., Dr. Dariusz Kołodziejczyk, Director of the Institute of History, University of Warsaw; “The New Records of Old Heritage – Documents about Tatars from Regional and Private Archives in Polish-German Context”, by Dr. Mieste Hottop-Riecke, Director of ICATAT and Dr. Stephan Theilig, Director of Brandenburg-Preußen Museum Wustrau; “Maniere de Faire la Guerre des Tartares’ as Hybrid War in the Military Art of Crimean and Dobruja Tatars in the Early modern Time”, by Dr. Andrzej Gliwa, University of Warsaw, Department of History, Faculty Member; “Tatar Documents in Archives and Museums in Bialystok” by Dr. Artur Konopacki, Assistant Professor in Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, University of Bialystok; ”The first results of international research project ”Yazma Miras – Written Heritage” by Marat Gibatdinov. Participants of round table discussed a possible prospects for future cooperation in the field of researching and digitalizing of Tatar materials from Polish archives. During the conference the meetings with the representatives of Tatar community in Poland and Lithuania was organized, as well as the study visits to the Tatar Mosque and Tatar

  11. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S; Pozniak, A; Gökengin, D; Youle, M; Lundgren, J D; Horban, A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the outcomes of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference held in Warsaw in February 2016. The main aim of this conference was to facilitate a discussion on European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national guidelines were available, of which eight had been recently updated. Half of the countries declared that they use World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) guidelines, over one-third the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV testing guidelines and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also emphasized the need to increase publishing of data from national cohorts in that region. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  12. The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered. Inquiries into the Evolution of an Underestimated Alliance, 1960-1969

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crump, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this book Laurien Crump examines to what extent the Warsaw Pact inadvertently provided the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact (NSWP) members with an opportunity to assert their own interests, emancipate from the Soviet grip, and influence Warsaw Pact (WP) policy in the period 1960-1969. In the shadow of the

  13. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  14. Materials of jubilee scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society, Warsaw`94. Homo chemicus; Materialy z jubileuszowego zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego, Warszawa`94. Homo chemicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Jubilee Scientific Assembly of the Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1994 in Warsaw. The general view on scientific progress in chemistry in Poland has been presented during plenary session. The conference has been divided into 15 sessions and 3 microsymposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. Sessions topics were: analytical chemistry, chemistry of solid state materials, physical chemistry, coordination chemistry, medical chemistry, chemistry of metalorganic compounds, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry of polymers, young scientists forum, didactics and history of chemistry, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, environment protection. Microsymposia`s topics were as follows: chemistry of saccharides, electrochemistry, membranes and membrane processes.

  15. The Battle of Warsaw, 1920: Impact on Operational Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-06

    and conduct counter attacks on threatened fronts. An effective General Staff evolved, one which was able to think conceptually on a large enough scale...York: St. Martin’s Press, 1972.) p. 51. Quoted from, Historia Polski, Vol. IV, Pt 1. Warsaw (1966), p. 258. 7 J.F.C. Fuller, A Military History of the

  16. Distribution of some vascular plants and anthropopressure zones in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sudnik-Wójcikowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cartogramms of the species distribution within Warsaw were compared to the anthropopressure zones distinguished conventionally. Floras of individual zones differboth quantitatively and qualitatively. Some species are more confined to specific zones some have even an indicator value. The most interesting taxa are those found in sites where anthropopressure is the greatest.

  17. Thermal seasons in Warsaw during the period 1961-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majewski Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the approximate duration of the thermal seasons in Warsaw, and investigates their long-term variability. The measurement data come from the Ursynów meteorological station at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS (λE 21°02’52’’, φN 52°09’38’’, 102.5 m a.s.l., situated in the south of Warsaw, and comprise mean diurnal air temperatures for the years 1961-2013. In order to identify thermal seasons, the method of five-day rolling averages was applied, which revealed a substantial year-by-year variability. The achieved results were close to those found by other methods for stations situated within the same climatic region. Over the analysed period, winters and springs have become shorter, whereas the other two seasons have become longer. Nevertheless, the positive trend was only statistically significant for thermal summers. The increasing length of the thermal summer in Warsaw Ursynów may be due to the influence of urban heat islands in built-up areas.

  18. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences.

  19. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathol...

  20. Development of laser technology in Poland: 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankiewicz, Zdzisław; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    The paper is an introduction to the volume of proceedings and a concise digest of works presented during the XIth National Symposium on Laser Technology (SLT2016) [1]. The Symposium is organized since 1984 every three years [2-8]. SLT2016 was organized by the Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology (IO, WAT) [9], Warsaw, with cooperation of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) [10], in Jastarnia on 27-30 September 2016. Symposium Proceedings are traditionally published by SPIE [11-19]. The meeting has gathered around 150 participants who presented around 120 research and technical papers. The Symposium, organized every 3 years is a good portrait of laser technology and laser applications development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. The SLT also presents the current technical projects under realization by the national research, development and industrial teams. Topical tracks of the Symposium, traditionally divided to two large areas - sources and applications, were: laser sources in near and medium infrared, picosecond and femtosecond lasers, optical fiber lasers and amplifiers, semiconductor lasers, high power and high energy lasers and their applications, new materials and components for laser technology, applications of laser technology in measurements, metrology and science, military applications of laser technology, laser applications in environment protection and remote detection of trace substances, laser applications in medicine and biomedical engineering, laser applications in industry, technologies and material engineering.

  1. CERN accelerator school: an introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the â€ワIntroduction to Accelerator Physics” course was held in Zakopane, Poland.  This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America.

  2. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... due to the global fiscal crisis. For the 2009/2010 academic year, there were 2,264 Polish students... exposure and introduce participants to two growing student markets in the region, taking advantage of the... otherwise qualifies as a small business under SBA regulations (see http://www.sba.gov/services/contracting...

  3. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  4. The Discursive Construction of Vietnamese Communities in Czechia and Poland in the Genre of Documentary Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Švejdarová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the discursive construction of Vietnamese communities in Czechia and Poland via narratives of the communities’ ordinary members in documentary films. The theoretical framework employed is critical discourse analysis (CDA, and, in particular, the Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA. I focus on two full-length documentary films, Banana Children in Czechia and Warsawers in Poland. These films are assessed and compared regarding their overall style and regarding the discourse topics. I analyse the referential and predicational strategies within the discourse topic of identity. Finally, I link the analysis of identities with the general social and legislative situation of the immigrant communities in the two host countries.

  5. Poronia punctata (L.: Fr. Rabenh. (Xylariales, Ascomycota in Poland: a threatened, rare, or overlooked species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szczepkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poronia punctata is regarded as a threatened, rare coprophilous fungus species, especially in Europe. Lately, the fungus has been noted again in Poland after a century of absence. Micro- and macrotraits of P. punctata have been given on the basis of specimens from two collections: the first, contemporary one, found in the field in 2010, and the second and most probably oldest Polish one dating back to the years 1819–1845, from the collections of prof. Michał Szubert, found by us in the Herbarium of the University of Warsaw. The distribution of P. punctata localities within the present boundaries of Poland is presented. The occurrence conditions of P. punctata in Poland, especially the new locality, are characterized. Possible reasons why the species has not been noted within 1905–2009 in Poland are indicated. The threat status of the species according to the IUCN criteria is assessed and the threat category VU is proposed.

  6. Participant report for Warsaw University of Technology (Poland) Hole Plate No. 137

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    An interlaboratory comparison on mechanical and optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) has been organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL), Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within Collège...... are expected by the organizer and the information will be used in the preparation of the final report....

  7. Committees and sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    International Advisory Committee Richard F CastenYale, USA Luiz Carlos ChamonSão Paulo, Brazil Osvaldo CivitareseLa Plata, Argentina Jozsef CsehATOMKI, Hungary Jerry P DraayerLSU, USA Alfredo Galindo-UribarriORNL & UT, USA James J KolataNotre Dame, USA Jorge López UTEP, USA Joseph B NatowitzTexas A & M, USA Ma Esther Ortiz IF-UNAM Stuart PittelDelaware, USA Andrés SandovalIF-UNAM Adam SzczepaniakIndiana, USA Piet Van IsackerGANIL, France Michael WiescherNotre Dame, USA Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (Chair)IF-UNAM Roelof BijkerICN-UNAM Ruben FossionICN-UNAM David LizcanoININ Sponsors Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAMInstituto de Física, UNAMInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones NuclearesDivisión de Física Nuclear de la SMFCentro Latinoamericano de Física

  8. Investor Reaction to Mandatory Offers on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Okoń

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to assess investor reaction to mandatory offers on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, which is important because knowledge about these reactions can be used to make better investment decisions. This paper highlights the importance of procedure in making a mandatory offer and its grounds in the Polish legal system. Additionally, it presents empirical research on the reactions of investors to mandatory offers on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. It has been provided that mandatory offers have a significant impact on the price of a company’s shares listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Knowledge about the reactions of investors to a mandatory offer may be used when selecting securities for an investment portfolio. The findings may provide guidance in deciding whether to begin or end investment in the company, both for individual and institutional investors. The event study methodology approach used in the paper is regarded as valuable and can be the basis for further research in other areas of the capital market research, especially in the context of information efficiency.

  9. [Tetanus in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological assessment of the incidence of tetanus in Poland in 2010 was based on the analysis of aggregate data provided by the State Sanitary Inspection and published an annual newsletter: Infectious diseases and intoxications in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw in 2011 and based on an annual newsletter: Vaccinations in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw 2011. A more accurate characterization of disease was based on the individual reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In the last decade the incidence of tetanus has remained below 0.08/100 000 inhabitants. The average annual incidence was lower than in the previous decade, but within the last ten years to the annual variation is difficult to assign a distinct incidence tendency. Rather, they correspond to random fluctuations. In 2010, 16 cases were reported, including which occurred in 2009. All cases was reported as probable--diagnosis based on clinical signs and information about injuries. Overall incidence was 0.042/100 000, which was small and not significanty different from incidence in 2009 (0.05/100 000). All cases in 2010, were over 59 years of age, which is a strong expression of the trend observed for years that the disease is present in older age groups where the level of vaccination against tetanus is particularly low. Among people infected, there were three men and 13 women. Four cases ended with deaths. Three of these were women, among whom mortality was 23.1%, and one death occurred in a man, mortality 33.3%. Three deaths occurred among the 6 cases in people over 79 years of age, mortality 50%. The incubation period of the disease in 3 cases was less than 7 days, in 4 cases 8-14 days, in 4 cases 15-21 days, in 2 cases 22 days and more. Portals of entry of infection in 7 cases accounted for abrasion or laceration, in 6 cases the puncture wound in one it was bitten wound, and

  10. Jointly Sponsored Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

  11. Poland-AOD aerosol research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    Poland-AOD research network (www.polandaod.pl) was formed in 2011. It is a consortium of Polish institutions that are involved in studies of the atmospheric aerosol impact on the climate system. In 2016 the Poland-AOD network comprised of five stations: Radiative Transfer Laboratory, University of Warsaw (urban station), the research station of the Institute of Oceanology, in Sopot (coastal station), Radiative Transfer Station SolarAOT in Strzyzow (background station in the Carpathian mountains), Meteorology and Climatology Observatory at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (urban station), and the Research station in Rzecin at Poznan University of Life Sciences (rural station). The primary goal of the network is to carry out measurements of aerosol single scattering properties, radiation budget, simulate radiative transfer and aerosol transport, validate aerosol transport and transformation models such as NAAPS and GEM-AQ, as well as carry out instrument calibration and intercomparison. We will present observations of aerosol properties collected by the network as well as results from the GEM-AQ model simulations for selected episodes of biomass burning and urban aerosol.

  12. SELECTED ASPECTS OF ETHNOCENTRIC BEHAVIOUR OF VEGETABLE CONSUMERS IN WARSAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse certain aspects of ethnocentric behaviour of vegetable purchasers in Warsaw. The research, in the form of a survey, was carried out among the adult population in 2015. Among the studied factors were consumers’ attitudes in relation to domestic and imported vegetables, depending on selected demographic characteristics. The analysis of empirical material has indicated ethnocentrism among vegetable buyers. Domestic vegetable purchases are primarily determined by practical advantages of the products. The choice of domestic products for mainly rational reasons points towards intentional ethnocentrism.

  13. 75 FR 27613 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Holocaust (Warsaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Holocaust (Warsaw Ghetto... that the documents to be included in the exhibition ``The Holocaust (Warsaw Ghetto),'' imported from... exhibition or display of the documents at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, from on or...

  14. Assessment of urban thermal stress by UTCI – experimental and modelling studies: an example from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the study of the spatial variability of heat stress in urban areas. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI was applied for this purpose. The spatial variability of UTCI at the local scale was studied using examples of urban areas with different sizes and geographical locations. The experimental research on urban heat stress was conducted in Warsaw. The research covers both differences between UTCI in urban to rural areas as well as the variation of heat stress within small residential districts in Warsaw. We found a very large and significant heat stress gradient between downtown Warsaw and rural stations. Spatial variability of UTCI was also observed in microclimate research. A modelling approach was presented based on examples from Warsaw, a city with a population of almost 2 million, as well as examples from several spa towns with populations of up to 40,000 located in various parts of Poland. GIS analysis (ArcGIS for Desktop and IDRISI was applied for this purpose.

  15. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  16. Seasonal variation of air pollution in Warsaw conurbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rozbicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term research shows many substances in the atmosphere are in concentration dangerous for human health and welfare and even for human life. The work presents time and spatial variation of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Analysis was carried out on the base of hourly values of mentioned pollutants (O3 and NO2 concentrations. Data used in the analysis comes from atmospheric monitoring stations situated in various parts of Warsaw and concerns the period 2008–2011. The influence of meteorological elements on concentration of analyzed pollutants was stated by the use of correlation and multiple regression analysis for months and seasonal periods. On this base results of statistical analysis strong correlation between tropospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide concentration and meteorological elements is stated. In case of ozone and nitrogen dioxide the relationships with air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation are most significant.

  17. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  18. [The problems of food adulteration in the publications of a Warsaw pharmacist Alfons Bukowski (1858-1921)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, the economic changes, industrial development and migration of the population from rural to urban areas in Europe, there was an increasing demand for cheap foodstuffs, which contributed to the growth of mass food production, as well as to the increase in adulteration of foodstuffs. In the Kingdom of Poland, the research on this problem was conducted by a Warsaw pharmacist and chemist, Alfons Bukowski (1858-1921), the author of the first Polish textbook on bromatology Podrqcznik do badania pokarmów (1884) ("A manual for food testing"). The methods and results of his research were published in magazines, among others, in "WiadomoSci Farmaceutyczne" ("Pharmasist News"), "Zdrowie" ("The Health") and "Czasopisma Towarzystwa Aptekarskiego" ("Journals of the Pharmasist Association"). He paid attention to the social noxiousness of the adulterations, indicating that it is especially the poor people, who buy the cheapest products that are particularly vulnerable to adulteration of foodstuffs. In this paper, there have been presented selected issues related to adulteratibn of food products, issues to which Bukowski paid particular attention, and which were significantly affected by contemporary development of food chemistry, among other the development of methods of chemical and microscopic analysis and the generation of new surrogates, which replaced the natural food products.

  19. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  20. Impact of traffic routes on the content of trace elements in soils in Warsaw agglomeration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artur Komorowski; Wiesław Szulc

    2017-01-01

    ...) in soils near the main traffic routes of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of soil contamination with trace metals at different distances from the road...

  1. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pcountries when compared to Brazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  2. SHORT-TERM CHANGES OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINIKA CIARANEK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available he paper presents an analysis of short-term changes in maximum air temperature values, understood as interdiurnal (T2-T1 temperature changes in Poland. It was calculated as the differences of the daily maximum air temperature from the multi-year period (1961 - 2010, from 8 stations (Leba, Suwałki, Szczecin, Poznan, Warsaw, Włodawa, Wrocław and Krakow, which are representative of Polish regions. In most cases, these changes amount were no more than 2.0-3.0oC. However It was found that in extreme cases, day-to-day changes may have exceeded even 20.0oC. Accordingly in this paper, special attention was paid to the number of days with the abrupt increases and decreases in temperature, understood as the differences greater than or equal 8.0 oC.

  3. Internuncio Antonio Francesco Cirioli's correspondence with the Secretary of State on the eve of the General Sejm held in Warsaw in 1623 (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Fitych

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-16th century onwards, the Apostolic Nunciature in Poland was pro-parliamentary, anti-Turkish and counter-reformative. It should not come as a surprise that the preliminary instruction issued to nuncio Giovanni Battista Lacellotti to stay especially alert and secure the interest of the Catholic Church in Poland as well as care for Christian affairs during parliamentary sessions acquired particular significance. In early November 1622, by the appointment of cardinal Cosimo de Torres, under Gregory's XV papal brief of 3 December 1622, Antonio Francesco Cirioli became internuncio. A Bolognese by origin, Cirioli was and a Doctor of Laws and from 1621 an auditor of Cosimo de Torres's nunciature (to date completely absent from the literature of the subject. The office of the internuncio in Warsaw, to which he was appointed following his 13-month service as an auditor, was held by Cirioli for as many as twenty-three weeks, i.e. from 19 November 1622 to 29 April 1623.

  4. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions.

  5. CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS BY RUNOFF WATER FROM A CATTLE FARM AT FALENTY, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.RUSSEL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surface and ground waters by runoff waterfrom a cattle farm at Falenty, Poland. The paper presents the results of theanalysis of runoff water from a cattle farm at Falenty near Warsaw, Poland. Thewater samples came from two wells collecting the outflow, the nearest drainingditch and the nearest stream. The sampling frequency was higher in the rainperiods. The reaction, conductivity, COD, concentration of ammonia, nitrite, andnitrate nitrogen, as well as phosphates was determined. Additionally, the totalquantity of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, fungi, Proteus sp., sulphidereducing bacteria and the coliform index was also counted. Results showed anincreased level of COD and higher concentration of phosphate ions in therainwater in the area of the farmyard. Relatively high microbiological indexeswere also observed. During periods with rain, the values of the biochemicaldemand for oxygen (COD and concentration of phosphate ions exceeded thethresholds for flowing waters.

  6. Significance of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in evolution of the Eemian Interglacial' flora in Warsaw area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Krupiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynologic studies of sediments from Warsaw-Wawrzyszew and other sites in the Warsaw Basin enabled to analyze main occurrence phases of Hippophae rhamnoides during the widely understood Lake Pleistocene interglacial warming. In initial phases of the Eemian Interglacial (late glacial of a preceding glaciation the area of Warsaw-Wawrzyszew indicated especially favourable conditions for such rich development of sea-buckthorn. Analysis of occurrence phases of this bush proves that besides climatic conditions, great influence on more abundant occurrence of sea-buckthorn in its late glacial (pre-interglacial part could be played by edaphic conditions, mainly contents of basic compounds (CaCO3 in a substrate.

  7. Selection and application of the touchable elements for blind and people in the Warsaw underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Poliński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to design a warning belt for blind people as well as an inclusion of the requirements in the normative document. Methods: A diagnostic survey using the questionnaires and the interviews with disabled people (especially with blind and visually impaired people. Results and Conclusion: As a result of the research and a participation of the blind and visually impaired people, the tactile elements were chosen and parameterized for use in the underground buildings in Warsaw. The relevant information in this filed, which should correspond to Warsaw underground buildings, were included in the regulations of the Minister of Infrastructure. On this basis, all the edges of the Warsaw underground platforms were indicated.

  8. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  9. Analysis of selected anthropometric parameters of 6-year-old children in Warsaw compared to the peer population in the years 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, Dorota; Tabor, Piotr; Olszewska, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    Beside the positive tendencies in somatic development seen in the population of children and adolescents in Poland (e.g. the trend of increasing body height that has continued over many years), certain unfavorable phenomena are also observed. In recent decades, disorders connected with a deficiency or excess of body mass - excessive adiposity in particular - have become important health and social problems. This poses a considerable threat for being overweight, for obesity, and for other diseases of civilization. The research targeted the evaluation of selected anthropometric parameters: height-weight indices, circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses in the population of 6-year-old children in Warsaw in comparison with their peer population in 1996-1999, as well as estimation of the frequency of abnormal percentile values of the aforementioned anthropometric parameters: values below the 10th percentile and above the 90th percentile. The research included a sample of 160 randomly chosen children (81 boys and 79 girls) born in 2005 who attended public and private kindergartens in Warsaw. The average age of this group was 5.71 ± 0.28 years. The study was carried out in the first quarter of 2011. The following somatic parameters were measured: body height, body mass, chest and arm circumference, triceps, and subscapular and abdominal skinfold thickness. The height-weight indices including Rohrer's Index and Body Mass Index (BMI) were calculated. Using a method of normalization of numerical data, the obtained measurements were compared to the measurements of the peer population (n=233) from 1996 to 1999, and the significance of differences between mean values in both groups was assessed with Student's t-tests. The percentage tables with the ranges of the below normative (percentile) and above normative (>90th percentile) percentile values of the studied parameters and indices were prepared on the basis of the percentile charts that presented the anthropometric

  10. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  11. Organic Iodine(I, III, and V Chemistry: 10 Years of Development at the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This review reports some novel (or considerably improved methods for the synthesis of aromatic iodides, (dichloroiodoarenes, (diacetoxyiodoarenes, iodylarenes and diaryliodonium salts, as well as some facile, oxidative anion metatheses in crude diaryliodonium halides and, for comparison, potassium halides. All these new results were obtained in our laboratory over the past decade (1990-2000. A full list of our papers dealing with the organic iodine(I, III and V chemistry, covering exlusively the aromatic derivatives, is also provided.

  12. Organic Iodine(I, III, and V) Chemistry: 10 Years of Development at the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Skulski

    2000-01-01

    This review reports some novel (or considerably improved) methods for the synthesis of aromatic iodides, (dichloroiodo)arenes, (diacetoxyiodo)arenes, iodylarenes and diaryliodonium salts, as well as some facile, oxidative anion metatheses in crude diaryliodonium halides and, for comparison, potassium halides. All these new results were obtained in our laboratory over the past decade (1990-2000). A full list of our papers dealing with the organic iodine(I, III and V) chemistry, covering exlusi...

  13. The International Workshop on Flame Chemistry (1st) Held in Warsaw, Poland on 28-29 July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    s -1 ) 1000 K / T Curran et al. 00 Ogura et al. 07 Bonard et al. 02 Tranter/Walker 01 Atkinson 97 Arif et al. 97 Mellouki et al. 95 Nelson et...T Cook et al. 09 Curran et al. 00 Ogura et al. 07 Bonard et al. 02 Tranter/Walker 01 Atkinson 97 Arif et al. 97 Mellouki et al. 95 Nelson

  14. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  15. Sponsoring, brand value and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Zauner; Monika Koller; Matthias Fink

    2012-01-01

    The increasing involvement of individuals in social media over the past decade has enabled firms to pursue new avenues in communication and sponsoring activities. Besides general research on either social media or sponsoring, questions regarding the consequences of a joint activity (sponsoring activities in social media) remain unexplored. Hence, the present study analyses whether the perceived image of the brand and the celebrity endorser credibility of a top sports team influence the percei...

  16. Sponsors' participation in conduct and reporting of industry trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Bias in industry-sponsored trials is common and the interpretation of the results can be particularly distorted in favour of the sponsor's product. We investigated sponsors' involvement in the conduct and reporting of industry-sponsored trials....

  17. Implementing transparency in an Eastern European office market: preparing Warsaw for global investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Bitterer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of an increasing integration of property and financial markets, the real estate industry is subject to soaring internationalization processes. Since international institutional investors appeared, transnational real estate investments have increased tremendously. In recent years, Central and Eastern European countries have been becoming more attractive to institutional investors and are therefore being integrated into international market structures. Within these countries, Warsaw emerged as the most dynamic and important real estate market. But what are the mechanisms and practices through which the real estate market of Warsaw becomes international? Which networks, intermediaries and frames are necessary to constitute a mature real estate market? The article argues that international real estate consultants are playing a crucial role in the underlying internationalization process. They are acting at the interface between investors, developers, construction companies and tenants and are therefore becoming a crucial hinge between real estate actors. With the example of the Warsaw real estate market we argue that international real estate consultancies are key drivers of the transformation process from a local to a global market. They transfer global knowledge, competence and practices and implement transparent and professional structures in the emerging Warsaw real estate market.

  18. Identification of Fruit Tree Compositions in Public Parks Structure. Warsaw Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Teodora Lisandru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit trees are essential components of different types of greenery, including not only private gardens but also historical and modern public parks and gardens of many other cities. The research was carried out in spring 2016 by visiting different parks. Fruit trees were identified in 22 public parks of Warsaw situated in different districts of the city and picked up randomly for preliminary study. Observations were made by photographic documentation and mapping of the fruit trees on park plans using GPS coordinates which were taken during the site visit and Google Earth maps. According to the observations, selected fruit trees compositions have been recognized in public parks of Warsaw. The compositional structures that have been observed consist of solitaire fruit trees, groups of trees (containing fruit trees, but mostly composed of fruit trees and ornamental shrubs and linear structures of fruit trees (rows and alleys. The results of the preliminary study show that the most frequent fruit tree compositions used in the structure of selected public parks of Warsaw represent groups of trees - groups that consist of fruit trees and different species of ornamental shrubs. The undertaken study confirmed that fruit trees planted in the public parks of Warsaw have a high compositional value. They play an important role in the spatial arrangement of the parks selected, but also define the scope and borders of the selected garden interiors and create attractive sites.

  19. Internal migration and urban change in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiszewski, M; Durham, H; Rees, P

    1998-09-01

    This study examined population change and internal migration among communes and municipalities in Poland during 1984-94. Data were obtained from the National Population Censuses of 1978 and 1988 and from records for 3030 communes and municipality units. During 1980-90, the number of units losing population declined considerably from 1281 to 1061 during 1980-90 and 1990-94. The slowing of migration is attributed to economic difficulties in the 1990s and a reduced labor market. Large cities gained population in the 1980s and then lost it in the 1990s. 33% of communes each suffered migration losses below and above 5/1000 population. 33% gained migrant population. Large and medium-size towns were gainers, with three exceptions. Medium-size towns that were new regional capitals, monofunctional industrial towns linked with development of socialist investments, and towns linked with mining and heavy industry were the losers. The pace of growth in large cities was the slowest. Wroclaw was the only large city that was growing in the 1990s. Towns of 10,000-100,000 grew in the 1980s and halved their growth in the 1990s. Towns of 5000-25,000 were the fastest growing in the 1990s. Most of the growth during 1984-94 occurred in towns of 10,000-100,000. Rural areas all lost population to urban areas, especially among female inhabitants. Warsaw lost population, but suburban areas gained population. Distances to cities with basic amenities are analyzed. Population density was weakly associated with growth. Growth was concentrated in high-density bands. Population change was positive in all bands except for two with the lowest population density.

  20. [Rural migration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, W

    1985-01-01

    Migration of the rural population in Poland from 1946 to 1983 is analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Consideration is given to regional variations in migration patterns, the causes of migration, and the impact of migration on areas of origin.

  1. South Africa and Poland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    The typology of countries, namely those with innovation-driven, efficiency-driven and factor-/resource-driven ... Switzerland, Norway, Australia, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Qatar, Puerto Rico,. Tobago and Trinidad ... of the cultures and values of two countries, namely South Africa and Poland, on entrepreneurial intentions ...

  2. Museums of Poland: ways of exploiting the National Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Tipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the fellowship Thesaurus Poloniae provided by the Ministry of Culture and Heritage of Poland and the International Cultural Centre Krakow I was able to visit a number of museums in the cities of Warsaw, Krakow, Lodz, and Poznan. The innovative method of using audiovisual media has especially attracted my attention. Visiting Polish museums, I concluded that the country's history, its past hasn't remained in archives, in documents hidden from the public eye and accessible only to specialists in the field. By possibilities of museums upgraded the past comes alive as a page in the life of Poles. The national heritage, studied and carefully preserved, is passed on to the younger generation through the most advanced methods. Today, digital techniques increasingly penetrate into all spheres of art and culture. Museums also look for non-trivial ways to demonstrate the most valuable objects from their collections through the latest information methods. The use of audiovisual media in various forms is an ideal opportunity to immerse visitors in the distant past, help them survive dramatic historical events in a dynamic, penetrate the spirit of patriotism. The screen (monitor has become a traditional element in Polish museums and exhibition halls equipped with touch screens allowing guests to browse and receive a variety of available information in international communication languages (English, French, German and, of course, Polish. On the screens placed in the exhibition halls, documents are displayed non-stop either completely or in fragments, a visual picture sends visitors to real museum exhibits. Museums opened after 2000 are equipped with cinema halls (National Museum, The Warsaw Rising Museum and POLIN Museum, Rynek Underground Museum and Oscar Schindler’s Enamel Factory in Krakowб etc., some of them are equipped for films in 3D, with panoramic projection. Expressive audiovisual entourage is created by playing light and shadow

  3. SPONSORING, BRAND VALUE AND SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zauner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing involvement of individuals in social media over the past decade has enabled firms to pursue new avenues in communication and sponsoring activities. Besides general research on either social media or sponsoring, questions regarding the consequences of a joint activity (sponsoring activities in social media remain unexplored. Hence, the present study analyses whether the perceived image of the brand and the celebrity endorser credibility of a top sports team influence the perceived brand value of the sponsoring firm in a social media setting. Moreover, these effects are compared between existing customers and non-customers of the sponsoring firm. Interestingly, perceived celebrity endorser credibility plays no role in forming brand value perceptions in the case of the existing customers. Implications for marketing theory and practice are derived.

  4. Paradigma Baru Sponsor sebagai Mitra Penyelenggaraan Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Evelina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this article is to know why sponsorship only to be viewed as sources of funding to implement the public relation events or marketing communication events. Method used in this article is qualitative method research to be based on observation, library study and content analysis. The result of this research seems that change happened in role of sponsorship from only fund source to become a partner of cooperation (mutual symbiotism between sponsor and event organizer. This article exploring the change of sponsorship concept from only looking for sponsor as an activity of fund mobilitation to become a partnership cooperation between event organizer and sponsor company. The mean of sponsor itself beside the fund supporter, they are also a side who takes mutual benefit from the cooperation. Conclusion, any close relationship (mutual benefit between two sides who take cooperation in event implementation (sponsor and event organiser. 

  5. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  6. Solving "Smart City" Transport Problems by Designing Carpooling Gamification Schemes with Multi-Agent Systems: The Case of the So-Called "Mordor of Warsaw".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Robert; Pałka, Piotr; Turek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-06

    To reduce energy consumption and improve residents' quality of life, "smart cities" should use not only modern technologies, but also the social innovations of the "Internet of Things" (IoT) era. This article attempts to solve transport problems in a smart city's office district by utilizing gamification that incentivizes the carpooling system. The goal of the devised system is to significantly reduce the number of cars, and, consequently, to alleviate traffic jams, as well as to curb pollution and energy consumption. A representative sample of the statistical population of people working in one of the biggest office hubs in Poland (the so-called "Mordor of Warsaw") was surveyed. The collected data were processed using spatial data mining methods, and the results were a set of parameters for the multi-agent system. This approach made it possible to run a series of simulations on a set of 100,000 agents and to select an effective gamification methodology that supports the carpooling process. The implementation of the proposed solutions (a "serious game" variation of urban games) would help to reduce the number of cars by several dozen percent, significantly reduce energy consumption, eliminate traffic jams, and increase the activity of the smart city residents.

  7. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  8. Poland syndrome with absent ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Kumar Ta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness of right hand.

  9. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  10. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  11. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  12. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to summarize the outcomes of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference held in Warsaw in February 2016. The main aim of this conference was to facilitate a discussion on European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines implementa......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to summarize the outcomes of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference held in Warsaw in February 2016. The main aim of this conference was to facilitate a discussion on European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines...... country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...

  13. Social aspects of the suburbanisation stage in the agglomeration of Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Lisowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identifies the changes in the living conditions in the Agglomeration of Warsaw1995-2001 and their impact upon the decentralisation process of the population and businesses.It has been confirmed that spatial re-distribution of people and jobs in suburbanzone is affected by the living conditions in the areas, but the impact of land rent seems to bealso important.

  14. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Kirejczyk, M.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1997 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contain the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  15. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University Annual Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1996 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction mechanisms and nuclear structure; Experimental methods and instrumentation and the third part contains the list of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` by NPD director prof. Ch. Droste.

  16. Nuclear Physics Division - Inst. of Experimental Physics - Warsaw University - Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirejczyk, M.; Szeflinski, Z. [eds.

    1999-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Warsaw University Institute of Experimental Physics in year of 1998 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contains the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and list of published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  17. Transfer of Profit to Shareholders at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the Period 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłoński Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author of the article presents the results of research devoted to the forms of transfer of profit to shareholders of the companies quoted at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period 2009–2013. The Author concluded that there are features in the group of dividend companies and another group – that of dividend companies which additionally execute share redemption and cancellation – which make them different.

  18. GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzan, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the role of the geothermal waters mainly for the municipal heating, greenhouses, swimming pools, etc. Presently, two types of geothermal waters are used in the world. Waters of the temperatures higher than 130oC (steam) used mostly to drive turbines in geothermal power plants. Waters of low temperatures (20oC to 100oC) are used as a direct energy carrier for the municipal heating systems. The geothermal waters in Poland are presented in this paper.

  19. Physicians and abortion: provision, political participation and conflicts on the ground--the cases of Brazil and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia; Mishtal, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative studies have been conducted between 2002 and 2009 in Poland and Brazil, two different geopolitical settings in which the Catholic Church has had a significant political influence and where abortion is highly restricted. In both countries, struggles for abortion rights have played an important role in challenging the current restrictive policies and bringing attention to the plight of women unable to obtain abortions. This article examines the political role that physicians play in these contestations, drawing on some findings of two larger qualitative studies. In Poland semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 physicians in Warsaw and Krakow and with 55 women aged 18 to 45 in Gdańsk. In Brazil questionnaires were administered and semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 obstetrician-gynecologists and 23 health professionals in two public maternity hospitals in Salvador da Bahia. This article argues that gynecologists' perspectives and practices not only reflect or heed religious precepts on reproductive rights, but are also deeply influenced by inadequate medical training and by the fear of being prosecuted or stigmatized, especially in Brazil. The political non-engagement of physicians in Poland is driven by the lack of abortion rights discourse in the public arena, poor links with women's rights groups, and the lack of political unity within the medical community. Comparisons between Brazil and Poland ultimately suggest that strong liaisons between physicians and the feminist movement influence physicians' attitudes and political engagement and are most promising in abortion rights advocacy efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  1. Development of Public Market of Corporate Bonds in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Prewysz-Kwinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2010, corporate bonds had not been very popular in Poland. Most of the issues were not public, which limited their volume and value, and mainly resulted from the lack of a proper public market for trading. The situation changed in September 2009 when the Warsaw Stock Exchange launched the bond market Catalyst that is a public market for trading in debt instruments. The aim of this work is to analyse corporate bonds available on Catalyst to prove that this market has become a significant place for raising capital by companies and has influenced popularity of bonds as a source of financing business activity. The primary methods used during the preparation of this work included: analysis of legal acts and papers on the Catalyst market. The author also conducted an analysis of statistical data on, for example, number of issuers as well as the volume and value of issues over the whole period of Catalyst operations, i.e. from September 2009 until the end of the first half of 2014.The analysis allowed achieving the aim and confirmed that launching the Catalyst market encouraged companies to raise funding through issues of bonds.

  2. Determinants of Debt-Equity Choice – Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Kazmierska-Jozwiak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of debt-equity choice has so far been widely discussed in literature. The aim of the paper is to analyse the determinants of capital structure of Polish enterprises. We analysed factors that may impact the indebtedness. This analysis fills in the gap in worldwide studies with the case of a country representing the group of „emerging markets”. The paper examines capital structure determinants of non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. We used five independent variables compatible with the up-to-date achievements in the field. The results indicate that there is an evidence of a significant negative relationship between the size of a company, its growth rate, profitability, tangibility and the level of total debt. The study shows positive relationship between growth prospects of the company and the debt level. The results of the study indicate that the pecking order theory better explains the changes in indebtedness of analysed companies than other capital structure theories. Obtained results are mostly consistent with earlier studies conducted in the Poland and with studies in Western economies.

  3. Liquidity Analysis of Innovative and Traditional Businesses in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bolek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the liquidity of Polish non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, dividing them into two groups: companies with the intangible to fixed assets ratio higher than the median, deemed to be innovative businesses, and companies with the intangible to fixed assets ratio lower than the median, deemed to be traditional businesses. Our results show that liquidity management is different in these two groups when analyzing the cash conversion cycle, the current and quick ratios, and liquid assets. The authors use data representing the Polish economy on the assumption that it can be considered a model one for other developing countries. Poland is at the beginning of this road, completing its systemic transformation after 20 years of efforts, as society has been building an innovation-based economy. Skills in the field of financial management will have to be developed as data analysis described in this paper reveals poor liquidity management. The authors will follow the development of the Polish economy (called a European tiger to show how it has changed over time.

  4. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  5. 78 FR 27859 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name and Address; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... change of sponsor's name and address from Purina Mills, Inc., to Purina Nutrition LLC, and a change of sponsor for a new animal drug application (NADA) from Land O'Lakes Purina Feed LLC to Purina Nutrition LLC...

  6. 77 FR 26697 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Change of Sponsor Address; Change of Sponsor Name and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights and interest in, abbreviated new animal drug... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 522 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  7. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  8. The Kaliningrad Region in Exposé of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Poland in 2005-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana A. Vorozheina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical and geopolitical proximity of the exclave Kaliningrad region and the Republic of Poland can be an essential basis for the formation of “Kaliningrad vector” of Warsaw’s foreign policy (which might be a course separate from the general Poland’s foreign policy towards Russian Federation. In this regard, the welltimed assessment of the features of the Poland’s conceptual vision of neighborhood with exclave territory of Russia, as well as the nature and level of official Warsaw’s interest in development of cooperation with the Kaliningrad region is extremely important. The evaluation of the impact of implementation of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Rules of Local Border Traffic on significance of “Kaliningrad’s focus” in the foreign policy strategy of the official Warsaw is also extremely important. In this context, it should be understood that thanks to this agreement, the Kaliningrad region has acquired an additional specificity in the context of Russian-Polish relations. This article is the attempt to determine the today’s place and role of the Kaliningrad region in Poland’s foreign policy strategy after joining the EU. The author reveals the period of updating theme of Poland’s cooperation with the Kaliningrad region, as well as shows its nature and origins by analyzing the annual keynote addresses of the foreign ministers of Poland, which are concentrated on the basic provisions of the official foreign policy strategy of Warsaw.

  9. The use of vitamin supplements among adults in Warsaw: is there any nutritional benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Sygnowska, Elzbieta; Broda, Grazyna; Chwojnowska, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intake. However, it also generates some potential risks in the case of unreasonable and excessive use of such products. To estimate the prevalence of supplementation and the vitamin supplement contribution to total intake among Warsaw population aged 20-74 years. Nutrient intake and supplement use were studied in a representative sample of Warsaw population in years 2011/12 (486 men and 421 women) and in 2001 (658 and 671 respectively). The vitamin levels were analyzed in reference to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and the tolerable upper intake level (UL). In the years 2011/12 the use of dietary supplements (vitamins and minerals) was reported by 31% men and 40% women. Vitamin intake from food showed the deficiency of vitamins D, B1 and folates and adequate intake of vitamins A, C, E, B2, B6, B12. Supplementing with vitamins D and B1 as well as folic acid contributed to better RDA fulfillment. Supplementing with vitamins A, C, E, B2, B6 and B12 was not justified because these vitamins were taken in sufficient amounts with food. In 1.3%-14.9% supplement users, the total intake of vitamins A, C, E and B6 exceeded the UL. The prevalence of supplementation of vitamins A, C and E did not change between 2001 and 201 1/12, but the total intake of vitamin A in both sexes and vitamins C, E in women was significantly higher in 2001. The use of dietary supplements in Warsaw population was widespread and in case of some vitamins- unreasonable.

  10. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  11. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  12. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  13. [Emigration from Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmann, H

    1998-01-01

    "Apart from Ireland and Italy Poland belongs to the ¿classical' emigration countries of the 19th and 20th century. Due to economical and political factors a considerable number of Poles left their country.... Spread over many countries on several continents the emigrants established a Polish diaspora and developed a national feeling that is...[connected] with the Polish culture and the Polish ¿community'. The existence of ethnic networks structures characterized the Polish emigration also after 1989/90. Political and ethnic factors become thereby less important in comparison with economical push- and pull-factors. This leads to an emigration of qualified people who get jobs in the urban labour markets of Western Europe in private households, and in the building trade, sometimes under precarious circumstances." (EXCERPT)

  14. 7 CFR 622.10 - Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.10 Sponsors. (a) Watershed projects are... or collectively, have: (1) The power of eminent domain, (2) The authority to levy taxes or use other... project cost and all operation and maintenance costs. (b) To receive Federal assistance for project...

  15. The University Campus: Why Military Sponsored Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Aubrey E.

    Military-sponsored research on the university campus has been a major issue during the past several years. Opposition has come from radicals, who wish to destroy the university itself, to critics, who feel such activities take needed funds and personnel from the more important task of solving our nation's social problems. These viewpoints and the…

  16. Agency-Sponsored Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, James S.

    1976-01-01

    Sponsors of these programs include nonprofit organizations, proprietary agencies, wholly owned subsidiaries of U.S. corporations, and foreign-based institutions catering to North American students. Problems arising from their non-accredited status are examined and a criterion instrument for evaluating them is developed. (LBH)

  17. Cheerleading. A Handbook for Teacher-Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    The high school cheerleader has the opportunity to set the stage for sportsmanship, school spirit, and the mood of the athletic program. A carefully planned program is essential to leading cheerleading sections into feelings of good fellowship and interschool rapport. This handbook is designed to assist teacher-sponsors and administrators in the…

  18. Nuclear Physics Division Institute of Experimental Physics Warsaw University annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Warsaw University in 1994 are described. The report consist of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (12 articles); (ii) Experimental Methods and Instrumentation (2 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers is also given. In the first, leading article of the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  19. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of Warsaw University in 1995 are described. The report consists of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (11 articles); (ii) Instrumentation and Experimental Methods (9 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers are also given. The first, leading article in the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  20. The relationship between WIG-subindexes: evidence from the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Gurgul; Robert Syrek

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on links among the major Warsaw Stock Exchange subindexes using daily data from the period of 2011.03.01 to 2014.07.21 is provided in the paper. The empirical study for eleven WIG-sectoral subindexes with 844 observations was conducted by means of Regular Vine Copulas. The application of these copulas allowed us to identify the pairwise structure of the dependence of subindexes under study. The results confirm the leading role of the banking sector in the Polish economy. The dependen...

  1. Linguistic Complexity and Argumentative Unity: A Lvov-Warsaw School Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the source of complexity in language is twofold: repetition, and syntactic embedding. The former enables us to return again and again to the same subject across many sentences, and to maintain the coherence of an argument. The latter is governed by two forms of complexification: the functor-argument structure of all languages and the operator-bound-variable mechanism of familiar formal languages. The former is most transparently represented by categorial grammar, and an extension of this can adequately describe the syntax of variable binders. Both developments have roots within the work of the Lvov-Warsaw School.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... located in the right side of the chest (dextrocardia). Rarely, chest and hand abnormalities resembling those of ... NH, Keum DY, Kim YH. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg. ...

  3. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  4. [Implementation of vaccinations in Chechen refugees' children in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Piotr; Jackowska, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Poland is a destination country or temporary living place for many refugees from Chechnya. Refugees are provided with full, free of charge, health care including the vaccination programme according to the present National Vaccination Programme (NVP). To assess the implementation of vaccinations in Chechen refugees' children in Poland. The group comprised 310 children from the Centre for Foreigners in Warsaw-Bielany. The mean age of the examined children was 7.5 years. The investigations were performed three times during the study--the first was conducted in a group of 220 children in June, the second one in 303 children in August and the third in 310 children in October 2008 (the differences in the numbers resulted from the changes in the size of the Chechen population living in the Centre). The vaccination records were assessed paying special attention to the implementation of vaccinations. During the consecutive two examinations the implementation of vaccination recommendations was analyzed as well as the availability of this information in the records. At every visit the history was obtained on the reasons for not having the vaccination programme implemented. The information on vaccination programme implementation was available in 19, 30 and 45%, of analyzed records from the Centre at the first, second and third visit, respectively. The majority of the obtained data regarded the implementation of vaccinations in children in the first year of life (85%), while the least data was on vaccinations in children over 12 years of age (30%). Similar results were obtained when analyzing a group of 168 children at the all three visits (18, 32 and 48%, respectively). The reasons for non-implementation of vaccinations were as follows: (a) low parents' awareness of the necessity of vaccinations; (b) lack of self-discipline (every other child did not report for a scheduled appointment); (c) relocation of refugees to other Centres; (d) exceedingly frequent postponing of

  5. Geomorphological analysis in soil profile assessment of the margin of Warsaw morainic plateau in Ursynów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbulewski Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the application of geomorphological analysis to recognize the geotechnical conditions at the margin of a moraine plateau in Warsaw. Aerial photographs, borehole data logging, CPT and DMT tests results were taken into account to compare the conditions at two sites, i.e. the well recognized part of the moraine plateau (SGGW Stadium site and the second part located at a distance of 5 km (Warsaw slope – church. Spatial variability of the strength and deformation properties in the study areas were determined using CPT and DMT tests results. The general conclusion is that the specific geomorphological units allow for prediction to some extent the sequence of geotechnical layers and the general distribution of soil parameters. The example from the margin of the moraine plateau in Warsaw shows that such procedure is a promising statistical tool related to geotechnical problems.

  6. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Granulometry and the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements in vacuum-cleaner collected, indoor dusts of the city of Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiewicz, M; Heimburger, R; Golimowski, J

    2000-12-18

    Twenty-seven sites, together with 23 household dust sample sites, representing the home environment, and four public room dust sample sites, representing working environment (mainly offices) have been described in this paper. The latter were examined to obtain an approximate reference to the home environment data. All the samples were collected between May and July 1997 by a vacuum-cleaner method, in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The granulometry of the dusts was determined by their separation into seven fractions in the range 8-500 microm. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br and Fe in the samples were investigated in fractions 8-32, 32-63 and 63-125 microm by the EDXRF technique. The results showed higher concentrations of these elements in finer fractions (8-32 microm). The Pb content in the household dusts was found to be unexpectedly low, ranging from 120 microg g(-1) for the 63-125 microm fraction, up to 210 microg g(-1) for the 8-32 microm fraction. Car exhausts could not be determined clearly as the main source of Pb in the indoor household dusts due to the lack of a Pb-Br intercorrelation. In these dusts, only Cr and Zn showed a remarkably high content of 90-100 and 1020-1070 (microg g(-1)), respectively. In the household dusts, strong intercorrelations were present in the three analysed fractions for the metal pairs: Pb-Zn, Pb-Cu, Fe-Cr, and Cu-Cr (weaker). The working environment rooms showed a higher degree of dustiness by 300%, as compared to the dwellings. The dusts collected in the working environment rooms showed slightly higher concentrations of Ni and by 50-100% higher concentrations of: Cu, Zn, Pb, Br than the analysed household dusts.

  8. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  9. Effects of Disclosing Sponsored Content in Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reijmersdal, Eva A.; Fransen, Marieke L.; van Noort, Guda; Opree, Suzanna J.; Vandeberg, Lisa; Reusch, Sanne; van Lieshout, Floor; Boerman, Sophie C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people’s brand attitude and purchase intentions. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we integrated resistance theories with the persuasion knowledge model. We theorize that disclosures activate people’s persuasion knowledge, which in turn evokes resistance strategies that people use to cope with the persuasion attempt made in the blog. We tested our predications with two experiments (N = 118 and N = 134). We found that participants indeed activated persuasion knowledge in response to disclosures, after which they used both cognitive (counterarguing) and affective (negative affect) resistance strategies to decrease persuasion. The obtained insights do not only advance our theoretical understanding of how disclosures of sponsored blogs affect persuasion but also provide valuable insights for legislators, advertisers, and bloggers. PMID:27721511

  10. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  11. The Complex Dynamics of Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Valentin; La Poutré, Han; Bohte, Sander

    This paper provides a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of online advertising markets, mostly based on techniques from the emergent discipline of complex systems analysis. First, we look at how the display rank of a URL link influences its click frequency, for both sponsored search and organic search. Second, we study the market structure that emerges from these queries, especially the market share distribution of different advertisers. We show that the sponsored search market is highly concentrated, with less than 5% of all advertisers receiving over 2/3 of the clicks in the market. Furthermore, we show that both the number of ad impressions and the number of clicks follow power law distributions of approximately the same coefficient. However, we find this result does not hold when studying the same distribution of clicks per rank position, which shows considerable variance, most likely due to the way advertisers divide their budget on different keywords. Finally, we turn our attention to how such sponsored search data could be used to provide decision support tools for bidding for combinations of keywords. We provide a method to visualize keywords of interest in graphical form, as well as a method to partition these graphs to obtain desirable subsets of search terms.

  12. Nurse prescribing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Więch, Paweł; Bazaliński, Dariusz; Marć, Małgorzata; Bartosiewicz, Anna; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and examine the differences in opinions held by health care professionals and the general public concerning the right to administer and prescribe medication which has been awarded to nurses and midwives in Poland. The study was conducted from December 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015, in randomly selected primary health care clinics, among 2227 individuals, including 849 subjects representing medical personnel of primary health care and 1378 patients receiving primary care services. The study used 2 versions of a questionnaire. The relationships were examined with χ2 test for independence and Kruskal–Wallis test. Health professionals do not believe the new rights awarded to nurses and midwives will reduce the waiting time for medical consultations (P Nurses’ qualifications for the new tasks were most highly rated by patients, whereas the least favorable opinion was expressed by doctors (P nurse prescribing it is necessary to develop a suitable strategy enabling implementation of the government's initiative and facilitating the process of taking up the new task by nurses. PMID:27537573

  13. Hydrological relation between two small catchments in central Poland - Zwolenka vs Zagozdzonka rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, Anna; Banasik, Kazimierz; Gładecki, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological relation between two small catchments in central Poland - Zwolenka vs Zagozdzonka rivers. Key words: long time hydrological data, Nature 2000 network, hydrological relation Since 1992 the European Union is implementing the European Ecological Natura 2000 Network. The main purpose of creation of Natura 2000, is to protect the natural endangered habitats and species of plants and animals across Europe characteristic to 9 regions. In Poland there are only two regions: continental and alpine. Many Nature 2000 areas are in a way connected with water and often covers small not hydrologically investigated catchments and rivers. Since, 2008 the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Restoration, Warsaw University of Life Sciences has started a hydrological investigation in Zwoleńka river catchment which valley is a protected Nature 2000 area. One of the most important species in this area is a pond turtle which prefer the wet habitats. There is no precise hydrological data for the Zwoleńka river, however, the other Zagożdżonka river catchment which border on Zwoleńka is investigated since 1963. The main purpose of this investigation is the find the relation between this two river catchment: protected Nature 2000 with no data and carefully investigated Zagożdżonka, with long time hydrological data set.

  14. Energy consultancy services for end-user in the housing sector in Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M.; Prebensen, K.

    1996-08-01

    The idea of establishing consulting service schemes is based on the Polish needs to introduce energy saving measures at different levels. In connection with the financing of energy saving measures whether this is carried out through private banks or Energy Saving Companies (ESCOs) there is a need for an institutional component responsible for standardized procedures for appraisal and supervision of energy saving projects. The objective of the project is to reduce the energy consumption in the municipal and housing sector in Warsaw, Gdansk and Katowice, and subsequently implement the results and experience to a large number of other towns in Poland. Education and training of more than thousand energy consultants within a period of 2 years is planned. The fundamental idea of the project is education and training of Polish professionals, who will perform the subsequent training of Polish consultants within the framework of a Polish National Energy Consultant Scheme. A comprehensive compendium (approximately 500 pages) was worked out in English language. The scope of work for the consultant covers all energy aspects in the housing sector: Individual heat generation; Control systems; Heat distribution in the building and local district heating network; Domestic Hot Water; Electricity; Thermal renovation of the Building Envelope; Energy management; Financial aspects and applications for finance of the energy saving measures. The first training course with 41 participants in Poland took place from 4 to 9 December 1995. (EG)

  15. Determinants and perceptions of social mobility in Poland, 1992-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse the factors affecting social mobility in Poland, based on results obtained from the estimation of logit models for the years 1992-2008 as well as from interviews asking about the necessary conditions to achieve success in life. Data used in this work come from the Polish General Social Survey carried out by the Institute of Social Studies of the University of Warsaw on a representative sample of adult household members. This set contains interviews conducted in the years 1992-2008 and includes 16,234 respondents. Studies using logit models to answer the question posed in the present study show that the probability of success in life in Poland is determined by both ability and level of education; interview responses to the same question, however, show that family origins, parents’ level of education and connections are just as important. Most interestingly, the percentage of people indicating the importance of these factors was higher in 2002 than it was in 1992.

  16. Benefts of Corporate Social Responsibility Engagement in Companies: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates the benefts of being perceived as a socially responsible company. The main purpose of the research was to fnd out whether company managers consider that certain aspects of company activity may beneft from being perceived as socially responsible. Research limitations: The primary source of data used in this study was a survey of respondents’ views and opinions rather than an analysis of extensive numerical data. Methodology: The research methods included a literature review and a survey conducted in several Polish companies regarded as socially responsible. The so-called RESPECT Index, including socially responsible companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Main List, as well as annual rankings of responsible companies were used as a kind of reputation database for choosing survey respondents. Findings: The most important benefts indicated by the respondents included better frm image/reputation, improved relations with stakeholders, increased employee motivation, better communication inside the company, as well as more effective management and control over new aspects not considered before. Additionally, the identifed benefts were analyzed using different criteria, such as the size of the company or its feld of activity. Originality: The problem analyzed in this study is important, yet it is still not a suffciently examined issue in many emerging markets including Poland. As benefts taken into consideration in the survey are also valid for other fnancial markets, the results can be used for comparative studies of Poland and other countries.

  17. Is Poland still attractive for foreign investments?

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Jasiniak

    2016-01-01

    Since the economic transition Poland has faced many changes. Accession to the European Union improved the Polish economy and made it more attractive for foreign investments. Since 2004 Poland has been one of the major destinations of FDI in East and Central Europe Countries. Also during the global economic crisis Poland was a good location for foreign capital. The main aim of this article is an attempt to assess whether Poland is still attractive for the location of foreign direct investment....

  18. Castniidae (Lepidoptera) in the collection of the Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł J. Domagała; González, Jorge M.; Dariusz J. Ziaja; Roland Dobosz

    2017-01-01

    The material representing 14 species and subspecies belonging to the Castniidae (Lepidoptera) deposited in the Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw was studied. A brief comment on the history of the Museum is provided. General comments on natural history, distribution, and other details are presented for each mentioned species and subspecies.

  19. One-stage (Warsaw) and two-stage (Oslo) repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate: Craniofacial outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Wegrodzka, E.; Semb, G.; Hortis-Dzierzbicka, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare facial development in subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) treated with two different surgical protocols. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 61 patients (42 boys, 19 girls; mean age, 10.9 years; SD, 1) treated consecutively in Warsaw

  20. 75 FR 59690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Warsaw Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... reliable indicator of population status and trends. Parker and Mays' (1998) study objective was to assemble... indicator of trends in the warsaw grouper population numbers for a number of reasons. Notably, the 1985... landings data across the available time series as indicators of population status or trends, or extinction...

  1. 14 CFR 151.121 - Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Engineering Proposals § 151.121 Procedures: Offer; sponsor assurances. Each sponsor must adopt the following... and surveying, air carrier operations, aircraft sales and services, sale of aviation petroleum...

  2. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  3. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  4. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  5. DOE-EERC jointly sponsored research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikson, J.G.; Sondreal, E.A.

    1999-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-93MC30098 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying efficient, nonpolluting energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting market demands for clean fuels, chemical feedstocks, and electricity in the 21st century. The objective of the JSRP was to advance the deployment of advanced technologies for improving energy efficiency and environmental performance through jointly sponsored research on topics that would not be adequately addressed by the private sector alone. Examples of such topics include the barriers to hot-gas cleaning impeding the deployment of high-efficiency power systems and the search for practical means for sequestering CO{sub 2} generated by fossil fuel combustion. The selection of particular research projects was guided by a combination of DOE priorities and market needs, as provided by the requirement for joint venture funding approved both by DOE and the private sector sponsor. The research addressed many different energy resource and related environmental problems, with emphasis directed toward the EERC's historic lead mission in low-rank coals (LRCs), which represent approximately half of the U.S. coal resources in the conterminous states, much larger potential resources in Alaska, and a major part of the energy base in the former U.S.S.R., East Central Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The Base and JSRP agreements were tailored to the growing awareness of critical environmental issues, including water supply and quality, air toxics (e.g., mercury), fine respirable particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}), and the goal of zero net CO{sub 2} emissions.

  6. Local Tax Competition in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of tax competition has been successfully applied in an analysis conducted in several European countries, but so far it has not been systematically tested either in Poland or in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. There are two types of competition discussed in the article: classic competition for mobile tax base and ‘yardstick competition’, in which local politicians compete for political capital being related to the comparison of tax rates with neighbouring municipalities. It is expected that in Poland the ‘yardstick competition’ is more important from the classic competition for the mobile tax base.

  7. Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsophila perfoliata L. is a maritime sand-dune species naturally occurring in Asia and southeastern Europe. In Europe it also is found in ruderal habitats rarely, mainly along railway lines. In Poland the species was first recorded in the 1950s; it was found only at railway stations where iron ore was offloaded from the Kryvyi Rih region, Ukraine. Recently it was found in a new type of habitat: the roadside of a main road in the Carpathians. The paper characterizes the current status, distribution and habitat spectrum of this alien species in Poland.

  8. Historic Buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology - Selected Issues of Renovation, Modernisation and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anna Agata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The historic buildings of the Warsaw University of Technology display not only outstanding architectural values, but are also representative of the trends in preservation, restoration, and adaptation that were prevalent at the time of their modernization. The post-war rebuilding of the WUT was more akin to modernization than reconstruction. But the freedom to shape modern architectural forms in the 1960s and ’70s brought with it a lack of respect for their historic environment. A change in the approach to historic buildings and their integration with modern architecture came in the late 1970s. The most recent modernization of the WUT’s historic buildings, especially after Poland’s accession to the EU, resulted in many good examples of proper, harmonious integration between the ‘modern’ and the ‘traditional’.

  9. Dosimetry in radiobiological studies with the heavy ion beam of the Warsaw cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaźmierczak, U. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Czub, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Kruszewski, M. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Rural Health, ul. Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Lankoff, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Lisowska, H. [Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Malinowska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Stępkowski, T. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Szefliński, Z. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to verify various dosimetry methods in the irradiation of biological materials with a {sup 12}C ion beam at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. To this end the number of ions hitting the cell nucleus, calculated on the basis of the Si-detector system used in the set-up, was compared with the number of ion tracks counted in irradiated Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors and with the number of ion tracks detected in irradiated Chinese Hamster Ovary cells processed for the γ-H2AX assay. Tests results were self-consistent and confirmed that the system serves its dosimetric purpose.

  10. Training activities in the Siedlce region of the Mazowiecki Agricultural Advisory Centre in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Niewęgłowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to diagnose the needs of farmers within the scope of the training courses conducted by the Mazowiecki Agricultural Advisory Centre in Warsaw in the eastern part of the Mazowieckie Province, in the region of Siedlce. 184 farmers, who had 21 areas of training and four types of training to choose from, were questioned. Based on the survey results, it was found that farmers chose a total of 1015 times from the proposed themes and types of training. One respondent was interested, on average, in more than 5 ranges of thematic training. Of the four isolated thematic groups the most popular were subjects on general agricultural production, chosen 324 times. This was followed by the new technologies of agricultural production 280 times and economics of agricultural production 277 times. The slightest interest was observed in the issues related to agritourism and regional and traditional products, 134 times.

  11. Effect of traffic routes on the trace element concentration in plants in the Warsaw agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an analysis of concentration levels of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in plants and soil near the main roads of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of contamination by selected trace elements of plants growing at different distances from the road (directly at the roadside and 50 meters away from the road and to examine the relationship between the concentration of the tested parameters in the soil and their content in the plant. It was found that the lack of clear differentiation in the levels of all heavy metals in plants depending on the distance from the road was associated with the possibility of considerable pollutant migration. In addition, it was found that dandelion usually reveals higher concentrations of heavy metals than meadow-grass.

  12. Impact of traffic routes on the content of trace elements in soils in Warsaw agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komorowski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the content of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in soils near the main traffic routes of the Warsaw agglomeration. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of soil contamination with trace metals at different distances from the road (by the side the road and 50 meters away from the road. In the soil 50 m away from the road in Łomianki ‘low contamination’ was found for zinc and ‘elevated content’ for copper according to the IUNG guidelines, but the amounts of the trace elements were not found to exceed the permissible levels as specified in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment of 1 September 2016.

  13. Design of the central region in the Warsaw K-160 cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Toprek, D; Choinski, J; Czosnyka, T

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the central region for h=2 and 3 modes of acceleration in the Warsaw K-160 cyclotron. The central region is unique and compatible with the two above-mentioned harmonic modes of operation. Only one spiral type inflector will be used. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in the four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region were studied by using the programs CASINO and CYCLONE, respectively.

  14. 2004 on Warsaw Stock Exchange via Zipf Analysis, Scatter and Lag Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachnik, W.; Chomiuk, P.; Faltynowicz, Sz.; Gawin, M.; Gorajek, W.; Kedzierski, J.; Kosk, K.; Kucharczyk, A.; Leszczynski, P.; Podsiadlo, R.; Makowiec, D.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the last year on Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) and world stock exchanges by graphical analysis: Scatter Plot, Zipf Analysis and Lag Plot of selected Polish (WIG, WIG20, WIG-BANKI, TECHWIG) and foreign (NIKKEI, DOW JONES Industrial Average) indices, and also selected companies listed on WSE. Zipf analysis proves that although, generally, holding securities was the best way to earn money in the last year, however, Zipf based strategy also could be profitable. Scatter Plots show no similarities between Polish and foreign indices, however, behaviour of Polish ones is similar. The volatility of indices and most companies was highest on Monday and lowest on Friday. Distribution of returns in continuous trading is neither Gaussian nor uniform.

  15. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor or...

  16. Ethos and Vision Realization in Sponsored Academy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the realization of ethos and vision in the early stages of sponsored academy schools in England. It is a qualitative nested case study of ten academies. Nineteen key actors were interviewed, including principals and sponsor representatives. The nests were organized by sponsor type. Key themes are discussed within the…

  17. A survey of foodstuffs fortified with vitamins available on the market in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Masalska, Katarzyna; Wronowski, Sylwester

    2013-01-01

    Foodstuffs fortified with vitamins and/or minerals are nowadays continually being developed, leading to an increasing diversity of these products being available on the market. This contributes to increased consumption of added nutrients, which can be an effective tool for improving public health. To identify and characterise products fortified with vitamins, available on the Warsaw foodstuff market, which can thereby be used as a source of information for the assessment of dietary micronutrient intake. Data were gathered using the information provided on labels from foodstuff products found in 14 Warsaw supermarkets during March to October 2012. There were 588 products found to be fortified with vitamins. The number of vitamins added ranged from one in 193 products to twelve in 14 products. The group of vitamins used for enrichment consisted of: A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin. Juices, non-alcoholic beverages (29.4%) and cereal products (18.9%) constituted the largest product groups. In addition, fortified vitamins were also significantly present in sweets (15.8%), instant beverages and desserts (13.6%), milk products, fat spreads and soy products. The most frequently added vitamins were: vitamin C (58% products), vitamin B6 (46%) and B12 (45%), whilst the least frequently added was biotin (16%). The highest content of vitamins A and D were seen in fat spreads, whereas the highest levels of B vitamins, vitamin C and E were observed in certain sweets. The wide range of fortified products available can serve to increase vitamin intake in many population groups, especially in children and teenagers. In order that consumers can make informed choices in buying these product types, appropriate education is necessary to raise public awareness of the health issues involved.

  18. Strategies of Dividend policy of the companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłoński Bartłomiej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the determinants of companies’ decisions about paying out dividends, which has been described in the Polish specialist literature, concentrates mainly on the dividends actually paid out. The research presented in the article refers to declarations of the companies included in their dividend policies. The aim of the article is to present an attitude to dividend policy exhibited by the companies listed on the Warsaw stock exchange. A particular attempt was made at identifying various formulas of constructing dividend policies by the companies and the declared conditions for dividend payments and their amounts. 118 dividend companies took part in the research and they were selected from among the companies listed on the Warsaw stock exchange in the years 2006-2012. The authors have analysed the dividend policy of the companies in terms of its components and the way it was formulated, as well as the determinants of decisions about dividend payments declared by the companies. The results of the analysis were referred to the types of strategies of the dividend policy presented in the specialist literature. The research results indicate that the boards of many companies do not consider formulating and publicising the principles of making dividend payments to be a relevant area of investor relations. The dividend policy of the companies is usually formulated too generally, with the use of general statements. Satisfying capital needs for the planned development processes appears to be a basic determinant of the distribution of profit, which is why residual dividend policy is prevalent in the analysed companies.

  19. The Lvov-Warsaw School: The forgotten tradition of historical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citlak, Amadeusz

    2016-05-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the psychological achievements of the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School of historical psychology, virtually forgotten and unknown in the world's psychological literature. Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938), founder of the school, developed a philosophical and psychological program on the basis of (among other things) the theory of actions and products, including the research program that is now included in the thread of historical psychology. His student, Wladyslaw Witwicki (1878-1948), developed the cratism theory (the theory of power) on the basis Twardowski's assumptions, providing an alternative to Alfred Adler's theory of striving for superiority while also declaring it a few years before Adler. The consequence of Witwicki's theory and the methodological assumptions was the creation of psychobiography: the first nonpsychoanalytical psychobiography of Socrates (Witwicki, 1909, 1922) and the psychobiography of Jesus Christ (Witwicki, 1958). The school's activities weakened for political reasons, particularly the outbreak of the First World War. The members of the school dispersed after 1918, and they lost international connections with the world of science. Their significant achievements in the field of psychology remained unknown to psychologists for nearly a century. In this article, I would like to present the school's unique but unfinished program of reconstructing mental life through the psychological interpretation of cultural products (literature, arts, diaries), and its value for the practice of research in historical psychology. This program required additional development, but because of the war this never happened. Some of the school's theoretical findings and the first attempts to apply them have still significant value and show us the originality of Lvov-Warsaw School psychology. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Smoking among patients of selected specialist clinics of Miedzylesie Specialist Hospital in Warsaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytka, Dorota; Doboszyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the issue of smoking among patients of selected clinics of the Miedzylesie Specialist Hospital in Warsaw, assessment of nicotine addiction of smokers and motivation to give up smoking. The survey was carried out in June and July 2009 after obtaining the consent of the Director of Miedzylesie Specialist Hospital in Warsaw. The survey was participated in by 100 patients of selected specialist clinics. The survey was carried out on the basis of a questionnaire consisting of 7 questions. Furthermore, the "Test of motivation to give up smoking" (Schneider's test) and the "Assessment of nicotine addiction level" (Fagerström's test), published in the "Consensus regarding recognition and treatment of nicotine addiction", were used. When processing data, the descriptive statistics were applied. Those surveyed included 53 former cigarette smokers 47 active smokers and. In the group of former smokers, 19 people still were exposed to passive smoking. In the past, the problem regarded 41 people. Thirty former smokers smoked cigarettes among non-smokers, including young children (18 people) and when pregnant and breastfeeding (2 people). Also 30 respondents smoked despite medical contraindications and bad conscience. For 27 people, expenditures on cigarettes constituted a considerable burden of their respective household budgets, and 20 said that it was a significant item in their expenditures. Smokers have been smoking cigarettes for 30 years, on average 20 cigarettes a day. Those patients began to smoke at the age of 20. Thirty one active smokers exposed other people to passive smoking and 38 respondents smoked cigarettes despite medical contraindications and with bad conscience. For 22 people, expenditures related to smoking are a considerable burden of the household budget and for 21 people, it is a significant expenditure. Almost one half of the patients smoke cigarettes although they should brake off smoking for medical reasons. Most

  1. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  2. Comparison of factors influencing patient choice of community pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, and identification of components of pharmaceutical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merks P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Merks,1 Justyna Kazmierczak,2 Aleksandra Elzbieta Olszewska,3 Maria Koltowska-Häggström4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Hygiene, Bioanalysis and Environmental Studies, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3Department of Pharmacy, Ashford and St Peter’s Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, United Kingdom; 4Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SwedenBackground: Several factors, which are components of pharmaceutical care, can influence a patient’s choice of a community pharmacy store and contribute to frequent visits to the same pharmacy.Objectives: To compare factors that influence a patient’s choice of pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, to identify which of them are components of pharmaceutical care, and to relate them to patient loyalty to the same pharmacy.Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to clients visiting pharmacies in Poland and the UK January–August 2011. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0.Results: The response rate was 55.6% (n=417/750; 36 pharmacies and 54.0% (n=405/750; 56 pharmacies in Poland and in the UK, respectively. The most frequently reported factors, as defined by a percentage of responders, were in Poland: 1 location (84%; 2 professional and high-quality of service (82%; 3 good price of medicines (78%; and 4 promotions on medicines (66%. In the UK, the most commonly reported factors were: 1 professional and high quality of service (90%; 2 location (89%; 3 good advice received from the pharmacist (86%; and 4 option of discussing and consulting all health issues in a consultation room (80%. Good advice and an option of discussing personal concerns with a pharmacist are components of pharmaceutical care. Thirty

  3. What can Bilfinger teach Olympic sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dodds

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilfinger SE (Bilfinger is a leading international engineering and services group (Bilfinger.com, 2015, and was a local sponsor of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The company is accused of paying bribes through its subsidiary company, Mauell, (dw. com, 2015 to public officials in Brazil for contracts related to the 2014 World Cup (Cassin, 2015. The corruption allegations relate to orders to equip security command centers at twelve host cities during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil (dw.com, 2015. Because Brazil hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, companies need to consider the risks of many international anti-corruption laws, such as Brazil’s anti-corruption law commonly referred as The Clean Companies Act and other applicable anticorruption law like the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Rogers, et. al, 2014. This paper will analyze the Bilfinger case involving corruption activity at the 2014 FIFA World Cup and offer insights for sponsors of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

  4. On known and less known relations of Leonhard Euler with Poland

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    Roman Sznajder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on research contacts of Leonhard Euler with Polish scientists of his era, mainly with those from the city of Gdańsk (then Gedanum, Danzig. L. Euler was the most prolific mathematician of all times, the most outstanding mathematician of the 18th century, and one of the best ever. The complete edition of his manuscripts is still in process (Kleinert 2015; Kleinert, Mattmüller 2007. Euler’s contacts with French, German, Russian, and Swiss scientists have been widely known, while relations with Poland, then one of the largest European countries, are still in oblivion. Euler visited Poland only once, in June of 1766, on his way back from Berlin to St. Petersburg. He was hosted for ten days in Warsaw by Stanisław II August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland. Many Polish scientists were introduced to Euler, not only from mathematical circles, but also astronomers and geographers. The correspondence of Euler with Gdańsk scientists and officials, including Carl L. Ehler, Heinrich Kühn and Nathanael M. von Wolf, originated already in the mid-1730s. We highlight the relations of L. Euler with H. Kühn, a professor of mathematics at the Danzig Academic Gymnasium and arguably the best Polish mathematician of his era. It was H. Kühn from whom Euler learned about the Königsberg Bridge Problem; hence one can argue that the beginning of the graph theory and topology of the plane originated in Gdańsk. In addition, H. Kühn was the first mathematician who proposed a geometric interpretation of complex numbers, the theme very much appreciated by Euler. Findings included in this paper are either unknown or little known to a general mathematical community.

  5. [Demographic profile of a person with symptomatic hepatitis C in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajko, Małgorzata; Slusarczyk, Janusz; Czarkowski, Mirosław; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In Poland high HCV prevalence was observed among people infected with HIV, injecting drug users, people dialyzed before 1998, people with hemophilia born before 1990. However the majority of cases are diagnosed outside of those groups and the incidence varies by demographic factors. In this study we aimed to distinguish demographic profiles among symptomatic cases diagnosed and reported to the surveillance system and to assess the frequency of exposures previously shown to impact HCV incidence in Poland in relation to the profiles. We used routine HCV surveillance data collected on all cases registered in 2006: 2935 cases, including 97 (3.3%) classified as acute and 1281 (43.6%) females. The profiles were distinguished by a two stage procedure--firstly constructing 2 most important factors with principal component analysis based on demographic variables. Then cluster analysis by Ward's minimum variance was performed using these 2 factors' scores. 5 profiles were found: (1) young men, inhabiting villages and small towns; (2) older inhabitants of villages and small towns, frequently women; (3) young men, inhabiting large cities; (4) older women inhabiting large cities; (5) inhabitants of Warsaw. The medical exposures were the most common, but the distribution of exposures was significantly different between profiles. For example injecting drug use ever was reported by 3.4% of all cases, but was more common in clusters 3 (6.0%) and 5 (5.5%) and very rare in cluster 4 (0.9%), in which hospitalization in the past was more common (63.1%) then on average (47.2%). HCV transmission patterns in Poland vary depending on demographic factors. Our results could help target screening campaigns that ideally should pick up HCV cases before they develop chronic hepatitis symptoms.

  6. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  7. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    http://www.bioline.org.br/. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Volume 14 Number 2 – July/August 2009. 112. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report. J. Gashegu1, J.C. Byiringiro2, M. Nyundo2, A. Uwineza3, L. Mutesa3. 1Anatomy Laboratory, 2Surgery Department, 3centre for Medical genetics, Faculty of Medicine, ...

  8. Education and Work in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczynski, Jan, Ed.; Sanyal, Bikas C., Ed.

    This study on the relationship between education and employment in Poland attempts to demonstrate the limitations of manpower forecasts in planning for education. Following an introduction, five sections discuss the following topics and subtopics: (1) the relation between education and employment (e.g., the instrumental view of education, the…

  9. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  10. An Experiential Social Media Project: Comparing Client-Sponsored and Non-Client-Sponsored Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuales, Gema; Harris, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Students implemented social media campaigns to raise awareness and funds for nonprofit organizations. Teams in one section of the course worked on a designated client-sponsored project (CSP), while teams in another section chose their own nonprofit organizations. Although both the CSPs and non-CSPs were evaluated favorably, students who worked on…

  11. Shigellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis according to European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) Report is registered in all countries of the European Union (EU) and of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) with exception of Italy and Luxemburg. The incidence rate in Poland below 0.1/100 000 of population is the lowest among the EU/EFTA countries. To assess epidemiological situation of shigellosis in Poland in 2012 in comparison to preceding years. An assessment of the epidemiological situation of shigellosis was based on the results from an analysis of the yearly annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", reports from bacteriological laboratories and reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to shigellosis, sent by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIZP-PZH. In 2012 the tendency that the number of registered cases of shigellosis was lower than in the former years continued - only 13 confirmed cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence rate 0.03 per 100 000 inhabitantsbut in the previous year the 18 cases ( incidence rate 0.05). Cases were registered only by 6 provinces, most of the cases by the Lodz province - 4. All together 5 persons nearly 40% were infected in travel to the foreign countries. According to data from laboratories of Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Shigella was detected only 4 convalescents and 2 carriers. All cases of shigellosis registered in 2012, were confirmed by a hospital laboratory or a private laboratory. In our opinion the above mentioned data concerning the cases of shigellosis in Poland in 2012 are not reflecting the true epidemiological situation of shigellosis in Poland. The sanitary situation was changing nearly every year for better than in former years but the surveillance of dysentery require more active epidemiological measures.

  12. History of Franciscan Friars of St. Anthony and Blessed Jakub Strzemię Province in Poland

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    Zdzisław Gogola

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to show the history of the Franciscan Friars in Poland originated in the 13th century. The development o f the order in Slavonic territories, initiated by a provincial of Germany Jan of Pian del Carpini, was going through different organizational stages and experienced its ups and downs. Franciscan Friars arrived in Poland in 1234. From the start they witnessed and participated in consolidating Christianity in Poland; they were promoters of art and social development. Dialectic between continuity and up-dating their presence in the Polish socio-cultural and ecclesiastical context required constant verification of the way of experiencing their own identity as well as the criteria, owing to which they became a strong impulse in the evangelisation of the young Polish church and in the establishing new church structures in borderland areas. Since that time the borders have been changed many times and so has the organization of the order and the borders of the province. The growing importance o f Franciscan Friars resulted in taking up new pastoral and missionary initiatives. Franciscan Friars established Calvaries in Poland and Lithuania, introduced the tradition of Christmas crčches and penitential services. Last but not least, they evoked the cult of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. Since World Wbi* ÎĎ St. Anthony End the Blessed Jskub Strzemię Province hsts been developing steadily. A growing number of Franciscan Friars testifies to this development. In 1996 the Province had 423 professed monks, including 238 priests, 36 brothers, 28 clerics who have taken solemn vows. In St. Anthony and the Blessed Jakub Strzemię Province Franciscan monasteries are located in 24 places and 17 are abroad. The average age is slightly over 45 years. The Province of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which is based in Warsaw, has also noted a steady growth and so has a new province that developed from it - St. Maximilian Maria Kolbe Province with the seat in Gda

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Poland, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Golparian, Daniel; Walter de Walthoffen, Szymon; Majewski, Slawomir; Koper, Marta; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-02-06

    In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been internationally reported in nearly four decades, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae are totally lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the AMR to previously and currently recommended gonorrhoea treatment options, the main genetic resistance determinant (penA) for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Poland in 2010-2012. N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2010 (n = 28), 2011 (n = 92) and 2012 (n = 108) in Warsaw and Bialystok, Poland, were examined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Etest), pyrosequencing of penA and N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). The proportions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 61%, tetracycline 43%, penicillin G 22%, and azithromycin 8.8%. No isolates resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime or spectinomycin were found. However, the proportion of isolates with an ESC MIC = 0.125 mg/L, i.e. at the resistance breakpoint, increased significantly from none in 2010 to 9.3% and 19% in 2012 for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. Furthermore, 3.1% of the isolates showed multidrug resistance, i.e., resistance to ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, azithromycin, and decreased susceptibility to cefixime (MIC = 0.125 mg/L). Seventy-six isolates (33%) possessed a penA mosaic allele and 14 isolates (6.1%) contained an A501V/T alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2. NG-MAST ST1407 (n = 58, 25% of isolates) was the most prevalent ST, which significantly increased from 2010 (n = 0) to 2012 (n = 46; 43%). In Poland, the diversified gonococcal population displayed a high resistance to most antimicrobials internationally previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment and decreasing

  14. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  15. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  16. Immigrants and employer-sponsored health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Lurie, Ithai; Dolfin, Sarah

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the factors underlying the lower rate of employer-sponsored health insurance coverage for foreign-born workers. 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation. We estimate probit regressions to determine the effect of immigrant status on employer-sponsored health insurance coverage, including the probabilities of working for a firm that offers coverage, being eligible for coverage, and taking up coverage. We identified native born citizens, naturalized citizens, and noncitizen residents between the ages of 18 and 65, in the year 2002. First, we find that the large difference in coverage rates for immigrants and native-born Americans is driven by the very low rates of coverage for noncitizen immigrants. Differences between native-born and naturalized citizens are quite small and for some outcomes are statistically insignificant when we control for observable characteristics. Second, our results indicate that the gap between natives and noncitizens is explained mainly by differences in the probability of working for a firm that offers insurance. Conditional on working for such a firm, noncitizens are only slightly less likely to be eligible for coverage and, when eligible, are only slightly less likely to take up coverage. Third, roughly two-thirds of the native/noncitizen gap in coverage overall and in the probability of working for an insurance-providing employer is explained by characteristics of the individual and differences in the types of jobs they hold. The substantially higher rate of uninsurance among immigrants is driven by the lower rate of health insurance offers by the employers of immigrants.

  17. The structure and differentiation of the synanthropic flora of the botanical gardens in Poland

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    Halina Galera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic studies were carried out in eight botanical gardens in Poland in the years 1992-1999. It was demonstrated that the spontaneous synanthropic flora of the gardens consisted of 1092 taxa in the rank of a genus or lower, among which alien species constituted 55% of the flora studied. Ergasiophygophytes, of which the introduction is closely associated with the activities of the botanical gardens, dominated in the latter group of species. It appeared that the flora of the studied botanical gardens was rather similar. However, the structure of the flora of different spatial units (six types of microhabitats distinguished in the particular gardens varied, which was associated with the various management practices. The flora of microhabitats identified in the gardens differed with respect to the number of taxa and spectra of geographical-historical groups of species and life forms. Ruderal sites, arable lands and roadsides supported the highest number of taxa (the flora of the above spatial units was represented by 646, 645 and 597 taxa, respectively. Moreover, they were characterized by a high proportion of annual plants in the flora (43, 38 and 34%, respectively and by a relatively small representation of apophytes (39% in all the three types of microhabitats. The flora of wet areas and parks was, however, poor in species (154 and 403 species, respectively, but relatively rich in apophytes (72 and 55% of the flora, respectively and with a low contribution of therophytes (19 and 20%, respectively. The present data were compared with the findings of other authors who investigated the synanthropic flora of cities in which the botanical gardens were located. The comparative analysis of the flora of Poznań and Łódź showed a great richness of species (in relation to size of the area studied and a high incidence of aliens (especially those, which had not become established permanently in the botanical gardens. However comparative studies of the

  18. Shigellosis in Poland in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery, is a contagious and infectious disease. In the European Union, on the basis of the Commission Decision of 2 April 2009 and the Commission Decision of 28 April 2008, a unified system for collecting epidemiological data on infectious diseases was introduced, including shigellosis. This makes it possible to compare data collected at different times and in different countries. The aim of the article is to evaluate the epidemiological situation of shigellosis in Poland in 2011. An assessment of the epidemiological situation of shigellosis was based on the results from an analysis of the yearly annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011", reports from bacteriological laboratories and reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to shigellosis, sent by Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIZP-PZH. In Poland, 17 confirmed cases of shigellosis were registered in 2011. The incidence of 0.04 per 100,000 inhabitants was lower when compared to the previous year. The number of cases is lower by 48% when compared with the median of years 2005-2009--35 cases (incidence 0.09/100,000). Most of the cases were registered in the Silesian province--7 (incidence 0.15 /100,000). According to data from 16 laboratories of Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, Shigella was not detected among the subjects. All cases of shigellosis registered in 2011, were confirmed by a hospital laboratory at or a private laboratory. In Poland, we have observed a decline in the number of cases of shigellosis and the incidence remains at a relatively steady level and constitutes less than 0.1/100,000 inhabitants. Compared to the rest of the countries belonging to the EU/EFTA, the current epidemiological situation of shigellosis in Poland is good. Poland is a country with the lowest incidence. In spite of this, the surveillance of shigellosis required more active

  19. Is Poland still attractive for foreign investments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jasiniak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the economic transition Poland has faced many changes. Accession to the European Union improved the Polish economy and made it more attractive for foreign investments. Since 2004 Poland has been one of the major destinations of FDI in East and Central Europe Countries. Also during the global economic crisis Poland was a good location for foreign capital. The main aim of this article is an attempt to assess whether Poland is still attractive for the location of foreign direct investment. This article is a preliminary study. It is based on statistical analysis describing changes in foreign capital flows in Poland and its position in relation to other European Union countries. Results show that the position of Poland on the map of foreign investment has dramatically changed.

  20. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  1. Warsaw Pact: The Question of Cohesion. Phase II, Volume 1. The Greater Socialist Army: Integration and Reliability,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    militaires, le cadre professionnel et le milieu politico- militaire dans lequel ils 6voluent. On 6value leur impact sur le concept ’dlspositions/rendement...services, etc. The 1955 statutes on the Warsaw Pact specified that deputy commanders of the Joint Command could be WP defence ministers and "other...treaty." 3 5 This statute may have been the basis for the simultaneous appointments in 1966 of Marshal P.F. Batitskii as Commander of the Soviet Anti

  2. The Reliability of the Warsaw Treaty Organization: Can the Soviet Union Depend on Its Northern Tier Allies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Czechoslovakia L-29/39 C zechos lo- (trainer acft.) vak ia TS-11 (Iskra) Poland (trainer acit.) LI-2 CAB Poland (reed. transport acft.) IL-14/1411... reactors and other ehuipment for use domesti- cally and by other COMECON members in the production of nuclear power plants. In late 1978, the first

  3. Ambush Marketing in Poland Before the 2012 European Football Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gębarowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities belonging to ambush marketing (parasite marketing are more and more widely undertaken with regard to subsequent, huge sports events. Therefore, this article analyzes the scope of using this form of promotion in the period that preceded the 2012 European Football Championship. A reference has been made to Poland – a country which was a co-host of the championship. On the Polish market, owners of many brands performed actions that aimed at “stealing” image effects which should be achieved only by official sponsors who support such huge tournament (which is considered to be one of the three greatest sports events all around the world – apart from the Summer Olympic Games and the Football World Cup. The article has two objectives. First, it describes a concept of promoting selected brands (based on relation to the EURO 2012, identifying the scope of using ambush marketing forms in relation to Polish consumers. Second, it presents results of research which illustrates differences in conceiving the brands of both official sponsors and those – to whom one can attribute a name of ambushers.

  4. Last Glacial Maximum in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Leszek

    2002-01-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Poland is represented by the Leszno Phase and occurred after 21 ka radiocarbon years. In turn the deglacial Poznań Phase is estimated at 18.4 ka, the Pomeranian Phase at 15.2 ka, the Gardno Phase at about 14.0-13.8 ka, the Słupsk Bank Phase at 13.5-13.2 ka and the Southern Middle Bank Phase at 12.7-12.5 ka BP. The ice sheet limit at LGM was not synchronous everywhere in Poland but occurred as several major and minor ice lobes that reflected a stream-like structure of the ice body that radiated southwards from the Baltic Basin. Meltwater runoff during the LGM created a complex system of sandur trains and ice-marginal spillways, with numerous intervening proglacial lakes.

  5. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  6. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  7. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  8. Spatial distribution of anthropogoenic pollution acumulated on tree leaves, soil and street dust in the park area in the centre of Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytłow, Sylwia; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic method has been successfully used to evaluate and characterise the degree of air pollution. This method is based on investigation of properties of magnetic particles of pollution such as magnetic susceptibility, parameters of hysteresis loops and temperature-dependence of magnetic parameters etc. The motivation to undertake this study was to find the distribution of pollution emitted by traffic vehicles in a green area situated in urban environment. The investigated area is the oldest public park named Saxon Garden in the centre of Warsaw, Poland. The Saxon Garden is located between the very busy main road with tram line, two local streets (low traffic volume) and big plaza without car traffic and trees. In order to quantify the degree of pollution we measured magnetic susceptibility of pollution deposited on chestnut leaves (the most abundant tree species in the park), surface of the roads (street dust) and in soil from the park area. The highest values of magnetic susceptibility of pollution were observed on tree leaves located along the edges/borders of park area (190 [m3/kg]), directly adjacent to busy roads. The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility (20 [m3/kg]) were obtained for leave samples from the borders of park, directly adjacent to plaza and roads with low traffic volume. It was observed that the intensity of magnetic susceptibility decreases with the distance of pollution source i.e. main streets. A similar distribution of intensity of magnetic susceptibility was observed for the soil samples collected from park area. With the exception of a few samples, the magnetic susceptibility of soil samples were higher than for leave samples. Our study showed that the distribution of magnetic susceptibility of soil and leave samples correlate with the intensity of magnetic susceptibility of street dust taken from the road surfaces situated along the boundary of the park area. On the basis of the detailed research of the domain structure and

  9. Poland syndrome with dextrocardia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiwango, G W; Swan, M C; Nyende, R; Hodges, A M

    2010-11-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital condition presentingwith typical features including an absent costosternal head of pectoralis major andipsilateral brachysyndactyly. There are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder girdle muscle and breast hypoplasia or agenesis. Dextrocardia is rarely associated with Poland Syndrome with only 22 cases being previously reported in the worldwide literature. Whereas 'classical' Poland syndrome is predominantly right sided, all cases associated with dextrocardia have been left sided. We report a further case of left sided Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of this unusual condition.

  10. Jointly Sponsored Research Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Under this program, which has been in place since Fiscal Year 1990, DOE makes approximately $2.5 million available each year to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to fund projects that are of current interest to industry but which still involve significant risk, thus requiring some government contribution to offset the risk if the research is to move forward. The program guidelines require that at least 50% of the project funds originate from nonfederal sources. Projects funded under the JSRP often originate under a complementary base program, which funds higher-risk projects. The projects funded in Fiscal Year 1996 addressed a wide range of Fossil Energy interests, including hot-gas filters for advanced power systems; development of cleaner, more efficient processing technologies; development of environmental control technologies; development of environmental remediation and reuse technologies; development of improved analytical techniques; and development of a beneficiation technique to broaden the use of high-sulfur coal. Descriptions and status for each of the projects funded during the past fiscal year are included in Section A of this document, Statement of Technical Progress.

  11. Experimental investigation of ionisation track structure of carbon ions at HIL Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantsar, A; Hilgers, G; Pszona, S; Rabus, H; Szeflinski, Z

    2015-09-01

    In view of the upcoming radiation therapy with carbon ions, the ionisation structure of the carbon ion track at the nanometre scale is of particular interest. Two different nanodosimeters capable of measuring track structure of ionising particles in a gas target equivalent to a nanometric site in condensed matter were involved in the presented experimental investigation, namely the NCBJ Jet Counter and the PTB Ion Counter. At the accelerator facility of the HIL in Warsaw, simulated nanometric volumes were irradiated with carbon ions of 45 and 76 MeV of kinetic energy, corresponding to a range in the tissue of ∼85 µm and ∼190 µm, respectively. The filling gas of both nanodosimeters' ionisation volume was molecular nitrogen N2, and the ionisation cluster size distributions, i.e. the statistical distribution of the number of ionizations produced by one single primary carbon ion in the filling gas, were measured for the two primary particle energies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Evaluation of antioxidant vitamins intake by students of Warsaw University of Life Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnicka, Magdalena; Pindral, Joanna; Hamulka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of antioxidant vitamins intake among students of the Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences of Warsaw University of Life Science. The investigation was done among 145 students at the age 21-28 in the 2008 year. Data about food intake were collected using a 3-day dietary records method. On this basis intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E and C was calculated The results shows that the quantity of antioxidant vitamins was adequate for vitamin C (64 mg/d, 102% EAR), but for vitamin A and E was higher then recommended value (698 microg retinol equivalent/d, 135% EAR and 11,5 mg tocopherol equivalent/d, 138% of AI). About 12-15% students used supplements, providing additional 574 microg vitamin A, 116 mg vitamin C and 4 mg vitamin E. It covered together with food intakes 260%, 298% EAR value and 199% of AI value, in case of vitamin E. In smokers, for which recommendations of intake antioxidant vitamins are slightly different, it was found too low their intake.

  13. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchev, Yavor; Eftimov, Tihomir

    2010-05-01

    After 45 years as a closest ally of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw Pact, founded mainly against the US and the Western Europe countries, and 15 years of democratic changes, since 2004 Bulgaria has been a full member of NATO and an equal and trusted partner of its former enemies. The unprecedented transformation has affected all aspects of the Bulgarian society. As a function of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarian military medicine and in particular Bulgarian military neurosurgery is indivisibly connected with their development. The history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery is the history of the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics military system and military medicine to NATO standards in every aspect. The career of the military neurosurgeon in Bulgaria is in many ways similar to that of the civilian neurosurgeon, but there are also many peculiarities. The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization.

  14. Diagnostic Overlap between Fanconi Anemia and the Cohesinopathies: Roberts Syndrome and Warsaw Breakage Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra van der Lelij

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a recessively inherited disease characterized by multiple symptoms including growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, and bone marrow failure. The FA diagnosis is complicated due to the fact that the clinical manifestations are both diverse and variable. A chromosomal breakage test using a DNA cross-linking agent, in which cells from an FA patient typically exhibit an extraordinarily sensitive response, has been considered the gold standard for the ultimate diagnosis of FA. In the majority of FA patients the test results are unambiguous, although in some cases the presence of hematopoietic mosaicism may complicate interpretation of the data. However, some diagnostic overlap with other syndromes has previously been noted in cases with Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we present results showing that misdiagnosis may also occur with patients suffering from two of the three currently known cohesinopathies, that is, Roberts syndrome (RBS and Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS. This complication may be avoided by scoring metaphase chromosomes—in addition to chromosomal breakage—for spontaneously occurring premature centromere division, which is characteristic for RBS and WABS, but not for FA.

  15. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  16. Electret filters, production and properties; proceedings of the international workshop on electret filters, production and properties, Warsaw, Poland, January 29 and 30, 1999.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenhouse, J.I.T.; Gradon, L.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    particulate matter from a gas stream. Rational design of the filtration process should be based on reliable prediction of the effluent concentration and pressure drop for a given set of operating conditions. Moreover, both of these main filter parameters vary in time when a fibrous structure becomes

  17. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Obidziński

    Full Text Available Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1 assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2 comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  18. Team sponsors in community-based health leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.

  19. Ensuring safety of home-produced eggs to control salmonellosis in Poland: lessons from an outbreak in September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielicka-Hardy, A; Zarowna, D; Szych, J; Madajczak, G; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-11-22

    Implementation of control measures in line with European Commission regulations has led to a decrease in salmonellosis in the European Union since 2004. However, control programmes do not address laying hens whose eggs are produced for personal consumption or local sale. This article reports an investigatxion of a salmonellosis outbreak linked to home-produced eggs following a family event held in a farm in September 2011 near Warsaw, Poland. In the outbreak, 34 people developed gastroenteritis symptoms. Results from a cohort study indicated a cake, prepared from raw home-produced eggs, as the vehicle of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis identified Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in stool samples or rectal swabs from 18 of 24 people and in two egg samples. As no food items remained, we used phage typing to link the source of the outbreak with the isolated strains. Seven S. Enteritidis strains analysed (five from attendees and two from eggs) were phage type 21c. Our findings resulted in culling of the infected laying hens and symptomatic pigeons housed next to the hens. Salmonella poses as a public health problem in Poland: control measures should not forget home-produced eggs, as there is a risk of infection from their consumption.

  20. The Maritime Security of the Baltic Approaches. NATO and the Warsaw Pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    the last of which was transferred in 1970 when Poland received a SAM Kotlin class destroyer. They have also received several coastal patrol craft...conscripts). 4 W-class submarines. I Kotlin destroyer with two Goa SAM. 13 Osa FAC(M) with Styx SSM. 17 FAC(T): 4 Pilica, 10 Wisla, 3 P-6. 23 large...cruisers CG (Kara, Kresta, Kynda) 2 2 - Light cruisers CL (Sverdlov, Chapaev 4 5 2 Guided missile destroyers DDG (Kashin, Kilden, Kanin, Kivak, Kotlin (SAM

  1. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for hemoglobin glutamer-200... ownership of, and all rights and interest in, NADA 141-067 for OXYGLOBIN (hemoglobin glutamer-200) to OPK...

  2. 14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103 Section 152.103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for airport development with...

  3. Spectators' perceptions of official sponsors in the FIFA 2010 World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis, namely, favourability and interest, personal liking of the event, attitude towards sponsors, status of event and perceived sincerity. The correlations indicated high level of association between spectators' perceptions of the official sponsors and their propensity to ...

  4. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  5. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  6. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  7. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland...... will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  8. Malaria in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2013 compared to the data from previous years. The assessment was performed based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by sanitary-epidemiological stations and aggregated data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition criteria applicable in the EU countries. In 2013, a total of 36 imported malaria cases were registered in Poland, 15 more than in 2012. No deaths were recorded. As much as 80% of all cases were imported from African countries, of whom the majority came from Nigeria, 14% from Asia and 6% from South America. Concurrent infection with dengue virus was confirmed in one person coming back from Philippines. Plasmodium species was determined in 35 of 36 cases by blood film or PCR test. Invasion with P. falciparum and P. vivax was found in 23 (66%) and 9 (26%) cases, respectively. There was also one case of each of the following: P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed invasion. As in previous years, in most cases, the invasion was associated with tourist trips (47%) or work-related travels (36%). Immigrants or students visiting the country of origin accounted for 11% of patients, in two cases (6%) purpose of the journey was not determined. As many as 7 patients used chemoprophylaxis, including two persons who took drugs in compliance with the recommendations. Despite a significant increase in the number of cases compared to previous years, the total number of imported malaria remains low. Persistent large number of delays in the diagnosis and a high percentage of severe malaria cases indicate the need to raise doctors awareness of the possibility of malaria incidence. Travelers should be also constantly reminded of the need to inform their GPs about the stay in the malaria endemic areas in the event of fever after returning.

  9. mediCAl UniVersity oF WArsAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kwast

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. infantile hemangiomas in the region of head and neck are relatively common. When localized in the vicinity ofvital organs, airways or the eye, they may cause a serious threat to the child’s health and development, or even life. the recentlydiscovered effectiveness of propranolol in treating infantile hemangiomas enabled the development of a fast and safe treatmentmethods of these lesions in laryngological patients.Aim. the purpose of this study was to analyze the patients with infantile hemangioma and their treatment with a view to thelatest findings and therapeutic standards.Material and methods. Children hospitalized in the years 2013-2015 in the department of pediatric otolaryngology at themedical University of Warsaw with the diagnosis of infantile hemangioma of the head and neck were included in the study.data concerning patients’ age and sex, location of the lesion, any additional lesions and duration of the propranolol therapy, aswell as the response to treatment, were collected for the study.Results. We included 17 patients (12 girls and 5 boys in the study. hemangioma was located in the larynx in 8 cases, there were3 cases of hemangioma of the tongue, 3 cases of hemangioma of the nasal cavity and 3 cases of a hemangioma in a different location: cheek, parotid gland and palate. in 3 cases, there was an additional hemangioma localized outside of the head and neckregion. 11 patients were under one year old at the beginning of treatment. treatment duration varied from 3 to 12 months. inall cases in which propranolol was introduced in infancy, we observed complete remission of the changes.Conclusions. propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma is a very effective and safe way for reducing the mass of the lesion. it allows to reach complete remission when administered early enough.

  10. Severe COPD cases from Korea, Poland, and USA have substantial differences in respiratory symptoms and other respiratory illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim WJ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Woo Jin Kim,1 Jae-Joon Yim,2 Deog Kyeom Kim,3 Myung Goo Lee,4 Anne L Fuhlbrigge,5 Pawel Sliwinski,6 Iwona Hawrylkiewicz,6 Emily S Wan,7,8 Michael H Cho,7,8 Edwin K Silverman7,8 1Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea; 5Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA; 62nd Department of Respiratory Medicine, Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Warsaw, Poland; 7Channing Division of Network Medicine, 8Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, geographic differences in the clinical characteristics of severe COPD patients have not been widely studied. Methods: We recruited a total of 828 severe COPD cases from three continents. Subjects in Poland were enrolled by the Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Warsaw; subjects in Korea participated at several university hospitals in Korea; and subjects in USA were enrolled at two clinics affiliated with academic medical centers. All subjects were over the age of 30 with at least 10 pack-years of cigarette smoking history. Cases manifested severe to very severe airflow obstruction with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 <50

  11. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  12. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  13. Tetanus in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Despite of the small number of cases reported in Poland tetanus is a permanent risk to unvaccinated people. The severity of the disease is associated with high case fatality, especially among people in older age groups. The aim of this paper is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in 2012. Principal source of the data is bulletin: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012, and individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH -NIH. In 2012, there were reported 19 cases of tetanus. 6 cases occurred in men, and 13 women. 13 cases occurred in persons over 69 years of age and in those age groups 6 cases were fatal. The paper describes the geographical distribution and the month of infection, the nature of the wounds which were portals of infection and the duration of incubation period of the cases. Severity of tetanus, despite a small number of cases each year leads to several deaths, which could be prevented by vaccination.

  14. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  15. Why Should Poland Go Nuclear?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marecki, J.; Duda, M.; Kerner, A.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents an outcome of the optimisation analysis to showing the advantages of nuclear power development in Poland. The arguments, justifying the necessity to start the nuclear programme in Poland, are related to the energy security, economic generation and environmental features of the nuclear option. The energy security aspect means the necessity to cover the increasing demand for electricity with increasing diversification of fuels for power plants, also in the context of the growing domination of the main supplier of natural gas to Europe. The economic aspect means the necessity to achieve a structure of the electricity sources which would assure least generation costs in the conditions of limited potential of domestic fossil fuels. The environmental aspect means not only the necessity to ensure a structure of electricity generation sources which allows for compliance with the legally binding environmental requirements, but also which allows a minimal level of the environment pollution at the given stage of the development of electricity generation technologies. Additionally, the external costs of electricity generation by different fossil-fuelled and nuclear plants, as additional arguments in favour of nuclear option, are presented. (auth)

  16. Relationship between emotional processing, drinking severity and relapse in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The monitoring of influenza vaccination programs in Poland and European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydak, Lidia B

    2003-01-01

    Every year approximately 100,000 millions of cases of influenza are registered all over the world. In the United States of America from 20,000 to 40,000 people die due to influenza and its complications every year. Vaccination is the best way of protection against this disease and its serious complications. The clinical efficacy and economic benefits of influenza vaccination is well proved and substantiated. Each year the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), WHO, Atlanta, USA publishes recommendations for influenza vaccinations indicating which groups of people and patients should be vaccinated for clinical reasons and which of them--for epidemiological reasons. Depending on the country, vaccination policies for influenza vaccinations are different. In Poland vaccination against influenza is recommended for all groups mentioned in ACIP document. Nevertheless, there is no reimbursement system for influenza vaccinations in our country, even only for high-risk groups. Desite this, from year to year more and more people are getting immunized. National campaign carried out by the National Influenza Center, Warsaw resulted in over 200-fold increase of number of doses of influenza vaccines distributed in the epidemic season 2001/2002 when compared with the season 1992/93. This fact shows the importance and efficacy of educational activities together with scientific studies for positive changes in patients' and physicians' attitude to influenza vaccinations.

  19. Plane Ticket Price Dispersion in the Online Selling System in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stanisław Szopiński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have studied the influence exerted by tourism on the economy. Today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are an important factor influencing competitiveness in the tourism sector and consumers’ decision-making concerning tourism purchases. Along with the expansion of the European Union, the revolution in passenger air transportation has spread over new member states in Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland. The authors of this study analyzed ticket prices on Internet websites that aggregate offers from different carriers and on the websites managed by the carriers themselves, specifically studying offers for the most popular flight connections from F. Chopin airport in Warsaw to London, Frankfurt, Munich, and Paris. For each connection, the study examined flights operated by the Polish carrier, i.e., LOT Polish Airlines, and by a carrier originating from a destination country. The analysis of the particular coefficients illustrating the price dispersion for each flight operated by a foreign carrier in comparison to the offer from LOT Polish Airlines points to the conclusion that the tickets offered by the latter were marked by a much narrower price dispersion in contrast to the connections offered by foreign carriers on the same route.

  20. An attempt of the metadata standard creation for the technology of mobile laser scanning in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, P.; Parzyński, Z.; Uchański, J.; Uchański, Ł.

    2011-12-01

    Authors of the paper are presenting the attempt of the metadata standard creation for the technology of Mobile Laser Scanning. The research leading to the result presented in the publication was based on practical aspects of works realized within the usage of Mobile Laser Scanning measurements on the territory of Poland and theoretical issues concerned at Warsaw University of Technology in the area of metadata and standard creation. Usage of Mobile Laser Scanning gives the great advantage of acquisition impressive sets of data in short period of time finding their potential in the fields heritage preservation, architecture, deformation monitoring and industrial applications. In relation to the variety of applications and elements which needs to be concerned as the crucial parts of data sets like precise characteristic of the quality of acquired data authors attempt to create a metadata standard enabling potential prioritization and selection of data into normative which could in the future became a basis for regular normative creation considering this sort of measurements. Until now no sort of Laser Scanning tools has received its own standard despite the fact it is getting more and more necessary also by the fact of its growing popularization and variety of usage in different fields of life.

  1. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  2. [Trichinellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Gołab, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still an epidemiological problem in Poland as well as in other countries in the European Union (EU). Across the EU, reporting cases oftrichinellosis is mandatory. In Poland, tirchinellosis is an endemic disease, occurring mainly in territories where it is customary to eat raw meat products prepared from pigs and wild boars. The aim of this work is to evaluate the epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland in the year 2010 in comparison to previous years. Cases of trichinellosis infections were classified according to criteria contained in the definition approved by the European Committee on 28th April 2008 amending the decision 2002/253/EC, and was introduced in Poland in 2009. Case definitions used in are available at http://www.pzh. gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/inne/Def_PL2_Rob1 h.pdf. An infection was classified and reported as Trichinella spp. if the genus of Trichinella that caused the infection was not specified using molecular examination. In 2010 the number of registered human trichinellosis cases was similar to the average number of cases from the last several years, and it did not exceed 55 (the exceptions were in 2004 and 2007, when larger outbreaks occurred). In 2010, 51 Trichinella infections were registered, yielding an infection rate of 0.13 per 100 000 inhabitants. The infections occurred in 5 voivodeships (table 1). Using the criteria from the definitions, 41 cases were classified as probable and 10 were confirmed cases. Trichinella infections diagnoses were based on the presence of clinical symptoms and an epidemiological link. Serological diagnostic tests confirming the presence of Trichinella antibodies was performed in approximately 20% of the cases. Four individual cases were reported, along with 4 outbreaks in which a total of 47 people were infected? The infections were generally mild. Twenty-two infected persons were hospitalised (43%). Just like in previous years, no trichinellosis-related deaths were reported. The

  3. Research on Popular Music conducted at the Institute of Musicology of the University of Warsaw in 1953–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradowski Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a survey of research on popular music carried out at the Institute of Musicology, University of Warsaw. It discusses the contents of valuable studies undertaken at the Institute but still unpublished and kept at the Library of the Institute of Musicology. The authors’ aim has been to facilitate the exchange of ideas with other musicological centres conducting research on popular music, as well as providing other musicologists and scholars working in the field with an overview the research undertaken to date.

  4. Medical Malpractice Reform and Employer‐Sponsored Health Insurance Premiums

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard (Jack)

    2008-01-01

    ...‐sponsored health insurance. Data Sources/Study Setting. Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys...

  5. University-industry interface activities: Awareness of sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University-industry interface activities: Awareness of sponsored research among ... of industries in university research activities is one of major proposal that has ... was administered on a sample of 563 academics in 13 Federal universities.

  6. Fractional Market Model and its Verification on the Warsaw STOCK Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Marzena; Kasprzak, Andrzej; Kutner, Ryszard

    We analyzed the rising and relaxation of the cusp-like local peaks superposed with oscillations which were well defined by the Warsaw Stock Exchange index WIG in a daily time horizon. We found that the falling paths of all index peaks were described by a generalized exponential function or the Mittag-Leffler (ML) one superposed with various types of oscillations. However, the rising paths (except the first one of WIG which rises exponentially and the most important last one which rises again according to the ML function) can be better described by bullish anti-bubbles or inverted bubbles.2-4 The ML function superposed with oscillations is a solution of the nonhomogeneous fractional relaxation equation which defines here our Fractional Market Model (FMM) of index dynamics which can be also called the Rheological Model of Market. This solution is a generalized analog of an exactly solvable fractional version of the Standard or Zener Solid Model of viscoelastic materials commonly used in modern rheology.5 For example, we found that the falling paths of the index can be considered to be a system in the intermediate state lying between two complex ones, defined by short and long-time limits of the Mittag-Leffler function; these limits are given by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) law for the initial times, and the power-law or the Nutting law for asymptotic time. Some rising paths (i.e., the bullish anti-bubbles) are a kind of log-periodic oscillations of the market in the bullish state initiated by a crash. The peaks of the index can be viewed as precritical or precrash ones since: (i) the financial market changes its state too early from the bullish to bearish one before it reaches a scaling region (defined by the diverging power-law of return per unit time), and (ii) they are affected by a finite size effect. These features could be a reminiscence of a significant risk aversion of the investors and their finite number, respectively. However, this means that the

  7. Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Szlanta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Niniejszy materiał jest udostępniony na licencji Creative Commons – Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 3.0 DE. Pełne postanowienia tej licencji są dostępne pod: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/de/legalcode This paper presents the process of building an independent Polish state during the First World War, which, from the Polish perspective, was the most important result of this conflict. The article focuses mainly on the political and military ...

  8. Is it Beneficial to Have an Alcoholics Anonymous Sponsor?

    OpenAIRE

    Tonigan, J. Scott; RICE, SAMARA LLOYD

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance is predictive of increased abstinence for many problem drinkers and treatment referral to AA is common. Strong encouragement to acquire an AA sponsor is likewise typical, and findings about the benefits associated with social support for abstinence in AA support this practice, at least indirectly. In spite of this widespread practice, however, prospective tests of the unique contribution of having an AA sponsor are lacking. This prospective study investiga...

  9. Aplication and evaluation of sponsoring for rhythmic gymnastics competition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobešová, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Title: Application and evaluation of sponsoring for rhythmic gymnastics competition Objectives: The main objective is the offering of sponsorship packages that have been made previously to former and current sponsors in order to entice them to come back and stay. The next sub-objective is to establish cooperation with new potential partners for competition in rhythmic gymnastics with a tailor-made offer. Methods: In the work are used the methods of quantitative and qualitative research. The m...

  10. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  11. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  12. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  13. Capital Asset Pricing Model Testing at Warsaw Stock Exchange: Are Family Businesses the Remedy for Economic Recessions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Lipiec

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we test the capital asset pricing model (CAPM on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE by measuring the performance of two portfolios composed of construction firms: family-controlled and nonfamily controlled. These portfolios were selected from the WIG-Construction (WIG—Warszawski Indeks Giełdowy—Warsaw Stock Exchange Index. The performance of both portfolios was measured in the period from 2006 to 2012 with respect to three sub-periods: (1 pre-crisis period: 2006–2007; (2 crisis period: 2008–2009; and (3 post-crisis period: 2010–2012. This division was constructed in this way to find out how family firms performed in crisis times in relation to nonfamily firms. In addition, the construction portfolio was chosen due to its sensitivity to recessions. When an economy faces a downturn, construction firms are among the first to be exposed to risk. The performance was measured by using the capital asset pricing model with statistical inference. We find that public family firms significantly outperformed non-family peers in the crisis times.

  14. Dominating types of penicillinase-plasmids in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in 2010-2012 in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Kujawa, Marlena; Mynarczyk, Graiyna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Slawomir

    The reason of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance to penicillin is often production of TEM beta-lactamases encoded by plasmids. The most common types of the plasmid are Africa, Asia and Toronto/Rio. Another reason of resistance can be mutations in bacterial chromosome. The aim of the study was to investigate the types of plasmids occurring in in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in 2010-2012 in Warsaw. From 218 isolated in 2010, 2011 and at the beginning of 2012 from patients of Medical University in Warsaw we selected 12 strains producing beta- lactamase (penicillinase producing N. gonorrhoeae, PPNG). d B-tests to investigate bacterial sensitivity to penicillin and cefiriaxon. The types of plasmids were determined with PCR. The Beta-lactamases were encoded by Toronto/Rio (41,7%), Asia (33,3%) and Africa (25,0%) plasmids. All the strains were resistant to penicillin (MIC 2-8 mg/L) and sensitive to ceftriaxon (MIC 0,004-0,032 mg/L). All of the investigate PPNG strains were penicillin resistant and ceftriaxon sensitive. The dominating type of the penicillinase plasmid was Toronto/Rio.

  15. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  16. Joining NATO: Challenges Ahead for Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakrzewski, Lech

    1999-01-01

    .... Particular research emphasis is placed upon Poland's efforts to redefine and restructure her civil-military relations and the turbulent transfer of control of the Polish military to democratically...

  17. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  18. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  19. POLAND SYNDROME WITH DEXTROCARDIA: CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... present the case of Poland syndrome and dextrocardia in a young child and ... are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder ... could, for example, explain the chest wall anomalies.

  20. Convergence on local labour markets in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kusideł, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of presented study was to verify a hypothesis of convergence on local labor markets in Poland. Convergence phenomenon, understood as economic development levels balancing (falling differentiation) has been known since the mid- 1950s. In Poland the convergence problems have been a specific subject of research since the accession to the European Union and the implementation of cohesion policy whose financing is largely related to co...

  1. Regional Unemployment and Industrial Restructuring in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Andrew; Pastore, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies regional unemployment inequality in Poland. We find that higher unemployment regions are those experiencing greater change in industrial structure. We also find high unemployment regions are those with higher inflow rates to unemployment rather than longer spells of unemployment. These findings suggest that regional unemployment varies importantly with job destruction in Poland. Econometric analysis of the determinants of employment to unemployment flows reinforces this imp...

  2. Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, Mikołaj; Luiten van Zanden, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate was much higher than in the North Sea area. Furthermore, income inequality in the countryside of the Voivodeship was higher than inequality in Cracow. This can be explained by the demesne economy ba...

  3. [Resistance to ciprofloxacin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Poland in 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Kujawa, Marlena; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is commonly used in Poland specially for the treatment of urinary tract infections including urethritis. Patients are often treated without pathogen identification and antimicrobial resistance tests. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is one of the most common causes of urethritis in Poland. The resistance of bacteria to a wide range of antibiotics including ciprofloxacine makes the therapy of gonorrhoea more difficult. The mechanism of ciprofloxacine action depends on inactivation of bacterial topoisomerase II (gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. A resistance to ciprofloxacine occurring in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is mainly due to mutations in bacterial gyrA (encoding topoisomerase II) and/or parC (encoding topoisomerase IV ) genes. High level resistance is an effect of combination of three or four mutations. Another, less important mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance, that can coexist with mutations in gyrA and parC genes related to the overproduction of membrane pumps proteins. 65 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from patients of Department of Dermatology and Wenereology in Warsaw in the second half of 2012 and first of 2013 was investigated. The strains were cultured on chocolate agar plates in a 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37 degrees C and identified by colony morphology, Gram stain and oxidase reaction, followed by carbohydrate utilization test. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was determined by E-Tests (bioMerieux). Bacteria were incubated at 35 degrees C in 5% CO2 for 24 h on chocolate agar plates. Tests were performed according to producers recommendations. The results (sensitive or resistant) were interpreted according to EUCAST recommendations. The MIC (Minimal inhibitory concentration) of Ciprofloxacin in investigated strains ranged from 0,002 to > 32 mg/L, MIC50 = 8 mg/L, MIC90 = > 32 mg/L. It was shown that only 38.5% of the strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin according to EUCAST criteria from 2013 year. Due to the high percentage of ciprofloxacin

  4. Local-scale analysis of temperature patterns over Poland during heatwave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżewska, Agnieszka; Dyer, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in the future, including over Central Europe where populations are sensitive to extreme temperature. This paper studies six recent major heatwave events over Poland from 2006 through 2015 using regional-scale simulations (10-km grid spacing, hourly frequency) from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to define local-scale 2-m temperature patterns. For this purpose, a heatwave is defined as at least three consecutive days with maximum 2-m air temperature exceeding 30 °C. The WRF simulations were validated using maximum daily 2-m temperature observations from 12 meteorological stations in select Polish cities, which were selected to have even spatial coverage across the study area. Synoptic analysis of the six study events shows that the inflow of tropical air masses from the south is the primary driver of heatwave onset and maintenance, the highest temperatures (and most vulnerable areas) occur over arable land and artificial surfaces in central and western Poland, while coastal areas in the north, mountain areas in the south, and forested and mosaic areas of smaller fields and pastures of the northwest, northeast, and southeast are less affected by prolonged periods of elevated temperatures. In general, regional differences in 2-m temperature between the hottest and coolest areas is about 2-4 °C. Large urban areas like Warsaw, or the large complex of artificial areas in the conurbation of Silesian cities, are also generally warmer than surrounding areas by roughly 2-4 °C, and even up to 6 °C, especially during the night. Additionally, hot air from the south of Poland flows through a low-lying area between two mountain ranges (Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains)—the so-called Moravian Gate—hitting densely populated urban areas (Silesian cities) and Cracow. These patterns occur only during high-pressure synoptic conditions with low cloudiness and wind and without any active fronts

  5. The Influence of Current Political Events on the Perception of Social Differentiations among a Group of Warsaw Teenagers and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratczak-Rudnicka, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    A study on the political consciousness of family groups in Warsaw confirms that current political events may be an important agent of political socialization. The rise of Solidarity and other events of 1980-81 influenced, in different ways, the perception of social differentiations among teenagers and their parents. (Author/CS)

  6. Dental arch relationship in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following warsaw (one-stage repair) and oslo protocols.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Hortis-Dzierzbicka, M.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Semb, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the dental arch relationship following one-stage repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in Warsaw with a matched sample of patients treated by the Oslo Cleft Team. MATERIAL: Study models of 61 children (mean age, 11.2; SD, 1.7) with a nonsyndromic complete UCLP

  7. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  8. Modelling Emotional and Attitudinal Evaluations of Major Sponsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Hansen, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    equation model where the drivers are attitudes towards thesponsorship and emotions towards the sponsorship. It is found that the two classes ofvariables describe different aspects of the perception of sponsorships, and that they bothcontribute significantly to the overall value of sponsoring...... for a particular company. In thepresent paper, two cases are shown for two major sponsors. The specified Sponsor ValueModel is estimated by a partial least squares (PLS) method. It is found that the two sponsorsare perceived differently, both in terms of emotional and attitudinal responses. It is also foundthat...... the emotional responses aroused by the sponsorships are at least as important as thoseascribable to attitudinal elements.Key words: Sponsorship, emotional response, attitudes towards sponsorship, structuralequation model...

  9. Sponsorship investments: do they deliver brand awareness for all sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpolokeng Sephapo Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorship as a marketing communications tool is well adopted in South Africa across various areas such as sports and entertainment. Although world markets have experienced economic turmoil in the last few years, the sponsorship market may be considered to be thriving as companies use this marketing communication tool as a vehicle to create and maintain relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore which sponsors of the South African National Rugby team are sports consumers aware of as a result of the sponsorship. Literature states that awareness also influences the judgments about brands in the consideration set, even without any brand associations in the consumer’s mind. In low involvement decision; where consumers do not need to search extensively for information in order to make a decision; minimal brand awareness levels may be enough to convince the consumer to make their final choice. The study is exploratory in nature however provides a South African perspective on how effective the sponsorship of the Springbok is with regards to creating awareness of the sponsors among sports consumers. The study made use of a qualitative approach whereby primary data was collected by means of focus groups and naïve sketches. Data collected was analyzed by means of content analysis. The findings suggest that participants were predominantly aware of the key sponsors of the Springboks; these were sponsors who had their branding on the Springbok jersey worn during rugby matches. The factors that participants mentioned to contribute to their awareness of the sponsors were the branding on the Springbok playing jersey as well as television adverts along with other promotional tools. This study urges sponsors to not only rely on the sponsorship initiative to create awareness but rather leverage the sponsorship with tools that are relevant to their target audience. This study contributes to sponsorship literature relating to the effectiveness of

  10. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  11. Relationship between 28-year food consumption trends and the 10-year global risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the adult Warsaw population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Piotrowski, Walerian; Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in the aetiology of cardiovascular (CV) disease. SCORE risk charts are popular and simple tools for the assessment of the global risk of CV death. To evaluate food consumption trends in the adult Warsaw population in 1984-2012 and to establish their relationship to the 10-year global risk of death due to CV diseases. Nutrient intake and CV risk factors were assessed in independent representative samples of the Warsaw population in the Pol-MONICA projects (in 1984, 1988, 1993, and 2001) and the WAW-KARD project (in 2012). Overall, these surveys included 3404 men and 3446 women aged 35-64 years. The global CV risk was calculated using the SCORE risk chart for high-risk European regions. On the basis of the collected data, trends of dietary intakes and the SCORE risk values in the years 1984-2012 were estimated by linear and nonlinear regressions and correlations. Over the period of 28 years (1984-2012), a significant decrease in the SCORE risk (by 20% in men and by 35% in women) was seen, accompanied by significant changes in the dietary habits of the Warsaw population. Declining trends (an exponential model) were noted for total energy, total fat, cholesterol, and added animal fat intake. Intake of saturated fatty acids decreased until 2001 and increased thereafter (a second degree polynomial regression model). These changes in the dietary habits of the Warsaw population correlated with the SCORE risk values. Significant correlations were noted for total energy, total fat, and dietary cholesterol intake in both sexes, and animal fat and saturated fatty acid intake in men, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.85 to 0.98. A significant reduction in the SCORE risk was seen in the Warsaw population in 1984-2012, which was associated with positive dietary changes. However, an unexpected decrease and reversal of the favourable trends in the structure of fat consumption occurred in the last decade.

  12. A New Typology for State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    96 See discussion of Daliberti v. Republic of Iraq in: Keith Sealing , "’State Sponsors of Terrorism’ Is a Question, Not an Answer: The Terrorism...34Foreign Terrorist Organizations." 101 See discussion of Flatow, Cicippio, and Anderson in: Sealing , ""State Sponsors of Terrorism" Is a Question, Not...Philip Roessler, "Can a Leopard Change Its Spots? Sudan’s Evolving Relationship with Terrorism," in Terrorism in the Horn of Africa (Washington D.C

  13. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  14. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  15. Contribution to chorology of Xylobolus frustulatus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylobolus frustulatus (Pers.: Fr. Boidin, one of the rare and threatened fungi in Poland, is reported from two new localities in Western Pomerania and Western Carpathians. Updated map of distribution of Xylobolus frustulatus in Poland is provided.

  16. Hypocreopsis lichenoides P. Karst. (Fungi, Ascomycetes, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocreopsis lichenoides, a fungus found for the first time in Poland, is characterized and illustrated. The paper presents the distribution of the species in Poland and gives its morphological and ecological description.

  17. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  18. Retail Developments in Poland, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lalita A Manrai; Ajay K Manrai; Dana-Nicoleta Lascu; David Dickerson

    2015-01-01

    ...), and a current CIS country (Kazakhstan). Poland is considered to be the lead country, Ukraine is considered to be the lag country, and Kazakhstan is considered to fall in between Poland and Ukraine in terms of retail developments...

  19. The use of copula functions for modeling the risk of investment in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof; Błachowicz, Tomasz

    2014-11-01

    In our work copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using the local Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) were used to investigate the risk of investment made in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The combination of copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using local DFA is a new approach. For copula function analysis bivariate variables composed of shares prices of the PEKAO bank (a big bank with high capitalization) and other banks (PKOBP, BZ WBK, MBANK and HANDLOWY in decreasing capitalization order) and companies from other branches (KGHM-mining industry, PKNORLEN-petrol industry as well as ASSECO-software industry) were used. Hurst exponents were calculated for daily shares prices and used to predict high drops of those prices. It appeared to be a valuable indicator in the copula selection procedure, since Hurst exponent’s low values were pointing on heavily tailed copulas e.g. the Clayton one.

  20. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  1. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  2. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  3. Hemovigilance survey of pathogen-reduced blood components in the Warsaw Region in the 2009 to 2013 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łętowska, Magdalena; Przybylska, Zofia; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Lachert, Elżbieta; Rosiek, Aleksandra; Rzymkiewicz, Lech; Cardoso, Marcia

    2016-03-01

    In 2009 the Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) was introduced to the routine blood component production of the Regional Blood Transfusion Center in Warsaw (RBTCW). The goal of this study was to investigate the safety of Mirasol-treated blood components. The accumulated passive hemovigilance data of Mirasol-treated blood components collected at the RBTCW are presented and compared to historical and contemporary data. Furthermore, active hemovigilance data collected from patients with different hematologic disorders transfused with Mirasol-treated or untreated blood components at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM) are presented and discussed. The adverse reaction (AR) reporting rate by hospitals to the RBTCW after the implementation of the Mirasol technology was 0.39% for Mirasol-treated platelet concentrates (M-PCs) and 0.05% for Mirasol-treated fresh-frozen plasma. When comparing contemporary rates of ARs recorded by RBTCW in the time period 2011 to 2012, no statistical difference was observed between Mirasol-treated and untreated blood components. No serious AR was attributed to Mirasol-treated components. At the IHTM a lower rate of ARs after transfusion of M-PCs was observed than with untreated PCs. Despite the fact that very large amounts of Mirasol-treated plasma have been transfused to patients with congenital or acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, no significant increase in AR rates was observed. Treatment of blood components with the Mirasol PRT System has proven to be safe for patients and is not associated with increased rates and grades of adverse events in patients of hospitals in the Warsaw Region. © 2015 AABB.

  4. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  5. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland.......The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  6. Estimation of the Probable Maximum Flood for a Small Lowland River in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2009-04-01

    The planning, designe and use of hydrotechnical structures often requires the assesment of maximu flood potentials. The most common term applied to this upper limit of flooding is the probable maximum flood (PMF). The PMP/UH (probable maximum precipitation/unit hydrograph) method has been used in the study to predict PMF from a small agricultural lowland river basin of Zagozdzonka (left tributary of Vistula river) in Poland. The river basin, located about 100 km south of Warsaw, with an area - upstream the gauge of Plachty - of 82 km2, has been investigated by Department of Water Engineering and Environmenal Restoration of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW since 1962. Over 40-year flow record was used in previous investigation for predicting T-year flood discharge (Banasik et al., 2003). The objective here was to estimate the PMF using the PMP/UH method and to compare the results with the 100-year flood. A new relation of depth-duration curve of PMP for the local climatic condition has been developed based on Polish maximum observed rainfall data (Ozga-Zielinska & Ozga-Zielinski, 2003). Exponential formula, with the value of exponent of 0.47, i.e. close to the exponent in formula for world PMP and also in the formula of PMP for Great Britain (Wilson, 1993), gives the rainfall depth about 40% lower than the Wilson's one. The effective rainfall (runoff volume) has been estimated from the PMP of various duration using the CN-method (USDA-SCS, 1986). The CN value as well as parameters of the IUH model (Nash, 1957) have been established from the 27 rainfall-runoff events, recorded in the river basin in the period 1980-2004. Varibility of the parameter values with the size of the events will be discussed in the paper. The results of the analyse have shown that the peak discharge of the PMF is 4.5 times larger then 100-year flood, and volume ratio of the respective direct hydrographs caused by rainfall events of critical duration is 4.0. References 1.Banasik K

  7. Analysis concerning nutritional behaviors in the context of the risk of orthorexia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olejniczak, Dominik; Bugajec, Dorota; Panczyk, Mariusz; Brytek-Matera, Anna; Religioni, Urszula; Czerw, Aleksandra; Grąbczewska, Aleksandra; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Jablkowska-Gorecka, Karolina; Staniszewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    ... and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Orthorexia is recognized as an eating disorder, an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, or a somatoform disorder...

  8. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Sponsor... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the sponsor...

  9. 22 CFR 211.5 - Obligations of cooperating sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... efficient operation of the program, including personnel to: (1) Plan, organize, implement, control, and... sponsor's internal audit or program staff, by expanding the scope of the independent financial and... conducted annually with respect to donated commodities and monetized proceeds, if commodity sales are...

  10. Is it beneficial to have an alcoholics anonymous sponsor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonigan, J Scott; Rice, Samara L

    2010-09-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance is predictive of increased abstinence for many problem drinkers and treatment referral to AA is common. Strong encouragement to acquire an AA sponsor is likewise typical, and findings about the benefits associated with social support for abstinence in AA support this practice, at least indirectly. Despite this widespread practice, however, prospective tests of the unique contribution of having an AA sponsor are lacking. This prospective study investigated the contribution of acquiring an AA sponsor using a methodologically rigorous design that isolated the specific effects of AA sponsorship. Participants were recruited from AA and outpatient treatment. Intake and follow-up assessments included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and urine toxicology screens. Eligibility criteria limited prior treatment and AA histories to clarify the relationship of interest while, for generalizability purposes, broad substance abuse criteria were used. Of the 253 participants, 182 (72%) provided complete data on measures central to the aims of this study. Overall reductions in alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use were found over 12-months and lagged analyses indicated that AA attendance significantly predicted increased abstinence. During early AA affiliation but not later logistic regressions showed that having an AA sponsor predicted increased alcohol-abstinence and abstinence from marijuana and cocaine after first controlling for a host of AA-related, treatment, and motivational measures that are associated with AA exposure or are generally prognostic of outcome.

  11. The Tax Exclusion for Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the issues raised by and the impacts of the tax exclusion for employer-sponsored health insurance. After reviewing the arguments for and against this policy, I present evidence from a micro-simulation model on the impacts on federal revenue, insurance coverage, and income distribution of various reforms to the exclusion.

  12. Risk sharing between competing health plans and sponsors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Barneveld (Erik); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries, competing health plans receive capitation payments from a sponsor, whether government or a private employer. All capitation payment methods are far from perfect and have raised concerns about risk selection. Paying health plans partly on the basis of

  13. Consumer Perceptions of Sponsors of Disease Awareness Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V.; Jones, Sandra C.; Iverson, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In many countries there is emerging concern regarding alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and health non-profit organizations (NPOs), and the increase of co-sponsored marketing activities such as disease awareness advertising. The current study aims to explore Australian women's perceptions of disease awareness advertising with…

  14. A Commentary on Literacy Narratives as Sponsors of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This brief commentary first clarifies Brandt's concept of sponsors of literacy in light of the way the concept has been taken up in writing studies. Then it treats Brandt's methods for handling accounts of literacy learning in comparison with other ways of analyzing biographical material. Finally it takes up Lawrence's argument about literacy…

  15. The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    absenteeism is to provide employer-sponsored child care (ESCC) (Connelly, DeGraff. & Willis 2004). ... a decrease in absenteeism after the implementation of an ESCC centre, while Goff,. Mount and Jamison (1990) ... satisfaction as a cause of absenteeism, focusing instead on the role of demographics as well as work- and ...

  16. Understanding and Managing Sponsored Research Administration as a System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to make improvements in sponsored research administration, it is necessary to understand that: it is a system of interdependent components, and improvement requires systematic, highly integrated methods and a holistic view of the role of research administration in the larger research system. Provides a framework for…

  17. School-Sponsored Health Insurance: Planning for a New Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Health care reform efforts in both the Clinton and Obama administrations have attempted to address college and university health. Yet, although the world of health care delivery has almost universally evolved to managed care, school health programs have not. In general, school-sponsored health plans do little to improve access and have adopted…

  18. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-12

    12 mai 2015 ... An IDRC-sponsored symposium exploring the impact of the Internet on economic growth and public service delivery in the Caribbean was held in Saint Andrew, Jamaica, on May 12, 2015. Discussions from the symposium will feed into the 2016 World Development Report: Internet for Development.

  19. 75 FR 68972 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration... Nutrition Companies, Inc., to Provimi North America, Inc. DATES: This rule is effective November 10, 2010...

  20. 77 FR 4224 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration..., Inc., to Fougera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. DATES: This rule is effective January 27, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 76 FR 48714 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Moxidectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 522, and 524 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Moxidectin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and... Fort Dodge Animal Health, Division of Wyeth, a wholly owned subsidiary of Pfizer, Inc., to Boehringer...

  2. Media exposure and sponsor recall: Cricket World Cup 2003 | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study into the relationship between media exposure and sponsor recall relating to an international event, namely the Cricket World Cup 2003 (CWC 2003). The application of sponsorship as a communication construct and recall as a media vehicle effect is investigated. Recall has been widely ...

  3. Unfulfilled translation opportunities in industry sponsored clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract...

  4. Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With escalating interest in sports globally, sport sponsorship has emerged as a platform that provides sponsoring companies with a chance of securing a competitive advantage. Events of high magnitude such as the 2010 FIFA World Cup™, which was the world's largest football event hosted in South Africa (SA), offered ...

  5. 22 CFR 42.31 - Family-sponsored immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family-sponsored immigrants. 42.31 Section 42.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.31 Family...

  6. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Sindrome de Poland: un caso con dextrocardia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tori Tori

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of Poland anomaly (defect of the muscle pectoralis major and symbrachydactyly on the same side with dextrocardia. The absence of the pectoralis major muscle without the limb anomaly can be a variant of the Poland sequence (1.While most of the reported cases of this syndrome is in the right side (2 and without rib defects, in our patient the anomaly was on the left side, accompanied by dextrocardia and with anomalies of the rib cage. ( Rev Med Hered 1999; 10:76-82 .

  8. Level and Contamination Assessment of Soil along an Expressway in an Ecologically Valuable Area in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Express roads are a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding environment. The Warsaw Expressway (E30 is one of the busiest roads in the capital of Poland and cuts through the ecologically valuable area (Mazowiecki Natural Landscape Park. Soil samples were collected at distances of 0.5, 4.5 and 25 m from the expressway. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn were determined in the soils by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS. Soils located in the direct proximity of the analyzed stretch of road were found to have the highest values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC, which decreased along with an increase in the distance from the expressway. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn were found to be higher than Polish national averages, whereas the average values of Ni and Pb were not exceeded. The pollution level was estimated based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo, and the pollution index (PI. The results of Igeo and PI indexes revealed the following orders: Cu < Zn < Ni < Cd < Pb and Cu < Ni < Cd < Zn < Pb, and comparison with geochemical background values showed higher concentration of zinc, lead and cadmium.

  9. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  10. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from natural and urban environment, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Werszko, Joanna; Stańczak, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus, an etiologic agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a human infection involving the central nervous system. The disease is endemic in a large region in Eurasia, where it is transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks. It is known that also Dermacentor reticulatus is involved in circulation of TBEV. However, the current knowledge of D. reticulatus importance in TBE epidemiology is still insufficient. A total of 471 adult D. reticulatus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Biebrza National Park, Masurian Landscape Park (North-Eastern Poland) and in the city of Warsaw in the years 2007-2010. All collected ticks were examined individually for the presence of RNA of TBEV using nested RT-PCR assay. Positive results were noted in all investigated localities with the infection rate ranging from 0.99 to 12.5 % with a total mean of 2.12 %. The difference in the percentage of infective males and females was not statistically significant.

  11. Physical activity for longer working lives: an analysis of physical activity profiles of selected occupational groups in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elzbieta; Buchholtz, Sonia; Góra, Marek

    2016-12-13

    Extending working lives has become an inevitable objective of public policy in the era of population ageing. It is possible, however, that the duration of working life will depend on individual employability. Out of a wide range of factors affecting employability, in this paper we have analyzed one specific aspect of health status, which is physical activity. This paper studies the relationship between physical activity and BMI among representatives of seven occupational groups in Poland using a logit regression. We use a dedicated micro-database of over 5,000 Warsaw inhabitants. Being overweight and obese is a significant problem among scientific researchers and public administration professionals; however, insufficient physical activity mainly affects sales workers and health professionals. Sex and age groups and professions are a far better predictor of a high BMI than the level of individual physical activity. In the case of the latter, the number of recreational disciplines and frequency of walking is more important than any other physical activity-related variable. We confirm that being overweight and having a sedentary lifestyle lead to a vicious circle of inactivity. In order to break this cycle or at least bring it under control, it is necessary to monitor the weight and waist circumference of workers, which is a prerequisite for any further intervention.

  12. The evolution of Japanese employer-sponsored retirement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnes, David

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Until 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One type of DB plan was based on the occupational pension model used in the United States before the adoption of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), but lacked the funding, vesting, and other protective features contained in ERISA. The other type of DB plan allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security, commonly referred to as "contracting out." Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees. One law increased funding requirements and enhanced employee protections for employer-sponsored DB plans, while a second law introduced defined contribution (DC) plans for several reasons, chiefly to increase retirement savings and help boost Japanese financial markets. These laws complemented earlier changes in the tax code and financial accounting standards already affecting employer-sponsored retirement plans. As a result, new retirement plan designs will replace most prereform era company retirement plans by 2012. In 2001, the experience of 401(k) plans in the United States, where 42 million participants had accumulated more than $1.8 trillion in assets over 20 years, attracted considerable attention among Japanese lawmakers finalizing provisions of the DC pension law. Even with government support and encouragement from the financial services industry, Japanese companies have not adopted these new DC plans in large numbers. As a result, occupational retirement plans in Japan have remained predominantly DB-a surprising development in light of the shift in a number of countries from DB to DC plans observed in recent decades. However, recent proposals to

  13. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  14. Poland's syndrome | Frioui | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical examination showed left anterior chest-wall depression, lateral to the nipple. There were no other anomalies seen on further systemic evaluation. Neurological examination and skeletal survey were normal. Poland's syndrome was diagnosed with absence of left pectoralis major muscle and mammary agenesis.

  15. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  16. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  17. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  18. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  19. FASD Prevalence among Schoolchildren in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Magdalena; Brzózka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is a major cause of brain damage and developmental delay, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) but in Poland is rarely diagnosed and the scale of problem is not known. Methods: An active case ascertainment approach was applied to estimate the prevalence of FASD among 7-9 years olds. Pre-screening…

  20. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  1. Antecedents and consequences of sponsor-stadium fit

    OpenAIRE

    Nakazawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Masayuki; Gordon, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeIntegrating several streams of theoretical reasoning such as social identity theory, congruity theory and the customer gratitude approach, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the antecedents and consequences of sponsor-stadium fit and examine the hypothesised relationships.Design/methodology/approachData were collected from professional football spectators in a non-historic stadium context (n=342). Through a confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling,...

  2. Comparison of proposals for sponsors in football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Hák, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Title: Comparison of proposals for sponsors in football clubs Objectives: The main objective of this diploma thesis is to compare and evaluate the list of advertisement options at 8 selected football clubs. Emphasis is placed on finding new trends that appear in tender leaves that are different from previous forms of list of advertisement options, as presented earlier literature. Methods: As a crucial method applied in this diploma thesis is considered content analysis. Additionally it was us...

  3. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanwu

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Series publishes reference works and handbooks in three core sub-topic areas: Intelligent Automation, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Intelligent Computing. They include theoretical studies, design methods, and real-world implementations and applications. The series' readership is broad, but focuses on engineering, electronics, and computer science. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions takes into account consideration of the entire life cycle of campaigns for researchers and developers working on search systems and ROI maximization

  4. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  5. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  6. Is Mail Service Pharmacy Cost Beneficial to Plan Sponsors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Vulakh, Student Pharmacist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe and compare prescription drug costs charged to a plan sponsor for the top 50 maintenance medications provided through retail and mail service procurement channels. Data were obtained for covered beneficiaries of a health plan sponsored by an employer with just over 3,000 covered employees The analytics team at the PBM administering the plan sponsor’s prescription drug benefit provided de-identified claims information for the top 50 maintenance prescription drugs delivered through either mail service or retail procurement methods for this employer over a one year period (7/1/2008 to 6/30/2009. Based on these data, (1 dollar amount difference (mail service minus retail, and (2 percentage difference between mail and retail costs (as a percentage of the lower net cost per day were computed. The findings revealed that 76 percent of the medication products studied were associated with a lower net cost per day to the plan sponsor through mail service procurement and 24 percent were associated with lower net cost through retail procurement.

  7. [Vocal fold paralysis in the Medical University of Warsaw's Ambulatory of Phoniatry in years 2000-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Domeracka-Kołodziej, Anna; Zawadzka, Renata; Dębowska-Jarzębska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis it is an important problem in Phoniatrics' Ambulatory. There are a lot of difficulties in estimation a precise incidence of vocal fold paralysis in the population. As many as 50% of cases with paralysis might present nonspecific symptoms. The aim of the research it was to determine a vocal fold paralysis' epidemiology and etiology in material of the Medical University of Warsaw's Ambulatory of Phoniatry. Authors present a group of 593 patients with vocal cord paralysis who were diagnosed and treated in The Ambulatory of Phoniatry from 2000 to 2011. The paralysis was observed in 439 women and in 154 men. In 488 patients paralysis was unilateral and in 105 - bilateral. In the study, surgery was responsible for most vocal fold paralysis (79.0%). In 357 patients, paralysis was caused by thyroid surgery. Other surgical causes of the paralysis there were: endarterectomy, thoracic surgery and skull base surgery. Of the total group, 1.2% of cases were diagnosed after intubation. In the review, in another 19.8% cases, paralysis was caused by thoracic, neck or brain tumors, by traumas and in 21 patients there was no obvious reason (idiopathic cases). Etiology of vocal fold paralysis seems to be affected by a character of institutions or hospitals who make a study and by geographic location. The most common etiology of vocal cord paralysis is iatrogenic. 2012 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o.

  8. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Land Surveying in the Analysis of Underground Construction Impact on the Warsaw Scarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the II Underground Line construction’s impact on the Warsaw Scarp with the use of the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI, also known as the electrical resistivity tomography and further total station position measurements.The underground passes under the scarp perpendicular in the area of Dynasy Street 6, in Down-town district.The electrical resistivity imaging was performed for recognition of the geological structure and a potential land slide surface or zone.The gradient system was used during the prospection. In these analyses, the longitudinal section was 40 m long, and the depth of survey amounted to 6 m. In the case of the 200 m long transverse section, the resulted depth of survey was 30 m.The geophysical image of the longitudinal section,does not contain loosening soil zones,which could indicates lip surface.Next, total station measurements, which were tied to the archival geodetic observations’ results, were carried out. The aim of the measurements was to verify the activity of the horizontal and vertical displacements. The TBM excavation process led to summary vertical displacements up to approx. 24 mm and horizontal displacements amounting to approx. 13 mm. To sum up, the current land surveys reveals minor under ground line’ s construction impact on the scarp displacement. Nevertheless, the sensitive urban environment requires further monitoring, especially that the operation loads can result in displacement rate change.

  9. Geotechnical investigation and static analysis of deep excavation walls – a case study of metro station construction in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitew-Czajewska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents detailed analysis of the case – a construction of deep excavation of metro station in Warsaw. Basing on this example, the great impact of the accuracy of the geotechnical investigation on the static analysis of diaphragm walls is discussed. Geotechnical studies for the construction of the central section of the second metro line were carried out in stages. Basic geotechnical soil investigation took place in the first stage of investment process, e.g. building permit and tender design stages in 2003–2004, 2007 and 2010. In subsequent years, complementary soil investigations have been performed by the contractor, and the results occurred to differ significantly. In the first part of the paper detailed description of the case is introduced. The geological conditions in the area of the station and the interpretation of the results of the three successive stages of geotechnical investigation are presented. As a result, two locations were selected with a great diversity of the soil profile depending on the stage of investigation. For each location, detailed, multiple static analysis of diaphragm walls were performed, taking into account changes in the soil profile. In the paper, one selected location is described in detail. The discussion of calculation results for this location in relation to the changing geotechnical data is presented and final conclusions are provided.

  10. Middle-aged heterozygous carriers of Wilson's disease do not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Rudnicka2 A. Czlonkowska1 2. Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Second Department of Neurology, 02–957 Warsaw, Poland; Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 00–325 Warsaw, ...

  11. Relative cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest JF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Diana Weidlich,1 Maciej Kaczmarski,3 Elzbieta Jarocka-Cyrta,4 Natalia Kobelska-Dubiel,5 Agnieszka Krauze,6 Iwona Sakowska-Maliszewska,7 Anna Zawadzka-Krajewska8 1Catalyst Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, and Allergology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, 4Uniwersytet Warmińsko‑Mazurski, Wydział Nauk Medycznych, Katedra Pediatrii Klinicznej, Olsztyn, 5Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, 6Klinika Pneumonologii i Alergologii Wieku Dziecięcego, Warsaw, 7Poradnia Gastroenterologiczna Centrum Pediatrii, Sosnowiec, 8Department of Pediatric Pneumonology and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ] and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82 compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53 or an AAF (0.22. An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other

  12. Asthma: NIH-Sponsored Research and Clinical Trials | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Asthma: NIH-Sponsored Research and Clinical Trials Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents NIH-Sponsored Research Asthma in the Inner City: Recognizing that asthma severity ...

  13. Poland-Moebius syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, H; Erdener, U

    2000-01-01

    The primary site of pathology in Moebius syndrome is still unknown, although several studies have variably localized the lesion in the extraocular muscles, cranial nerves, or central nervous system. A 24-year-old man with Poland-Moebius syndrome and acquired progressive bilateral paralytic lower eyelid ectropion is described. In this patient, magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a barely detectable pontine hypoplasia and normal recti muscles. Nerve conduction studies of the facial nerves showed a severe demyelinating or dysmyelinating type of neuropathy. Bilateral lower eyelid ectropium of the patient was successfully corrected by canthal tightening procedures. Contrary to many reported cases, this patient serves as a rare example of a progressive type of Poland-Moebius syndrome presumably resulting from a combination of a brainstem abnormality and a peripheral neural degenerative process.

  14. Development of laser technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, J

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents chosen development threads of laser technology and associated branches of optoelectronics in this country. An occasion to summarize the work and show their current status is the 50 th anniversary of construction of the first laser. The first laser in Poland was launched successfully in 1969, almost simultaneously at WAT and PW. Domestic achievements in this area are summarized every three years by Symposium on Laser Technology held traditionally in Swinoujscie. The work carried on in Poland concerns technology of laser materials, construction of new lasers and associated equipment as well as laser applications. Many technical teams participate in laser oriented European structural and framework projects. Ths is an invited paper to present participation of Polish teams in such European projects as EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research, FLASH - Free ELctron Laser in DESY Hamburg, E-XFEL - European X-Ray FEL, ELI - Extreme Light Infrastructure, and HIPER.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Anna; Żmudziński, Jan Franciszek

    2014-08-01

    The paper describes a phylogenetic study of 58 Polish isolates of rabies virus collected between 1992 and 2010. Sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes approximately 600 bp long were compared with reference sequences (GenBank) of European rabies viruses from neighbouring countries. The study confirmed a very high level of homology (94.4-100 %) of the Polish rabies virus strains irrespective of the date of isolation. Two variants of rabies virus: NEE (Northeastern Europe variant) and CE (Central Europe variant), depending on the geographical place of isolation, were circulating in Poland from 1992 to 2010. The Polish rabies virus isolates showed high similarity to European RABV strains, especially those collected in Ukraine and Romania. They were clearly different from vaccine strains SAD B19 and SAD Bern, which have been used for oral vaccination of foxes against rabies in Poland since 1993.

  16. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  17. Facies studies of bituminous coals in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Grzegorz J. [Polish Geological Institute, Lower Silesian Branch, al. Jaworowa 19, 53-122, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-04-23

    Polish bituminous coal basins are associated exclusively with Carboniferous deposits, differing in origin and geological structure. This paper presents only short review of papers of Polish authors on coal facies studies of Carboniferous coals occurring in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB), Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) of Poland. Facies investigations of Carboniferous coals of Poland have been in progress over 20 years. The results of these studies have provided new information on such subjects as: (1) recognition of main depositional conditions in paleomires, (2) determine prevailing paleoplant communities, (3) appraisal of peat-forming environment reconstruction-types and characteristics of paleomires. These facies analyses are connected to results of such studies as: pure coal petrology, using maceral and microlithotype composition as parameters of the environment of coal deposition, combined results of petrological, palynological and sedimentological studies.

  18. Poland Syndrome. Case Presentation and Bibliographic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Aja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse changes in the morphology and structure of the mammary gland have been described as a result of the variation of the regulatory mechanisms of its development. Amastia is one of the less frequent congenital anomalies of the breast and it consists on the total absence of one or both glands. When it is unilateral it is generally also accompanied by the lack of the major and minor pectoral muscle besides other malformations, constituting what is known as Poland Syndrome. A case of a fifteen year old female patient is presented who shows the congenital absence of the right breast. This is the first case of Poland Syndrome diagnosed in Cienfuegos, this is why the publication of this case is considered of interest for the scientific community.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to characterize development of organic farming in Poland in 2004–2014. The research refers to aspects such as the number and structure of organic producers, the structure of ecological land and organization, and the productivity and profi tability of organic farmsin comparison to conventional farms. The research shows that since the accession of Poland into the EU, the domestic organic farming sector has developed dynamically. The number of organic producers increased sevenfold in 2004–2014 and the observed changes were caused by an increase in both the number of ecological farms and organic food processing enterprises. Organic and conventional farms clearly diff er in terms of organization, productivity and profi tability. Conventional farms experienced higher rates of productivity, land profi tability, and work profi tability. Furthermore, the financial situation of organic farms was vastly determined by state subsidies, which constituted almost 80% of income accrued from agricultural production.

  20. EEI to sponsor additional ehv transmission research studies at Pittsfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-02-01

    As part of its expanding research program, Edison Electric Institute has signed an agreement to sponsor additional studies at General Electric Co.'s ehv transmission research facilities near Pittsfield, MA. The EEI studies will probe advanced areas of insulation, raio noise, corona, meteorology, and other technologies related to ehv transmission. This work will be supervised by a joint EEI-GE steering committee. The Institute will designate the committee chairman, specify work priorities, and guide the various research activities, while General Electric will assume sole responsibility for their performance.

  1. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...

  2. Poland, variable geometry and the enlarged European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of Poland in the European Union, where the traditional Franco-German leadership axis has been replaced by a new ‘variable geometry’ of leadership constellations across a variety of policy areas. In this setting Poland has the potential to move from maintaining an initially passive role as a policy-taker towards becoming an agenda-setter alongside other larger and more traditionally dominant member states, especially Germany. However, Poland's success in this mat...

  3. A new record of Spergularia marina (Caryophyllaceae from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spergularia marina, a rare native halophyte and nationally vulnerable species, is reported from a new locality in southern Poland. It was found on 14 September 2016 in Mogilany, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, growing between paving stones at the Zakopianka road. Map of distribution of S. marina in Poland based on the ATPOL cartogram method is provided, and its possible pathways of introduction are discussed.

  4. New records of Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two new records of alien Gypsophila perfoliata in Poland. It was found on 16 September 2016 in Bodzanów and Łapczyca, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, growing on roadside slopes and in roadside ditch. The updated map of distribution is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method, and the pathways of introduction and spreading are discussed.

  5. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  6. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  7. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  8. Abortion and women's rights in Poland, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P; Titkow, A

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a restrictive abortion law was enacted in Poland. The law allows abortion in public hospitals when 3 physicians certify that the life or health of the woman is at stake, the fetus has a serious and irreversible malformation (supported by prenatal tests in cases of known history of genetic conditions), or a public prosecutor formally proves that a criminal act (i.e., rape or incest) caused the pregnancy. Physicians who perform illegal abortions can be imprisoned up to 2 years and, in cases where the woman dies from complications, up to 10 years. The law calls for the government to offer sex education and to guarantee access to contraceptives nationwide, to which the Catholic Bishops object. Schools have yet to implement sex education. Interviews show that much political and governmental instability exists in Poland. Politicians tend to be passive to prevent political conflict and reduce tensions with the Catholic Church. Women who have enough money and have an unwanted pregnancy can still obtain an abortion within Poland or across the border. Infanticide and infant abandonment are increasing. Illegal adoption is occurring. No one has been arrested for performing clandestine abortions. Young, poor, and rural women are confused and anxious. Many physicians fear referring women for legal abortions. Some hospitals refuse to allow any abortion. Poland is still a patriarchal, conservative country. Most women who use birth control use the rhythm method and withdrawal. Counseling centers are closing. Public educational resources are scarce. Recorded miscarriages have risen from 51,802 in 1992 to 53,027 in 1993. The Ministries of Health and Justice object to the new law. In 1994, the president vetoed a law that would have allowed abortions on social grounds. The birth rate fell from 13.4 to 12.8 births/1000 between 1992 and 1993. The public now ranks the Church behind the military, the police, and the government ombudsman in public trust.

  9. The current state of bioeconomy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of scientific achievements to market a product is a key issue and the best description of significance of science for society. In the case of experts in the natural sciences in Poland, we observe a high intellectual potential of researchers and several scientific discoveries. However, Polish inventions are very rarely available on the market and the number of national and international patent applications done by Polish scientists is very limited. For the development of bioeconomy, the progress in biotechnology is critical.

  10. Economic determinants of sport participation in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Strawiński

    2010-01-01

    The article presents statistical description of economic factors that determine sport participation in Poland. Utilising data from 2008 Sport Participation Survey the biprobit model that takes into account the dependency between individuals and household attitude to sport participation is estimated. Sport participation is found to slightly decline with age of a person, on the other hand, education is found to be positively related to sport participation. The idiosyncratic factor of sport part...

  11. Interrelations between Consumption and Wealth in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Zachłód-Jelec

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the long-run relationship between consumption, labour income and asset wealth in Poland. Within cointegrated VAR model dynamic responses of the variables in the system to shocks are studied. In addition, series are decomposed into permanent and transitory components on the basis of the cointegrating relation found in the system. Main conclusion of this paper is that deviations of the three variables from their estimated long-run relationship are better explained with fluctu...

  12. Beyond Viagra: Sex Therapy in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kościańska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, Poland, like most other countries in the region, provided not only unlimited access to abortion and contraceptives, but also a liberal sex education. This period moreover constituted a golden age in sexology in the country. Sexual science developed as a holistic discipline, embracing achievements in medicine, psychology, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, history, and religious studies, providing recourses for sex education and therapy. Sexuality was perceived as mul...

  13. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  14. 42 CFR 440.350 - Employer-sponsored insurance health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer-sponsored insurance health plans. 440.350... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.350 Employer-sponsored insurance health plans. (a) A State may provide... health insurance. (b) The State must assure that employer sponsored plans meet the requirements of...

  15. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  16. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  17. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  19. Medical malpractice reform and employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L; Nelson, Leonard Jack

    2008-12-01

    Tort reform may affect health insurance premiums both by reducing medical malpractice premiums and by reducing the extent of defensive medicine. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of noneconomic damage caps on the premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance. Employer premium data and plan/establishment characteristics were obtained from the 1999 through 2004 Kaiser/HRET Employer Health Insurance Surveys. Damage caps were obtained and dated based on state annotated codes, statutes, and judicial decisions. Fixed effects regression models were run to estimate the effects of the size of inflation-adjusted damage caps on the weighted average single premiums. State tort reform laws were identified using Westlaw, LEXIS, and statutory compilations. Legislative repeal and amendment of statutes and court decisions resulting in the overturning or repealing state statutes were also identified using LEXIS. Using a variety of empirical specifications, there was no statistically significant evidence that noneconomic damage caps exerted any meaningful influence on the cost of employer-sponsored health insurance. The findings suggest that tort reforms have not translated into insurance savings.

  20. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  1. Influenza in Poland in 2011-2012 and in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 epidemic seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Staszewska, Ewa; Bednarska, Karolina; Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Brydak, Lidia B

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the epidemiological situation of influenza in Poland in 2011-2012 and in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 epidemic seasons and comparing it with the situation observed in the previous years. An analysis was mainly based on three sources of data: (1) bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (NIPH-NIH, CSI. Warsaw 2013) and analogically former bulletins, (2) "Reports on influenza cases and persons suspected of influenza", sent in 2013 and previous years to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH by the Voivodeship Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations, (3) data of the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Centre, NIPH- NIH - results of virological testing performed in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 epidemic seasons in the National Influenza Centre and/or laboratories of the Voivodeship Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations (VSES) within influenza surveillance - Sentinel as well as beyond this system. Data on influenza cases come from aggregated notifications which are sent obligatorily to the VSES by all health care units and physician practices. Influenza, influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infections, i.e. cases meeting the criteria recommended in influenza surveillance in the European Union are subject to mandatory notification. In 2011-2012, there was an increase in the number of influenza and influenza-like illness cases in Poland compared to 2010, i.e. 2- and 2,5-fold, respectively. In 2011, a total of 1 156 357 cases were reported and incidence amounted to 3 001.5 per 100,000 population (11 014.5 in age group 0-4 years). As many as 0.51% of infected persons were referred to hospital. According to the CSO data, 95 fatal cases of influenza were notified. Influenza vaccination coverage was 2.8%. In 2012, 1 460 037 cases were registered and incidence was 3 789.0 (17 807,1 in age group 0-4 years). A total of 0.33% of influenza cases were referred to hospital. As many as 4

  2. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (Misconceptions of junior sports players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Lesley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  3. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (mis)conceptions of junior sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-09-05

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P sport performance (86% and 76%, respectively). Around one-third of children reported liking the company more after receiving these rewards. Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  4. MOLLUSC SPECIES PROTECTED IN POLAND AND THREATENED IN EUROPE RECORDED IN STEPNICA RIVER (NW POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Raczyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the study two bivalve species protected in Poland were found in the river Stepnica: Sphaerium solidum and Sphaerium rivicola. Moreover, the study material collected from the river contained gastropod and bivalve specimens representing the following species from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Theodoxus fluviatilis, Pisidium henslowanum, Pisidium casertanum and Pisidium pseudosphaerium.

  5. Hate Crime Monitoring and Victim Assistance in Poland and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Grell, Britta; Köhler, Timm; Pankowski, Rafal; Sineaeva, Natalia; Starnawski, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    The following report is the result of a Polish-German joint project, coordinated and carried out by the Potsdam-based association Opferperspektive (Victims’ Perspective) and the Warsaw-based organization Nigdy Więcej (Never Again) between January and July 2008. It was made possible by funding from the Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” (Stiftung “Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft”), a German foundation dedicated to fostering projects that promote: a better understanding a...

  6. Poland 1999 Global Youth Tobacco Survey : Economic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Hana; Przewozniak, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, Poland was one of the first countries to carry out the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), supported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization, a standardized school-based survey of teenage smoking behavior, attitudes, and knowledge. This report presents background information on smoking, and tobacco control policies in Poland, and simple ...

  7. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  8. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czyżewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six species of lichenicolous fungi, one lichenicolous lichen and one lichenicolous myxomycete are discussed. Vouauxiomyces sp., the anamorph of Abrothallus caerulescens, is reported as new to Poland. Abrothallus microspermus is reported from the Polish lowlands for the first time. Trichonectria hirta and Vouauxiomyces truncatus are reported from Poland for the second time.

  9. Stochastic forecast of the population of Poland, 2005-2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matysiak, Anna; Nowok, Beata

    2007-01-01

    Forecasting the population of Poland is very challenging. Firstly, the country has been undergoing rapid demographic changes. In the 1990s, they were influenced by the political, economic, and social consequences of the collapse of the communist regime. Since 2004 they have been shaped by Poland's

  10. Inflation stabilization, fiscal defecits and public debtmanagement in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    1999-01-01

    Poland edged towards hyperinflation towards the latter half of 1989,but inflation fell dramatically after drastic reformswere enacted in January of 1990. We analyse the consistency betweenfiscal deficits and inflation targets and assessPoland's domestic and foreign debt management policies and the

  11. Creativity and School Grades: A Case from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralewski, Jacek; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the creative abilities and the school grades of high school students in Poland. Almost six hundred (N = 589) students from 34 high schools from all over Poland participated in the study. Their creative abilities were measured by using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production…

  12. The development of internet advertisement in Poland throughout recent years

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kisiołek

    2014-01-01

    The article presents basic information regarding online advertisement and its most popular forms in Poland. Some part of the work is devoted to the development of Polish Internet advertisement since 2000, and particularly in 2010-2012. Historical trends in the development of online advertising in Poland are analyzed as well.

  13. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  15. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Government-sponsored microfinance program: Joint liability vs. individual liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.

  17. The significance of practice in the training of conservator-restorers at the Faculty of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Extensive practice in the conservation work on original works of art should be one of the main objectives of the training of future conservator-restorers. The current curriculum at the Faculty of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw maintains a relative balance between theory and practice, but it is not flexible enough and being not yet fully adapted to today's challenges in the field of care of cultural heritage. It is going to be reformed in the comin...

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance of radicals and metal complexes. 2. international conference of the Polish EPR Association. Warsaw 9-13 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Radicals and Metal Complexes has been held in Warsaw from 9 to 13 September 1996. It was the Second International Conference of the Polish EPR Association. The very extensive group of systems containing paramagnetic species has been studied by means of ESR or other magnetic techniques like ENDOR, Spin Echo etc. By radiation or photochemically generated radicals have been stabilized in low temperatures or being detected by means of very fast pulsed techniques. The chemical reactions, reaction kinetics of radicals as well as spin interaction with matrices have been studied and discussed. Over 100 lectures and posters have been presented.

  19. Poland-Moebius syndrome: a case with oral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, A C; Lopes, S L C P; Almeida, S M; Boscolo, F N; Whaites, E J

    2004-11-01

    The combination of Moebius and Poland anomalies is rarely described in the literature. While some authors believe this association is an independent syndrome, others think that Poland, Moebius and Poland-Moebius syndromes are variations of the same condition. We report a case of Poland-Moebius syndrome in a 6-year-old girl who presented with bilateral convergent strabismus, the inability to abduct her eyes beyond the midline and brachydactyly of her right hand. Oral manifestations included incompetent lips and an abnormal tongue. Other facial features included hypoplasia of her mandible and her left ear at a slightly lower level than her right ear. Panoramic and lateral skull radiographs confirmed the absence of certain teeth and the hypoplastic mandible. The diagnosis of Poland-Moebius syndrome was made on the basis of cranial nerve involvement and oro-facial manifestations.

  20. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  1. Serbia 1914, Poland 1939… A comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanjski Vojćeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances of implicating Serbia (in 1914 and Poland (in 1939 into world wars by the forces provoking these conflicts, as well as the history of the heroic resistance of both mentioned organisms against the aggressors having numerous advantages, deserve to be constantly reminded as great lessons for the next generations of Europeans. The anniversaries of the break out of both world wars constitute a great opportunity for this type of reminder. In the presented text, compiling the Serbian experiences of the war started in 1914 with the Polish experience of the war which broke out a quarter of century later, the author stresses the follow­ing issues: - the reaction of Serbia/Poland on declaring the wars 1914/1939 (in detail, and also (in general: - the situation of war seclusion of Serbia/Poland in 1914/1939 experienced despite having the allies, - huge discrepancies of the aggressors' and the defenders' forces, as well as the resistance, exceeding the estimated opportunities, of the attacked countries towards the enemies, - the scale of the Serbian martyrdom in the 1st and Polish in the 2nd world wars, - the appearance of the war success, redeemed with extremely great sacrifice, and the presence of the threat for the Serbian/ Polish nation in the order shaped as a result 1st/2nd world war. The fragments of sources quoted in the article as well as the authors' considerations, are exhibited as key terms and simultane­ously as the common features of the Serbs and the Poles, enhanced at the moments of threat for both the nations and their countries: faith (in victory, in the help of Providence, honour, the spirit of fight and being ready for uncompromising resistance to aggressors. These val­ues constitute an essential element of comparison in the search of understanding the Serbian and Polish history and attitudes as well as the choices made by the Serbs and the Poles.

  2. Shrinking Cities in Poland: Demographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiał-Malago Monika

    2017-01-01

    This paper purports to present the issue of “shrinking” cities in Poland. The author has included a general characteristics of the process, considering only the aspect of changes in the population. A typology of population movements was introduced on the basis of a relation between the actual birth rate and the migration balance, whereas the typology was based on Webb’s procedure. The author has also made an attempt to classify the shrinking cities based on the definition adopted by the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN. A detailed analysis was conducted on large cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants and covered the period from 2000 to 2016.

  3. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  4. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  5. Violent behavior and driving under the influence of alcohol: prevalence and association with impulsivity among individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark A; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated or under the influence (DUI; for the purposes of this paper, we use the following terms synonymously: driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, and drunk driving) and engaging in interpersonal violence are two injury-related problems of high public health importance that have both been linked to alcohol consumption. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of DUI and violence in a sample of individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Patient characteristics associated with DUI and violence involvement, with a particular focus on impulsivity, were examined. Three hundred and sixty-four patients consecutively admitted to four alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland participated in this study. Questions concerning history of interpersonal violence as well as those about DUI were derived from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Impulsivity level was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the stop-signal task. Among all participants in the study, 148 (40.1%) had been arrested in the past for DUI, and 196 (55%) reported involvement in a fight under the influence of alcohol (FUI). The DUI group had a significantly earlier onset of alcohol problems, a longer period of heavy alcohol use, and fewer women in comparison to participants without a DUI history. FUI patients were significantly younger, with a younger average age of onset of drinking problems, longer period of heavy drinking, and lower percentage of women than the non-FUI group. Both of the self-reported measures of impulsivity indicated a higher level of impulsivity among participants from the FUI group than those from the non-FUI group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. DEFIANT POLITICAL PATHS IN WARSAW: ANOTHER BREACH IN EUROPE AND A NEW MILESTONE FOR THE EURO-ATLANTIC SECURITY ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert LUPITU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review the new political landscape in Poland, a country that has the potential to be a major game changer within the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance. When the role model of Eastern European countries and former communists satellites becomes a political surface for a tyranny of the majority, a polarized approach used by Law and Justice Party in order to secure and boost its power, another uncertainty falls in Europe. In its sections, the paper focuses on the political environment that has led to Law and Justice Party’s political win, the vital and undesired threat that quick and rough political measures pose to the rule of law system and the ruling party political view that aims to secure and boost its power in the perils from its proximity, by adopting a double standard policy, one distant from EU’s values and another close to NATO’s core interests. Additionally, the paper examines thoughtfully the double standard issue of Warsaw’s new cabinet in a European Union that hardly copes with different sorts of crisis and an unforeseen security landscape that with a NATO troops deployment in Eastern Europe will establish, if not a new Cold War mind set, at least a frosty view from both Russia and the West. By playing a negative game changer role and choosing to consider a prevalence of self-interests among its European and Euro-Atlantic participation, Poland finds itself in a race that may disrupt democracy for security causes, although they are not mutually excluded.

  7. Family influences on breakfast frequency and quality among primary school pupils in Warsaw and its surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajda, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Regular consumption of a well balanced breakfast is a pre-requisite for normal growth and child development, along with the acquisition of proper eating habits. The family environment is crucial place where children learn such patterns of behaviour that form the basis for their development. To determine how family factors affect the regular eating of breakfast and types of foodstuffs consumed in primary school pupils, including food purchases made from vending machines and school tuck shops. Subjects were 836 pupils (435 girls and 401 boys, aged 6 - 13) from Warsaw and the surrounding areas. Appropriate socio-demographic data and relevant eating habits were obtained from direct interviewing of the subjects by means of a custom designed questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kohonen type cluster analysis model and Chi-square test (Chi(2)); (p≤0.05). Three clusters of pupils were identified by their differing socio-demographics and eating habits (eg. rates of breakfast consumption, buying from vending machines or school tuck shops). The first and third clusters were mainly pupils from two-parent families with parents proportionally spending similar times at work, where respective breakfast (87% and 91%) and second breakfast (77% and 72%) consumption rates were also similar together with food shopping rates during school time (respectively 69% and 63%). Pupils with single-parents, multi-generation families or if both parents were profession- ally active, predominated in the second cluster. These ate breakfast (73%) and second breakfast (67%) more rarely, but more frequently shopped for food at school (84%). A small number of pupils had a packed second breakfast from home, rarely ate sandwiches, fruit and/or vegetables and dairy products but ate more sweets, sweet rolls and savoury snacks. However, a large number of subjects bought sandwiches, fresh fruit and/or vegetables and fast-food at school. Family factors were found to affect eating habits

  8. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  9. The Vistulian aeolian succession in central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Central Poland is situated in the centre of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene "European aeolian sand belt". This area has the highest frequency of round, mat grains of all Europe, due to intense aeolian abrasion. Aeolian processes were very active during several glaciations, but the changes in aeolian activity in the course of an entire glaciation can be studied only for the Vistulian (Weichselian, Wisconsinan). The reason is that a continuous blanket of glacial sediments either covered, or partly eroded older aeolian sediments in central Poland during the Wartanian (Saalian II). Aeolian processes began just after deglaciation and became intense under the periglacial conditions of the Late Wartanian and the whole Vistulian. The evolution of these processes is reconstructed, especially for the interval of the highest and most effective aeolian activity, i.e. the Late Plenivistulian (Oxygen Isotope Stage 2: the coldest stage of the last glaciation). A model of the sequence of periglacial aeolian events during an entire glaciation is presented. This model may be used for the reconstruction of older Pleistocene cycles of high periglacial aeolian activity.

  10. Optimization of the level and range of working temperature of the PCM in the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM thermal energy storage unit for summer conditions in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, P.; Jaworski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper thermal energy storage (TES) unit in a form of a ceiling panel made of gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite with internal U-shaped channels was considered and optimal characteristics of the microencapsulated PCM were determined. This panel may be easily incorporated into, e.g., an office or residential ventilation system in order to reduce daily variations of air temperature during the summer without additional costs related to the consumption of energy for preparing air parameters to the desired level. For the purpose of the analysis of heat transfer in the panel, a novel numerical simulator was developed. The numerical model consists of two coupled parts, i.e., the 1D which deals with the air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the 3D which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. The computational tool was validated based on the experimental study performed on the special set-up. Using this tool an optimization of parameters of the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite was performed in order to determine its most appropriate properties for the application under study. The analyses were performed for averaged local summer conditions in Warsaw, Poland.

  11. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  12. Aplication of LIRIC algorithm to study aerosol transport over Belsk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Posyniak, Michał

    2015-04-01

    In this work synergy of measurements done by of a LIDAR and a sun-sky scanning photometer is presented. The LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) was applied to study periodic events of increased values of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed at Belsk (Poland). Belsk is a background site located in a rural area around 50 km south from Warsaw. Events of increased AOD occur mainly during spring and they coincide with events of elevated concentrations of particulate matter (PM10). This phenomenon is observed in all eastern Europe, e.g. in Minsk, and is caused by long range aerosol transport. Our previous work showed aerosol transport from the border between Belarus, Ukraine and Russia in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and from north Africa in the free troposphere. The LIRIC algorithm, which uses optical and microphysical properties of the aerosol derived from photometric measurements and LIDAR profiles, was applied to study vertical distribution of fine and coarse modes of aerosol. The analysis of the airmass backward trajectories and models results (DREAM and NAAPS)was also used to determine a possible aerosol type and its source region. This study proved our previous findings. Most of events with increased AODs are observed during spring. In this season the fine mode aerosol is mainly present in the PBL. On the basis of the trajectory analysis and the NAAPS results we presume that it is the absorbing aerosol originating from the regions of seasonal biomass burning in eastern Europe, i.e. the area mentioned above. The events with increased AODs were also found during summer. In this case the fine mode aerosol is transported in the PBL a like to spring season. However, our analysis of trajectories and model results indicated western Europe as a source region. It is probably urban/industrial aerosol. The coarse mode aerosol is transported mainly in the free troposphere as separate layers. The analysis of backward trajectories indicates northern Africa as a

  13. Employer-sponsored health insurance erosion accelerates in the recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elise

    2012-01-01

    From 2000 to 2009, the share of non-elderly Americans covered by employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) fell 9.4 percentage points. Although the economy was already in a recession in 2008, it continued to dramatically deteriorate in 2009. From 2008 to 2009, the unemployment rate rose 3.5 percentage points, the largest one-year increase on record. As most Americans under age 65 rely on health insurance obtained through the workplace, it is no surprise that ESI fell sharply from 2008 to 2009 at a rate three times as high as in the first year of the recession. Over the 2000s, no demographic or socioeconomic group has been spared from the erosion of job-based insurance. Both genders and people of all ages, races, education, and income levels have suffered declines in coverage. Workers across the wage distribution, in small and large firms alike, and even those working full-time and in white-collar jobs have experienced losses. Along with sharp declines in ESI, the share of those under age 65 without any insurance increased 3.3 percentage points from 2000 to 2009. Increasing public insurance coverage, particularly among children, is the only reason the uninsured rate did not rise one-for-one with losses in ESI.

  14. Rediscovery of the epiphytic moss Ulota coarctata (Orthotrichaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulota coarctata (P. Beauv. Hammar was recently collected in Poland after more than half a century. This epiphytic moss was found at four localities in the Pojezierze Lubuskie lakeland in the western part of the country. Its diagnostic features are briefly presented, its habitat requirements are considered, the historical and recent findings of the species in Poland are discussed, and its distribution is mapped. It is suggested that the species status should be changed from ‘endangered’ to ‘critically endangered’ on the red list of mosses in Poland.

  15. Microscopic phytopathogenic fungi rare and new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a list of 36 rare species of fungi with remarks about their morphology and distribution in Poland. Three of the species are new for Poland: Romularia asplenii Jaap, R. concomitans Ell. et Holw. and Ascochyta actoeae (Bres. J. J. Davis. Altogether, 13 parasitic species occur on the plans which have not been known as their hosts in Poland, so far, 19 are rare on the listed hosts. The fungi were collected in the area of projected Jurassic National Park, Częstochowa Upland.

  16. Multimodality imaging of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia and limb anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ramesh S; Parisi, Marguerite T

    2012-08-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare disorder featuring unilateral anterior thoracic and upper extremity anomalies. These include hypoplasia of the pectoralis major costosternal head, absent pectoralis minor, breast hypoplasia, and absent upper rib cartilage. Pulmonary hypoplasia may occur secondarily. The postulated etiology is underdevelopment of the subclavian artery. Less than 50 cases of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia have been reported. Rib anomalies cause rightward cardiac displacement in fetal life. This case of left-sided Poland syndrome in a young girl is unique not only because of dextrocardia, but also because the condition preferentially afflicts the right side and males.

  17. Materials to the zygnemaceae of Poland V. Two spirogyra species new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirogyra occidentalis (Transeau Czurda 1932 and S. scrobiculata (Stockmayer Czurda 1932, two species new in the Polish flora and S. pseudovarians Czurda 1930, a species only cited in literature, are described in samples collected in central Poland. The diagnosis of S. occidentalis and S. pseudovarians has been supplemented with measuring data of the inflated sterile cells in conjugation filaments. The figures show the hitherto unknown inflated sterile cells.

  18. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  19. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  20. INVENTORY IN POLAND - CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Poland poddavalsya inventory changes. His origins are taking beginning in late and early vosemnadtsatoho devyatnadtsatoho century, when Polish state zahvatchyky sozdaly The first kadastrovыe otchetы. Austria, Prussia and Russia sozdalytry kadastrovыe system, three yspolzuyuschye system recovery country yzmerenyya.Vo TIME 1918 - 1939 Manuscript kadastrovыe bыly oriented work on the creation edynoy nalohovoy system for vsey territory of the country. After the war bыly zavershenы work. Modernization of the cadastre prodolzhalas in the direction Increase the accuracy and quality of data. At present Time Inventory Accounting vkljuchaet buildings, premises and plots zemelnыh, as well tesno svjazana with zemelnыm registers / ypotekoy. Information, soderzhaschayasya in Nam, everybody yspolzuetsya participants in the control nedvyzhymostyu (surveyors, otsenschykamy, brokers and upravlyayuschymy nedvyzhymostyu, courts and admynystratyvnыmy authorities zanymayuschyhsya territorial-prostranstvennыm Planning. Polskoy origins cadastral area. The first records of kadastrovыh measurement bыly sdelanы 4.5 million. Years ago. Poland was once zaklyuchalas Business surveyor in oblahorazhyvanyy. At the end trynadtsatoho century bыla Created rank post of High - korolevskyy podkamernыy, tasks kotorogo All selskohozyaystvennыe and lesnыe uhodya bыly ohvachenы oblastyu pochvovedenyya, classification of land osushchestvljaetsja edynoobrazno for vsey country on grounds ofytsyalnoy classes tablytsы land. THIS classification talk at kachestve and soil fertility. Class is determined on a 6-point scale (8 to pahotnыh land. This allows us to Compare Quality of land in any point of the country. By law dolzhna bыt yspolzovana in the Economic Planning and spatial statistics population in sudebnom and administrative razbyratelstve. All ofysы ymeyut access for cadastre data bases online free. Chastnyya Faces and company mogut Require info sobstvennoy REAL

  1. CREDIT ACTIVITIES OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the lending activities of cooperative banks in Poland in the years 2010– 2014, in a size of banks. Elaboration is a review, based on the data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority. Research indicates that the value of own funds of the cooperative banks was reflected in both the volume of lending, and in the structure of loans. Banks with capital of 5 million euro loans for primarily farmers, individuals, and individual entrepreneurs. In turn, the banks with capital of more than 5 million euro were most involved in the financing of small and medium enterprises and individual farmers. Regardless of the size of banks, the most important in lending loans were investment and operating

  2. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  3. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  4. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  5. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2011 MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main source of data to develop the statistical overview was the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases in Poland in 2011," and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2011,"/NIPH-NIH, CSI, 2011 and information contained in the articles of epidemiological journal in which authors depth discussion of the epidemiological situation of 27 diseases or groups of diseases. Data on deaths are based on the statements of the Department of the Central Statistical Office of Demographic Studies. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as "influenza and influenza-like illness" in 2011, were reported in a total number of 1,156,357 cases, which was an 108.0% increase of incidence as compared with 2010. and in relation to the median of the years 2005 - 2009 of 205.9%. In 2011, food infections dominated among the bacterial infections caused by Salmonella, with the continuing decline of incidence and fraction of salmonellosis among other etiologies. Among the diseases that can be prevented by vaccination it was reported 30.7% increase in the incidence of pertussis. In relation to the median of the years 2005-2009 is a decrease of 16.9%. A downward trend in the incidence of mumps was maintained. As compared to 2010, the incidence decreased by 7.0%. When compared to the median of the years 2005 to 2009 the decline was 38.3%. In relation to the median of the years 2005-2009 there have been a decrease of the number of rubella cases by 67.7% and there have been no reported cases of congenital rubella. A further decline in the incidence of invasive disease caused by H. influenzae was observed. The incidence of tuberculosis in 2011 increased as compared to the previous year from 19.7 to 22/100,000 in respect to all forms of tuberculosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis from 18.3 to 20.5/100,000. The number of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons also

  6. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarewicz, Karina; Chinoy, Hector

    2017-01-01

    When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  7. Clean coal-preparation barriers in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, W.; Nycz, R. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institution

    2003-04-01

    Poland is the second biggest European producer of hard coal. This raw product is cleaned in 49 preparation plants. Production capacities of the preparation plants depend on the demand for coal. The clean-coal production mostly depends on the quality demands of customers. Polish hard-coal is of good quality. It is enough to remove grains of clean stone to get saleable products of ash content between 8 and 12%. Rarely the ash content is up to 15%. The coal can be cleaned to 4-6% ash content, but there is a very small demand for this type of coal. Gravity separation (via heavy liquids, jigs, cyclones) removes the grains of pure stone. Currently, no preparation of the coal after grinding is conducted.

  8. EU-sponsored photovoltaic systems for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesch, Gerhard [Joint Research Centre of the European Union, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Development and proliferation of renewable energies are sponsored since 1983 by the European Union, normally up to 40% of the cost. (Programme THERMIE and predecessors). In the frame of this programme for more than one hundred projects of all kinds with thousands of photovoltaic energy supply systems have been implemented in Europe, 29 of these projects with 939 single pv-systems concern electrification of rural sites (e.g. agriculture) or isolated sites (e.g. mountain huts). Most of the single systems are of small size, 50 to 1000 Wp. A few of the systems are larger, up to 25 kWp, and supply local isolated mini-grids. In this paper the main features of the systems in six european countries are presented: The technical, economical and social results as well as the contributions of the Electric Power Utility (EPU`s) to these electrification are discussed. [Espanol] Desde 1983 la Union Europea ha auspiciado normalmente hasta el 40% del costo del desarrollo y proliferacion de las energias renovables. (Programa THERMIE y predecesores). En el marco de este programa con mas de cien proyectos de todos tipos, con miles de sistemas fotovoltaicos de suministro de energia, han sido implantados en Europa, 29 de estos proyectos con 929 sistemas fotovoltaicos sencillos se relacionan con la electrificacion de sitios rurales (por ejemplo agricultura) o de sitios aislados (por ejemplo cabanas en la montana). La mayoria de los sistemas sencillos son de pequeno tamano, 50 a 1000 Wp. Unos pocos de los sistemas son mas grandes, hasta de 25 kWp y alimentan mini-redes locales aisladas. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas principales de los sistemas en seis paises europeos: se analizan los resultados tecnicos, economicos y sociales, asi como las contribuciones de las empresas electricas.

  9. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  10. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  11. Treatment of pediatric epilepsy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska, Maria; Steinborn, Barbara; Wheless, James; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz

    2015-05-01

    The many types of childhood epilepsies make the diagnosis and treatment difficult and the outcomes frequently poor. Furthermore, there are few clinical trials in pediatric epilepsy that provide useful results to guide daily practice. Therefore for pediatric neurologists expert opinion may be useful. To provide an overview of current practice in Poland and compare results with European and US clinical guidelines. Polish specialists in pediatric neurology were asked to participate in a survey about pediatric epilepsy. The focus of the questions was on the overall strategy and treatment options for different syndromic diagnoses. The survey was developed and performed according to a previous European survey (Wheless et al., 2007). Fifty-one Polish specialists, working in academic or clinical settings, completed the questionnaire. They limited combination therapy to two or three antiepileptic drugs. Valproate was the treatment of choice for myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. For infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis and of symptomatic etiology, vigabatrin was treatment of choice; valproate and ACTH were other first line options. Valproate and ethosuximide were chosen for childhood absence epilepsy and valproate for juvenile absence epilepsy. Carbamazepine was the first-line treatment option for benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes and complex partial seizures. In the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy for males valproate, for females lamotrigine were chosen. Polish pediatric neurologists agreed on the majority of questions. Their views reflect the clinical utility and availability of treatment options in Poland. Results may provide direction for clinicians. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Unconventional forms of popularization of science - festivals 'Science on Stage" in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    could enter the show rooms and had an opportunity to try their hand at carrying out experiments prepared for them beforehand. All presentations were evaluated by a jury consisting of research workers of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Warsaw University, University of Silesia and members of the Polish Physical Society. Within each category three best presentations were selected, and their authors then represented Poland at the international festival. From many years the chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the festival has been professor Wojciech Nawrocik, the winner of the prestigious competition "Propagator of Science", organized by Polish Press Agency and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Each festival was inaugurated with a performance prepared by the youngest participants of the festival - kindergarten children, who are outside of the competition. The theme of the last one was: "Preschoolers also are waiting for the Higgs particle!". Next edition of "Science on Stage 4" festival will be held on 24-25 September 2010, also at the Department of Physics at the University of Poznań. Its aim is to show the contribution of physics, other natural and technical sciences in solving energy problems of the world and Poland, and also finding new solutions in power engineering, which will meet a rapidly rising demand for clean and cheap energy.

  13. An Exemplary Environmental Education Progam in Poland - Walks on the Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland carrying out it statutory goals at the regional level. It has been operating since 1989 and is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers and school managers for cooperation and self-education, organizing and conducting various forms of in-service training, giving methodological councils and disseminating examples of good practice. I present one example of how Environmental Education has been imparted to school students and their teachers through outdoor activities as part of the learning process. An Environmental Education Program, 'On Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails' has been organized regularly since 2001. The Bolimov Nature Preserve is a protected area in central Poland, situated between two agglomerations: capital city Warsaw to the East and industrial city Lodz to the West, covering an area of 231,3 sq kilometers. It was established in 1986 to protect an unique ecosystem on the Rawka River banks from human activity and harmful external factors. Pine tree forests cover more than 60% of the landscape park. Small streams, sloughs, glades are another elements of the park scenery. Walks on the trails in this park are a great opportunity to see many unique species of flora (more than 40 protected species and many endangered species on verge of extinction) and fauna. For teachers and students the Bolimov Nature Preserve offers educational lessons and events in cooperation with other institutions e.g. Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice. The main activity of the walks is participation of students and teachers in group walk along trails of the park using various tools of orientation: maps, compasses and nowadays GPS. Along the paths they learn recognition of forms of terrain, identification of species of plants and animals (using flora & fauna guides and keys, magnifying glasses), measuring and identification

  14. Preliminary Investigations of Creep Strain of Neogene Clay from Warsaw in Drained Triaxial Tests Assisted by Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz Dominik; Dobak, Paweł Józef; Kiełbasiński, Kamil

    2017-06-01

    The study concerns soil creep deformation in multistage triaxial stress tests under drained conditions. High resolution X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) was involved in structure recognition before and after triaxial tests. Undisturbed Neogene clay samples, which are widespread in central Poland, were used in this study. XμCT was used to identify representative sample series and informed the detection and rejection of unreliable ones. Maximum deviatoric stress for in situ stress confining condition was equal 95.1 kPa. This result helped in the design of further multistage investigations. The study identified the rheological strain course, which can be broken down into three characterizations: decreasing creep strain rate, transitional constant creep velocity, and accelerating creep deformation. The study found that due to multistage creep loading, the samples were strengthened. Furthermore, there is a visibly "brittle" character of failure, which may be the consequence of the microstructure transformation as a function of time as well as collapse of voids. Due to the glacial tectonic history of the analyzed samples, the reactivation of microcracks might also serve as an explanation. The number of the various sizes of shear planes after failure is confirmed by XμCT overexposure.

  15. Marketing Program Standardization: The Experience of TNCs in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sagan, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of standardization of marketing programs in transnational corporations in the consumer goods market in Poland, which currently is one of the fastest...

  16. Application of activity - based costing in companies in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of activity-based costing in companies in Poland, and more specifically, to analyse problems in ABC implementation, the structure of ABC systems...

  17. New localities and new host of Ganoderma pfeifferi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szczepkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New lcalities and a new host of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. in Pat. in Poland have been presented. Also, fruitbodies and spores, as well as ecology of the species have been described.

  18. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  19. Fatal cardiovascular risk in Poland as determined via Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Trzeciak

    2017-05-01

    Automatic monitoring of the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Poland provides information for epidemiological studies. The system meets the characteristics of diagnostic programmes that can assist epidemiologic-based and therapeutic decisions.

  20. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  1. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  2. POLAND' SYNDROME: An Incidental findings on routine medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Hamidu

    -Chiesa PL, Repett P, Torre M,. Nobili F, Mazzola C, Martucciello G. Congenital deformities of the chest wall, surgical treatment,. Minerva Pediat. 1997.49: 407. 9. Gatti JE. Poland's deformity reconstruction's with a customized extra soft silicon ...

  3. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  4. 75 FR 66304 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Monensin Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510 and 520 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor from Farmland... rights and interest in, NADA 118-509 for Pasture Gainer Block-37 R350 (monensin) to Land O' Lakes Purina...

  5. 21 CFR 516.22 - Permanent-resident U.S. agent for foreign sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.22 Permanent-resident U.S. agent... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent-resident U.S. agent for foreign sponsor... resident of the United States as the sponsor's agent upon whom service of all processes, notices, orders...

  6. 14 CFR 152.105 - Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. 152.105 Section 152.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....105 Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for...

  7. 75 FR 72679 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name and Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name and Address AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Pharmaceuticals, Inc., to Belcher Pharmaceuticals, LLC. The sponsor's mailing address will also be changed. DATES...

  8. A Case Study of Teaching Marketing Research Using Client-Sponsored Projects: Method, Challenges, and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…

  9. 75 FR 20522 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name and Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name and Address AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug..., Inc. to Piramal Critical Care, Inc. The sponsor's mailing address will also be changed. DATES: This...

  10. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  11. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  12. A new record of Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new Polish record of Senecio inaequidens, a perennial plant native to South Africa. It was found growing on roadside verge in Głogoczów, West-Beskidian Piedmont, southern Poland, on September 22, 2016. A map of distribution of S. inaequidens in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method and the pattern of its spread along motorways is discussed.

  13. Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Poland: past and current trends

    OpenAIRE

    DRYJANSKA LAURA

    2016-01-01

    The history of Industrial-Organizational (I-O) Psychology in Poland can be divided to three periods: birth and early development, advancements under socialism, and current trends. We may conclude that I-O Psychology in Poland since its birth has had to face numerous diverse challenges over time, related to the geo-political transformations and socio-economic problems. Currently, it is a vibrant field of practice and research, enriched by the unique experiences of many professors who have been...

  14. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  15. Stochastic forecast of the population of Poland, 2005-2050

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Matysiak; Beata Nowok

    2007-01-01

    Forecasting the population of Poland is very challenging. Firstly, the country has been undergoing rapid demographic changes. In the 1990s, Poland experienced a fundamental shift from a communist regime to a democratic regime and entered the European Union in 2004. The political, economic, and social changes that accompanied the transformation had a profound influence on the demographic patterns in this country. International migration has been one of the first consequences of Poland’s entry ...

  16. Phytopathogenic micromycetes in central Poland. I. Peronosporales and Erysiphales

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska; Marek Michalski

    2014-01-01

    The present paper begins a new series of studies investigating the occurrence of phytopathogenic micromycetes in Central Poland. Fungi of the orders Peronosporales and Erysiphalas are discussed in part one. Relevant knowledge on the subject is surveyed, and a list of published records (46 taxa) as well as the findings collected by the present authors (99 taxa) is provided. The list comprises 2 species new for biota of Poland - Microsphaera deutziae Bunkina and Microsphaera elevata Burrill, 10...

  17. Poland-Möbius syndrome associated with dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Banyeras, J M; Zuasnabar, A; Puig, A; Català, M; Cuatrecasas, J M

    1984-01-01

    A newborn male with Möbius syndrome, Poland anomaly, and dextrocardia is described. This is the second case reported of Poland-Möbius syndrome associated with dextrocardia. The patient presented with strabismus, facial diplegia, difficulty in swallowing, hypoplasia of the left pectoralis major muscle, partial absence of the upper costal cartilages, absence of the left areola, hypoplasia of the left forearm and hand, and dextrocardia without murmurs. Images PMID:6319703

  18. Does growing up with a physician influence the ethics of medical students' relationships with the pharmaceutical industry? The cases of the US and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Marta

    2017-08-10

    Medical schools have a major impact on future doctors' ethics and their attitudes towards cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry. From childhood, medical students who are related to a physician are exposed to the characteristics of a medical career and learn its professional ethics not only in school but also in the family setting. The present paper sought to answer the research question: 'How does growing up with a physician influence medical students' perceptions of conflicts of interest in their relationships with industry?' An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 451 medical students from four Philadelphia medical schools and 554 medical students from Warsaw Medical University during 2013. Medical schools in these two cities were chosen because they are both university cities with similar population sizes. Students who had and who did not have a family member working as a physician were compared using chi-square analysis. Data were analysed for each country separately. For both the US and Poland, there were statistically significant differences (p < .05) between medical students with a physician as a family member and other students with respect to views regarding relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. In both groups, this difference occurred for three important dimensions: students' relationship with the pharmaceutical industry; students' views on physicians' rights to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry; trust in the pharmaceutical industry. In the US, students related to a doctor were characterized by more restrictive opinions on all three dimensions than other students (e.g., 27.8% of the former students vs. 31.4% of the latter students thought doctors had unrestricted rights to cooperate with the industry). However, the contrary was observed in Poland: students with a physician in the family had less strict views than their colleagues (e.g., 56.8% of the former vs. 39.7% of the latter thought that doctors should have unrestricted

  19. The effect of urbanization on soil properties and soil organic carbon accumulation in topsoil of Pruszków – a medium-sized city in the Warsaw Metropolitan Area, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktaba Lidia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy było określenie właściwości gleb różnie użytkowanych i ocena wpływu antropopresji na akumulację węgla oraz azotu w glebach Pruszkowa - średniej wielkości miasta w centralnej Polsce. Przedmiotem analizy były powierzchniowe warstwy gleby (0-20 cm zebrane w 36 miejscach. We wszystkich przypadkach pobierano próbki mieszane. Łącznie analizow ano 12 próbek z trawników, 11 z ogródków działkowych, 9 z pól i 4 z nieużytków. Trawniki i ogrody działkowe były traktowane jako centralna strefa I - pod silną presją czynników antropogenicznych, natomiast pola i nieużytki były traktowane jako strefa II - o potencjalnie niskim poziomie antropogenicznego wpływu. Analiza statystyczna wykazała istotnie wyższe (p = 0,008 ilości węgla organicznego (Corg w glebach trawników (średnia 20,5 g-kg-1 i ogródków' działkowych (21,7g kg_l ze strefy I, niż w glebach nieużytków (10,4 g-kg-1 i pól (1,27 g-kg-1 ze strefy II. Powierzchniowa warstwa gleby z ogródków działkowych zaw ierała również znacznie większą ilość azotu ogólnego (Nt (średnio 1,1 g-kg-1 niż gleby innych sposobów użytkowania. Nie stwierdzono zależno- ści ilości Corg od składu granulo metrycznego gleby, co w połączeniu z bardzo wysokim stosunkiem C/N sugerować może antropoge- niczne pochodzenie w ęgla. Stosunek C/N najwyższy był w glebach trawników (wartość średnia 26,2 i znacząco różnił się (p = 0,04 od wskaźników C/N w glebach pól i ogródków działkowych. To wskazuje na niską intensywność transformacji humusu. Inne właściwo- ści chemiczne, jak: kwasowość hydrolityczna, pojemność sorpcyjna, wymienne kationy zasadowe były również wyższe w centralnej części miasta Pruszkowa. Dane te wykazują wpływ urbanizacji na właściwości gleby.

  20. Cultural Capital and the Accessibility of Higher Education: (Based on the Results of a Comparative Study of Surveys of College and University Students in Moscow and Warsaw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarycki, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in the framework of the study "Cultural Capital and the Reproduction of the Intelligentsia in Poland and Russia." The authors undertook an attempt to test the hypothesis advanced by authors such as P. Bourdieu and G. Eyal, I. Szelenyi, and E. Townsley concerning the return of the dominating role played by…

  1. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013: an analysis of population-based data in relation to socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banas T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Banas,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,2 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Dorota Nieweglowska,1 Artur Ludwin,1 Aleksandra Czerw2 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC, corpus uteri cancer (CUC, and ovarian cancer (OC in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.Materials and methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013 were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013 were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC.Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21, with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66. During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93 was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74. After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49, as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66.Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in

  2. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  3. The Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festivals

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    Penny Hutabarat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the research on the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence toward Brand Image, Attitudes toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Having reviewed the literatures and arranged the hypotheses, the data has been gathered by distributing the questionnaire to 155 audiences at the Java Jazz Music Festival, firstly with convenience sampling and then snowballing sampling approach. The analysis of data was executed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result shows the sponsor-event congruence variable has a positive impact toward brand image and attitudes toward the brand sponsor. Brand Image also has a positive impact toward purchase intention; in contrary attitudes toward the brand do not have a positive purchase intention. With those results, to increase the sponsorship effectiveness, the role of congruency is very significant in the sponsorship event. Congruency is a key influencer to trigger the sponsorship effectiveness. Congruency between the event and the sponsor is able to boost up the brand image and bring out favorable attitudes towards the brand for the success of marketing communication programs, particularly sponsorship. In addition to it, image transfer gets higher due to the congruency existence (fit between sponsor and event and directs the intention creation to buy sponsor brand product/service (purchase intention. In conclusion, sponsor-event congruence has effect on consumer responds toward sponsorship, either on the cognitive level, affective and also behavior.

  4. The Impact of Trust on Entrepreneurship in Poland

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    Marta Młokosiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global rankings of generalized trust, Poland occupies a lowly positon. Only 1/3 of Poles have a strong trust in strangers and roughly the same number believe that trust in business generally pays of. At the same tme, only half of them believe that a market economy based on private enterprise is the best economic system for the country. According to the literature review a major factor in the development of entrepreneurship is trust in other economic actors. The aim of the artcle is to present the relaton between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland. In this paper the hypothesis was adopted that the level of trust in the public sphere, especially in business relatons in Poland, had an impact on the intensity of entrepreneurial actvites. The analysed period comprises the years from 2002 to 2016. The artcle presents changes in the potental for social trust, including trust in business. Indicators of confdence include the percentage of people that have trust in diferent actors in Poland. A further part of the paper is devoted to the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in Poland. Among the indicators of entrepreneurship are the number of newly registered and deregistered enttes, and enttes that are new or deregistered from the REGON register per 10 thousand of populaton. Moreover, the innovaton actvity of enterprises in Poland has been described. At the end, relatons between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland were examined. The data was analysed statstcally with Pearson’s correlaton coefcients. The analysis of confdence and entrepreneurship is based mainly on the data published by the Polish Central Statstcal Ofce and Public Opinion Research Centre.

  5. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

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    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  6. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

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    Babul W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  7. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

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    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  8. [Infectious diseases in Poland in 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2002-01-01

    The decreasing tendency in incidence of infectious diseases observed in Poland in previous years as compared with 2000 has weakened or stopped. Increase in the incidence of selected infectious diseases can be linked with the improvement of surveillance resulting from the better diagnostics and greater attention paid to these diseases (including borreliosis, salmonella, and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis). Between 1999 and 2000, the most intense decrease in the number of mumps, measles, and scarlet fever cases as an effect of the end of epidemics was observed. At the same time increase in the number of pertussis, rubella, chickenpox, and meningitis cases was noticed. In 2000, the first case of human rabies since 1986 has been reported. In 2000, compared with 1999, among all notified deaths percentage of deaths attributed to infectious diseases (0.83%) and infectious diseases death rate (0.79 per 10,000) were slightly higher and were the highest in the last decade. As in 1999 the observed increase was effect of the influenza deaths increase (358 deaths, mortality 0.022%). The main disease causing the largest number of deaths, as in previous years, was tuberculosis (36.5% of total infectious diseases deaths).

  9. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Radioactive Contamination Department, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the {sup 134}Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of {sup 137}Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  10. Liandratite from Karkonosze pegmatites, Sudetes, Southwestern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszczak, Witold

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition of liandratite, U6+(Nb,Ta)2O8, was determined from material collected in Niobium, Yttrium, Fluorine type (NYF) pegmatites of the Karkonosze intrusion (Sudetes, SW Poland). Liandratite occurs mainly as rims, up to 40 µm thick, and fracture infillings in fergusonite-(Y) and other Nb-Ta-Ti minerals. Its formation was related to the fluid-driven alteration of primary minerals by three potential mechanisms: (i) direct replacement of a primary mineral by liandratite; (ii) breakdown of the primary mineral to liandratite and a product with the composition of minerals of the pyrochlore group; (iii) multistage alteration, which involved: removal of A-site cations (mostly Y + REE with the exception of U4+) and formation of phases with the composition of pyrochlore group minerals; then crystallization of U-, Bi-, Pb-rich pyrochlores and their replacement by liandratite. The chemical compositions of liandratite formed by the breakdown of different primary minerals are also different, mainly in their U, Ti and Nb contents. Excess Ti, relative to the U6+Nb2O8 end-member, is incorporated into the structure together with additional U. The Ti content of liandratite, and partially through this the U content, are dependent on the nature of the precursor mineral.

  11. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  12. Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha

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    Kopaczyk Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966. The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446 for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

  13. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

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    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  14. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007. PMID:18541070

  15. Gulf Regional Planning Commission scenario planning workshop : sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the Gulf Regional Planning Commission, on March 15-16, 2016, in Biloxi, Mississippi. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored this event as p...

  16. 78 FR 44432 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Fentanyl; Iron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Sponsor; Fentanyl; Iron Injection AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... interest in, NADA 141-337 for RECUVYRA (fentanyl) Transdermal Solution to Elanco Animal Health, A Division...

  17. Employer-sponsored health promotion: why and how to make it a family affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M J; Mirin, E

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of family members in employer-sponsored health promotion activities is an area gaining attention. Several investigations into the state-of-the-art of employer-sponsored health promotion programs for family members have been undertaken. This chapter describes the findings of the Washington Business Group on Health project. The costs and benefits of family-related health care are discussed. The authors also outline a number of ways for companies to recruit family members.

  18. why sponsored posts on facebook and instagram are effective online branding tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    This research is motivated by the incongruence of how businesses and contemporary research evaluate paid social media advertisement as online branding tools. Therefore, we examine the possibilities of social media marketing: why sponsored posts on Facebook and Instagram are effective online branding tools. A questionnaire was utilized to approach the research, and answer the hypotheses. Results from 316 participants indicated that sponsored posts were effective for brand awaren...

  19. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... to identity qualified candidates for exchange activities sponsored by the Office of Academic Exchange... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB...

  20. Le sponsoring politique : un défi et espoir pour la communication politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zouabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le monde économique géré par la concurrence acharnée et exacerbée, l’entreprise tend à développer et diversifier ses moyens de communication et profiter des changements de l’environnement. En effet, à côté des médias traditionnels, l’entreprise s’appuie sur d’autres moyens de communication à savoir le sponsoring. Aujourd’hui le sponsoring est un moyen efficace dans la stratégie de communication des entreprises. Il ne cesse de se développer dans tous les domaines à savoir le sport, la culture, la santé, la politique, etc. Toutefois, les recherches spécialisées, professionnelles et académiques sur le sponsoring politique sont très limitées. C’est pourquoi cette recherche a été proposée. L’objectif de cet article est donc d’explorer le sponsoring politique comme un défi et espoir pour la communication politique. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent que les entreprises considèrent le sponsoring comme étant une variable stratégique. Pour le sponsoring politique, l’attitude des entreprises enquêtées varie largement en fonction de leur perception des risques et de leurs attentes pour les marques.

  1. On Economics in Poland in 1949-1989: Introduction

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    Czarny Bogusław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a concise introduction into the history of economics in totalitarian Poland in 1949-1989. In it, I attempt to show the degradation of economics in Poland in this period. The main theses of the article are three. First, academic economics and the institutions necessary for the normal functioning of science were destroyed in Poland at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s. Pseudo science was substituted for the science of economics. Second, these events had a damaging impact on the quality of research in the years that followed. In my opinion, the alleged achievements of Polish economists, e.g., Oskar Lange's monograph Ekonomia polityczna, as well as the works of Włodzimierz Brus and members of the so-called “Wakar School,” were of only “outside” importance. Third, after 1949, the teaching of economics degenerated as well.

  2. Ecology and taxonomy ofFusarium species in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaśna, H; Chełkowski, J

    1991-03-01

    The paper presents 21Fusarium species occurring in Poland on the field crops /mostly on cereals, maize, potato and Papilionaceae plants/, woody plants, grasses, vegetables and ornamentals as well as on kernels or seeds of these hosts and soils. Additionally the commonly observed symptoms on above-mentioned plants and the informations about regions of the highest disease occurrence are added.However the paper results mainly from authors' investigation on theFusarium species occurrence in Poland, it encloses also the available, post-war literature data on the fusariosis in Poland in the past.Majority ofFusarium species cited had been identified according to Nelson et al, taxonomic system. Comparative listing of the monographs / 1,11, 21/ is presented.

  3. Driver fatigue and road safety on Poland's national roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Kazimierz; Smolarek, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of factors causing driver fatigue as described in the literature. Next, a traffic crash database for 2003-2007 is used to identify the causes, circumstances and consequences of accidents caused by driver fatigue on Poland's national roads. The results of the study were used to build a model showing the relationship between the concentration of road accidents and casualties, and the time of day. Finally, the level of relative accident risk at night-time versus daytime is defined. A map shows the risk of death and severe injury on the network of Poland's national roads. The paper suggests to road authorities steps to reduce fatigue-related road accidents in Poland.

  4. Water Quality and Management Changes Over the History of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries distinguished by a long and colorful past. Undergoing numerous turbulent socio-economic changes forced by the course of history, Poland is now one of the member states of the European Union. Experiencing low water quantity and high contamination levels in surface waters, Poland is following other EU countries in the effort to reach a "good" water status. Herein are presented impacts of changes in Polish history on water legislation, management, and research, as well as explanations for the perceptible split between engineering and scientific approaches to the aquatic issues. Drawbacks caused by unsatisfactory state research funding for the sciences and division of the water related contemporary scientific interests are also discussed.

  5. Geographical distribution of {sup 90}Sr contamination in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland); Skwarzec, B. [Univ. of Gdansk, Dept. of Chemistry, Gdansk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents results on determination of {sup 90}Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and {sup 85}Sr tracer. The approximate map of {sup 90}Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between {sup 90}Sr and obtained earlier data for {sup 137}Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  6. An annotated checklist of the Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha of Poland

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    Wojciechowski Wacław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive compilation of 764 taxa (species and subspecies, distributed over 167 genera, belonging to 17 subfamilies, three families and three superfamilies of Aphidomorpha recorded to date from Poland. The systematic positions of 19 taxa have been revised in accordance with recent changes in nomenclature. The presence in the Polish aphidofauna of Drepanosiphum oregonensis and Coloradoa huculaki, previously included without any distribution data in checklists of Polish aphids, has been confirmed. One species Sitobion (Sitobion alopecuri is recognized as being new to Poland. At least 44 species (6% of local fauna of Aphidomorpha are alien to Poland; among them 11 species collected from plants imported or cultivated in indoor conditions are listed.

  7. Phytopathogenic micromycetes in central Poland. I. Peronosporales and Erysiphales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper begins a new series of studies investigating the occurrence of phytopathogenic micromycetes in Central Poland. Fungi of the orders Peronosporales and Erysiphalas are discussed in part one. Relevant knowledge on the subject is surveyed, and a list of published records (46 taxa as well as the findings collected by the present authors (99 taxa is provided. The list comprises 2 species new for biota of Poland - Microsphaera deutziae Bunkina and Microsphaera elevata Burrill, 10 rare and many common fungal species that had not been previously re00rded in this area as well as 21 plant taxa, mostly species of deliberate or accidental anthropogenic origin, that are new hosts of the parasites formerly listed in Poland.

  8. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  9. A case of Poland Syndrome associated with dextroposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrini Pietro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical Poland Syndrome (PS is characterized by unilateral, partial or complete absence of the sternocostal head of the major pectoral muscle and brachysyndactyly of fingers on the same side. We report the case of a newborn infant with dextrocardia and PS located on the left side. This association is very rare: to date only 19 cases have been described in scientific literature. In all reported cases, as in the present, the Poland defect involved the left side and was associated to rib defects, whereas most cases of PS are on the right side and few have rib defects. This case supports the view that dextrocardia follows the loss of volume of the left hemithorax caused by Poland sequence and that the combination of PS and dextrocardia is not coincidental.

  10. A case of Poland Syndrome associated with dextroposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Classical Poland Syndrome (PS) is characterized by unilateral, partial or complete absence of the sternocostal head of the major pectoral muscle and brachysyndactyly of fingers on the same side. We report the case of a newborn infant with dextrocardia and PS located on the left side. This association is very rare: to date only 19 cases have been described in scientific literature. In all reported cases, as in the present, the Poland defect involved the left side and was associated to rib defects, whereas most cases of PS are on the right side and few have rib defects. This case supports the view that dextrocardia follows the loss of volume of the left hemithorax caused by Poland sequence and that the combination of PS and dextrocardia is not coincidental. PMID:20170539

  11. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  12. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  13. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  14. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative......Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... environmental management....

  15. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  16. [Dietary intake of dieldrin and aldrin in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J

    1999-01-01

    Dieldrin and aldrin exposure from a particular food items in Poland in 1970-1996 was calculated by multiplying its annualized mean consumption rates by residue concentration in the food. Estimated daily dietary intakes of dieldrin and aldrin were from 1.0 do 1.3 micrograms per person in 1970-1985 and from 0.50 do 0.58 microgram per person in 1990-1996, on the average. Fish and dairy products are a main source of dieldrin in a total diet in Poland.

  17. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

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    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  18. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  19. First detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Anna; Trębas, Paweł; Smreczak, Marcin; Marzec, Anna; Żmudziński, Jan F

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the first detected cases of bluetongue virus (BTV) in native cattle from Poland. The virus was found in animals located near the Polish-Belarusian and Polish-Lithuanian borders. The positive animals were detected through an official epidemiological surveillance program. A combination of type-specific real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic tests revealed the presence of BTV serotype 14 (BTV-14). This serotype is highly homologous to the vaccine strain and BTV-14 present in Russia, Lithuania, and Spain (from an animal imported from Lithuania). The most probable route of virus introduction to Poland was transmission through midges. All of the cases were subclinical.

  20. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  1. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry–Sponsored Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. Methods We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry–sponsored international trials. Results 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry–sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry–sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry–sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Conclusions Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of

  2. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry-sponsored international trials. 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry-sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry-sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry-sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of academic trials but 30% of industry trials are

  3. „Najmłodsi futuryści warszawscy”, czyli o peryferiach polskiego futuryzmu – próba rekonesansu [“The youngest Warsaw futurists”. A Reconnaissance of the Periphery of Polish Futurism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jaworski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the so-called periphery of Polish Futurism, especially the activities of those known as the “Youngest Warsaw futurists”, who to this day are considered only as imitators or even plagiarists of writers such as Bruno Jasieński and Aleksander Wat, the artists who represent the mainstream of this literary movement. These groups (“Warsaw Katarynka”, “Homunkulus” were active in literary field in the years 1921-1924, but most of their ephemera (“jednodniówki” – once-lived publications have so far been considered missing. The article attempts for the first time to sort out the chronology of these publications and to show them in the broader context of “recognised” Futurist publications.

  4. "Di Ufgabn Fun Yidishizm". Debates on Modern Yiddish Culture in Interwar Poland

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    Aleksandra Geller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Di Ufgabn Fun Yidishizm”. Debates on Modern Yiddish Culture in Interwar Poland Modern secular Yiddish culture reached the peak of its development during the 1920s and Poland was at that time one of the main centres where Yiddish literature, theatre, press, scholarship and schools flourished. This paper outlines the basic prin­ciples of Yiddishism, a Diaspora-based national movement that saw language and cul­ture as the cornerstones of a secular Jewish identity. It also presents some of the major theoretical questions faced by its supporters. What were the goals of Yiddishism? How Jewish should Yiddish culture be? Should it simply be a culture in Yiddish or should it incorporate elements of the Jewish religious heritage? If so, which ones? Who exactly were the so-called “Jewish masses” so often referred to as the target readership/audi­ence of the modern Yiddish cultural project? How could the challenges of geographi­cal dispersion be overcome? The arguments presented in this paper are based mostly on material found in the weekly Literarishe Bleter , where these and other questions surfaced time and again. Founded in Warsaw in 1924 by a group of Yiddish writers, it was the longest lasting and probably the most influential Yiddish literary journal of the its time. Throughout the interwar period it was a place where all supporters of the Yiddish language movement crossed intellectual paths, either as collaborators or adversaries. Today, Literarishe Bleter enable its modern reader to see the complexity of what it meant to strive towards cultural autonomy in interwar Poland.   Czym jest jidyszyzm? Debaty o nowoczesnej kulturze jidysz w międzywojennej Polsce Jidyszyzm, czyli projekt budowania nowoczesnej tożsamości narodowej w oparciu o kulturę jidysz, rozkwitł najpełniej w latach dwudziestych XX wieku. W tym okresie Polska była jednym z najważniejszych, o ile nie najważniejszym ośrodkiem ruchu jidyszystycznego. To tutaj

  5. Determinants of Initial Public Offerings: The Case of Poland || Factores determinantes de una opción pública de venta (OPV: el caso de Polonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meluzin, Tomas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to indicate the influence of local macroeconomic factors, consequently GDP growth rates, the reference interest rate, industrial production growth rates, Warsaw Stock Exchange Index (WIG returns and the volume of private equity investments, on the number of initial public offerings (IPOs in an emerging market, Poland, over the period of 2004 to 2012. Our sample includes 218 local enterprises that conducted an IPO on the Main Market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Financial and privatized companies are excluded from the data processing. As follows from the previous studies, the situation in the year preceding the company initial public offering is crucial. Therefore, we used a model with one-year delay for all the explanatory variables in relation to the dependent variable (i.e. number of new listing. The model estimation was performed with the Ordinary Least Squares method. The main conclusion of our model is that the GDP growth has a significant impact on the number of new issues. This result implies that the business cycle has a direct impact on the IPO activity in the Polish capital market. The next conclusion is that the attractiveness of a capital market for investors measured by annual index returns appears to be an important factor for going public activities. Surprisingly, the model could confirm that other macroeconomic and capital market factors have had no explanatory power for IPO numbers in Poland between 2004 and 2012. || El objetivo principal del presente estudio consiste en demostrar la influencia de factores macroeconómicos locales tales como la tasa de crecimiento del Producto Interior Bruto (PIB, la tasa de interés anual de referencia, la tasa de crecimiento de la producción industrial, el retorno de la inversión del Mercado de Valores de Varsovia (GPW y el volumen de inversiones de capital privado, en el número de ofertas públicas de venta (OPV en un mercado emergente como el de Polonia

  6. Sport sponsorship: a company resource: a qualitative case study of the Norwegian sponsors of the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Harald Sundgot

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate in what ways the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo 2011 could function as a resource for major and minor Norwegian sponsors. Sponsors from all the four sponsorship levels (presenting sponsor, official sponsors, national sponsors and official suppliers) were part of the study. First, the sponsors` motivations and background for entering the sponsorship was investigated. Results indicate few differences between the motivation and back...

  7. Sport sponsorship: a company resource: a qualitative case study of the Norwegian sponsors of the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Harald Sundgot

    2011-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2011 The objective of the study was to investigate in what ways the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo 2011 could function as a resource for major and minor Norwegian sponsors. Sponsors from all the four sponsorship levels (presenting sponsor, official sponsors, national sponsors and official suppliers) were part of the study. First, the sponsors` motivations and background for entering the sponsorship was investigated. Results indicate...

  8. Porous graphitic materials obtained from carbonization of organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland; Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteur 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland; IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejon 305-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Energy ...

  9. A cross-sectional study of growth, nutritional status and body proportions in children and adolescents at a medical center specializing in the treatment of cystic fibrosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Dorota; Umławska, Wioleta; Zielińska, Anna

    2015-03-16

    Malnutrition, delayed growth and delayed puberty are commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status and body proportions in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis. The evaluation was based on 19 somatic measurements and indices calculated from these measurements. Somatic development was evaluated in relation to several factors connected to the clinical picture or the course of the disease. Anthropometric data were extracted from the medical histories of 41 boys and 48 girls diagnosed and treated at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw (Poland). Mean values for somatic parameters and body build indices for the children suffering from CF were compared to those for the reference group. The results revealed that growth in these children was significantly delayed in comparison to that seen in the healthy population (Z-score = -0.56, p Nutritional status was also adversely affected (Z-score = -0.85, p Chronic infection by P. aeruginosa and type of CFTR mutation were the factors that most affected pulmonary function parameters.

  10. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  11. LEVEL OF SOMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AGED SIX YEARS FROM AN URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN POLAND WITH RESPECT TO SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, Dorota; Tabor, Piotr; Olszewska, Elżbieta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the somatic development of children from an urban agglomeration in Poland at the end of preschool education and the beginning of primary education with respect to selected socioeconomic and educational conditions. Data were collected for 742 children from selected Warsaw kindergartens in spring 2011 and 2012. Their mean age was 5.84±0.31 years. The sex categories were equal: 371 boys and 371 girls. Kindergartens chosen for the study constituted a representative sample. The diagnostic survey method (questionnaire technique) was used to assess the selected environmental conditions of development in the participating children. Body height and the sum of six skin folds (over the biceps, over the triceps, under the scapula, on the abdomen, over the wing of ilium and on the calf) were chosen from the assessed anthropometric parameters for the purpose of determining somatic development of study participants. The obtained data were analysed using selected descriptive statistics methods (including cluster analysis), data standardization (normalization by mean values and SD) and the chi-squared test. The results showed certain relationships between the selected parameters of somatic development and family living conditions. These relationships involved differences between individual clusters depending on given living conditions and were most prominent for mother's education, for which variable differences between clusters were found for both sexes. The somatic build of boys (including body height and body adiposity) also differed depending on the number of offspring in the family, while the somatic build of girls differed depending on father's employment and father's education. Furthermore, the obtained results lead to the conclusion that the total number of differences between the analysed clusters was relatively low. This indicates that the biological effects of social stratification tend to diminish in the environment of an urban

  12. Characteristics of project management at institutions sponsoring National Library of Medicine MedlinePlus Go Local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Cynthia A; Backus, Joyce E B; Klein, Lori J

    2010-01-01

    Through interviews with the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Go Local collaborators, an evaluation team sought to identify process characteristics that are critical for long-term sustainability of Go Local projects and to describe the impact that Go Local projects have on sponsoring institutions. Go Local project coordinators (n = 44) at 31 sponsor institutions participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences developing and maintaining Go Local sites. Interviews were summarized, checked for accuracy by the participating librarians, and analyzed using a general inductive methodology. Institutional factors that support Go Local projects were identified through the interviews, as well as strategies for staffing and partnerships with external organizations. Positive outcomes for sponsoring institutions also were identified. The findings may influence the National Library of Medicine team's decisions about improvements to its Go Local system and the support it provides to sponsoring institutions. The findings may benefit current sponsoring institutions as well as those considering or planning a Go Local project.

  13. Characteristics of project management at institutions sponsoring National Library of Medicine MedlinePlus Go Local*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Cynthia A.; Backus, Joyce E. B.; Klein, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Through interviews with the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Go Local collaborators, an evaluation team sought to identify process characteristics that are critical for long-term sustainability of Go Local projects and to describe the impact that Go Local projects have on sponsoring institutions. Methods: Go Local project coordinators (n = 44) at 31 sponsor institutions participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences developing and maintaining Go Local sites. Interviews were summarized, checked for accuracy by the participating librarians, and analyzed using a general inductive methodology. Results: Institutional factors that support Go Local projects were identified through the interviews, as well as strategies for staffing and partnerships with external organizations. Positive outcomes for sponsoring institutions also were identified. Conclusions: The findings may influence the National Library of Medicine team's decisions about improvements to its Go Local system and the support it provides to sponsoring institutions. The findings may benefit current sponsoring institutions as well as those considering or planning a Go Local project. PMID:20098657

  14. First patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia type 8 in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogucki, Piotr; Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-01

    SPG 8 is an autosomal dominant HSP, which phenotype results from KIAA0196 gene mutations. There have been twelve types of KIAA0196 mutations described in HGMD, which are located in conservative region of gene encoding strumpellin. We describe first patient in Poland, simultaneously second in the world with KIAA0196 mutation - p.V620A.

  15. First patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia type 8 in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bogucki, Piotr; Sobczy?ska?Tomaszewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message SPG 8 is an autosomal dominant HSP, which phenotype results from KIAA0196 gene mutations. There have been twelve types of KIAA0196 mutations described in HGMD, which are located in conservative region of gene encoding strumpellin. We describe first patient in Poland, simultaneously second in the world with KIAA0196 mutation ? p.V620A.

  16. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  17. Was Mendelian genetics taught during the Lysenkoist period in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The content of Polish textbooks of botany, zoology and rudiments of evolutionism of Lysenkoist times was analysed, along with a methodological manual for biology and a set of guidelines. On this basis, and taking into account the memories of eyewitnesses, it can be stated that Mendelian genetics was not taught in schools in Poland during the Lysenkoist period.

  18. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  19. Educational Challenges to Poland at the Time of Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Wladyslaw

    1994-01-01

    Describes the educational challenges facing Poland as it makes the transition from state socialism to a free market economy. Reviews probable changes to the country's agricultural workers, working class, intelligentsia, and the newly self-employed. Discusses the decline of the value of education beginning in the 1980s and the implications for…

  20. POLAND' SYNDROME: An Incidental findings on routine medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Hamidu

    muscular anomalies of the ipsilateral chest wall. Recognised complications ... and no family history of congenital anomalies. Physical examination ... Table 1. Summary of frequency and types of abnormalities on record in 55 cases of Poland's syndrome. J.W. Mace. Abnormalities. Incidence. Incidence( %). Absent Pectoralis ...